NEWS
author blanchet
Sun Jun 29 18:28:27 2014 +0200 (2014-06-29)
changeset 57431 02c408aed5ee
parent 57430 020cea57eaa4
child 57437 0baf08c075b9
permissions -rw-r--r--
killed Python version of MaSh, now that the SML version works adequately
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 * Updated and extended manuals: "codegen", "datatypes",
    50 "implementation", "jedit", "system".
    51 
    52 
    53 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    54 
    55 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    56 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    57 
    58 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
    59 
    60 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
    61 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
    62 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
    63 
    64 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
    65 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
    66 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
    67 
    68 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
    69 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
    70 caret".
    71 
    72 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
    73 completion popup and context-menu.
    74 
    75 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    76 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    77 
    78 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    79 auxiliary ML files.
    80 
    81 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
    82 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
    83 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
    84 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
    85 
    86 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
    87 to highlight text via regular expression.
    88 
    89 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    90 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    91 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    92 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    93 
    94 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
    95 simplification process, enabled by the "simplifier_trace" attribute
    96 within the context.
    97 
    98 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
    99 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   100 
   101 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   102 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   103 
   104 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   105 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   106 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   107 
   108 
   109 *** Pure ***
   110 
   111 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   112 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   113 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   114 renaming needs to be applied:
   115 
   116   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   117   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   118   all            ~>  Pure.all
   119   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   120   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   121 
   122 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   123 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   124 old constants:
   125 
   126 setup {*
   127   fn thy => thy
   128     |> Sign.root_path
   129     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   130     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   131     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   132     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   133 *}
   134 
   135 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   136 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   137 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   138 
   139 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   140 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   141 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   142 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   143 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   144 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   145 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   146 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   147 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   148 
   149 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   150 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   151 instantiated theorem.
   152 
   153 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   154 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   155 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   156 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   157 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   158 
   159   attribute_setup standard =
   160     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   161 
   162 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   163 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   164 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   165 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   166 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   167 
   168 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   169 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   170 differently).
   171 
   172 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing
   173 on a per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   174 
   175 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   176 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   177 
   178 
   179 *** HOL ***
   180 
   181 * Command and antiquotation ''value'' are hardcoded against nbe and
   182 ML now.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   183 
   184 * Separate command ''approximate'' for approximative computation
   185 in Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186 
   187 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   188   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   189   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   190   and SUP instead uniformly.
   191   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   192   or SUP and Sup.
   193   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   194   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   195   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   196   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   197   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199 
   200 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   201   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   202   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   203   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   204   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   205   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   208   can now deal with conjunctions.
   209   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   210   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   211   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   212 
   213 * HOL-Word:
   214   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   215   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   216   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   217   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   218   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   219 
   220 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   221 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   222 
   223 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   227 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   228 
   229 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   230 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   231 
   232 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   233 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   234 
   235 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   236   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   237   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   238   Theory renamings:
   239     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   240     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   241     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   242     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   243     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   244     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   245     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   246     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   247     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   248     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   249     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   250     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   251     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   252     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   253     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   254     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   255     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   256     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   257     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   258     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   259     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   260     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   261   New theories:
   262     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   263     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   264     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   265     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   266     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   267   Discontinued theories:
   268     BNF/BNF.thy
   269     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   270   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   271 
   272 * New (co)datatype package:
   273   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   274   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   275     required by "fun".
   276   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   277     with Transfer.
   278   * Renamed commands:
   279       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   280       primrec_new ~> primrec
   281       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   282     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   283   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   284     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   285     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   286   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   287     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   288     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   289   * No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by default,
   290     eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   291     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   292   * No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   293     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   294     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   295     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   296 
   297 * Old datatype package:
   298   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   299     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   300     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   302     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   303     "case_prod").
   304     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   305 
   306 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   307   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   308   datatype package.
   309   Renamed constants:
   310     Option.set ~> set_option
   311     Option.map ~> map_option
   312     option_rel ~> rel_option
   313   Renamed theorems:
   314     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   315     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   316     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   317     option.recs ~> option.rec
   318     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   319     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   320     map.simps ~> list.map
   321     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   322     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   323     the.simps ~> option.sel
   324   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   325 
   326 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   327     sum_map ~> map_sum
   328     map_pair ~> map_prod
   329     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   330     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   331     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   332     set_rel ~> rel_set
   333     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   334     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   335     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   336     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   337 
   338 * New theories:
   339     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   340     Library/Tree
   341 
   342 * Theory reorganizations:
   343   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   344 
   345 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
   346 
   347     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
   348     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
   349     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
   350     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
   351     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
   352     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
   353     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
   354     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
   355     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
   356     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
   357     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
   358     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
   359     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
   360     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
   361     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
   362     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
   363     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
   364     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
   365     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
   366     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
   367     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
   368     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
   369     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
   370     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
   371     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
   372     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
   373     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
   374     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
   375     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
   376     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
   377     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
   378     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
   379     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
   380     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
   381     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
   382     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
   383     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
   384     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
   385     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
   386     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
   387     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
   388     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
   389     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
   390     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
   391     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
   392     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
   393     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
   394     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
   395     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
   396     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
   397     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
   398     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
   399     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
   400     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
   401     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
   402     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
   403     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
   404     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
   405     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
   406 
   407   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
   408   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
   409   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
   410     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
   411 
   412   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   413 
   414 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof traces.
   415   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   416   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   417   use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now the default SAT
   418   solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and corresponding tactics;
   419   the old default can be restored using
   420   "declare [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   421 
   422 * SMT module:
   423   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   424     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   425     called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also supported as oracles. Yices is no
   426     longer supported, because no version of the solver can handle both
   427     SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   428 
   429 * Sledgehammer:
   430   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   431   - MaSh overhaul:
   432       - New SML-based learning engines eliminate the dependency on Python
   433         and increase performance and reliability.
   434       - MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the traditional
   435         MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable MaSh, set the "MaSh"
   436         system option in Plugin Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
   437   - New option:
   438       smt_proofs
   439   - Renamed options:
   440       isar_compress ~> compress
   441       isar_try0 ~> try0
   442     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   443 
   444 * Metis:
   445   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   446     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   447 
   448 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   449 
   450 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   451 
   452 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   453 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   454 
   455 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   456 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   457 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   458 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   459 
   460 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   462 
   463 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   464 with the given constants.
   465 
   466 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   467 
   468 Fact consolidations:
   469     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   470     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   471     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   472     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   473     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   474     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   475     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   476     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   477     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   478     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   479     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   480     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   481     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   482     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   483     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   484     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   485     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   486     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   487     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   488     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   489     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   490     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   491     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   492     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   493     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   494     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   495     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   496     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   497     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   498     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   499     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   500     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   501     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   502     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   503     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   504     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   505     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   506     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   507     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   508     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   509 
   510 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   511 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   512 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   513 
   514 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   515 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   516 
   517 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   518 
   519 INCOMPATBILITY.
   520 
   521 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   523 
   524 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   526 
   527 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   528 operations on records.
   529 
   530 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   534     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   536 
   537 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   538     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   539     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   541 
   542 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   543   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   544   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   545   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   546     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   547   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   548     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   549   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   551 
   552 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   553     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   554     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   555     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   556     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   558 
   559 * Fact name consolidation:
   560     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   561     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   562     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   563     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   564     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   566 
   567 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   568 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   569 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   570 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   571 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   572 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   573 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   574 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   575 
   576 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   577 
   578 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   579 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   580 
   581 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   582 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   583 
   584 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   585 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   586 or the brute way with
   587 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   588 
   589 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   590 
   591 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   592 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   593 
   594 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   595 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   596 
   597 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   598 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   599 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   600 INCOMPATIBILITY
   601 
   602 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   603   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   604   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   605   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   606   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   607   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   608   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   609   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   610   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   611   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   612   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   613   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   614 
   615   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   616 
   617   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   618     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   619     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   620     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   621     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   623 
   624 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   625   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   626 
   627   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   628 
   629   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   630 
   631   - removed constant isDiff
   632 
   633   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   634     syntax.
   635 
   636   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   637 
   638   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   639 
   640   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   641 
   642   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   643 
   644   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   645     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   646 
   647   - Other renamings:
   648     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   649     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   650     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   651     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   652     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   653     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   654     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   655 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   656 
   657 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   658   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   659 
   660 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im, the Complex
   661   constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use primcorec to defined the
   662   behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   663 
   664   Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they are
   665   available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This especially
   666   removes
   667     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   668 
   669   Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   670     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   671 
   672   Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   673 
   674   Renamings:
   675     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   676     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   677     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   678     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   679     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   680     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   681     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   682     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   683     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   684     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   685     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   686     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   687 
   688     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   689     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   690     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   691 
   692   Removed theorems:
   693     complex_zero_def
   694     complex_add_def
   695     complex_minus_def
   696     complex_diff_def
   697     complex_one_def
   698     complex_mult_def
   699     complex_inverse_def
   700     complex_scaleR_def
   701 
   702 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   703 
   704 * Nitpick:
   705   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   706     infinite values.
   707   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   708     "Rep_Integ".
   709   - Removed "std" option.
   710   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   711     "hide_types".
   712 
   713 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   714   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   715   - new theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
   716     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
   717   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   718     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   719     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   720     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   721     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   722     intervals.
   723 
   724   - renamed theorems:
   725     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   726     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   727     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   728 
   729 * HOL-Probability:
   730   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general Bochner
   731     integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   732 
   733     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   734     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   735     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   736     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   737     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   738     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   739     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   740     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   741     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   742     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   743     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   744     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   745     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   746     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   747     integral_indicator          ~>
   748          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   749     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   750     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   751     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   752 
   753     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   754          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   755 
   756     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   757          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   758 
   759     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   760          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   761 
   762     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   763          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   764          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   765 
   766     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   767          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   768 
   769     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   770          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   771 
   772     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   773          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   774          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   775 
   776     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   777          positive_integral_real_affine
   778 
   779     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   780          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   781 
   782     The following theorems where removed:
   783 
   784     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   785     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   786     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   787     lebesgue_integral_multc
   788     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   789     integral_cmul_indicator
   790     integral_real
   791 
   792   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
   793 
   794     * Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
   795       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
   796 
   797     * Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
   798 
   799   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal distributed
   800     random variables.
   801 
   802 * Library/Kleene-Algebra was removed because AFP/Kleene_Algebra subsumes it.
   803 
   804 *** Scala ***
   805 
   806 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   807 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   808 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   809 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   810 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   811 
   812 
   813 *** ML ***
   814 
   815 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   816 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   817 
   818 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   819 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   820 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   821 
   822 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   823 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   824 
   825 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   826 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   827 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   829 
   830 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   831 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   832 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   833 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   834 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   835 of schematic variables.
   836 
   837 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   838 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   839 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   840 formal context.
   841 
   842 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   843 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   844 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   845 actually belongs to it).
   846 
   847 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   848 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   849 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   850 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   851 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   852 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   853 
   854 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   855 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   856 
   857 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   858 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   859 
   860 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   861 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   862 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   863 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   864 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   865 
   866 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   867 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   868 purposes.
   869 
   870 
   871 *** System ***
   872 
   873 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   874 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   875 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   876 processing is started.
   877 
   878 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   879 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   880 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   881 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   882 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   883 
   884 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   885 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   886 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   887 
   888 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   889 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   890 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   891 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   892 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   893 settings variable yet.
   894 
   895 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
   896 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
   897 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
   898 
   899 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar
   900 functionality may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   901 
   902 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
   903 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
   904 
   905 
   906 
   907 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   908 -------------------------------------
   909 
   910 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   911 
   912 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   913 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   914 
   915 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   916 after edits surrounding the command location.
   917 
   918 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   919 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   920 e.g. out-of-memory).
   921 
   922 
   923 *** System ***
   924 
   925 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   926 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   927 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   928 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   929 
   930 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   931 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   932 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   933 
   934 
   935 
   936 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   937 -------------------------------------
   938 
   939 *** General ***
   940 
   941 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   942 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   943 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   944 
   945 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   946 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   947 
   948 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   949 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   950 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   951 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   952 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   953 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   954 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   955 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   956 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   957 syntax.
   958 
   959 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   960 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   961 
   962 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   963 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   964 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   965 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   966 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   967 
   968 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   970 
   971 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   972 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   973 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   974 
   975 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   976 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   977 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   978 
   979 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   980 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   981 
   982 
   983 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   984 
   985 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   986 Documentation panel.
   987 
   988 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   989 documentation.
   990 
   991 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   992 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   993 
   994 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   995 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   996 normal editing and checking process.
   997 
   998 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   999 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1000 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1001 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1002 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1003 
  1004 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1005 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1006 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1007 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1008 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1009 
  1010 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1011 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1012 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1013 
  1014 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1015 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1016 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1017 to resolve conflict.
  1018 
  1019 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1020 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1021 
  1022 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1023 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1024 such command executions while editing.
  1025 
  1026 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1027 document content.
  1028 
  1029 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1030 toplevel theorem statements.
  1031 
  1032 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1033 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1034 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1035 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1036 
  1037 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1038 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1039 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1040 
  1041 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1042 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1043 
  1044 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1045 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1046 
  1047 
  1048 *** Pure ***
  1049 
  1050 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1051 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1052 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1053 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1054 details.
  1055 
  1056 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1057 
  1058 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1059 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1060 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1061 
  1062 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1064 
  1065 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1066 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1067 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1068 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1069 
  1070 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1071 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1072 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1073 
  1074 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1075 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1076 
  1077 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1078 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1079 situations.
  1080 
  1081 
  1082 *** HOL ***
  1083 
  1084 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1085 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1087 
  1088 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1089 
  1090 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1091 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1092 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1093 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1094 
  1095   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1096 
  1097 * Code generator:
  1098   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1099     'code_instance'.
  1100   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1101     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1102 
  1103 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1104 examples.
  1105 
  1106 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1107 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1108 to distinguish both when desired.
  1109 
  1110 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1111 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1112 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1113 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1116 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1117 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1118 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1119 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1120 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1121 
  1122 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1123 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1124 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1125 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1126 
  1127 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1128 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1129 
  1130 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1131 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1132 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1133 
  1134 * Lifting:
  1135   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1136     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1137       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1138       transfer rules
  1139     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1140       correspondence relation can be generated
  1141     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1142       parametricity
  1143     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1144   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1145   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1146     copies
  1147   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1148     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1149     anonymous context)
  1150   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1151     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1152   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1153     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1154   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1155     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1156 
  1157 * Transfer:
  1158   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1159     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1160   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1161   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1162     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1163   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1164 
  1165 * Reification and reflection:
  1166   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1167     "Reification".
  1168   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1169   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1171 
  1172 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1173   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1174     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1175     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1176   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1177     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1178   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1179     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1180     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1181     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1182     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1183     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1184     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1185     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1186   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1187     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1188   - Fact renames:
  1189       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1190       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1192 
  1193 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1194 
  1195 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1196 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1197 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1199 
  1200 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1201 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1202 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1203 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1204 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1205 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1206 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1207 lemmas.
  1208 
  1209 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1210 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1211 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1212 
  1213 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1214 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1215 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1216 
  1217 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1218 top and bottom elements.
  1219 
  1220 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1221 
  1222 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1223 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1224 
  1225  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1226    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1227    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1228 
  1229  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1230    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1231    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1232 
  1233    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1234    arbitrary filter.
  1235 
  1236  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1237    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1238    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1239    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1240    on a compact set.
  1241 
  1242  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1243    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1244    linear_continuum_topology).
  1245 
  1246  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1247    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1248    on all sequences converging to x.
  1249 
  1250  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1251    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1252    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1253    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1254    left or right.
  1255 
  1256  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1257 
  1258      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1259 
  1260  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1261    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1262 
  1263  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1264    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1265    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1266    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1267    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1268    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1269 
  1270  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1271 
  1272    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1273 
  1274    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1275      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1276 
  1277    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1278 
  1279    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1280      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1281 
  1282    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1283 
  1284    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1285 
  1286  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1287 
  1288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1289 
  1290 * Nitpick:
  1291   - Added option "spy".
  1292   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1293 
  1294 * Sledgehammer:
  1295   - Renamed option:
  1296       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1297     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1298   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1299   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1300   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1301 
  1302 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1303 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1304 
  1305 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1306   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1307   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1308     generated code.
  1309   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1310   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1311   - Fact renames:
  1312     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1313     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1314     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1315 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1316 
  1317 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1318 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1319 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1320 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1321 
  1322 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1323 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1324 
  1325 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1326 
  1327 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1328 
  1329     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1330     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1331 
  1332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1333 
  1334 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1335 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1336 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1337 
  1338 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1339 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1340 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1341 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1342 
  1343 * HOL-BNF:
  1344   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1345     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1346     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1347     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1348   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1349     coinduct).
  1350   - Renamed keywords:
  1351     data ~> datatype_new
  1352     codata ~> codatatype
  1353     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1354   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1355     discs ~> disc
  1356     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1357     map_id' ~> map_id
  1358     sels ~> sel
  1359     set_map' ~> set_map
  1360     sets ~> set
  1361 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1362 
  1363 
  1364 *** ML ***
  1365 
  1366 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1367 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1368 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1369 Examples.thy in particular.
  1370 
  1371 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1372 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1373 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1374 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1375 
  1376 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1377 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1378 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1379 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1381 
  1382 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1383 
  1384     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1385     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1386 
  1387 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1388 
  1389 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1390 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1391 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1392 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1393 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1394 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1395 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1396 
  1397 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1398 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1399 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1400 clasets separately from the context.
  1401 
  1402 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1403 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1404 
  1405 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1406 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1407 
  1408 
  1409 *** System ***
  1410 
  1411 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1412 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1413 
  1414 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1415 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1416 
  1417 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1418 settings variable.
  1419 
  1420 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1421 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1422 always pdf.
  1423 
  1424 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1425 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1426 
  1427 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1428 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1429 
  1430 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1431 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1432 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1433 
  1434 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1435 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1436 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1437 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1438 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1439 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1440 
  1441 
  1442 
  1443 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1444 -----------------------------------
  1445 
  1446 *** General ***
  1447 
  1448 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1449 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1450 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1451 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1452 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1453 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1454 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1455 
  1456 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1457 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1458 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1459 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1460 
  1461 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1462 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1463 
  1464 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1465 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1466 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1467 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1468 dependencies properly.
  1469 
  1470 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1471 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1472 
  1473 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1474 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1475 
  1476 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1477 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1478 and "class ... context ...".
  1479 
  1480 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1481 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1482 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1483 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1484 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1485 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1486 
  1487 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1488 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1489 
  1490 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1491 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1492 
  1493 
  1494 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1495 
  1496 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1497 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1498 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1499 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1500 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1501 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1502 
  1503 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1504 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1505 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1506 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1507 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1508 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1509 
  1510 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1511 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1512 browser on demand.
  1513 
  1514 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1515 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1516 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1517 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1518 
  1519 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1520 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1521 
  1522 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1523 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1524 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1525 potentially infinite message streams.
  1526 
  1527 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1528 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1529 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1530 schemes.
  1531 
  1532 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1533 symbols.
  1534 
  1535 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1536 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1537 
  1538 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1539 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1540 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1541 
  1542 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1543 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1544 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1545 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1546 
  1547 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1548 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1549 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1550 
  1551 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1552 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1553 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1554 Isabelle distribution.
  1555 
  1556 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1557 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1558 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1559 
  1560 
  1561 *** Pure ***
  1562 
  1563 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1564 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1565 
  1566 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1567 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1568 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1569 
  1570 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1571 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1572 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1573 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1574 with some care where this is really required.
  1575 
  1576 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1577 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1578 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1579 
  1580   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1581 
  1582 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1583 a Hasse diagram.
  1584 
  1585 
  1586 *** HOL ***
  1587 
  1588 * Sledgehammer:
  1589 
  1590   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1591     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1592   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1593   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1594   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1595   - Renamed options:
  1596       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1597       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1598       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1599       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1600 
  1601 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1602 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1603 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1604 
  1605 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608 * Lifting:
  1609   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1610   - quot_del attribute
  1611   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1612 
  1613 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1614 expressions.
  1615 
  1616 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1617 pointfree expressions.
  1618 
  1619 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1620 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1621 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1622 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1624 
  1625 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1626 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1627 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1628 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1629 accordingly.
  1630 
  1631 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1632 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1633 
  1634 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1635 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1636 
  1637 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1638 
  1639 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1640 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1641 
  1642 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1643 
  1644 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1645 
  1646   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1647   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1648 
  1649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1650 
  1651 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1652 
  1653   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1654   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1655 
  1656 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1657 
  1658 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1659 
  1660   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1661     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1662     output f x converges to G.
  1663 
  1664   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1665     infinity (at_bot).
  1666 
  1667   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1668     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1669 
  1670   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1671     at_top".
  1672 
  1673 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1674 
  1675 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1676 lattice type classes.
  1677 
  1678 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1679 
  1680     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1681     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1682 
  1683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1686 changes as follows.
  1687 
  1688   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1689 
  1690       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1691       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1692 
  1693   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1694     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1695     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1696     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1697 
  1698   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1699     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1700     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1701 
  1702   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1703     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1704     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1705     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1706 
  1707   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1708     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1709 
  1710       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1711       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1712       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1713       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1714       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1715       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1716       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1717       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1718       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1719       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1720       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1721       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1722       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1723       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1724       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1725       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1726 
  1727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1728 
  1729 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1730 
  1731 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1732 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1733 
  1734 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1735 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1736 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1737 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1738 
  1739   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1740   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1741   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1742   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1743   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1744   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1745   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1746   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1747   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1748   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1749 
  1750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1751 
  1752 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1753 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1754 Data").
  1755 
  1756 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1757 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1758 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1759 code.
  1760 
  1761 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1762 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1763 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1765 
  1766 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1767 
  1768 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1769 
  1770 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1771 
  1772   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1773   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1774 
  1775 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1776 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1777 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1778 
  1779   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1780 
  1781     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1782     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1783     cart_base i  removed
  1784     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1785 
  1786   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1787 
  1788   Renamed lemmas:
  1789 
  1790     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1791     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1792     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1793     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1794     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1795     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1796     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1797     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1798     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1799     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1800 
  1801 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1802 
  1803 * HOL/Probability:
  1804 
  1805   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1806 
  1807   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1808     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1809     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1810 
  1811   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1812     projective family).
  1813 
  1814 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1815 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1816 
  1817 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1818 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1819 datatypes.
  1820 
  1821 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1822 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1823 
  1824 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1825 trees for the code generator.
  1826 
  1827 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1828 Lifting/Transfer.
  1829 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1830 
  1831 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1832 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1833 
  1834 
  1835 *** Document preparation ***
  1836 
  1837 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1838 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1839 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1840 
  1841 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1842 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1843 
  1844 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1845 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1846 document/root.tex.
  1847 
  1848 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1849 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1850 
  1851 
  1852 *** ML ***
  1853 
  1854 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1855 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1856 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1857 
  1858 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1859 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1860 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1861 
  1862 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1863 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1864 necessarily printing visible text.
  1865 
  1866 
  1867 *** System ***
  1868 
  1869 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1870 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1871 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1872 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1873 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1874 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1875 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1876 
  1877 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1878 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1879 
  1880   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1881 
  1882 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1883 
  1884 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1885 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1886 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1887 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1888 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1889 
  1890 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1891 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1892 
  1893 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1894 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1895 
  1896 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1897 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1898 
  1899 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1900 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1901 version of Isabelle.
  1902 
  1903 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1904 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1905 
  1906 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1907 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1908 for home-made settings.
  1909 
  1910 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1911 
  1912 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1913 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1914 configuration.
  1915 
  1916 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1917 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1918 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1919 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1920 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1921 
  1922 
  1923 
  1924 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1925 ------------------------------
  1926 
  1927 *** General ***
  1928 
  1929 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1930 
  1931   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1932     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1933   - markup for bound variables
  1934   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1935   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1936   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1937     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1938 
  1939 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1940 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1941 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1942 
  1943 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1944 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1945 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1946 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1947 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1948 
  1949   context
  1950     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1951     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1952   begin
  1953 
  1954   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1955 
  1956   end
  1957 
  1958   thm my_trans
  1959 
  1960 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1961 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1962 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1963 
  1964 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1965 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1966 
  1967 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1968 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1969 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1970 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1971 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1972 
  1973 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1974 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1975 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1976 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1977 indices of schematic variables.
  1978 
  1979 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1980 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1981 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1982 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1983 etc. was exploited.
  1984 
  1985 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1986 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1987 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1988 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1989 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1990 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1991 
  1992 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1993 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1994 manual.
  1995 
  1996 
  1997 *** Pure ***
  1998 
  1999 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2000 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2001 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2002 
  2003 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2004 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2005 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2006 undocumented feature.)
  2007 
  2008 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2009 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2010 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2011 
  2012   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2013 
  2014   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2015     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2016 
  2017 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2018 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2019 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2020 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2021 
  2022 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2023 
  2024     num ~> num_token
  2025     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2026     xstr ~> str_token
  2027 
  2028 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2029 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2030 position information via constraints).
  2031 
  2032 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2033 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2034 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2035 
  2036 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2037 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2038 
  2039 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2040 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2041 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2042 
  2043 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2044 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2045 
  2046 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2047 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2048 
  2049   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2050 
  2051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2052 
  2053 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2054 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2055 
  2056 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2057 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2058 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2059 
  2060 
  2061 *** HOL ***
  2062 
  2063 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2064 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2065 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2066 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2067 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2068 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2069 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2070 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2071 possible.
  2072 
  2073 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2074 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2075 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2076 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2077 
  2078 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2079 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2080 
  2081 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2082 
  2083 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2084 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2085 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2086 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2087 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2088 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2089 
  2090   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2091     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2092 
  2093   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2094     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2095     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2096 
  2097   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2098     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2099 
  2100   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2101     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2102     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2103 
  2104   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2105     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2106 
  2107 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2108 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2109 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2110 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2111 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2112 
  2113   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2114     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2115     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2116     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2117     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2118 
  2119     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2120     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2121 
  2122   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2123     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2124     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2125     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2126     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2127     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2128     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2129     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2130 
  2131   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2132     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2133     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2134     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2135 
  2136   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2137     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2138     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2139     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2140 
  2141   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2142     from type nat to type int.
  2143 
  2144 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2145 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2146 
  2147   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2148     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2149     type.  Example syntax:
  2150 
  2151     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2152       is List.insert
  2153 
  2154     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2155     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2156     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2157     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2158     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2159     by the package.
  2160 
  2161   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2162     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2163     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2164     code generation for each constant.
  2165 
  2166   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2167     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2168     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2169     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2170     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2171 
  2172   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2173     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2174     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2175 
  2176 * Quotient package:
  2177 
  2178   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2179     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2180 
  2181   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2182     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2183 
  2184   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2185     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2186     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2187 
  2188   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2189     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2190 
  2191 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2192 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2193 
  2194 * Quickcheck:
  2195 
  2196   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2197     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2198     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2199     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2200     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2201 
  2202     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2203     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2204     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2205 
  2206     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2207     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2208 
  2209     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2210     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2211     show genuine counterexamples.
  2212 
  2213   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2214     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2215 
  2216     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2217     constructors of that type.
  2218 
  2219   - Support for multisets.
  2220 
  2221   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2222 
  2223   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2224     conjectures in a locale context.
  2225 
  2226 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2227 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2228 
  2229 * Sledgehammer:
  2230   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2231     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2232   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2233   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2234     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2235   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2236   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2237   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2238   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2239 
  2240 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2241 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2242 
  2243 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2244 
  2245 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2246 
  2247 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2248 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2249 
  2250   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2251 
  2252 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2253 a list and a nat.
  2254 
  2255 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2256 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2257 
  2258 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2259 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2260 default.
  2261 
  2262 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2263 
  2264   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2265 
  2266 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2267 
  2268 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2269 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2270 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2271 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2272 one_case.
  2273 
  2274 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2275 the result of the fact expression.
  2276 
  2277 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2278 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2279 of some relation theorems:
  2280 
  2281   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2282   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2283   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2284   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2285   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2286   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2287 
  2288 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2289 
  2290 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2291 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2292 
  2293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2294 
  2295 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2296 to match the constant's name:
  2297 
  2298   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2299   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2300   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2301   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2302   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2303   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2304   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2305   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2306   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2307   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2308   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2309   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2310   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2311   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2312   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2313   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2314   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2315   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2316   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2317   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2318   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2319   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2320   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2321   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2322 
  2323 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2324 
  2325 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2326 and corresponding theorem names:
  2327 
  2328   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2329 
  2330   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2331 
  2332   - Renamed theorems:
  2333 
  2334     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2335     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2336     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2337     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2338     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2339     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2340     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2341     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2342     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2343     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2344     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2345     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2346     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2347     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2348     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2349     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2350     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2351     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2352     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2353     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2354     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2355     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2356     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2357 
  2358     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2359 
  2360     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2361 
  2362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2363 
  2364 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2365 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2366 
  2367   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2368   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2369   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2370   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2371   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2372   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2373   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2374   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2375   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2376   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2377   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2378   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2379   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2380   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2381   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2382   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2383   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2384   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2385   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2386   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2387   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2388 
  2389 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2390 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2391 
  2392 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2393 
  2394 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2395 
  2396   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2397   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2398   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2399   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2400   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2401   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2402   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2403   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2404   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2405   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2406   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2407   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2408   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2409   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2410   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2411   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2412   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2413   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2414 
  2415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2416 
  2417 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2418 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2419 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2420 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2421 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2422 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2423 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2424 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2425 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2426 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2427 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2428 
  2429 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2430 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2431 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2432 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2433 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2434 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2435 
  2436 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2437 through option types.
  2438 
  2439 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2440 relations.
  2441 
  2442 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2443 
  2444 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2445 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2446 
  2447   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2448   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2449   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2450   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2451   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2452   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2453   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2454   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2455   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2456   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2457   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2458   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2459   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2460   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2461   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2462   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2463   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2464   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2465   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2466   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2467   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2468   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2469   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2470   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2471   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2472   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2473   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2474   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2475   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2476   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2477   zless_le ~> less_le
  2478   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2479   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2480   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2481 
  2482 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2483 
  2484   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2485 
  2486 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2487 
  2488 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2489 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2490 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2491 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2493 
  2494 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2495 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2496 
  2497 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2498 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2499 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2500 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2501 follows:
  2502 
  2503   Operations:
  2504   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2505   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2506   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2507   del -> rbt_del
  2508   delete -> rbt_delete
  2509   ins -> rbt_ins
  2510   insert -> rbt_insert
  2511   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2512   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2513   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2514   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2515   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2516   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2517   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2518   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2519   union -> rbt_union
  2520   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2521   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2522 
  2523   Lemmas:
  2524   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2525   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2526   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2527   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2528   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2529   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2530   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2531   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2532   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2533   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2534   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2535   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2536   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2537   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2538   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2539   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2540   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2541   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2542   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2543   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2544   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2545   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2546   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2547   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2548   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2549   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2550   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2551   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2552   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2553   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2554   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2555   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2556   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2557   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2558   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2559   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2560   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2561   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2562   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2563   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2564   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2565   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2566   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2567   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2568   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2569   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2570   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2571   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2572   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2573   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2574   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2575   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2576   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2577   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2578   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2579   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2580   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2581   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2582   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2583   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2584   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2585   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2586   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2587   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2588   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2589   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2590   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2591   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2592   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2593   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2594   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2595   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2596   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2597   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2598   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2599   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2600   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2601   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2602   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2603   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2604   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2605   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2606   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2607 
  2608 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2609 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2610 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2611 
  2612   Changed Operations:
  2613   float_abs -> abs
  2614   float_nprt -> nprt
  2615   float_pprt -> pprt
  2616   pow2 -> use powr
  2617   round_down -> float_round_down
  2618   round_up -> float_round_up
  2619   scale -> exponent
  2620 
  2621   Removed Operations:
  2622   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2623 
  2624   Renamed Lemmas:
  2625   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2626   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2627   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2628   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2629   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2630   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2631   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2632   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2633   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2634   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2635   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2636   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2637   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2638   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2639   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2640   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2641   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2642   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2643   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2644   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2645   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2646   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2647   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2648   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2649   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2650   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2651   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2652   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2653   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2654   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2655   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2656   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2657   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2658   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2659   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2660   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2661 
  2662   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2663   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2664   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2665   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2666   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2667   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2668   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2669   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2670   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2671   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2672 
  2673 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2674 association lists with distinct keys.
  2675 
  2676 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2677 annotated commands.
  2678 
  2679 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2680 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2681 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2682 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2683 
  2684 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2685 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2686 instead.
  2687 
  2688   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2689   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2690   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2691   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2692   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2693   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2694   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2695   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2696   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2697   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2698   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2699   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2700   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2701   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2702   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2703   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2704   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2705   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2706   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2707   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2708   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2709   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2710   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2711   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2712   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2713   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2714   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2715   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2716   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2717   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2718   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2719   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2720   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2721   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2722   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2723   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2724   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2725   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2726   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2727   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2728   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2729 
  2730 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2731 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2732 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2733 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2734 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2735 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2736 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2737 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2738 
  2739 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2740 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2741 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2742 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2743 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2744 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2745 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2746 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2747 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2748 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2749 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2750 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2751 
  2752   Renamed constants:
  2753   measure -> emeasure
  2754   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2755   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2756   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2757   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2758 
  2759   Removed locales:
  2760   completeable_measure_space
  2761   finite_measure_space
  2762   finite_prob_space
  2763   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2764   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2765   finite_sigma_algebra
  2766   measure_space
  2767   pair_finite_prob_space
  2768   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2769   pair_finite_space
  2770   pair_sigma_algebra
  2771   product_sigma_algebra
  2772 
  2773   Removed constants:
  2774   conditional_space
  2775   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2776   image_space
  2777   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2778   pair_measure_generator
  2779   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2780   subvimage
  2781 
  2782   Replacement theorems:
  2783   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2784   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2785   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2786   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2787   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2788   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2789   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2790   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2791   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2792   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2793   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2794   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2795   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2796   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2797   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2798   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2799   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2800   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2801   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2802   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2803   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2804   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2805   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2806   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2807   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2808   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2809   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2810   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2811   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2812   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2813   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2814   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2815   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2816   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2817   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2818   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2819   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2820   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2821   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2822   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2823   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2824   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2825   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2826   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2827   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2828   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2829   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2830   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2831   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2832   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2833   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2834   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2835   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2836   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2837   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2838   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2839   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2840   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2841   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2842   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2843   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2844   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2845   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2846   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2847   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2848   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2849   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2850   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2851   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2852   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2853   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2854   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2855   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2856   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2857   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2858   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2859   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2860   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2861   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2862   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2863   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2864   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2865   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2866   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2867   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2868   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2869   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2870   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2871   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2872   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2873   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2874   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2875   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2876   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2877   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2878   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2879   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2880   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2881   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2882   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2883   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2884   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2885   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2886   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2887   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2888   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2889   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2890   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2891   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2892   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2893   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2894   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2895   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2896   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2897   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2898   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2899   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2900   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2901   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2902   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2903   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2904   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2905   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2906   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2907   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2908   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2909   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2910   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2911 
  2912 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2913 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2914 
  2915 
  2916 *** FOL ***
  2917 
  2918 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2919 
  2920 
  2921 *** ZF ***
  2922 
  2923 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2924 analysis.
  2925 
  2926 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2927 
  2928 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2929 
  2930 
  2931 *** ML ***
  2932 
  2933 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2934 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2935 
  2936 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2937 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2938 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2939 
  2940 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2941 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2942 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2943 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2944 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2945 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2946 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2947 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2948 
  2949 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2950 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2951 
  2952 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2953 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2954 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2955 
  2956 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2957 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2958 
  2959 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2960 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2961 context as well.
  2962 
  2963 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2964 
  2965   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2966   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2967   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2968   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2969   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2970   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2971   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2972   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2973   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2974   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2975   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2976   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2977 
  2978 
  2979 *** System ***
  2980 
  2981 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2982 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2983 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2984 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2985 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2986 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2987 the generic user home was intended.
  2988 
  2989 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2990 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2991 
  2992 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2993 (not just JRE).
  2994 
  2995 
  2996 
  2997 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2998 ------------------------------------
  2999 
  3000 *** General ***
  3001 
  3002 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3003 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3004 
  3005   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3006     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3007     files for checking).
  3008 
  3009   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3010     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3011     positions.
  3012 
  3013   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3014     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3015     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3016 
  3017   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3018     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3019     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3020 
  3021   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3022     cores.
  3023 
  3024   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3025     versions (garbage collection).
  3026 
  3027 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3028 including some remaining limitations.
  3029 
  3030 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3031 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3032 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3033 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3034 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3035 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3036 
  3037 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3038 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3039 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3040 
  3041 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3042 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3043 usedir option -Q.
  3044 
  3045 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3046 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3047 
  3048   long_names   ~> names_long
  3049   short_names  ~> names_short
  3050   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3051 
  3052 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3053 
  3054   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3055 
  3056 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3057 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3058 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3059 
  3060 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3061 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3062 
  3063 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3064   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3065   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3066   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3067     "Classical Reasoner".
  3068 
  3069 
  3070 *** HOL ***
  3071 
  3072 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3073 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3076 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3077 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3078 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3079 class complete_linorder.
  3080 
  3081 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3082 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3083 
  3084 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3085 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3086 
  3087   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3088   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3089   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3090   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3091   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3092   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3093   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3094   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3095   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3096   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3097   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3098 
  3099 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3100 
  3101   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3102   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3103   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3104   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3105   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3106   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3107   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3108   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3109   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3110   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3111   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3112   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3113   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3114   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3115   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3116   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3117 
  3118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3119 
  3120 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3122 
  3123 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3124 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3125 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3126 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3127 
  3128 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3129 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3130 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3131 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3132 
  3133 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3134 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3135 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3136 
  3137 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3138 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3139 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3140 
  3141 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3142 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3143 
  3144 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3145 
  3146     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3147     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3148 
  3149 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3150 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3151 
  3152 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3153 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3156 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3157 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3158 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3159 
  3160   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3161   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3162   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3163   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3164   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3165   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3166   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3167 
  3168 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3169 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3170 
  3171   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3172   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3173   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3174   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3175   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3176   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3177   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3178   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3179   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3180   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3181   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3182   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3183   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3184   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3185   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3186   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3187   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3188   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3189   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3190   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3191   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3192   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3193   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3194   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3195   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3196   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3197   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3198   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3199   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3200   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3201   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3202   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3203   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3204   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3205   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3206   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3207   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3208   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3209   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3210   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3211   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3212   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3213   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3214   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3215   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3216   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3217   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3218   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3219   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3220   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3221   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3222   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3223   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3224   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3225   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3226   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3227   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3228   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3229   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3230   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3231   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3232   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3233   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3234   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3235   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3236   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3237   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3238   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3239   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3240   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3241   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3242   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3243   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3244   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3245   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3246   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3247   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3248   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3249   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3250   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3251   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3252   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3253 
  3254 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3255 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3256 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3257 
  3258 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3259 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3260 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3261 
  3262 * Code generation:
  3263 
  3264   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3265     characters in the target language.
  3266 
  3267   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3268     instead.
  3269 
  3270   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3271 
  3272   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3273     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3274 
  3275       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3276 
  3277 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3278 
  3279 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3280 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3281 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3282 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3283 syntax.
  3284 
  3285 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3286 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3287 
  3288 * Nitpick:
  3289   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3290   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3291   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3292     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3293 
  3294 * Sledgehammer:
  3295   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3296   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3297     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3298   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3299     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3300   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3301     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3302   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3303     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3304   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3305     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307 * Metis:
  3308   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3309   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3310     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3311 
  3312 * Command 'try':
  3313   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3314     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3316     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3317 
  3318 * Quickcheck:
  3319   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3320     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3321   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3322     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3323   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3324     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3325     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3326     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3327   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3328     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3329 
  3330 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3331 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3332 
  3333 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3334 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3335 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3336 
  3337 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3338 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3339 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3340 
  3341 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3342 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3343 
  3344 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3345 arithmetic.
  3346 
  3347 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3348 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3349 and lattice type classes.
  3350 
  3351 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3352 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3353 
  3354 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3355 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3356 
  3357 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3358 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3359 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360 
  3361   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3362   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3363   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3364   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3365 
  3366 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3367 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3368 constants:
  3369 
  3370   type inat   ~> type enat
  3371   Fin         ~> enat
  3372   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3373   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3374   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3375 
  3376 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3377 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378 
  3379 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3380 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3381 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3382 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3383 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3384 
  3385 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3386 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3387 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3388 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3389 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3390 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3391 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3392 
  3393   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3394   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3395   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3396   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3397 
  3398 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3399 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3400 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3403   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3404   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3405   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3406   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3407   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3408   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3409   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3410   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3411   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3412   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3413   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3414   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3415   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3416   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3417   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3418   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3419   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3420   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3421   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3422   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3423   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3424   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3425   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3426   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3427   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3428   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3429   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3430   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3431   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3432   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3433   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3434   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3435   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3436   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3437   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3438   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3439   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3440   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3441   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3442   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3443   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3444   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3445   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3446   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3447   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3448   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3449   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3450   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3451   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3452   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3453 
  3454 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3455   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3456   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3457   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3458   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3459     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3460 
  3461 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3462 
  3463   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3464   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3465   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3466   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3467   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3468   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3469   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3470   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3471   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3472   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3473   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3474   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3475   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3476   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3477   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3478   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3479   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3480   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3481   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3482   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3483   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3484   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3485   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3486   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3487   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3488 
  3489 
  3490 *** Document preparation ***
  3491 
  3492 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3493 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3494 same.
  3495 
  3496 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3497 result.
  3498 
  3499 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3500 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3501 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3502 
  3503 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3504 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3505 
  3506 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3507 like this:
  3508 
  3509   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3510   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3511 
  3512 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3513 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3514 layouts.
  3515 
  3516 
  3517 *** ML ***
  3518 
  3519 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3520 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3521 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3522 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3523 under external program control.
  3524 
  3525 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3526 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3527 
  3528 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3529 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3530 (better known as Proof General).
  3531 
  3532 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3533 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3534 
  3535 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3536 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3537 
  3538 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3539 (including quotes etc.).
  3540 
  3541 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3542 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3543 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3544 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3545 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3546 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3547 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3548 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3549 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3550 
  3551 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3552 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3553 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3554 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3555 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3556 
  3557 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3558 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3559 
  3560 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3561 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3562 
  3563 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3564 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3565 
  3566 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3567 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3568 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3569 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3570 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3571 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3572 proper Proof.context.
  3573 
  3574 
  3575 *** System ***
  3576 
  3577 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3578 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3579 
  3580 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3581 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3582 
  3583 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3584 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3585 
  3586   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3587   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3588   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3589   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3590   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3591 
  3592 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3593 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3594 
  3595 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3596 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3597 example:
  3598 
  3599   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3600 
  3601 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3602 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3603 
  3604 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3605 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3606 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3607 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3608 
  3609 
  3610 
  3611 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3612 ----------------------------------
  3613 
  3614 *** General ***
  3615 
  3616 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3617 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3618 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3619 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3620 like this:
  3621 
  3622   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3623 
  3624 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3625 
  3626 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3627 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3628 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3629 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3630 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3631 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3632 
  3633 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3634 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3635 the following package declarations:
  3636 
  3637   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3638   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3639 
  3640 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3641 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3642 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3643 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3644 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3645 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3646 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3647 
  3648 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3649 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3650 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3651 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3652 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3653 
  3654 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3655 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3656 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3657 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3658 
  3659 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3660 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3661 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3662 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3663 
  3664   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3665 
  3666   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3667   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3668   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3669   show_types                    show_types
  3670   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3671   show_consts                   show_consts
  3672   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3673 
  3674   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3675   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3676   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3677 
  3678   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3679   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3680 
  3681   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3682 
  3683   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3684   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3685   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3686   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3687   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3688 
  3689 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3690 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3691 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3692 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3693 
  3694 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3696 
  3697   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3698   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3699 
  3700 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3701 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3702 float_token.
  3703 
  3704 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3705 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3707 
  3708 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3709 DejaVu Sans.
  3710 
  3711 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3712 
  3713 
  3714 *** Pure ***
  3715 
  3716 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3717 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3718 time.
  3719 
  3720 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3721 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3722 
  3723 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3724 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3725 
  3726 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3727 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3728 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3729 command already provided this functionality.
  3730 
  3731 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3732 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3733 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3734 without interpretations.
  3735 
  3736 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3737 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3738 
  3739 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3740 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3741 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3742 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3743 
  3744 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3745 'definition' instead.
  3746 
  3747 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3748 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3749 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3750 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3751 
  3752 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3753 constructors.
  3754 
  3755 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3756 the local file system.
  3757 
  3758 
  3759 *** HOL ***
  3760 
  3761 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3762 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3763 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3764 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3765 
  3766   declare [[coercion f]]
  3767 
  3768 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3769 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3770 
  3771   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3772 
  3773 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3774 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3775 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3776 other theories like this:
  3777 
  3778   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3779 
  3780 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3781 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3782 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3783 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3784 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3785 for examples.
  3786 
  3787 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3788 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3789 
  3790 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3791 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3792 
  3793 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3794 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3795 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3796 
  3797 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3798 functorial structure of types.
  3799 
  3800 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3801 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3802 
  3803 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3804 languages.
  3805 
  3806 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3807 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3809 
  3810 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3811 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3814 combinators any longer.
  3815 
  3816 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3817 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3818 
  3819 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3820 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3821 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3822 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3823 
  3824   record 'a foo = ...
  3825   ...
  3826   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3827 
  3828 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3829 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3830 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3831 
  3832 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3833 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3834 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3835 
  3836 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3837 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3838 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3839 
  3840 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3841 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3842 
  3843 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3844 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3845 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3846 independently.
  3847 
  3848 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3849 counter example search.
  3850 
  3851 * Sledgehammer:
  3852   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3853     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3854     sledgehammer").
  3855   - Renamed commands:
  3856     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3857     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3858     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3859     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3860   - Renamed options:
  3861     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3862     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3863     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3864     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3865     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3866 
  3867 * Nitpick:
  3868   - Renamed options:
  3869     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3870     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3871     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3872   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3873   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3874   - Added "whack" option.
  3875   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3876   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3877   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3878   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3879     higher cardinalities.
  3880   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3881 
  3882 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3883 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3884 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3885 
  3886     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3887 
  3888 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3889 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3890 
  3891 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3892 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3893 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3894 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3895 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3896 "smt_solver".
  3897 
  3898 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3899 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3900 
  3901 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3902 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3903 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3904 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3905 
  3906 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3907   - Renamed:
  3908     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3909     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3910     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3911   - Added:
  3912     smt_verbose
  3913     smt_random_seed
  3914     smt_datatypes
  3915     smt_infer_triggers
  3916     smt_monomorph_limit
  3917     cvc3_options
  3918     remote_cvc3_options
  3919     remote_z3_options
  3920     yices_options
  3921 
  3922 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3923 header.
  3924 
  3925 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3926 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3927 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3928 
  3929   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3930 
  3931 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3932 
  3933 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3934 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3935 
  3936 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3937 
  3938 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3939 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3940 
  3941 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3942 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3943 
  3944 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3945 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946 
  3947 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3948 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3949 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3950 
  3951 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3952 
  3953 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955 
  3956 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3957 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3958 
  3959 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3960 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3961 for congruent(2)).
  3962 
  3963 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3964 
  3965   types
  3966     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3967     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3968 
  3969   constants
  3970     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3971     True ~> HOL.True
  3972     False ~> HOL.False
  3973     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3974     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3975     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3976     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3977     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3978     The ~> HOL.The
  3979     All ~> HOL.All
  3980     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3981     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3982     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3983     If ~> HOL.If
  3984     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3985     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3986     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3987     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3988     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3989     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3990     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3991     op : ~> Set.member
  3992     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3993 
  3994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3995 
  3996 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3997 
  3998     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3999     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4000     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4001     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4002     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4003     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4004     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4005     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4006 
  4007 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4008 
  4009 * More stylized fact names:
  4010 
  4011   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4012   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4013   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4014   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4015 
  4016 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4017 
  4018 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4019 
  4020   constants
  4021     null ~> List.null
  4022 
  4023   facts
  4024     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4025     null_empty ~> null_def
  4026 
  4027 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4028 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4029 generation.
  4030 
  4031 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4032 Haskell code.
  4033 
  4034 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4035 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4036 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4037 
  4038 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4039 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4040 
  4041 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4042 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4043 
  4044 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4045 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4046 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4047 
  4048 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4049 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4050 
  4051 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4053 
  4054 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4055 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4056 referred to by its qualified name.
  4057 
  4058   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4059   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4060   product ~>  Enum.product
  4061 
  4062 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4063 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4065 
  4066 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4067 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4068 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4070 
  4071 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4072 sort_key.
  4073 
  4074 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4078 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4079 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4080 
  4081   types
  4082     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4083               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4084               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4085         (depends on your needs)
  4086 
  4087   constants
  4088      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4089      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4090      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4091 
  4092 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4093 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4094 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4095 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4096 
  4097 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4098 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4099 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4100 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4101 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4102 
  4103 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4105 
  4106 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4107 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4108 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4109 
  4110 
  4111 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4112 
  4113 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4114 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4115 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4116 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4117 compatibility.
  4118 
  4119 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4120 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4121 
  4122 
  4123 *** HOLCF ***
  4124 
  4125 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4126 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4127 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4129 
  4130 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4131 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4132 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4133 
  4134   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4135   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4136   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4137 
  4138 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4139 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4140 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4141 
  4142 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4143 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4144 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4145 domain definition now works:
  4146 
  4147   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4148 
  4149 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4150 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4151 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4152 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4153 
  4154   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4155     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4156 
  4157   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4158 
  4159 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4160 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4161 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4162 
  4163 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4164 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4165 
  4166 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4167 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4168 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4169 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4170 
  4171 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4172 
  4173 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4174 
  4175 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4176 
  4177 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4179 
  4180 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4181 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4182 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4183 
  4184 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4185 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4186 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4187 
  4188 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4189 still supported as an input translation.
  4190 
  4191 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4192 
  4193   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4194   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4195   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4196   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4197   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4198   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4199   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4200 
  4201 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4202 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4203 
  4204   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4205   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4206   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4207   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4208   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4209   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4210 
  4211 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4212 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4213 
  4214 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4215 
  4216   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4217   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4218   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4219   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4220 
  4221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4222 
  4223 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4224 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4225 
  4226 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4227 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4228 
  4229   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4230   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4231   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4232   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4233   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4234   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4235   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4236   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4237   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4238   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4239   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4240   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4241   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4242   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4243   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4244   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4245   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4246   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4247   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4248   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4249 
  4250 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4251 
  4252   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4253   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4254   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4255   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4256   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4257   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4258   box_less             ~> box_below
  4259   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4260   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4261   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4262   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4263   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4264   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4265   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4266   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4267   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4268   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4269   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4270   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4271   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4272   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4273   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4274   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4275   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4276   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4277   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4278   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4279   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4280   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4281   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4282   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4283   up_less              ~> up_below
  4284   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4285   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4286   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4287   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4288   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4289   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4290   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4291   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4292   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4293   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4294   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4295   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4296   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4297 
  4298 
  4299 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4300 
  4301 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4302 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4303 
  4304 
  4305 *** ML ***
  4306 
  4307 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4308 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4309 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4310 
  4311 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4312 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4313 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4314 
  4315 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4316 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4317 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4318 
  4319 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4320 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4321 
  4322 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4323 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4324 
  4325 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4326 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4327 
  4328 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4329 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4330 
  4331 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4332 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4333 almost all situations.
  4334 
  4335 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4336 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4337 Isabelle/ML.
  4338 
  4339 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4340 meaning.
  4341 
  4342 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4343 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4344 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4345 
  4346 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4347 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4348 
  4349 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4350 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4351 
  4352 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4353 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4354 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4355 
  4356 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4357 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4358 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4359 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4360 configuration options.
  4361 
  4362 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4363 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4364 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4365 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4366 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4367 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4368 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4369 
  4370 
  4371 
  4372 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4373 ---------------------------------
  4374 
  4375 *** General ***
  4376 
  4377 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4378 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4379 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4380 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4381 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4382 their full internal name.
  4383 
  4384 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4385 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4386 Some hints on upgrading:
  4387 
  4388   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4389     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4390     which are independent of this issue.
  4391 
  4392   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4393     provides the following special forms:
  4394 
  4395       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4396       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4397       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4398 
  4399     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4400     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4401     extra variables".
  4402 
  4403     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4404     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4405     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4406     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4407     "logic".
  4408 
  4409   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4410     antiquotations:
  4411 
  4412       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4413       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4414       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4415       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4416 
  4417   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4418     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4419     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4420     antiquotations.
  4421 
  4422 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4423 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4424 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4425 diagnose syntax problems.
  4426 
  4427 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4428 
  4429 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4430 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4431 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4432 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4433 
  4434 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4435 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4436 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4437 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4438 
  4439 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4440 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4441 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4442 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4443 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4444 
  4445 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4446 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4447 
  4448 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4449 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4450 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4451 
  4452   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4453 
  4454 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4455 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4456 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4457 
  4458 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4459 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4461 
  4462 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4463 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4464 
  4465 
  4466 *** Pure ***
  4467 
  4468 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4469 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4470 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4471 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4472 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4473 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4474 inspect proof terms.
  4475 
  4476 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4477 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4478 are added internally.  For example:
  4479 
  4480   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4481 
  4482 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4483 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4484 
  4485 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4486 
  4487 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4488 'class' instead.
  4489 
  4490 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4491 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4493 
  4494 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4495 invariants.
  4496 
  4497 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4498 user space functionality any longer.
  4499 
  4500 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4501 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4503 
  4504 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4505 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4506 
  4507 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4508 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4509 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4510 
  4511 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4512 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4513 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4514 
  4515 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4516 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4517 
  4518 
  4519 *** HOL ***
  4520 
  4521 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4522 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4523 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4524 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4525 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4526 
  4527 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4528 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4529 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4530 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4531 
  4532   fun
  4533     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4534   where
  4535     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4536 
  4537   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4538     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4539 
  4540   quotient_definition
  4541     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4542 
  4543 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4544 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4545 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4546 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4547 
  4548 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4549 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4550 
  4551 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4552 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4553 
  4554 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4556 
  4557 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4558 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4559 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4560 
  4561 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4562 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4563 
  4564 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 
  4567 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4569 
  4570 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4571 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4572 
  4573 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4574 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4575 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4576 
  4577   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4578   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4579   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4580   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4581   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4582   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4583   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4584   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4585   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4586   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4587   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4588   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4589   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4590   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4591   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4592   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4593   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4594   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4595   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4596   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4597   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4598   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4599   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4600   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4601   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4602   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4603   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4604   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4605   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4606   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4607 
  4608 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4609 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4610 
  4611 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4612 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4613 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4614 
  4615 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4616 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4617 
  4618 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4619 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4620 
  4621 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4622 
  4623 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4624 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4625 
  4626 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4627 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4628 
  4629 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4630 
  4631 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4632 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4633 
  4634 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4635 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4636 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4637 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4638 
  4639 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4640   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4641   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4642   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4644 
  4645 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4646 lattices):
  4647 
  4648     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4649     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4650 
  4651     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4652 
  4653     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4654     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4655     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4656     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4657     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4658     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4659     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4660     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4661     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4662     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4663     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4664     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4665     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4666 
  4667     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4668     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4669     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4670     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4671     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4672     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4673     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4674     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4675     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4676     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4677     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4678     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4679     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4680     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4681     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4682     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4683     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4684     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4685 
  4686   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4687   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4688 
  4689     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4690     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4691     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4692     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4693     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4694 
  4695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 
  4697 * Refined field classes:
  4698   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4699     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4700     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4701   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4703 
  4704 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4705   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4706   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4707   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4708     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4709   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4710     equal_neg_zero.
  4711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4712 
  4713 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4714 sets to lattices:
  4715 
  4716   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4717   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4718   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4719   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4720   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4721   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4722   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4723   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4724   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4725   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4726 
  4727 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4728 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4729 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4730 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4731 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4732 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4733 
  4734 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4735 multiset order:
  4736 
  4737   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4738     <= and <;
  4739   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4740     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4741     multiset_order;
  4742   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4743     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4744     generation;
  4745   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4746     if needed.
  4747 
  4748 Renamed:
  4749 
  4750   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4751   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4752   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4753 
  4754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4755 
  4756 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4757 
  4758 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4759 
  4760 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4761 
  4762 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4763 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4764 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4765 
  4766   Constants:
  4767   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4768   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4769   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4770   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4771   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4772   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4773   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4774   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4775   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4776   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4777   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4778   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4779   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4780 
  4781   Lemmas:
  4782   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4783   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4784   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4785   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4786   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4787   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4788   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4789   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4790   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4791   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4792   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4793   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4794   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4795 
  4796 * Sledgehammer:
  4797   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4798     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4799     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4800     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4801     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4802     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4803     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4804   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4805   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4806     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4807   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4808     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4809     is still experimental.)
  4810   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4811     full-typed mode.
  4812   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4813 
  4814 * Nitpick:
  4815   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4816   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4817   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4818     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4819   - Added support for quotient types.
  4820   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4821     constructs.
  4822   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4823     "termination" proofs).
  4824   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4825   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4826   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4827   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4828     record getters.
  4829   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4830   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4831   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4832   - Added "atoms" option.
  4833   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4834     problems.
  4835   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4836     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4837     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4838   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4839     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4840   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4841 
  4842 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4843   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4844   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4845   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4846   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4847   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4848   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4849   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4850   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4851   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4852 
  4853 
  4854 *** HOLCF ***
  4855 
  4856 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4857 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4858 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4859 
  4860 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4861 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4862 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4863 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4864 
  4865 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4866 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4867 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4868 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4869 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4870 
  4871 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4872 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4873 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4874 
  4875 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4876 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4877 
  4878   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4879   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4880 
  4881 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4882 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4883 
  4884   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4885   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4886   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4887   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4888   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4889 
  4890 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4891 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4892 
  4893   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4894   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4895   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4896 
  4897 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4898 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4900 
  4901 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4902 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4903 
  4904 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4905 
  4906 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4907 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4908 
  4909 
  4910 *** ML ***
  4911 
  4912 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4913 
  4914     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4915     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4916 
  4917     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4918     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4919     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4920     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4921 
  4922     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4923     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4924     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4925 
  4926 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4927 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4928 
  4929 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4930 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4931 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4932 
  4933 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4934 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4935 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4936 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4937 
  4938 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4939 the context or even global references.
  4940 
  4941 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4942 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4943 
  4944 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4945 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4946 
  4947   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4948   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4949   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4950   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4951   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4952   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4953   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4954   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4955   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4956   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4957 
  4958 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4959 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4960 
  4961 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4962 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4963 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4964 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4965 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4966 
  4967 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4968 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4969 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4970 Theory_Data version.
  4971 
  4972 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4973 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4974 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4975 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4976 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4977 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4978 explicitly in rare situations.
  4979 
  4980 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4981 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4983 
  4984 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4985 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4986 
  4987 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4988 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4989 quite rare).
  4990 
  4991 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4992 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4993 
  4994 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4995 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4996 terms.
  4997 
  4998 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4999 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5000 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5001 
  5002 
  5003 *** System ***
  5004 
  5005 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5006 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5007 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5008 
  5009 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5010 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5011 respectively.
  5012 
  5013 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5014 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5015 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5016 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5017 
  5018   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5019 
  5020 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5021 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5022 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5023 component.
  5024 
  5025 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5026 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5027 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5028 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5029 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5030 the user for manual installation.
  5031 
  5032 
  5033 
  5034 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5035 -------------------------------------
  5036 
  5037 *** General ***
  5038 
  5039 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5040 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5041 
  5042 
  5043 *** Pure ***
  5044 
  5045 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5046 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5047 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5048 
  5049 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5050 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5051 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5052 
  5053 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5054 interpretation.
  5055 
  5056 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5057 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5058 
  5059 
  5060 *** Document preparation ***
  5061 
  5062 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5063 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5064 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5065 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5066 
  5067 
  5068 *** HOL ***
  5069 
  5070 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5071 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5072 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5073 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5074 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5075 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5076 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5077 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5078 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5079 
  5080 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5081 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5082 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5083 
  5084 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5085 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5086 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5087 
  5088 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5089 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5090 
  5091 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5092 
  5093 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5094 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5095 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5096 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5097 
  5098 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5099 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5100 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5101 "mirabelle" utility.
  5102 
  5103 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5104 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5105 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5106 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5107 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5108 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5109 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5110 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5111 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5112 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5113 
  5114 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5115 procedure only.
  5116 
  5117 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5118 
  5119 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5120 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5121 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5122 that fail later.
  5123 
  5124 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5125 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5126 
  5127 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5128 the same method as the approximation method.
  5129 
  5130 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5131 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5132 series expansion.
  5133 
  5134 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5135 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5136 
  5137 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5138 reals.
  5139 
  5140 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5141 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5142 
  5143 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5144 fixpoint theorem.
  5145 
  5146 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5147   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5148     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5149   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5150     accordingly
  5151   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5152     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5153   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5154     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5155 
  5156 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5157 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5158 lattice.
  5159 
  5160 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5161 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5162 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5163 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5164 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5165 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5167 
  5168 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5169   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5170     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5171   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5172     le_inf_iff
  5173   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5174     sup_aci)
  5175   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5176   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5177   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5178     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5179     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5180     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5181     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5182     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5183     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5184     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5185     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5186     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5187     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5188   - authentic syntax for
  5189     Set.Pow
  5190     Set.image
  5191   - mere abbreviations:
  5192     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5193     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5194     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5195     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5196     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5197     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5198     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5199     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5200   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5201 
  5202 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5203 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5204 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5205 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5206 
  5207 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5208 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5209 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5210 
  5211 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5212 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5213 
  5214 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5215 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5216 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5217 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5218 
  5219 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5220 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5221 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5222 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5223 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5224 
  5225 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5226 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5228 
  5229 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5230 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5231 
  5232 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5233 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5234 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5235 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5236 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5237 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5238 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5240 
  5241 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5242     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5243     code_post       replaces    code post
  5244     etc.
  5245   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5246 
  5247 * Renamed methods:
  5248     sizechange -> size_change
  5249     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5250   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5251 
  5252 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5253 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5254 
  5255 * Renamed theorems:
  5256     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5257     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5258     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5259     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5260     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5261   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5262 
  5263 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5265 
  5266 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5268 
  5269 
  5270 *** HOLCF ***
  5271 
  5272 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5273 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5274 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5275 
  5276 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5277 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5278 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5279 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5280 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5281 
  5282 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5283 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5284 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5285 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5286 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5287 
  5288 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5289 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5290 constructor are pre-configured.
  5291 
  5292 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5293 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5294 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5295 
  5296 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5297 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5298 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5299 as well.)
  5300 
  5301 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5302 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5303 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5304 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5305 examples.
  5306 
  5307 
  5308 *** ML ***
  5309 
  5310 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5311 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5312 
  5313 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5314 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5315 position, logical grouping etc.
  5316 
  5317 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5318 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5319 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5320 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5321 
  5322 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5323 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5324 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5325 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5326 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5327 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5328 
  5329 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5330 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5331 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5332 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5333 experiments with references.
  5334 
  5335 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5336 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5337 
  5338 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5339 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5340 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5341 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5342 
  5343 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5344 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5345 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5346 
  5347 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5348 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5349 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5350 
  5351 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5352 
  5353 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5354 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5355 
  5356 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5357 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5358 
  5359 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5360 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5361 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5362 
  5363 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5364 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5365 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5366 
  5367 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5368 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5369 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5371 
  5372 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5373 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5374 instead of global theory.
  5375 
  5376 
  5377 *** System ***
  5378 
  5379 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5380 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5381 usedir option -q.
  5382 
  5383 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5384 also the system manual.
  5385 
  5386 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5387 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5388 
  5389 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5390 this is always enabled.
  5391 
  5392 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5393 
  5394 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5395 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5396 currently supported on Linux only.
  5397 
  5398 
  5399 
  5400 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5401 --------------------------------
  5402 
  5403 *** General ***
  5404 
  5405 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5406 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5407 
  5408   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5409     "isatool."
  5410 
  5411   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5412     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5413 
  5414   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5415     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5416 
  5417 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5418 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5419 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5420 
  5421 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5422 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5423 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5424 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5425 via "isabelle emacs".
  5426 
  5427 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5428 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5429 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5430 
  5431 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5432 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5433 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5434 
  5435 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5436 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5437 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5438 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5439 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5440 
  5441 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5442 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5443 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5444 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5445 
  5446 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5447 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5448 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5449 
  5450 
  5451 *** Pure ***
  5452 
  5453 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5454 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5455 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5456 
  5457 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5458 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5459 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5460 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5461 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5462 
  5463 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5464 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5465 useful in locale declarations.
  5466 
  5467 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5468 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5469 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5470 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5471 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5472 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5473 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5474 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5475 no longer generated.
  5476 
  5477 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5478 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5479 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5480 
  5481 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5482 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5483 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5484 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5485 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5486 
  5487 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5488 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5489 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5490 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5491 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5492 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5493 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5494 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5495 
  5496 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5497 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5498 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5499 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5500 
  5501 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5502 
  5503 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5504 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5505 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5506 
  5507 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5508 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5509 
  5510 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5511 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5512 in HOL, write
  5513 
  5514     class foo = ...
  5515 
  5516 instead of
  5517 
  5518     class foo = type + ...
  5519 
  5520 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5521 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5522 
  5523 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5524 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5525 
  5526 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5527 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5528 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5529 
  5530 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5531 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5532 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5533 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5534 directly in regular applications.
  5535 
  5536 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5537 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5538 
  5539 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5540 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5541 
  5542 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5543 theory context.
  5544 
  5545 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5546 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5547 
  5548 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5549 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5550 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5551 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5552 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5553 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5554 
  5555   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5556 
  5557 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5558 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5559 normalization.
  5560 
  5561 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5562 addressing etc.
  5563 
  5564 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5565 
  5566   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5567   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5568 
  5569 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5570 
  5571   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5572      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5573      parts of the code generator framework).
  5574 
  5575   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5576      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5577      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5578 
  5579 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5580 
  5581 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5582 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5583 
  5584 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5585 patterns, e.g.
  5586 
  5587     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5588 
  5589 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5590 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5591 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5592 hyphen:
  5593 
  5594     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5595 
  5596 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5597 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5598 
  5599 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5600 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5601 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5602 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5603 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5604 higher-order unification.
  5605 
  5606 
  5607 *** Document preparation ***
  5608 
  5609 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5610 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5611 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5612 
  5613 
  5614 *** HOL ***
  5615 
  5616 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5617 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5618 
  5619 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5620 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5621 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5622 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5623 Main, as before.
  5624 
  5625 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5626 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5627 
  5628 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5629 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5630 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5631 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5632 
  5633 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5634 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5635 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5636 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5637 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5638 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5639 
  5640 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5641 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5642 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5643 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5644 
  5645 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5646 menu.
  5647 
  5648 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5649 (contains the empty clause).
  5650 
  5651 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5652 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5653 
  5654 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5655 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5656 
  5657 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5658 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5659 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5660 
  5661 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5662 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5663 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5664 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5665 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5666 
  5667 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5668 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5669 
  5670 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5671 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5672 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5673 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5674 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5675 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5676 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5677 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5678 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5679 
  5680 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5681 
  5682 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5683 
  5684 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5685 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5686 
  5687 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5688 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5689 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5690 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5691 
  5692 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5693 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5694 
  5695     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5696     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5697     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5698     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5699     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5700     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5701     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5702     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5703 
  5704 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5705 theory Set.
  5706 
  5707 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5708 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5709 
  5710 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5711 
  5712 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5713 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5714 
  5715 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5716 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5717 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5718 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5719 allowed. For examples see
  5720 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5721 
  5722 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5723 
  5724 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5725 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5726 
  5727 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5728 structure:
  5729 
  5730     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5731     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5732     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5733     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5734     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5735     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5736     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5737     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5738     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5739     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5740     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5741     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5742     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5743     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5744     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5745     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5746     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5747     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5748     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5749     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5750     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5751     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5752     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5753     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5754     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5755     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5756     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5757     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5758     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5759     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5760     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5761     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5762     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5763 
  5764     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5765     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5766     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5767     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5768     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5769     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5770     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5771     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5772     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5773     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5774 
  5775     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5776     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5777     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5778     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5779     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5780     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5781 
  5782 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5783 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5784 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5785 
  5786 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5787 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5788 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5789 
  5790 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5791 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5792 
  5793 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5794 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5795 
  5796 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5797 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5798 proofs, e.g.
  5799 
  5800   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5801 
  5802 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5803 
  5804 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5805 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5806 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5807 
  5808 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5809 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5810 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5811 
  5812 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5813 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5814 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5815 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5816 
  5817 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5818 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5819 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5820 preorder_class.*.
  5821 
  5822 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5823 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5824 
  5825 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5826 
  5827   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5828 
  5829 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5830 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5831 fold_image.
  5832 
  5833 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5834 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5835 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5836 the former will disappear at some point.
  5837 
  5838 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5839 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5840 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5841 
  5842 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5843 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5844 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5845 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5846 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5847 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5848 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5849 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5850 
  5851 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5852 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5853 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5854 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5855 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5856 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5857 
  5858     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5859     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5860     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5861     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5862     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5863     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5864     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5865 
  5866 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5867 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5868 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5869 
  5870 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5871 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5872 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5873 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5874 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5875 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5876 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5877 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5878 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5879 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5880 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5881 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5882 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5883 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5884 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5885 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5886 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5887 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5888 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5889 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5890 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5891 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5892 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5893 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5894 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5895 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5896 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5897 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5898 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5899 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5900 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5901 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5902 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5903 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5904 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5905 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5906 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5907 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5908 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5909 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5910 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5911 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5912 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5913 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5914 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5915 
  5916 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5917 
  5918 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5919 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5920 
  5921 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5922 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5923 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5924 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5925 
  5926 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5927 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5928 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5929 theory RealVector.
  5930 
  5931 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5932 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5933 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5934 and inner products are included.
  5935 
  5936 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5937 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5938 supported.
  5939 
  5940 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5941 first diagonalization argument.
  5942 
  5943 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5944 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5945 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5946 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5947 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5948 
  5949     hide (open) const gcd
  5950     abbreviation gcd where
  5951       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5952     notation (output)
  5953       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5954 
  5955 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5956 
  5957 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5958 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5959 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5960 
  5961 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5962 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5963 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5964 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5965 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5966 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5967 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5968 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5969 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5970 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5971 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5972 cases.
  5973 
  5974 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5975 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5976 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5977 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5978 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5979 
  5980     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5981     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5982     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5983     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5984     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5985 
  5986 
  5987 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5988 
  5989 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5990 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5991 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5992 
  5993 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5994 
  5995 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5996 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5997 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5998 
  5999 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6000 
  6001 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  6002 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  6003 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  6004 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  6005 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  6006 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  6007 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  6008 
  6009 
  6010 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6011 
  6012 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  6013 
  6014 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  6015 theory targets.
  6016 
  6017 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  6018 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  6019 'inductive' etc.
  6020 
  6021 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  6022 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  6023 
  6024 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  6025 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  6026 
  6027 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  6028 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  6029 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  6030 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  6031 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  6032 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  6033 the algorithm W:
  6034 
  6035  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  6036  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  6037          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  6038 
  6039 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  6040 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  6041 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  6042 
  6043 
  6044 *** HOLCF ***
  6045 
  6046 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  6047 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  6048 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  6049 
  6050 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  6051 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  6052 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  6053 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  6054 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6055 
  6056 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  6057 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6058 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6059 
  6060 
  6061 *** ZF ***
  6062 
  6063 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  6064 
  6065 
  6066 *** ML ***
  6067 
  6068 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  6069 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  6070 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  6071 5.2.1!
  6072 
  6073 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  6074 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  6075 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  6076 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6077 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6078 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6079 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6080 
  6081 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6082 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6083 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6084 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6085 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6086 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6087 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6088 
  6089 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6090 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6091 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6092 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6093 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6094 
  6095 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6096 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6097 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6098 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6099 Method.add_method.
  6100 
  6101 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6102 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6103 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6104 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6105 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6106 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6107 
  6108 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6109 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6110 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6111 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6112 examples.
  6113 
  6114 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6115 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6116 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6117 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  6118 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  6119 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  6120 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  6121 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  6122 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  6123 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  6124 
  6125 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  6126 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  6127 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  6128 
  6129 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  6130 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  6131 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  6132 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  6133 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  6134 resort for legacy applications.
  6135 
  6136 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  6137 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  6138 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  6139 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  6140 explicit runtime argument.
  6141 
  6142 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  6143 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  6144 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  6145 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  6146 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6147 
  6148 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  6149 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  6150 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  6151 theory state.
  6152 
  6153 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  6154 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  6155 
  6156   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  6157   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  6158   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  6159   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  6160   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  6161   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  6162   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  6163   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  6164   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  6165   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  6166 
  6167 
  6168 *** System ***
  6169 
  6170 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  6171 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  6172 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  6173 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  6174 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  6175 
  6176 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  6177 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  6178 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  6179 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  6180 
  6181 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  6182 
  6183 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  6184 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  6185 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  6186 prover operations.
  6187 
  6188 
  6189 
  6190 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  6191 -------------------------------
  6192 
  6193 *** General ***
  6194 
  6195 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  6196 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  6197 
  6198 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6199 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6200 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6201 provides a proper context already.
  6202 
  6203 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6204 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6205 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6206 
  6207 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6208 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6209 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6210 swap theory imports.
  6211 
  6212 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6213 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6214 
  6215 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6216 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6217 white space without escapes.
  6218 
  6219 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6220 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6221 "foo_bar".
  6222 
  6223 
  6224 *** Pure ***
  6225 
  6226 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6227 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6228 
  6229 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6230 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6231 
  6232 (1) unused_thms
  6233      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6234 
  6235 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6236      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6237      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6238 
  6239 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6240      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6241      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6242      their ancestors.
  6243 
  6244 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6245 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6246 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6247 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6248 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6249 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6250 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6251 
  6252 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6253 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6254 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6255 
  6256 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6257 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6258 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6259 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6260 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.