NEWS
author haftmann
Thu Mar 14 19:06:40 2019 +0100 (5 weeks ago)
changeset 69911 036037573080
parent 69906 55534affe445
child 69914 72301e1457b9
permissions -rw-r--r--
include zarith in the default opam setup
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    13 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    14 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    15 
    16 * The font family "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from the
    17 existing "DejaVu" collection, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    18 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    19 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    20 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    21 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    22 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    23 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    24 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    25 
    26 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    27 
    28 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    29 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )".
    33 
    34 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    35 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60). The command-line tool "isabelle update -u
    36 mixfix_cartouches" allows to update existing theory sources
    37 automatically.
    38 
    39 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    40 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    41 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 
    44 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    45 
    46 * The jEdit File Browser is more prominent in the default GUI layout of
    47 Isabelle/jEdit: various virtual file-systems provide access to Isabelle
    48 resources, notably via "favorites:" (or "Edit Favorites").
    49 
    50 * Action "isabelle-export-browser" points the File Browser to the theory
    51 exports of the current buffer, based on the "isabelle-export:" virtual
    52 file-system. The directory view needs to be reloaded manually to follow
    53 ongoing document processing.
    54 
    55 * Action "isabelle-session-browser" points the File Browser to session
    56 information, based on the "isabelle-session:" virtual file-system. Its
    57 entries are structured according to chapter / session names, the open
    58 operation is redirected to the session ROOT file.
    59 
    60 * System option "jedit_text_overview" allows to disable the text
    61 overview column.
    62 
    63 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    64 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    65 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    66 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    67 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", now it
    68 defaults to 0.
    69 
    70 * Improved sub-pixel font rendering (especially on Linux), thanks to
    71 OpenJDK 11.
    72 
    73 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    74 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    75 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    76 Isabelle component).
    77 
    78 * Command-line options "-s" and "-u" of "isabelle jedit" override the
    79 default for system option "system_heaps" that determines the heap
    80 storage directory for "isabelle build". Option "-n" is now clearly
    81 separated from option "-s".
    82 
    83 
    84 *** Isar ***
    85 
    86 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
    87 precedence over goal/proof.
    88 
    89 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
    90 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
    91 
    92 
    93 *** HOL ***
    94 
    95 * Formal Laurent series and overhaul of Formal power series 
    96 in session HOL-Computational_Algebra.
    97 
    98 * Exponentiation by squaring in session HOL-Library; used for computing
    99 powers in class monoid_mult and modular exponentiation in session
   100 HOL-Number_Theory.
   101 
   102 * More material on residue rings in session HOL-Number_Theory:
   103 Carmichael's function, primitive roots, more properties for "ord".
   104 
   105 * The functions \<Union>, \<Inter>, \<Squnion>, \<Sqinter>
   106 (not the corresponding binding operators) now have the same precedence
   107 as any other prefix function symbol.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   108 
   109 * Slightly more conventional naming schema in structure Inductive.
   110 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   111 
   112 * Various _global variants of specification tools have been removed.
   113 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer combinators Named_Target.theory_map[_result]
   114 to lift specifications to the global theory level.
   115 
   116 * Code generation: command 'export_code' without file keyword exports
   117 code as regular theory export, which can be materialized using the
   118 command-line tools "isabelle export" or "isabelle build -e" (with
   119 'export_files' in the session ROOT), or browsed in Isabelle/jEdit via
   120 the "isabelle-export:" file-system. To get generated code dumped into
   121 output, use "file \<open>\<close>". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123 * Code generation for OCaml: proper strings are used for literals.
   124 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   125 
   126 * Code generation for OCaml: Zarith superseedes Nums as library for
   127 integer arithmetic.  It is included in the default setup after
   128 
   129   isabelle ocaml_setup
   130 
   131 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   132 
   133 * Code generation for Haskell: code includes for Haskell must contain
   134 proper module frame, nothing is added magically any longer.
   135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   136 
   137 * Code generation: slightly more conventional syntax for
   138 'code_stmts' antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   139 
   140 * The simplifier uses image_cong_simp as a congruence rule. The historic
   141 and not really well-formed congruence rules INF_cong*, SUP_cong*,
   142 are not used by default any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY; consider using
   143 declare image_cong_simp [cong del] in extreme situations.
   144 
   145 * INF_image and SUP_image are no default simp rules any longer.
   146 INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer image_comp as simp rule if needed.
   147 
   148 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
   149 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
   150 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
   151 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
   152 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   153 
   154 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
   155 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
   156 
   157 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the <Union># operator now has the same
   158 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
   159 
   160 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint instead.
   161 
   162 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute renamed to sum_mset.swap
   163 and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
   164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   165 
   166 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
   167 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
   168 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   169 
   170 * Sledgehammer:
   171   - The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote provers, has
   172     been updated.
   173   - The machine-learning-based filter MaSh has been optimized to take
   174     less time (in most cases).
   175 
   176 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
   177 
   178 * HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: case_of_simps now supports overlapping 
   179 and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested patterns.
   180 It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which assumes
   181 sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   182 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   186 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   187 retrieved with the "isabelle export" command-line tool like this:
   188 
   189   isabelle export -x "*:**.prv" HOL-SPARK-Examples
   190 
   191 
   192 *** ML ***
   193 
   194 * Local_Theory.reset is no longer available in user space. Regular
   195 definitional packages should use balanced blocks of
   196 Local_Theory.open_target versus Local_Theory.close_target instead,
   197 or the Local_Theory.subtarget(_result) combinator. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   198 
   199 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   200 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   201 
   202 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
   203 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   204 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
   205 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
   206 ">" as separator. For example:
   207 
   208   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
   209   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
   210 
   211   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
   212   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
   213 
   214   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
   215   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
   216 
   217 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
   218 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
   219 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
   220 observes the official standard).
   221 
   222 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   223 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   224 
   225 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   226 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   227 useful.
   228 
   229 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   230 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   231 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   232 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   233 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   234 
   235   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   236   module Isabelle.Pure where
   237     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   238     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   239     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   240     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   241   \<close>
   242 
   243 The ML function Generate_File.generate writes all generated files from a
   244 given theory to the file-system, e.g. a temporary directory where some
   245 external compiler is applied.
   246 
   247 
   248 *** System ***
   249 
   250 * The system option "system_heaps" determines where to store the session
   251 image of "isabelle build" (and other tools using that internally).
   252 Former option "-s" is superseded by option "-o system_heaps".
   253 INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line syntax.
   254 
   255 * The command-line tool "isabelle update" uses Isabelle/PIDE in
   256 batch-mode to update theory sources based on semantic markup produced in
   257 Isabelle/ML. Actual updates depend on system options that may be enabled
   258 via "-u OPT" (for "update_OPT"), see also $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/options
   259 section "Theory update". Theory sessions are specified as in "isabelle
   260 dump".
   261 
   262 * The command-line tool "isabelle update -u control_cartouches" changes
   263 antiquotations into control-symbol format (where possible): @{NAME}
   264 becomes \<^NAME> and @{NAME ARG} becomes \<^NAME>\<open>ARG\<close>.
   265 
   266 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   267 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   268 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   269 component).
   270 
   271 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   272 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   273 Isabelle/PIDE.
   274 
   275 * Isabelle server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   276 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   277 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   278 
   279 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   280 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   281 is no longer required.
   282 
   283 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   284 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   285 
   286   isabelle ghc_setup
   287   isabelle ghc_stack
   288 
   289   isabelle ocaml_setup
   290   isabelle ocaml_opam
   291 
   292 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   293 (and corresponding directory contents):
   294 
   295   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   296   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   297   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   298 
   299   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   300   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   301 
   302 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   303 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   304 
   305   ISABELLE_GHC
   306 
   307   ISABELLE_OCAML
   308   ISABELLE_OCAMLC
   309 
   310 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   311 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   312 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT.
   313 
   314 * Update to Java 11: the latest long-term support version of OpenJDK.
   315 
   316 * System option "checkpoint" has been discontinued: obsolete thanks to
   317 improved memory management in Poly/ML.
   318 
   319 * Update to Poly/ML 5.8 allows to use the native x86_64 platform without
   320 the full overhead of 64-bit values everywhere. This special x86_64_32
   321 mode provides up to 16GB ML heap, while program code and stacks are
   322 allocated elsewhere. Thus approx. 5 times more memory is available for
   323 applications compared to old x86 mode (which is no longer used by
   324 Isabelle). The switch to the x86_64 CPU architecture also avoids
   325 compatibility problems with Linux and macOS, where 32-bit applications
   326 are gradually phased out.
   327 
   328 
   329 
   330 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   331 ---------------------------------
   332 
   333 *** General ***
   334 
   335 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   336 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   337 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   338 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   339 
   340 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   341 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   342 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   343 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   344 
   345 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   346 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   347 
   348 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   349 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   350 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   351 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   352 avoid this.
   353 
   354 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   355 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   356 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   357 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   358 
   359 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   360 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   361 instead.
   362 
   363 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   364 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   365 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   366 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   367 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   368 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   369 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   370 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   371 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   372 syntax), use option "-m".
   373 
   374 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   375 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   376 
   377 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   378 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   379 without specific Prover IDE management.
   380 
   381 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   382 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   383 context.
   384 
   385 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   386 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   387 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   388 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   389 
   390   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   391 
   392 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   393 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   394 
   395 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   396 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   397 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   398 output.
   399 
   400 
   401 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   402 
   403 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   404 for session management:
   405 
   406   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   407     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   408 
   409   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   410     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   411 
   412   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   413     and -S
   414 
   415   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   416     theories
   417 
   418   Examples:
   419     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   420     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   421     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   422     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   423     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   424 
   425 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   426 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   427 
   428 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   429 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   430 
   431 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   432 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   433 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   434 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   435 arguments into this format.
   436 
   437 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   438 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   439 
   440 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   441 functions (e.g. State output).
   442 
   443 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   444 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   445 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   446 
   447 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   448 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   449 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   450 
   451 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   452 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   453 
   454 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   455 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   456 Isabelle".
   457 
   458 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   459 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   460 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   461 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   462 Unicode content when saving the file.
   463 
   464 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   465 
   466 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   467 
   468 
   469 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   470 
   471 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   472 Isabelle/jEdit.
   473 
   474 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   475 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   476 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   477 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   478 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   479 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   480 
   481 
   482 *** Document preparation ***
   483 
   484 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   485 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   486 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   487 are supported:
   488 
   489   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   490   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   491   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   492 
   493 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   494 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   495 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   496 
   497 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   498 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   499 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   500 
   501 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   502 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   503 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   504 
   505 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   506 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   507 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   508 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   509 
   510 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   511 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   512 
   513 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   514 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   515 normally need to import.
   516 
   517 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   518 session name verbatim.
   519 
   520 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   521 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   522 
   523 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   524 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   525 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   526 
   527 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   528 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   529 anymore.
   530 
   531 
   532 *** Isar ***
   533 
   534 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   535 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   536 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   537 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   538 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   539 
   540 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   541 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   542 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   543 
   544 
   545 *** Pure ***
   546 
   547 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   548 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   549 
   550 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   551 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   552 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   553 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   554 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   555 
   556 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   557 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   558 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   559 duplicate constant declarations.
   560 
   561 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   562 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   563 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   564 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   565 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   566 
   567 
   568 *** HOL ***
   569 
   570 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   571 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   572 
   573 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   574 
   575   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   576 
   577   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   578     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   579     constraints instead.
   580 
   581   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   582 
   583   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   584     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   585     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   586     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   587 
   588   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   589     standard target languages.
   590 
   591   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   592     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   593     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   594     HOL string values and vice versa.
   595 
   596   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   597     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   598 
   599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   600 
   601 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   602 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   603 
   604 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   605 
   606 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   607 former axioms:
   608 
   609   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   610 
   611 are replaced by:
   612 
   613   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   614 
   615 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   616 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   617 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   618 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   619 
   620 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   621 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   622 
   623 * Clarifed theorem names:
   624 
   625   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   626   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   627 
   628 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   629 
   630 * SMT module:
   631 
   632   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   633     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   634 
   635   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   636     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   637     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   638 
   639 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   640 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   641 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   642 
   643 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   645 
   646 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   648 
   649 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   650 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   651 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   652 
   653 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   654 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   655 Renamed:
   656 
   657   span_inc ~> span_superset
   658   span_superset ~> span_base
   659   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   660 
   661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   662 
   663 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   664 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   665 
   666 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   667 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   668 
   669 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   670 
   671   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   672     input syntax
   673 
   674   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   675 
   676 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   677 
   678 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   679 
   680 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   681 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   683 
   684 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   685   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   686   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   687   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   688 
   689 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   690 
   691 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   692 
   693   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   694   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   695   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   696   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   697   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   698 
   699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   700 
   701 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   702 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   703 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   704 broken proofs.
   705 
   706 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   707 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   708 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   709 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   710 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   711 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   712 
   713 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   714 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   715 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   716 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   717 examples.
   718 
   719 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   720 
   721 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   722 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   723 
   724 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   725 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   726 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   728 
   729 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   730 infix/prefix notation.
   731 
   732 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   733 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   734 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   735 
   736 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   737 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   738 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   739 
   740 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   741 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   743 
   744 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   745 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   746 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   747 
   748 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   749 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   750 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   751 
   752 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   753 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   754 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   755 
   756 
   757 *** ML ***
   758 
   759 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   760 are stored persistently in the session build database. Command-line
   761 tools "isabelle export" and "isabelle build -e" allow to materialize
   762 exports in the physical file-system.
   763 
   764 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   765 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   766 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   767 "isabelle process".
   768 
   769 
   770 *** System ***
   771 
   772 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   773 longer supported.
   774 
   775 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   776 support has been discontinued.
   777 
   778 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   779 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   780 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   781 
   782 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   783 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   784 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   785 quotes):
   786 
   787   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   788   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   789 
   790   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   791   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   792 
   793   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   794   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   795 
   796 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   797   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   798   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   799   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   800 
   801 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   802 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   803 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   804 only.
   805 
   806 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   807 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   808 up-to-date status of a session.
   809 
   810 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   811 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   812 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   813 directory.
   814 
   815 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   816 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   817 
   818 * The command-line tool "export" and "isabelle build -e" (with
   819 'export_files' in session ROOT entries) retrieve theory exports from the
   820 session build database.
   821 
   822 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   823 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   824 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   825 See also the "system" manual.
   826 
   827 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   828 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   829 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   830 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   831 been discontinued.
   832 
   833 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   834 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   835 
   836 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   837 repository for the generated session files.
   838 
   839 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   840 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   841 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   842 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   843 ISABELLE_HOME).
   844 
   845 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   846 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   847 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   848 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   849 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   850 
   851 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   852 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   853 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   854 
   855 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   856 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   857 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   858 32/64 bit.
   859 
   860 
   861 
   862 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   863 ----------------------------------
   864 
   865 *** General ***
   866 
   867 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   868 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   869 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   870 
   871 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   872 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   873 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   874 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   875 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   876 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   877 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   878 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   879 
   880 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   881 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   882 just the theory base name as before).
   883 
   884 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   885 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   886 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   887 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   888 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   889 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   890 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   891 
   892 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   893 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   894 leads to the follow renamings:
   895 
   896   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   897   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   898   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   899   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
   900   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
   901 
   902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   903 
   904 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
   905 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
   906 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
   907 
   908 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
   909 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
   910 
   911 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
   912 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
   913 antiquotations:
   914 
   915   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   916     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
   917   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   918     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
   919   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
   920 
   921 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
   922 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
   923 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
   924 tutorial on code generation.
   925 
   926 
   927 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   928 
   929 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
   930 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
   931 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
   932 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
   933 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
   934 
   935 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
   936 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
   937 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
   938 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
   939 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
   940 effectively always enabled.
   941 
   942 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
   943 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
   944 buffers.
   945 
   946 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
   947 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
   948 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
   949 represented by a different border color.
   950 
   951 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
   952 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
   953 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
   954 
   955 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
   956 document in the default web browser.
   957 
   958 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
   959 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
   960 used for formal checking.
   961 
   962 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
   963 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
   964 enabled at all times.
   965 
   966 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
   967 
   968 
   969 *** Pure ***
   970 
   971 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
   972 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
   973 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
   974 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   975 
   976 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
   977   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
   978     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
   979   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
   980     malformed.
   981   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
   982     malformed.
   983 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   984 
   985 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
   986 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
   987 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   988 
   989 
   990 *** HOL ***
   991 
   992 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
   993 
   994 * SMT module:
   995   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
   996     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
   997     disabled by default.
   998   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
   999   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
  1000 
  1001 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
  1002 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
  1003 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
  1004 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1005 
  1006 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
  1007 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
  1008 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
  1009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1010 
  1011 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
  1012 of "Complex_Main").
  1013 
  1014 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
  1015 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1016 
  1017 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
  1018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1019 
  1020 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
  1021 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1022 
  1023 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
  1024 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1025 
  1026 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
  1027 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
  1028 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
  1029 
  1030 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
  1031 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1032 
  1033 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
  1034 
  1035 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
  1036 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1037 
  1038 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
  1039 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
  1040 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
  1041 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1042 
  1043 * Generalized some facts:
  1044     measure_induct_rule
  1045     measure_induct
  1046     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
  1047     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
  1048     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
  1049     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
  1050 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1051 
  1052 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
  1053 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
  1054 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
  1055 euclidean size.
  1056 
  1057 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
  1058   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
  1059   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
  1060     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
  1061     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
  1062   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
  1063     available as "bezout_coefficients".
  1064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1065 
  1066 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
  1067 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
  1068 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
  1069 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1070 
  1071 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
  1072   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
  1073   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
  1074 
  1075 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
  1076 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1077 
  1078 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
  1079 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
  1080 
  1081 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
  1082 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
  1083 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1084 
  1085 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
  1086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1087 
  1088 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
  1089 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
  1090 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
  1091 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
  1092 
  1093 syntax (ASCII)
  1094   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
  1095   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
  1096   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
  1097 
  1098 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
  1099 multisets have been renamed:
  1100 
  1101   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
  1102   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
  1103 
  1104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1105 
  1106 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
  1107 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
  1108 
  1109 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
  1110 
  1111 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
  1112 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
  1113 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
  1114 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1115 
  1116 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1117 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1118 
  1119 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1120 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1121 
  1122 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1123 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1124 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1125 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1127 
  1128 
  1129 *** System ***
  1130 
  1131 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1132 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1133 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1134 
  1135 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1136 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1137 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1138 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1139 
  1140 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1141 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1142 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1143 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1144 
  1145 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1146 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1147 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1148 unchanged.
  1149 
  1150 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1151 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1152 
  1153 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1154 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1155 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1156 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1157 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1158 
  1159 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1160 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1161 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1162 
  1163 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1164 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1165 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1166 
  1167 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1168 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1169 
  1170   isabelle imports -I -a
  1171   isabelle imports -U -a
  1172   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1173   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1174 
  1175 
  1176 
  1177 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1178 -------------------------------------
  1179 
  1180 *** General ***
  1181 
  1182 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1183   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1184     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1185   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1186     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1187     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1188     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1189     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1190 
  1191 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1192 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1193 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1194 
  1195 bundle foo
  1196 begin
  1197   declare a [simp]
  1198   declare b [intro]
  1199 end
  1200 
  1201 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1202 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1203 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1204 
  1205 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1206 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1207 discontinued.
  1208 
  1209 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1210 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1211 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1212 
  1213 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1214 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1215 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1216 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1217 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1218 
  1219 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1220 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1221 
  1222 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1223 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1224 
  1225 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1226 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1227 examples.
  1228 
  1229 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1230 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1231 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1232 
  1233 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1234 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1235 
  1236 
  1237 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1238 
  1239 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1240 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1241 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1242 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1243 
  1244 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1245 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1246 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1247 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1248 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1249 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1250 
  1251 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1252 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1253 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1254 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1255 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1256 
  1257 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1258 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1259 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1260 
  1261 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1262 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1263 
  1264 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1265 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1266 
  1267 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1268 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1269 
  1270 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1271 
  1272 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1273 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1274 systematic renaming.
  1275 
  1276 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1277 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1278 theorem statement.
  1279 
  1280 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1281 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1282 
  1283 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1284 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1285 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1286 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1287 
  1288 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1289 following independent stages:
  1290 
  1291   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1292   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1293   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1294   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1295 
  1296 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1297 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1298 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1299 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1300 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1301 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1302 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1303 
  1304 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1305 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1306 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1307 
  1308 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1309 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1310 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1311 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1312 
  1313 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1314 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1315 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1316 
  1317 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1318 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1319 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1320 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1321 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1322 old keymaps.
  1323 
  1324 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1325 and diverse:
  1326 
  1327   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1328   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1329   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1330 
  1331 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1332 have to be changed.
  1333 
  1334 
  1335 *** Document preparation ***
  1336 
  1337 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1338 
  1339 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1340 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1341 
  1342 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1343 this allows special forms of document output.
  1344 
  1345 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1346 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1347 derivatives.
  1348 
  1349 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1350 
  1351 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1352 Isabelle2015).
  1353 
  1354 
  1355 *** Isar ***
  1356 
  1357 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1358 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1359 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1360 
  1361 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1362 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1363 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1364 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1365 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1366 
  1367 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1368 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1369 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1370 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1371 
  1372 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1373 context.
  1374 
  1375 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1376 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1377 
  1378 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1379 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1380 
  1381 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1382 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1383 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1384 
  1385 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1386 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1388 
  1389 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1390 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1391 definitions.
  1392 
  1393 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1394 expression, e.g.
  1395 
  1396   (use facts in simp)
  1397   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1398 
  1399 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1400 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1401 
  1402 
  1403 *** Pure ***
  1404 
  1405 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1406 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1407 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1408 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1409 
  1410 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1411 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1412 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1413 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1414 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1415 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1416 
  1417 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1418 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1419 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1420 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1421 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1422 types where this is really intended.
  1423 
  1424 
  1425 *** HOL ***
  1426 
  1427 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1428 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1429 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1430 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1431 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1432 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1433 
  1434 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1435 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1436 
  1437 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1438 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1439 
  1440 * Sledgehammer:
  1441   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1442   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1443 
  1444 * (Co)datatype package:
  1445   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1446     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1447     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1448     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1449   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1450     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1451   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1452     to the map function.
  1453   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1454   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1455        terms of map and set
  1456        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1457   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1458        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1459     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1460   - Renamed lemmas:
  1461       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1462       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1463     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1464   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1465   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1466     equivalent) form.
  1467     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1468 
  1469 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1470 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1471 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1472 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1473 
  1474 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1475 
  1476   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1477   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1478 
  1479 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1480 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1481 eliminated altogether.
  1482 
  1483 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1484 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1485 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1486 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1487 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1488 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1489 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1490 
  1491 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1493 
  1494 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1495 
  1496     setsum ~> sum
  1497     setprod ~> prod
  1498     listsum ~> sum_list
  1499     listprod ~> prod_list
  1500 
  1501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1502 
  1503 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1504     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1505     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1506     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1507     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1508     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1509     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1510     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1511     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1512     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1513     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1514     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1515     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1516     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1517     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1518     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1519     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1520     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1521     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1522     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1523     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1524     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1525     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1526     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1527     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1528     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1529     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1530     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1531     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1532     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1534 
  1535 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1536 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1537 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1538 
  1539 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1540 
  1541 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1542 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1543 
  1544   - Logical representation:
  1545     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1546     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1547       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1548     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1549       are non-canonical.
  1550   - Printing and parsing:
  1551     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1552       (as before).
  1553     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1554     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1555       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1556       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1557     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1558       printed as their logical representation.
  1559   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1560     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1561   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1562 
  1563 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1564 
  1565 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1566 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1567 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1568 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1569 
  1570 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1571 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1572 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1573 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1574 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1575 
  1576 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1577 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1578 
  1579 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1580 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1581 
  1582 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1583 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1584 interface for the generated code.
  1585 
  1586 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1587 spelt out explicitly.
  1588 
  1589 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1590 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1591 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1592 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1593 
  1594 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1595 products.
  1596 
  1597 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1598 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1599 
  1600 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1601 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1602 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1603 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1604 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1605 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1606 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1608 
  1609 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1610 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1611 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1612 
  1613 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1615 
  1616   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1617   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1618   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1619 
  1620 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1621   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1622     le_add_same_cancel1
  1623     le_add_same_cancel2
  1624     less_add_same_cancel1
  1625     less_add_same_cancel2
  1626     add_le_same_cancel1
  1627     add_le_same_cancel2
  1628     add_less_same_cancel1
  1629     add_less_same_cancel2
  1630 
  1631 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1632   superseeded by a more general version:
  1633     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1634     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1635     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1636     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1637     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1638     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1639     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1640     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1642 
  1643 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1644 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1645 
  1646 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1647 
  1648 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1649 
  1650   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1651   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1652 
  1653 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1654 
  1655 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1656 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1657 
  1658 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1659 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1660 A)".
  1661 
  1662 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1663 
  1664 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1665 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1666 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1667 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1668 
  1669 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1670 dioid.
  1671 
  1672 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1673 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1674 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1675 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1676 
  1677 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1678 of a more general type also:
  1679   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1680   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1681   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1682   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1683   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1684   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1685   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1686   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1687   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1688   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1689   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1690   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1691   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1692   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1693   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1694   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1695   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1696   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1697   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1698   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1699   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1700   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1701   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1702   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1703   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1704   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1705   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1706   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1707   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1708   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1709   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1710   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1711   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1712   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1713   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1714   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1715   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1716   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1717   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1718   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1719   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1720   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1721   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1722   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1723   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1724   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1725   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1726   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1727   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1728   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1729   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1730   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1731   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1732   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1733   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1734   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1735   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1736   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1737   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1738   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1739   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1740   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1741   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1742   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1743   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1744   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1745   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1746   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1747   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1748   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1749   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1750   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1751   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1752   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1753   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1754   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1755   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1756   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1757   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1758   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1759   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1760   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1761   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1762   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1763   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1764   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1765   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1766   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1768 
  1769 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1770 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1771 
  1772 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1773 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1774 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1775 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1776 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1777 
  1778 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1779 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1780 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1781 once.
  1782 
  1783 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1784 set_mset rather than count.
  1785 
  1786   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1787     by default.
  1788 
  1789   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1790     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1791 
  1792   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1793     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1794 
  1795   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1796     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1797 
  1798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1799 
  1800 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1801 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1802 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1803 underscores.
  1804 
  1805 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1806 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1807 relation.
  1808 
  1809 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1810 everywhere fix bijections.
  1811 
  1812 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1813 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1814 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1815 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1816 
  1817 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1818 
  1819 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1820 
  1821 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1822 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1823 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1824 
  1825 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1826 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1827 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1828 
  1829 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1830 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1831 
  1832 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1833 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1834 domain.
  1835 
  1836 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1837 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1838 
  1839   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1840   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1841 
  1842 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1843 Probability Mass Functions.
  1844 
  1845 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1846 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1847 folding over a list in random order.
  1848 
  1849 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1850 subprobability distributions.
  1851 
  1852 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1853 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1854 
  1855     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1856     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1857     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1858     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1859     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1860     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1861     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1862     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1863     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1864     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1865     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1866     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1867     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1868     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1869     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1870     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1871     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1872     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1873     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1874     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1875     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1876     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1877 
  1878 Some functions have been renamed:
  1879     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1880 
  1881 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1882     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1883     #\<subset># ~> <
  1884     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1885     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1886 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1887 
  1888 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1889 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1890 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1891 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1892 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1893 
  1894 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1895 been renamed:
  1896 
  1897     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  1898     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  1899     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1900     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  1901     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  1902     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  1903     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  1904     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  1905     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  1906 
  1907     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  1908     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  1909     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1910     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  1911     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  1912     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  1913     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  1914     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  1915     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  1916     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  1917     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  1918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1919 
  1920 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  1921 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1922 
  1923 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  1924 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  1925 
  1926     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1927     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1928     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1929     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1930     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  1931     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1932     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1933     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1934     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  1935     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  1936     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  1937     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  1938     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  1939     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1940     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1941     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1942     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1943 
  1944 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  1945 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  1946 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  1947 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  1948 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  1949 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1950 
  1951 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  1952 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  1953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1954 
  1955 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  1956 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  1957 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1958 
  1959 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  1960 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  1961 removed or changed:
  1962 
  1963   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  1964   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  1965   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  1966   union_single_eq_diff
  1967   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1968   diff_single_eq_union
  1969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1970 
  1971 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  1972 to use add_mset instead of single:
  1973 
  1974   mset_add
  1975   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1976   diff_single_eq_union
  1977   union_single_eq_diff
  1978   union_single_eq_member
  1979   add_eq_conv_diff
  1980   insert_noteq_member
  1981   add_eq_conv_ex
  1982   multi_member_split
  1983   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  1984   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1985   mset_subset_insertD
  1986   insert_subset_eq_iff
  1987   insert_union_subset_iff
  1988   multi_psub_of_add_self
  1989   inter_add_left1
  1990   inter_add_left2
  1991   inter_add_right1
  1992   inter_add_right2
  1993   sup_union_left1
  1994   sup_union_left2
  1995   sup_union_right1
  1996   sup_union_right2
  1997   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  1998   multi_nonempty_split
  1999   mset_insort
  2000   mset_update
  2001   mult1I
  2002   less_add
  2003   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  2004   rel_mset_Zero
  2005   msed_map_invL
  2006   msed_map_invR
  2007   msed_rel_invL
  2008   msed_rel_invR
  2009   le_multiset_right_total
  2010   multiset_induct
  2011   multiset_induct2_size
  2012   multiset_induct2
  2013 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2014 
  2015 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  2016 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  2017 element:
  2018 
  2019   image_mset
  2020   mset
  2021   replicate_mset
  2022   mult1
  2023   pred_mset
  2024   rel_mset'
  2025   mset_insort
  2026 
  2027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2028 
  2029 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  2030 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  2031 
  2032   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  2033   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  2034   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  2035   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  2036   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  2037   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2038   count_single [simp] ~> []
  2039   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2040   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  2041   size_single [simp] ~> []
  2042   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2043   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2044   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2045   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2046   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  2047   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  2048   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  2049   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  2050   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  2051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2052 
  2053 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  2054 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  2055 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  2056 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2057 
  2058 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  2059 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  2060 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2061 
  2062 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  2063 multisets:
  2064 
  2065   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  2066   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  2067 
  2068 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  2069 and union of multisets have been changed:
  2070 
  2071   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  2072   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  2073 
  2074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2075 
  2076 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  2077 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  2078 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2079 
  2080 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  2081 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  2082 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  2083 
  2084 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  2085 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  2086 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  2087 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  2088 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  2089 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2090 
  2091 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  2092 the following renaming
  2093 
  2094   prefixeq -> prefix
  2095   prefix -> strict_prefix
  2096   suffixeq -> suffix
  2097   suffix -> strict_suffix
  2098 
  2099 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  2100 
  2101 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  2102 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  2103 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  2104 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  2105 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  2106 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2107 
  2108 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  2109 theories.
  2110 
  2111 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  2112 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  2113 
  2114 
  2115 *** ML ***
  2116 
  2117 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2118 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2119 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2120 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2122 
  2123 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2124 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2125 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2126 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2127 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2128 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2129 superseded by General.Div.
  2130 
  2131 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2132 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2133 
  2134 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2135 with approximative output quality.
  2136 
  2137 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2138 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2139 
  2140 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2141 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2142 requiring separate files.
  2143 
  2144 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2145 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2146 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2147 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2148 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2149 
  2150 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2151 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2152 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2153 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2154 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2155 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2156 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2157 
  2158 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2159 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2161 
  2162 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2163 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2164 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2165 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2166 
  2167 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2168 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2169 
  2170 
  2171 *** System ***
  2172 
  2173 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2174 
  2175 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2176 much less disk space.
  2177 
  2178 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2179 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2180 particular:
  2181 
  2182   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2183     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2184   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2185   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2186 
  2187 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2188 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2189 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2190 
  2191 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2192 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2193 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2194 return code 1.
  2195 
  2196 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2197 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2198 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2199 
  2200 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2201 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2202 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2203 
  2204 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2205 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2206 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2207 by default).
  2208 
  2209 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2210 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2211 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2212 resulting log files.
  2213 
  2214 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2215 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2216 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2217 implicit default via option -p.
  2218 
  2219 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2220 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2221 
  2222 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2223 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2224 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2225 
  2226 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2227 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2228 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2229 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2230 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2231 
  2232 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2233 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2234 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2235 
  2236 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2237 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2238 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2239 
  2240 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2241 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2242 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2243 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2244 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2245 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2246 been discontinued.
  2247 
  2248 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2249 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2250 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2251 
  2252 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2253 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2254 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2255 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2256 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2257 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2258 
  2259 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2260 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2261 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2262 connection).
  2263 
  2264 
  2265 
  2266 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2267 -----------------------------------
  2268 
  2269 *** General ***
  2270 
  2271 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2272 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2273 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2274 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2275 examples that do require HOL.
  2276 
  2277 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2278 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2279 
  2280 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2281 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2282 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2283 has been removed (see below).
  2284 
  2285 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2286 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2287 
  2288 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2289 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2290 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2291 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2292 
  2293 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2294 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2295 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2296 meaning.
  2297 
  2298 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2299 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2300 to update old sources.
  2301 
  2302 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2303 
  2304   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2305   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2306   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2307   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2308 
  2309 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2310 accordingly.
  2311 
  2312 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2313 'theorem'.
  2314 
  2315 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2316 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2317 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2318 
  2319 
  2320 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2321 
  2322 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2323 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2324 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2325 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2326 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2327 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2328 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2329 any effect on the running ML program.
  2330 
  2331 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2332 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2333 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2334 update.
  2335 
  2336 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2337 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2338 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2339 
  2340 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2341 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2342 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2343 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2344 visibility.
  2345 
  2346 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2347 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2348 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2349 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2350 panel.
  2351 
  2352 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2353 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2354 
  2355 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2356 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2357 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2358 
  2359 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2360 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2361 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2362 
  2363 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2364 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2365 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2366 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2367 
  2368 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2369 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2370 the editor.
  2371 
  2372 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2373 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2374 
  2375 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2376 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2377 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2378 instead.
  2379 
  2380 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2381 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2382 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2383 
  2384 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2385 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2386 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2387 
  2388 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2389 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2390 
  2391 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2392 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2393 
  2394 
  2395 *** Document preparation ***
  2396 
  2397 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2398 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2399 
  2400 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2401 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2402 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2403 
  2404 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2405 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2406 follows:
  2407 
  2408   \<^item>  itemize
  2409   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2410   \<^descr>  description
  2411 
  2412 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2413 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2414 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2415 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2416 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2417 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2418 
  2419 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2420 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2421 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2422 
  2423 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2424 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2425 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2426 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2427 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2428 
  2429 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2430 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2431 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2432 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2433 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2434 
  2435 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2436 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2437 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2438 
  2439 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2440 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2441 
  2442 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2443 
  2444 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2445 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2446 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2447 
  2448 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2449 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2450 
  2451 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2452 entities of the Isar language.
  2453 
  2454 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2455 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2456 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2457 
  2458 
  2459 *** Isar ***
  2460 
  2461 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2462 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2463 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2464 example:
  2465 
  2466   have result: "C x y"
  2467     if "A x" and "B y"
  2468     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2469     <proof>
  2470 
  2471 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2472 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2473 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2474 
  2475   {
  2476     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2477     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2478     have "C x y" <proof>
  2479   }
  2480   note result = this
  2481 
  2482 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2483 instead of 'assume' above.
  2484 
  2485 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2486 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2487 
  2488   assume result: "C x y"
  2489     if "A x" and "B y"
  2490     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2491 
  2492 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2493 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2494 
  2495 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2496 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2497 example:
  2498 
  2499   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2500 
  2501 is equivalent to:
  2502 
  2503   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2504 
  2505 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2506 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2507 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2508 follows:
  2509 
  2510   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2511 
  2512 or:
  2513 
  2514   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2515 
  2516 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2517 
  2518   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2519 
  2520 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2521 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2522 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2523 of the local context elements yet.
  2524 
  2525 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2526 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2527 
  2528   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2529   then have something
  2530   proof cases
  2531     case a
  2532     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2533   next
  2534     case b
  2535     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2536   next
  2537     case c
  2538     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2539   qed
  2540 
  2541 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2542 
  2543   case a: (c xs)
  2544   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2545 
  2546 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2547 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2548 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2549 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2550 and always put attributes in front.
  2551 
  2552 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2553 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2554 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2555 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2556 
  2557 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2558 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2559 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2560 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2561 
  2562   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2563     supply [simp] = a
  2564   proof
  2565     show A by simp
  2566   next
  2567     show A by simp
  2568   qed
  2569 
  2570 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2571 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2572 
  2573 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2574 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2575 
  2576 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2577 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2578 
  2579 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2580 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2581 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2582 manual.
  2583 
  2584 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2585 ('apply' scripts).
  2586 
  2587 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2588 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2589 example:
  2590 
  2591 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2592   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2593 proof goal_cases
  2594   case (1 x)
  2595   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2596 next
  2597   case (2 y z)
  2598   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2599 qed
  2600 
  2601 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2602   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2603 proof goal_cases
  2604   case prems: 1
  2605   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2606 next
  2607   case prems: 2
  2608   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2609 qed
  2610 
  2611 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2612 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2613 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2614 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2615 
  2616 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2617 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2618 
  2619 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2620 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2621 
  2622 
  2623 *** Pure ***
  2624 
  2625 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2626 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2627 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2628 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2629 
  2630 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2631 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2632 
  2633 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2634 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2635 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2636 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2637 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2638 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2639 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2640 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2641 
  2642   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2643   begin
  2644     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2645   end
  2646 
  2647   locale morphism =
  2648     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2649     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2650   begin
  2651     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2652   end
  2653 
  2654 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2655 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2656 
  2657 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2658 'defines'.
  2659 
  2660 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2661 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2662 
  2663 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2664 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2665 
  2666 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2667 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2668 
  2669 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2670 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2671 exploited.
  2672 
  2673 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2674 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2675 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2676 
  2677 
  2678 *** HOL ***
  2679 
  2680 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2681 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2682 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2683 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2684 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2685 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2686 
  2687 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2688 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2689 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2690 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2691 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2692 
  2693 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2694 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2695 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2696 simplify porting old theories:
  2697 
  2698   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2699 
  2700   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2701 
  2702   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2703   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2704 
  2705   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2706 
  2707   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2708   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2709 
  2710   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2711 
  2712   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2713     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2714 
  2715   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2716   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2717   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2718 
  2719   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2720   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2721   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2722 
  2723 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2724 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2725 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2726 
  2727 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2728 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2729 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2730 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2731 
  2732 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2733 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2734 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2735 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2736 
  2737 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2738 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2739 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2740 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2741 
  2742 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2743 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2744 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2746 
  2747 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2748 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2749 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2750 
  2751 Consolidated facts:
  2752   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2753   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2754   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2755   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2756   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2757   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2758   split_split ~> prod.split
  2759   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2760   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2761   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2762   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2763   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2764   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2765   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2766   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2767   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2768   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2769   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2770   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2771   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2772   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2773   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2774   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2775   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2776   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2777   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2778   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2779   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2780   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2781   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2782   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2783   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2784   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2785   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2786   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2787 
  2788 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2789   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2790   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2791   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2792   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2793 
  2794 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2795 
  2796 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2797 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2798 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2799 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2800 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2801 
  2802 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2803   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2804   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2805   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2806   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2807   real_of_one of_int_1
  2808   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2809   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2810   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2811   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2812   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2813   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2814   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2815   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2816   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2817   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2818   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2819   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2820   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2821   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2822   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2823   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2824   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2825 
  2826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2827 
  2828 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2829 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2830 
  2831 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2832 
  2833 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2834 
  2835 * Sledgehammer:
  2836   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2837   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2838     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2839   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2840   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2841   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2842     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2843   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2844 
  2845 * Nitpick:
  2846   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2847   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2848   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2849   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2850   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2851 
  2852 * (Co)datatype package:
  2853   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2854     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2855   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2856   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2857     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2858   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2859     being defined.
  2860   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2861 
  2862 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2863 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2864 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2865 
  2866 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2867 
  2868 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2869 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2870 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2871 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2872 
  2873 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2874 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2875 
  2876 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2877 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2878 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2879 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2880 
  2881 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2882 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2883 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2884 
  2885 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2886 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2887 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2888 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2889 
  2890 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2891 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2892 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2893 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2894 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2895 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2896 during instantiation.
  2897 
  2898 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  2899 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  2900 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2901 
  2902 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  2903 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  2904 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  2905 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  2906 
  2907   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2908   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2909 
  2910 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2911 
  2912 * Library/Multiset:
  2913   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  2914       < ~> <#
  2915       > ~> >#
  2916       <= ~> <=#
  2917       >= ~> >=#
  2918       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  2919       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  2920     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2921   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  2922       \<subset>#
  2923       \<subseteq>#
  2924       \<supset>#
  2925       \<supseteq>#
  2926   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  2927     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  2928     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  2929     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  2930     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  2931     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  2932     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2933   - Renamed conversions:
  2934       multiset_of ~> mset
  2935       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  2936       set_of ~> set_mset
  2937     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2938   - Renamed lemmas:
  2939       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2940       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  2941       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2942     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2943   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  2944     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  2945     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  2946     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2947 
  2948 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  2949 
  2950 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  2951 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  2952 chain-complete partial orders.
  2953 
  2954 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  2955 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  2956 
  2957 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  2958 periodic functions.
  2959 
  2960 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  2961 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  2962 GCD.
  2963 
  2964 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  2965 
  2966 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  2967 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2968 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2969 
  2970 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  2971 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  2972 
  2973 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  2974 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  2975 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  2976 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  2977 
  2978 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  2979 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  2980 
  2981 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  2982 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  2983 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  2984 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  2985 properties.
  2986 
  2987 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  2988 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  2989 
  2990 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  2991 structures.
  2992 
  2993 
  2994 *** ML ***
  2995 
  2996 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  2997 system are available:
  2998 
  2999   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  3000   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  3001   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  3002 
  3003 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  3004 
  3005 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  3006 Isar proof method.
  3007 
  3008 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  3009 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  3010 breaks.
  3011 
  3012 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  3013 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  3014 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3015 
  3016 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  3017 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  3018 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  3019 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  3020 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3021 
  3022 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  3023 
  3024   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  3025   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  3026 
  3027   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  3028   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  3029 
  3030 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  3031 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  3032 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  3033 
  3034 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  3035 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  3036 instead (with proper context).
  3037 
  3038 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  3039 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  3040 
  3041 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  3042 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  3043 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  3044 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  3045 the proof context discipline.
  3046 
  3047 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  3048 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  3049 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  3050 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  3051 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3052 
  3053 
  3054 *** System ***
  3055 
  3056 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  3057 
  3058 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  3059 conflations:
  3060 
  3061     hence  ~>  then have
  3062     thus   ~>  then show
  3063 
  3064 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  3065 maintainability of proofs.
  3066 
  3067 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  3068 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  3069 performance.
  3070 
  3071 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  3072 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  3073 
  3074     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  3075 
  3076 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  3077 space.
  3078 
  3079 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  3080 platforms as follows.
  3081 
  3082   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  3083     associated with the main app bundle
  3084 
  3085   - isabelle jedit: settings
  3086     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  3087     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3088 
  3089   - isabelle build: settings
  3090     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3091 
  3092 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  3093 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  3094 
  3095 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  3096 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  3097 required after change.
  3098 
  3099 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  3100 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  3101 
  3102 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  3103 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  3104 
  3105 
  3106 
  3107 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  3108 ------------------------------
  3109 
  3110 *** General ***
  3111 
  3112 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  3113 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  3114 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3115 
  3116   context
  3117   begin
  3118 
  3119   private definition ...
  3120   private lemma ...
  3121 
  3122   qualified definition ...
  3123   qualified lemma ...
  3124 
  3125   lemma ...
  3126   theorem ...
  3127 
  3128   end
  3129 
  3130 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3131 naming policy.
  3132 
  3133 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3134 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3135 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3136 
  3137 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3138 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3139 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3140 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3141 
  3142 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3143 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3144 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3146 
  3147 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3148 theory context.
  3149 
  3150 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3151 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3152 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3153 
  3154 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3155 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3156 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3157 sources.
  3158 
  3159 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3160 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3161 
  3162 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3163 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3164 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3165 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3166 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3167 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3168 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3169 
  3170 
  3171 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3172 
  3173 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3174 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3175 
  3176 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3177 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3178 in the buffer.
  3179 
  3180 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3181 marker, SideKick parser.
  3182 
  3183 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3184 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3185 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3186 
  3187 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3188 Options / Text Area).
  3189 
  3190 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3191 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3192 
  3193 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3194 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3195 
  3196 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3197 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3198 
  3199 
  3200 *** Document preparation ***
  3201 
  3202 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3203 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3204 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3205 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3206 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3207 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3208 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3209 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3210 
  3211 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3212 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3213 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3214 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3215 
  3216 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3217 style.
  3218 
  3219 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3220 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3221 
  3222 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3223 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3224 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3225 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3226 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3227 
  3228 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3229 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3230 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3231 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3232 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3233 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3234 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3235 
  3236 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3237 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3238 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3240 
  3241 
  3242 *** Pure ***
  3243 
  3244 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3245 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3246 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3247 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3248 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3249 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3250 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3251 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3252 
  3253 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3254 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3255 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3256 
  3257 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3258 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3259 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3260 different index.
  3261 
  3262 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3263 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3264 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3265 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3266 
  3267 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3268 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3269 token category instead.
  3270 
  3271 
  3272 *** HOL ***
  3273 
  3274 * New (co)datatype package:
  3275   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3276     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3277     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3278     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3279     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3280   - Renamed theorems:
  3281       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3282       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3283       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3284       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3285       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3286       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3287       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3288       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3289       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3290       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3291       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3292       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3293       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3294     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3295   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3296     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3297     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3298   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3299     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3300     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3301   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3302     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3303     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3304     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3305     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3306     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3307     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3308   - Renamed theories:
  3309       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3310       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3311       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3312       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3313       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3314       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3315     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3316   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3317     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3318     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3319     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3320     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3321     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3322     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3323     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3324     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3325   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3326     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3327     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3328     rules.
  3329 
  3330 * Old datatype package:
  3331   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3332     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3333     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3334     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3335     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3336   - Renamed theorems:
  3337       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3338     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3339   - Renamed theory:
  3340       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3341     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3342 
  3343 * Nitpick:
  3344   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3345     operations.
  3346 
  3347 * Sledgehammer:
  3348   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3349     default.
  3350   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3351     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3352   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3353     Removed sub-command:
  3354       min
  3355   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3356     dramatically improved.
  3357   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3358 
  3359 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3360   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3361     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3362     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3363     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3364     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3365     point to it.
  3366     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3367   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3368     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3369   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3370     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3371   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3372     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3373 
  3374 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3375 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3376 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3377 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3378 
  3379 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3380 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3381 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3382 
  3383 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3384 
  3385 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3386 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3387 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3388 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3389 
  3390 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3391 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3392 
  3393 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3395 
  3396 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3397 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3398 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3399 
  3400 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3401 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3402 
  3403 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3404 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3405 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3406 
  3407 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3408 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3409 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3410 needed.
  3411 
  3412 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3413 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3414 
  3415 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3416 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3417 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3418 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3419 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3420 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3421 
  3422 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3423 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3424 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3425 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3426 
  3427 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3428 type class hierarchy:
  3429   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3430   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3431   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3432   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3433 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434 
  3435 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3436   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3437   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3438 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3439 
  3440 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3441 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3442 
  3443 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3444   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3445   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3446   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3447 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3448 
  3449 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3450 and part of theory Main.
  3451   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3453 
  3454 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456 
  3457 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3458 Fact rename:
  3459     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3461 
  3462 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3463 
  3464 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3465 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3466 
  3467 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3468 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3469 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3470 
  3471 * Library/Multiset:
  3472   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3473   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3474     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3475   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3476       <# ~> #<#
  3477       <=# ~> #<=#
  3478       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3479       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3480     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3481   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3482       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3483       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3484     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3485   - Renamed
  3486       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3487       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3488       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3489     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3490   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3491   - Added attributes:
  3492       image_mset.id [simp]
  3493       image_mset_id [simp]
  3494       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3495       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3496       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3497       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3498       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3499       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3500     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3501 
  3502 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3503 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3504 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3505 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3506 
  3507 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3508 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3509 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3510 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3511 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3512 examples.
  3513 
  3514 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3515   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3516   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3517   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3518     projection
  3519 
  3520 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3521 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3522 
  3523 
  3524 *** ML ***
  3525 
  3526 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3527 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3528 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3529 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3530 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3531 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3532 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3533 
  3534 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3535 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3536 
  3537 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3538 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3539 
  3540 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3541 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3544 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3545 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3546 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3547 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3548 nested.
  3549 
  3550 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3551 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3552 
  3553 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3554 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3555 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3557 
  3558 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3559 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3560 Thm.term_of etc.
  3561 
  3562 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3563 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3564 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3565 
  3566 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3567 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3568 
  3569 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3570 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3571 
  3572 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3573 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3574 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3575 
  3576 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3577 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3578 
  3579 
  3580 *** System ***
  3581 
  3582 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3583 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3584 
  3585 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3586 
  3587 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3588 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3589 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3590 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3591 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3592 
  3593 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3594 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3595 
  3596 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3597 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3598 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3599 
  3600 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3601 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3602 
  3603 
  3604 
  3605 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3606 ---------------------------------
  3607 
  3608 *** General ***
  3609 
  3610 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3611 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3612 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3613 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3614 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3615 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3616 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3617 some examples.
  3618 
  3619 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3620 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3621 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3622 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3623 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3624 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3625 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3626 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3627 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3628 
  3629 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3630 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3631 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3632 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3633 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3634 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3635 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3636 proof tools.
  3637 
  3638 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3639 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3640 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3641 
  3642 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3643 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3644 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3645 
  3646 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3647 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3648 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3649 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3650 
  3651 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3652 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3653 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3655 
  3656 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3657 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3658 
  3659 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3660 not check existence within the file-system.
  3661 
  3662 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3663 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3664 
  3665 
  3666 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3667 
  3668 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3669 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3670 buffer.
  3671 
  3672 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3673 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3674 
  3675 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3676 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3677 
  3678 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3679 auxiliary ML files.
  3680 
  3681 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3682 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3683 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3684 
  3685 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3686 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3687 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3688 
  3689 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3690 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3691 
  3692 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3693 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3694 caret".
  3695 
  3696 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3697 completion popup and context-menu.
  3698 
  3699 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3700 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3701 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3702 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3703 
  3704 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3705 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3706 
  3707 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3708 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3709 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3710 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3711 
  3712 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3713 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3714 
  3715 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3716 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3717 
  3718 * Improved monitor panel.
  3719 
  3720 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3721 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3722 
  3723 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3724 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3725 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3726 
  3727 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3728 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3729 within the context.
  3730 
  3731 
  3732 *** Pure ***
  3733 
  3734 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3735 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3736 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3737 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3738 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3739 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3740 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3741 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3742 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3743 
  3744 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3745 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3746 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3747 renaming needs to be applied:
  3748 
  3749   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3750   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3751   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3752   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3753   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3754 
  3755 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3756 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3757 old constants:
  3758 
  3759 setup {*
  3760   fn thy => thy
  3761     |> Sign.root_path
  3762     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3763     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3764     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3765     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3766 *}
  3767 
  3768 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3769 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3770 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3771 
  3772 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3773 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3774 instantiated theorem.
  3775 
  3776 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3777 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3778 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3779 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3780 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3781 
  3782   attribute_setup standard =
  3783     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3784 
  3785 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3786 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3787 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3788 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3789 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3790 
  3791 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3792 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3793 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3794 
  3795 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3796 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3797 
  3798 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3799 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3800 
  3801 
  3802 *** HOL ***
  3803 
  3804 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3805 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3806 
  3807 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3809 
  3810 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3811 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3814 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815 
  3816 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3818 
  3819 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3820 with the given constants.
  3821 
  3822 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3823 operations on records.
  3824 
  3825 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3826 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3827 
  3828 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3829 
  3830 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3831 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3832 
  3833 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3834 
  3835 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3836 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3837 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3838 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3839 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3840 
  3841 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3842 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3843 
  3844 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3845   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3846   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3847   part of theory "Main".
  3848 
  3849   Theory renamings:
  3850     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3851     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3852     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3853     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3854     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3855     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3856     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3857     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3858     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3859     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3860     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3861     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3862     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3863     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3864     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3865     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3866     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3867     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3868     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3869     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3870     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3871     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3872 
  3873   New theories:
  3874     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3875     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3876     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3877     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3878     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3879 
  3880   Discontinued theories:
  3881     BNF/BNF.thy
  3882     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3883 
  3884 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886 * New (co)datatype package:
  3887   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3888   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3889     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3890   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3891     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3892   - Renamed commands:
  3893       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3894       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3895       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3896     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3897   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  3898     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  3899     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3900   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  3901     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  3902     using "prim(co)rec".
  3903     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  3905     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  3906     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3907   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  3908     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  3909     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  3910     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3911 
  3912 * Old datatype package:
  3913   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  3914     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  3915     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3916   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  3917     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  3918     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3919 
  3920 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  3921   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  3922   BNF-based datatype package.
  3923 
  3924   Renamed constants:
  3925     Option.set ~> set_option
  3926     Option.map ~> map_option
  3927     option_rel ~> rel_option
  3928 
  3929   Renamed theorems:
  3930     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  3931     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  3932     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  3933     option.recs ~> option.rec
  3934     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  3935     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  3936     map.simps ~> list.map
  3937     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  3938     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  3939     the.simps ~> option.sel
  3940 
  3941 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942 
  3943 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  3944     sum_map ~> map_sum
  3945     map_pair ~> map_prod
  3946     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  3947     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  3948     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  3949     set_rel ~> rel_set
  3950     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  3951     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  3952     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  3953     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  3954 
  3955 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956 
  3957 * Lifting and Transfer:
  3958   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  3959   - stronger reflexivity prover
  3960   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  3961   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  3962     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  3963     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  3964       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  3965       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  3966       automatically
  3967     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  3968     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  3969       automatically for datatypes
  3970   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  3971     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  3972       more
  3973       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3974     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  3975       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  3976       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3977     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  3978       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  3979       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980   - registration of code equations is more robust
  3981     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3982   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  3983     form
  3984     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3985   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  3986     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3987   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  3988     Code_Numeral.natural
  3989     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3990   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  3991     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3992 
  3993 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  3994 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  3995 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  3996 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  3997 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  3998 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  3999 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4000 
  4001 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  4002 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  4003 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  4004 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  4005 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  4006 
  4007 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  4008 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  4009 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  4010 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  4011 
  4012 * Sledgehammer:
  4013   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  4014   - MaSh overhaul:
  4015     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  4016       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  4017     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  4018       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  4019       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  4020       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  4021   - New option:
  4022       smt_proofs
  4023   - Renamed options:
  4024       isar_compress ~> compress
  4025       isar_try0 ~> try0
  4026 
  4027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4028 
  4029 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  4030 
  4031 * Nitpick:
  4032   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  4033     take infinite values.
  4034   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  4035     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  4036   - Removed "std" option.
  4037   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  4038     "hide_types".
  4039 
  4040 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  4041 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4042 
  4043 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  4044 
  4045 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  4046   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  4047   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  4048     SUP instead uniformly.
  4049   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  4050     or SUP and Sup.
  4051   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  4052   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  4053   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  4054     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  4055     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  4056 
  4057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4058 
  4059 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  4060 
  4061 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  4062 
  4063   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4064   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4065   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4066   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4067 
  4068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4069 
  4070 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  4071 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  4072 
  4073 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  4074 
  4075     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  4076     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  4077     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  4078     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  4079     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  4080     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  4081     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  4082     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  4083     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  4084     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  4085     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  4086     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  4087     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  4088     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  4089     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4090     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4091     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  4092     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  4093     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  4094     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  4095     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  4096     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  4097     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  4098     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  4099     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  4100     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  4101     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  4102     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  4103     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  4104     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  4105     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  4106     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  4107     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  4108     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  4109     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  4110     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  4111     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  4112     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  4113     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  4114     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4115     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4116     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4117     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4118     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4119     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4120     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4121     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4122     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4123     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4124     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4125     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4126     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4127     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4128     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4129     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4130     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4131     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4132     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4133     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4134 
  4135   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4136   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4137   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4138     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4139 
  4140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4141 
  4142 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4143 
  4144   Fact consolidations:
  4145     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4146     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4147     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4148     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4149     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4150     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4151     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4152     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4153     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4154     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4155     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4156     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4157     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4158     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4159     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4160     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4161     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4162     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4163     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4164     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4165     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4166     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4167     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4168     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4169     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4170     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4171     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4172     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4173     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4174     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4175     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4176     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4177     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4178     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4179     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4180     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4181     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4182     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4183     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4184     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4185 
  4186 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4187 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4188 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4189 
  4190 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4191 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4192 
  4193 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4194 
  4195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4196 
  4197 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4198 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4199 
  4200 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4202 
  4203 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4204     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4205 
  4206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4207 
  4208 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4209   consolidation:
  4210     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4211     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4212 
  4213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4214 
  4215 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4216   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4217   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4218   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4219     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4220   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4221     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4222   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4223 
  4224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4225 
  4226 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4227 
  4228     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4229     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4230     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4231     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4232     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4233     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4234     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4235     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4236     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4237     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4238     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4239     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4240     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4241 
  4242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4243 
  4244 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4245 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4246 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4247 
  4248 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4249     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4250     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4251     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4252     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4253 
  4254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4255 
  4256 * Fact name consolidation:
  4257     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4258     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4259     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4260     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4261     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4262 
  4263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4264 
  4265 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4266 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4267 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4268 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4269 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4270 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4271 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4273 
  4274 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4275 
  4276 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4277 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4278 
  4279 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4280 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4281 
  4282 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4283 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4284 or the brute way with
  4285 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4286 
  4287 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4288 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4289 stating boundedness of sets.
  4290 
  4291 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4292 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4293 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4294 
  4295 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4296   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4297   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4298   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4299   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4300   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4301   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4302   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4303   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4304   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4305   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4306   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4307 
  4308   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4309 
  4310   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4311 
  4312     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4313     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4314     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4315     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4316     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4317 
  4318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4319 
  4320 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4321   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4322 
  4323   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4324 
  4325   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4326 
  4327   - removed constant isDiff
  4328 
  4329   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4330     input syntax.
  4331 
  4332   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4333 
  4334   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4335 
  4336   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4337 
  4338   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4339 
  4340   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4341     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4342     has_vector_derivative.
  4343 
  4344   - Other renamings:
  4345     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4346     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4347     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4348     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4349     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4350     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4351     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4352 
  4353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4354 
  4355 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4356 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4357 in continuous_intros.
  4358 
  4359 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4360 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4361 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4362 
  4363 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4364 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4365 especially removes
  4366 
  4367     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4368 
  4369 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4370     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4371 
  4372 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4373 
  4374   Renamings:
  4375     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4376     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4377     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4378     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4379     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4380     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4381     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4382     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4383     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4384     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4385     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4386     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4387 
  4388     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4389     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4390     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4391 
  4392   Removed theorems:
  4393     complex_zero_def
  4394     complex_add_def
  4395     complex_minus_def
  4396     complex_diff_def
  4397     complex_one_def
  4398     complex_mult_def
  4399     complex_inverse_def
  4400     complex_scaleR_def
  4401 
  4402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4403 
  4404 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4405 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4406 
  4407 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4408 
  4409 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4410 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4411 
  4412 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4413 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4414 
  4415 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4416 
  4417 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4418 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4419 
  4420 * HOL-Word:
  4421   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4422     of "word_arith_wis".
  4423   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4424     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4425     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4426 
  4427 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4428   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4429   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4430   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4431     (except the AFP)
  4432 
  4433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4434 
  4435 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4436   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4437   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4438     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4439   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4440     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4441     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4442     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4443     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4444     intervals.
  4445   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4446     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4447     - renamed theorems:
  4448         interval ~> box
  4449         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4450         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4451         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4452         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4453         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4454         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4455         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4456         open_interval ~> open_box
  4457         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4458         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4459         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4460         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4461         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4462         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4463         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4464         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4465         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4466         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4467         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4468         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4469         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4470         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4471         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4472         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4473         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4474         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4475         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4476         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4477         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4478         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4479         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4480         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4481 
  4482     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4483         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4484         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4485         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4486         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4487         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4488         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4489         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4490         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4491         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4492         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4493         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4494         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4495         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4496         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4497         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4498         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4499         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4500 
  4501   - renamed theorems:
  4502     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4503     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4504     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4505 
  4506 * HOL-Probability:
  4507   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4508 
  4509     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4510       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4511 
  4512     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4513 
  4514   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4515     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4516 
  4517     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4518     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4519     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4520     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4521     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4522     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4523     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4524     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4525     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4526     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4527     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4528     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4529     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4530     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4531     integral_indicator          ~>
  4532          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4533     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4534     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4535     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4536 
  4537     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4538          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4539 
  4540     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4541          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4542 
  4543     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4544          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4545 
  4546     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4547          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4548          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4549 
  4550     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4551          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4552 
  4553     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4554          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4555 
  4556     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4557          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4558          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4559 
  4560     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4561          nn_integral_real_affine
  4562 
  4563     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4564          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4565 
  4566     The following theorems where removed:
  4567 
  4568     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4569     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4570     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4571     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4572     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4573     integral_cmul_indicator
  4574     integral_real
  4575 
  4576   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4577     distributed random variables.
  4578 
  4579 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4580 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4582 
  4583 
  4584 *** Scala ***
  4585 
  4586 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4587 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4588 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4589 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4590 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4591 
  4592 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4593 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4594 
  4595 
  4596 *** ML ***
  4597 
  4598 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4599 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4600 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4601 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4602 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4603 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4604 
  4605 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4606 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4607 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4608 actually belongs to it).
  4609 
  4610 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4611 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4612 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4613 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4614 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4615 of schematic variables.
  4616 
  4617 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4618 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4619 
  4620 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4621 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4622 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4623 
  4624 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4626 
  4627 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4628 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4629 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4631 
  4632 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4633 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4634 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4635 formal context.
  4636 
  4637 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4638 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4639 
  4640 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4641 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4642 
  4643 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4644 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4645 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4646 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4647 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4648 
  4649 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4650 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4651 purposes.
  4652 
  4653 
  4654 *** System ***
  4655 
  4656 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4657 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4658 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4659 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4660 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4661 
  4662 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4663 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4664 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4665 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4666 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4667 settings variable.
  4668 
  4669 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4670 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4671 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4672 
  4673 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4674 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4675 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4676 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4677 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4678 
  4679 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4680 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4681 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4682 
  4683 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4684 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4685 
  4686 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4687 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4688 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4689 
  4690 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4691 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4692 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4693 processing is started.
  4694 
  4695 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4696 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4697 
  4698 
  4699 
  4700 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4701 -------------------------------------
  4702 
  4703 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4704 
  4705 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4706 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4707 
  4708 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4709 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4710 
  4711 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4712 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4713 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4714 
  4715 
  4716 *** System ***
  4717 
  4718 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4719 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4720 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4721 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4722 
  4723 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4724 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4725 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4726 
  4727 
  4728 
  4729 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4730 -------------------------------------
  4731 
  4732 *** General ***
  4733 
  4734 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4735 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4736 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4737 
  4738 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4739 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4740 
  4741 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4742 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4743 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4744 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4745 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4746 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4747 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4748 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4749 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4750 syntax.
  4751 
  4752 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4753 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4754 
  4755 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4756 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4757 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4758 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4759 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4760 
  4761 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4763 
  4764 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4765 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4766 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4767 
  4768 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4769 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4770 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4771 
  4772 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4773 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4774 
  4775 
  4776 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4777 
  4778 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4779 Documentation panel.
  4780 
  4781 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4782 documentation.
  4783 
  4784 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4785 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4786 
  4787 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4788 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4789 normal editing and checking process.
  4790 
  4791 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4792 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4793 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4794 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4795 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4796 
  4797 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4798 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4799 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4800 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4801 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4802 
  4803 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4804 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4805 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4806 
  4807 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4808 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4809 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4810 to resolve conflict.
  4811 
  4812 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4813 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4814 
  4815 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4816 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4817 such command executions while editing.
  4818 
  4819 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4820 document content.
  4821 
  4822 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4823 toplevel theorem statements.
  4824 
  4825 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4826 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4827 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4828 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4829 
  4830 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4831 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4832 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4833 
  4834 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4835 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4836 
  4837 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4838 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4839 
  4840 
  4841 *** Pure ***
  4842 
  4843 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4844 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4845 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4846 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4847 details.
  4848 
  4849 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4850 
  4851 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4852 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4853 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4854 
  4855 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4857 
  4858 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4859 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4860 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4861 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4862 
  4863 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4864 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4865 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4866 
  4867 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4868 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4869 
  4870 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4871 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4872 situations.
  4873 
  4874 
  4875 *** HOL ***
  4876 
  4877 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4878 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4880 
  4881 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4882 
  4883 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4884 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4885 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4886 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4887 
  4888   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4889 
  4890 * Code generator:
  4891   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4892     'code_instance'.
  4893   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4894     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4895 
  4896 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4897 examples.
  4898 
  4899 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  4900 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  4901 to distinguish both when desired.
  4902 
  4903 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  4904 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  4905 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  4906 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4907 
  4908 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  4909 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  4910 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  4911 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  4912 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  4913 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4914 
  4915 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  4916 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  4917 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4918 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  4919 
  4920 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  4921 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  4922 
  4923 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  4924 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  4925 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  4926 
  4927 * Lifting:
  4928   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  4929     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  4930       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  4931       transfer rules
  4932     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  4933       correspondence relation can be generated
  4934     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  4935       parametricity
  4936     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  4937   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  4938   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  4939     copies
  4940   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  4941     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  4942     anonymous context)
  4943   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  4944     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4945   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  4946     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  4947   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  4948     INCOMPATIBILITY
  4949 
  4950 * Transfer:
  4951   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  4952     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  4953   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  4954   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  4955     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  4956   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  4957 
  4958 * Reification and reflection:
  4959   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  4960     "Reification".
  4961   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  4962   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  4963 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4964 
  4965 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  4966   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  4967     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4968     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  4969   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  4970     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  4971   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  4972     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  4973     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  4974     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  4975     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  4976     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  4977     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  4978     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  4979   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  4980     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  4981   - Fact renames:
  4982       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  4983       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  4984 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4985 
  4986 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  4987 
  4988 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  4989 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  4990 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  4991 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4992 
  4993 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  4994 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  4995 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  4996 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  4997 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  4998 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  4999 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  5000 lemmas.
  5001 
  5002 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  5003 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  5004 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5005 
  5006 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  5007 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5008 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  5009 
  5010 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  5011 top and bottom elements.
  5012 
  5013 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  5014 
  5015 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  5016 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  5017 
  5018  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  5019    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  5020    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  5021 
  5022  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  5023    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  5024    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  5025 
  5026    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  5027    arbitrary filter.
  5028 
  5029  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  5030    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  5031    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  5032    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  5033    on a compact set.
  5034 
  5035  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  5036    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  5037    linear_continuum_topology).
  5038 
  5039  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  5040    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  5041    on all sequences converging to x.
  5042 
  5043  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  5044    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  5045    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  5046    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  5047    left or right.
  5048 
  5049  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  5050 
  5051      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  5052 
  5053  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  5054    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  5055 
  5056  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  5057    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  5058    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  5059    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  5060    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  5061    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  5062 
  5063  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  5064 
  5065    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  5066 
  5067    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  5068      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  5069 
  5070    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  5071 
  5072    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  5073      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  5074 
  5075    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  5076 
  5077    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  5078 
  5079  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  5080 
  5081 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5082 
  5083 * Nitpick:
  5084   - Added option "spy".
  5085   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  5086 
  5087 * Sledgehammer:
  5088   - Renamed option:
  5089       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  5090     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5091   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  5092   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  5093   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  5094 
  5095 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  5096 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  5097 
  5098 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  5099   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  5100   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  5101     generated code.
  5102   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  5103   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  5104   - Fact renames:
  5105     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  5106     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  5107     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  5108 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5109 
  5110 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  5111 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  5112 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  5113 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  5114 
  5115 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5116 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5117 
  5118 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5119 
  5120 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5121 
  5122     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5123     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5124 
  5125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5126 
  5127 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5128 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5129 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5130 
  5131 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5132 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5133 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5134 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5135 
  5136 * HOL-BNF:
  5137   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5138     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5139     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5140     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5141   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5142     coinduct).
  5143   - Renamed keywords:
  5144     data ~> datatype_new
  5145     codata ~> codatatype
  5146     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5147   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5148     discs ~> disc
  5149     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5150     map_id' ~> map_id
  5151     sels ~> sel
  5152     set_map' ~> set_map
  5153     sets ~> set
  5154 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5155 
  5156 
  5157 *** ML ***
  5158 
  5159 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5160 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5161 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5162 Examples.thy in particular.
  5163 
  5164 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5165 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5166 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5167 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5168 
  5169 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5170 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5171 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5172 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5174 
  5175 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5176 
  5177     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5178     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5179 
  5180 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5181 
  5182 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5183 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5184 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5185 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5186 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5187 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5188 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5189 
  5190 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5191 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5192 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5193 clasets separately from the context.
  5194 
  5195 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5196 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5197 
  5198 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5199 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5200 
  5201 
  5202 *** System ***
  5203 
  5204 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5205 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5206 
  5207 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5208 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5209 
  5210 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5211 settings variable.
  5212 
  5213 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5214 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5215 always pdf.
  5216 
  5217 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5218 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5219 
  5220 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5221 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5222 
  5223 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5224 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5225 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5226 
  5227 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5228 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5229 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5230 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5231 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5232 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5233 
  5234 
  5235 
  5236 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5237 -----------------------------------
  5238 
  5239 *** General ***
  5240 
  5241 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5242 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5243 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5244 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5245 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5246 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5247 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5248 
  5249 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5250 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5251 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5252 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5253 
  5254 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5255 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5256 
  5257 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5258 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5259 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5260 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5261 dependencies properly.
  5262 
  5263 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5264 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5265 
  5266 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5267 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5268 
  5269 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5270 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5271 and "class ... context ...".
  5272 
  5273 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5274 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5275 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5276 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5277 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5278 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5279 
  5280 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5281 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5282 
  5283 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5284 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5285 
  5286 
  5287 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5288 
  5289 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5290 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5291 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5292 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5293 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5294 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5295 
  5296 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5297 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5298 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5299 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5300 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5301 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5302 
  5303 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5304 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5305 browser on demand.
  5306 
  5307 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5308 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5309 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5310 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5311 
  5312 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5313 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5314 
  5315 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5316 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5317 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5318 potentially infinite message streams.
  5319 
  5320 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5321 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5322 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5323 schemes.
  5324 
  5325 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5326 symbols.
  5327 
  5328 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5329 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5330 
  5331 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5332 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5333 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5334 
  5335 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5336 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5337 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5338 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5339 
  5340 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5341 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5342 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5343 
  5344 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5345 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5346 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5347 Isabelle distribution.
  5348 
  5349 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5350 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5351 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5352 
  5353 
  5354 *** Pure ***
  5355 
  5356 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5357 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5358 
  5359 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5360 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5361 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5362 
  5363 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5364 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5365 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5366 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5367 with some care where this is really required.
  5368 
  5369 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5370 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5371 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5372 
  5373   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5374 
  5375 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5376 a Hasse diagram.
  5377 
  5378 
  5379 *** HOL ***
  5380 
  5381 * Sledgehammer:
  5382 
  5383   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5384     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5385   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5386   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5387   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5388   - Renamed options:
  5389       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5390       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5391       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5392       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5393 
  5394 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5395 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5396 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5397 
  5398 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5399 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5400 
  5401 * Lifting:
  5402   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5403   - quot_del attribute
  5404   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5405 
  5406 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5407 expressions.
  5408 
  5409 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5410 pointfree expressions.
  5411 
  5412 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5413 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5414 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5415 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5417 
  5418 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5419 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5420 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5421 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5422 accordingly.
  5423 
  5424 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5425 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5426 
  5427 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5428 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5429 
  5430 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5431 
  5432 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5433 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5434 
  5435 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5436 
  5437 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5438 
  5439   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5440   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5441 
  5442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5443 
  5444 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5445 
  5446   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5447   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5448 
  5449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5450 
  5451 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5452 
  5453   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5454     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5455     output f x converges to G.
  5456 
  5457   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5458     infinity (at_bot).
  5459 
  5460   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5461     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5462 
  5463   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5464     at_top".
  5465 
  5466 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5467 
  5468 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5469 lattice type classes.
  5470 
  5471 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5472 
  5473     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5474     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5475 
  5476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5477 
  5478 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5479 changes as follows.
  5480 
  5481   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5482 
  5483       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5484       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5485 
  5486   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5487     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5488     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5489     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5490 
  5491   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5492     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5493     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5494 
  5495   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5496     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5497     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5498     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5499 
  5500   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5501     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5502 
  5503       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5504       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5505       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5506       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5507       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5508       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5509       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5510       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5511       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5512       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5513       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5514       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5515       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5516       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5517       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5518       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5519 
  5520 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5521 
  5522 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5523 
  5524 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5525 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5526 
  5527 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5528 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5529 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5530 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5531 
  5532   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5533   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5534   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5535   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5536   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5537   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5538   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5539   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5540   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5541   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5542 
  5543 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5544 
  5545 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5546 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5547 Data").
  5548 
  5549 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5550 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5551 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5552 code.
  5553 
  5554 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5555 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5556 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5558 
  5559 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5560 
  5561 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5562 
  5563 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5564 
  5565   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5566   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5567 
  5568 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5569 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5570 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5571 
  5572   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5573 
  5574     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5575     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5576     cart_base i  removed
  5577     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5578 
  5579   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5580 
  5581   Renamed lemmas:
  5582 
  5583     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5584     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5585     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5586     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5587     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5588     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5589     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5590     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5591     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5592     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5593 
  5594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5595 
  5596 * HOL/Probability:
  5597 
  5598   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5599 
  5600   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5601     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5602     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5603 
  5604   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5605     projective family).
  5606 
  5607 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5608 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5609 
  5610 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5611 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5612 datatypes.
  5613 
  5614 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5615 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5616 
  5617 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5618 trees for the code generator.
  5619 
  5620 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5621 Lifting/Transfer.
  5622 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5623 
  5624 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5626 
  5627 
  5628 *** Document preparation ***
  5629 
  5630 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5631 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5632 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5633 
  5634 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5635 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5636 
  5637 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5638 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5639 document/root.tex.
  5640 
  5641 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5642 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5643 
  5644 
  5645 *** ML ***
  5646 
  5647 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5648 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5649 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5650 
  5651 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5652 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5653 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5654 
  5655 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5656 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5657 necessarily printing visible text.
  5658 
  5659 
  5660 *** System ***
  5661 
  5662 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5663 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5664 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5665 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5666 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5667 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5668 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5669 
  5670 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5671 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5672 
  5673   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5674 
  5675 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5676 
  5677 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5678 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5679 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5680 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5681 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5682 
  5683 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5684 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5685 
  5686 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5687 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5688 
  5689 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5691 
  5692 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5693 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5694 version of Isabelle.
  5695 
  5696 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5697 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5698 
  5699 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5700 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5701 for home-made settings.
  5702 
  5703 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5704 
  5705 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5706 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5707 configuration.
  5708 
  5709 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5710 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5711 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5712 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5713 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5714 
  5715 
  5716 
  5717 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5718 ------------------------------
  5719 
  5720 *** General ***
  5721 
  5722 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5723 
  5724   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5725     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5726   - markup for bound variables
  5727   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5728   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5729   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5730     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5731 
  5732 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5733 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5734 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5735 
  5736 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5737 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5738 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5739 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5740 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5741 
  5742   context
  5743     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5744     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5745   begin
  5746 
  5747   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5748 
  5749   end
  5750 
  5751   thm my_trans
  5752 
  5753 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5754 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5755 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5756 
  5757 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5758 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5759 
  5760 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5761 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5762 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5763 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5764 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5765 
  5766 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5767 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5768 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5769 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5770 indices of schematic variables.
  5771 
  5772 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5773 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5774 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5775 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5776 etc. was exploited.
  5777 
  5778 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5779 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5780 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5781 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5782 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5783 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5784 
  5785 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5786 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5787 manual.
  5788 
  5789 
  5790 *** Pure ***
  5791 
  5792 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5793 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5794 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5795 
  5796 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5797 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5798 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5799 undocumented feature.)
  5800 
  5801 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5802 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5803 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5804 
  5805   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5806 
  5807   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5808     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5809 
  5810 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5811 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5812 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5813 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5814 
  5815 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5816 
  5817     num ~> num_token
  5818     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5819     xstr ~> str_token
  5820 
  5821 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5822 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5823 position information via constraints).
  5824 
  5825 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5826 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5827 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5828 
  5829 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5830 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5831 
  5832 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5833 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5834 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5835 
  5836 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5837 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5838 
  5839 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5840 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5841 
  5842   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5843 
  5844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5845 
  5846 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5847 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5848 
  5849 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5850 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5851 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5852 
  5853 
  5854 *** HOL ***
  5855 
  5856 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5857 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5858 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5859 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5860 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5861 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5862 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5863 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5864 possible.
  5865 
  5866 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5867 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5868 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5869 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5870 
  5871 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5872 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5873 
  5874 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5875 
  5876 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5877 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5878 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5879 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5880 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5881 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5882 
  5883   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5884     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5885 
  5886   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5887     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5888     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5889 
  5890   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5891     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5892 
  5893   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5894     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5895     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5896 
  5897   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  5898     Redefine using other integer operations.
  5899 
  5900 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  5901 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  5902 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  5903 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  5904 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  5905 
  5906   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  5907     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  5908     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  5909     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  5910     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  5911 
  5912     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  5913     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  5914 
  5915   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  5916     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  5917     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  5918     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  5919     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  5920     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  5921     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  5922     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  5923 
  5924   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  5925     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  5926     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  5927     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  5928 
  5929   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  5930     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  5931     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  5932     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  5933 
  5934   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  5935     from type nat to type int.
  5936 
  5937 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  5938 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  5939 
  5940   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  5941     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  5942     type.  Example syntax:
  5943 
  5944     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  5945       is List.insert
  5946 
  5947     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  5948     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  5949     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  5950     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  5951     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  5952     by the package.
  5953 
  5954   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  5955     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  5956     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  5957     code generation for each constant.
  5958 
  5959   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  5960     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  5961     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  5962     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  5963     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  5964 
  5965   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  5966     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  5967     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  5968 
  5969 * Quotient package:
  5970 
  5971   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  5972     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  5973 
  5974   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  5975     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  5976 
  5977   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  5978     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  5979     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5980 
  5981   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  5982     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5983 
  5984 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  5985 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  5986 
  5987 * Quickcheck:
  5988 
  5989   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  5990     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  5991     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  5992     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  5993     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  5994 
  5995     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  5996     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  5997     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  5998 
  5999     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  6000     continues searching for genuine ones.
  6001 
  6002     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  6003     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  6004     show genuine counterexamples.
  6005 
  6006   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  6007     value generators for a given type and operations.
  6008 
  6009     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  6010     constructors of that type.
  6011 
  6012   - Support for multisets.
  6013 
  6014   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  6015 
  6016   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  6017     conjectures in a locale context.
  6018 
  6019 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  6020 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  6021 
  6022 * Sledgehammer:
  6023   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  6024     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  6025   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  6026   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  6027     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  6028   - Sped up the minimizer.
  6029   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  6030   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  6031   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  6032 
  6033 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  6034 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  6035 
  6036 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  6037 
  6038 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6039 
  6040 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  6041 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  6042 
  6043   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  6044 
  6045 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  6046 a list and a nat.
  6047 
  6048 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  6049 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  6050 
  6051 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  6052 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  6053 default.
  6054 
  6055 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  6056 
  6057   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  6058 
  6059 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  6060 
  6061 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  6062 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  6063 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  6064 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  6065 one_case.
  6066 
  6067 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  6068 the result of the fact expression.
  6069 
  6070 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  6071 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  6072 of some relation theorems:
  6073 
  6074   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  6075   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6076   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  6077   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  6078   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  6079   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  6080 
  6081 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  6082 
  6083 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  6084 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  6085 
  6086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6087 
  6088 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  6089 to match the constant's name:
  6090 
  6091   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  6092   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  6093   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  6094   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  6095   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  6096   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  6097   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  6098   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  6099   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  6100   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  6101   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  6102   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  6103   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  6104   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  6105   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  6106   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  6107   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  6108   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  6109   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  6110   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  6111   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  6112   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6113   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6114   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6115 
  6116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6117 
  6118 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6119 and corresponding theorem names:
  6120 
  6121   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6122 
  6123   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6124 
  6125   - Renamed theorems:
  6126 
  6127     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6128     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6129     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6130     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6131     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6132     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6133     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6134     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6135     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6136     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6137     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6138     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6139     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6140     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6141     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6142     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6143     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6144     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  6145     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  6146     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  6147     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  6148     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  6149     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  6150 
  6151     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  6152 
  6153     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  6154 
  6155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6156 
  6157 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  6158 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6159 
  6160   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  6161   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  6162   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  6163   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  6164   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  6165   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  6166   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  6167   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  6168   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  6169   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  6170   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  6171   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  6172   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  6173   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  6174   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  6175   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  6176   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  6177   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  6178   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  6179   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  6180   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  6181 
  6182 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  6183 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6184 
  6185 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6186 
  6187 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  6188 
  6189   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  6190   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  6191   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  6192   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  6193   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  6194   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  6195   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  6196   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  6197   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  6198   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  6199   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  6200   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  6201   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  6202   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  6203   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  6204   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  6205   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  6206   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  6207 
  6208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6209 
  6210 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  6211 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  6212 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  6213 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  6214 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  6215 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  6216 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  6217 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  6218 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  6219 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  6220 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  6221 
  6222 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  6223 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  6224 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  6225 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  6226 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  6227 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  6228 
  6229 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  6230 through option types.
  6231 
  6232 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  6233 relations.
  6234 
  6235 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6236 
  6237 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  6238 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6239 
  6240   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  6241   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  6242   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  6243   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  6244   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  6245   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  6246   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  6247   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  6248   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  6249   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  6250   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  6251   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  6252   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  6253   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  6254   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  6255   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  6256   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  6257   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  6258   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  6259   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  6260   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  6261   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  6262   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  6263   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  6264   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  6265   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  6266   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  6267   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  6268   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  6269   int_0_neq_1 ~>