NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed Aug 29 11:48:45 2012 +0200 (2012-08-29)
changeset 48992 0518bf89c777
parent 48977 ae12b92c145a
child 49000 0cebcbeac4c7
permissions -rw-r--r--
renamed Position.str_of to Position.here;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    10 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    11 
    12 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    13 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    14 
    15 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    16 in old "ref" manual.
    17 
    18 
    19 *** Pure ***
    20 
    21 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    22 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    23 
    24 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    25 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    26 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    27 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    28 
    29 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    30 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    31 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    32 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    33 with some care where this is really required.
    34 
    35 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
    36 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
    37 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
    38 
    39   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
    40 
    41 
    42 *** HOL ***
    43 
    44 * HOL/Codatatype: New (co)datatype package with support for mixed,
    45 nested recursion and interesting non-free datatypes.
    46 
    47 * HOL/Ordinals_and_Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
    48 (supersedes the AFP entry of the same name).
    49 
    50 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
    51 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
    52 
    53 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
    54 expressions.
    55 
    56 * Quickcheck:
    57 
    58   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
    59     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
    60     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
    61 
    62 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
    63 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
    64 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
    65 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
    66 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    67 
    68 * Sledgehammer:
    69 
    70   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
    71     Sledgehammer manual for details.
    72   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
    73   - Renamed options:
    74       max_relevant ~> max_facts
    75       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
    76 
    77 
    78 *** Document preparation ***
    79 
    80 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
    81 slightly exotic babel/greek.
    82 
    83 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
    84 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
    85 document/root.tex.
    86 
    87 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
    88 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    89 
    90 
    91 *** ML ***
    92 
    93 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
    94 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
    95 necessarily printing visible text.
    96 
    97 
    98 *** System ***
    99 
   100 * The "isabelle logo" tool allows to specify EPS or PDF format; the
   101 latter is preferred now.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   102 
   103 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   104 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   105 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   106 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   107 
   108 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   109 
   110 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   111 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   112 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   113 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   114 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   115 
   116 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   117 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   118 
   119   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   120 
   121 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   122 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   123 
   124 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   125 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   126 "isabelle usedir".
   127 
   128 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   129 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   130 version of Isabelle.
   131 
   132 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   133 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   134 configuration.
   135 
   136 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   137 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   138 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   139 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   140 bundled as Isabelle component.
   141 
   142 
   143 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   144 ------------------------------
   145 
   146 *** General ***
   147 
   148 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   149 
   150   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   151     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   152   - markup for bound variables
   153   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   154   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   155   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   156     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   157 
   158 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   159 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   160 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   161 
   162 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   163 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   164 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   165 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   166 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   167 
   168   context
   169     fixes x y z :: 'a
   170     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   171   begin
   172 
   173   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   174 
   175   end
   176 
   177   thm my_trans
   178 
   179 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   180 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   181 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   182 
   183 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   184 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   185 
   186 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   187 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   188 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   189 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   190 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   191 
   192 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   193 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   194 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   195 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   196 indices of schematic variables.
   197 
   198 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   199 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   200 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   201 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   202 etc. was exploited.
   203 
   204 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   205 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   206 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   207 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   208 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   209 of the material of that old tutorial.
   210 
   211 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   212 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   213 manual.
   214 
   215 
   216 *** Pure ***
   217 
   218 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   219 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   220 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   221 
   222 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   223 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   224 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   225 undocumented feature.)
   226 
   227 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   228 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   229 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   230 
   231   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   232 
   233   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   234     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   235 
   236 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   237 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   238 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   239 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   240 
   241 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   242 
   243     num ~> num_token
   244     xnum ~> xnum_token
   245     xstr ~> str_token
   246 
   247 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   248 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   249 position information via constraints).
   250 
   251 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   252 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   253 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   256 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   257 
   258 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   259 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   260 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   263 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   266 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   267 
   268   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   269 
   270 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   271 
   272 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   273 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   274 
   275 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   276 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   277 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   278 
   279 
   280 *** HOL ***
   281 
   282 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   283 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   284 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   285 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   286 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   287 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   288 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   289 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   290 possible.
   291 
   292 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   293 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   294 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   295 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   296 
   297 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   298 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   299 
   300 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   301 
   302 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   303 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   304 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   305 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   306 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   307 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   308 
   309   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   310     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   311 
   312   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   313     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   314     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   315 
   316   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   317     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   318 
   319   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   320     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   321     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   322 
   323   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   324     Redefine using other integer operations.
   325 
   326 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   327 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   328 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   329 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   330 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   331 
   332   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   333     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   334     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   335     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   336     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   337 
   338     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   339     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   340 
   341   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   342     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   343     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   344     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   345     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   346     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   347     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   348     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   349 
   350   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   351     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   352     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   353     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   354 
   355   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   356     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   357     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   358     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   359 
   360   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   361     from type nat to type int.
   362 
   363 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   364 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   365 
   366   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   367     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   368     type.  Example syntax:
   369 
   370     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   371       is List.insert
   372 
   373     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   374     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   375     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   376     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   377     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   378     by the package.
   379 
   380   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   381     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   382     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   383     code generation for each constant.
   384 
   385   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   386     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   387     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   388     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   389     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   390 
   391   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   392     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   393     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   394 
   395 * Quotient package:
   396 
   397   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   398     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   399 
   400   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   401     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   402 
   403   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   404     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   405     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   406 
   407   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   408     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   409 
   410 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   411 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   412 
   413 * Quickcheck:
   414 
   415   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   416     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   417     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   418     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   419     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   420 
   421     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   422     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   423     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   424 
   425     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   426     continues searching for genuine ones.
   427 
   428     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   429     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   430     show genuine counterexamples.
   431 
   432   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   433     value generators for a given type and operations.
   434 
   435     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   436     constructors of that type.
   437 
   438   - Support for multisets.
   439 
   440   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   441 
   442   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   443     conjectures in a locale context.
   444 
   445 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   446 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   447 
   448 * Sledgehammer:
   449   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   450     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   451   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   452   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   453     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   454   - Sped up the minimizer.
   455   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   456   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   457   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   458 
   459 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   460 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   461 
   462 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   463 
   464 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   465 
   466 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   467 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   468 
   469   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   470 
   471 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   472 a list and a nat.
   473 
   474 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   475 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   476 
   477 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   478 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   479 default.
   480 
   481 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   482 
   483   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   484 
   485 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   486 
   487 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   488 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   489 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   490 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   491 one_case.
   492 
   493 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   494 the result of the fact expression.
   495 
   496 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   497 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   498 of some relation theorems:
   499 
   500   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   501   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   502   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   503   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   504   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   505   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   506 
   507 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   508 
   509 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   510 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   511 
   512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   513 
   514 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   515 to match the constant's name:
   516 
   517   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   518   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   519   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   520   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   521   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   522   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   523   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   524   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   525   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   526   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   527   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   528   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   529   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   530   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   531   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   532   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   533   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   534   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   535   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   536   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   537   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   538   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   539   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   540   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   541 
   542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   543 
   544 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   545 and corresponding theorem names:
   546 
   547   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   548 
   549   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   550 
   551   - Renamed theorems:
   552 
   553     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   554     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   555     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   556     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   557     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   558     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   559     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   560     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   561     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   562     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   563     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   564     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   565     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   566     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   567     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   568     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   569     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   570     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   571     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   572     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   573     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   574     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   575     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   576 
   577     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   578 
   579     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   580 
   581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   582 
   583 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   584 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   585 
   586   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   587   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   588   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   589   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   590   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   591   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   592   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   593   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   594   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   595   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   596   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   597   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   598   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   599   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   600   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   601   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   602   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   603   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   604   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   605   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   606   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   607 
   608 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   609 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   610 
   611 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   612 
   613 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   614 
   615   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   616   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   617   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   618   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   619   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   620   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   621   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   622   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   623   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   624   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   625   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   626   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   627   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   628   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   629   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   630   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   631   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   632   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   633 
   634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   635 
   636 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   637 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   638 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   639 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   640 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   641 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   642 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   643 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   644 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   645 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   646 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   647 
   648 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   649 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   650 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   651 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   652 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   653 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   654 
   655 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   656 through option types.
   657 
   658 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   659 relations.
   660 
   661 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   662 
   663 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   664 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   665 
   666   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   667   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   668   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   669   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   670   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   671   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   672   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   673   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   674   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   675   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   676   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   677   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   678   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   679   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   680   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   681   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   682   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   683   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   684   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   685   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   686   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   687   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   688   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   689   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   690   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   691   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   692   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   693   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   694   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   695   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   696   zless_le ~> less_le
   697   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   698   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   699   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   700 
   701 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   702 
   703   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   704 
   705 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   706 
   707 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   708 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   709 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   710 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   712 
   713 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   714 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   715 
   716 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   717 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   718 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   719 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   720 follows:
   721 
   722   Operations:
   723   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   724   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   725   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   726   del -> rbt_del
   727   delete -> rbt_delete
   728   ins -> rbt_ins
   729   insert -> rbt_insert
   730   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   731   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   732   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   733   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   734   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   735   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   736   tree_less -> rbt_less
   737   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   738   union -> rbt_union
   739   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   740   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   741 
   742   Lemmas:
   743   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   744   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   745   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   746   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   747   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   748   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   749   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   750   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   751   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   752   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   753   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   754   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   755   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   756   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   757   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   758   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   759   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   760   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   761   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   762   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   763   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   764   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   765   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   766   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   767   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   768   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   769   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   770   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   771   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   772   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   773   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   774   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   775   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   776   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   777   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   778   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   779   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   780   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   781   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   782   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   783   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   784   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   785   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   786   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   787   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   788   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   789   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   790   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   791   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   792   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   793   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   794   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   795   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   796   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   797   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   798   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   799   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   800   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   801   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   802   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   803   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   804   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   805   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   806   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   807   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   808   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   809   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   810   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   811   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   812   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   813   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   814   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   815   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   816   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   817   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   818   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   819   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   820   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   821   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   822   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   823   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   824   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   825   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   826 
   827 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   828 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   829 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   830 
   831   Changed Operations:
   832   float_abs -> abs
   833   float_nprt -> nprt
   834   float_pprt -> pprt
   835   pow2 -> use powr
   836   round_down -> float_round_down
   837   round_up -> float_round_up
   838   scale -> exponent
   839 
   840   Removed Operations:
   841   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   842 
   843   Renamed Lemmas:
   844   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   845   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   846   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   847   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   848   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   849   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   850   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   851   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   852   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   853   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   854   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   855   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   856   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   857   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   858   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   859   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   860   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   861   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   862   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   863   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   864   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   865   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   866   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   867   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   868   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   869   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   870   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   871   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   872   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   873   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   874   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   875   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   876   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   877   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   878   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   879   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   880 
   881   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   882   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   883   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   884   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   885   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   886   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   887   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   888   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   889   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   890   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   891 
   892 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   893 association lists with distinct keys.
   894 
   895 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   896 annotated commands.
   897 
   898 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   899 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   900 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   901 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   902 
   903 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   904 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   905 instead.
   906 
   907   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   908   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   909   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   910   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   911   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   912   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   913   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   914   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   915   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   916   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   917   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   918   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   919   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   920   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   921   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   922   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   923   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   924   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   925   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   926   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   927   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   928   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   929   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   930   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   931   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   932   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   933   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   934   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   935   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   936   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   937   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   938   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   939   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   940   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   941   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   942   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   943   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   944   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   945   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   946   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   947   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   948 
   949 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
   950 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
   951 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
   952 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
   953 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
   954 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
   955 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
   956 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   957 
   958 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
   959 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
   960 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
   961 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
   962 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
   963 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
   964 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
   965 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
   966 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
   967 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
   968 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
   969 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   970 
   971   Renamed constants:
   972   measure -> emeasure
   973   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
   974   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
   975   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
   976   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
   977 
   978   Removed locales:
   979   completeable_measure_space
   980   finite_measure_space
   981   finite_prob_space
   982   finite_product_finite_prob_space
   983   finite_product_sigma_algebra
   984   finite_sigma_algebra
   985   measure_space
   986   pair_finite_prob_space
   987   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
   988   pair_finite_space
   989   pair_sigma_algebra
   990   product_sigma_algebra
   991 
   992   Removed constants:
   993   conditional_space
   994   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   995   image_space
   996   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   997   pair_measure_generator
   998   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
   999   subvimage
  1000 
  1001   Replacement theorems:
  1002   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1003   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1004   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1005   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1006   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1007   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1008   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1009   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1010   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1011   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1012   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1013   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1014   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1015   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1016   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1017   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1018   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1019   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1020   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1021   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1022   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1023   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1024   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1025   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1026   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1027   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1028   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1029   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1030   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1031   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1032   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1033   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1034   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1035   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1036   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1037   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1038   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1039   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1040   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1041   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1042   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1043   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1044   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1045   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1046   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1047   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1048   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1049   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1050   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1051   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1052   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1053   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1054   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1055   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1056   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1057   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1058   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1059   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1060   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1061   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1062   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1063   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1064   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1065   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1066   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1067   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1068   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1069   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1070   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1071   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1072   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1073   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1074   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1075   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1076   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1077   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1078   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1079   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1080   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1081   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1082   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1083   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1084   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1085   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1086   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1087   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1088   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1089   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1090   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1091   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1092   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1093   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1094   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1095   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1096   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1097   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1098   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1099   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1100   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1101   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1102   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1103   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1104   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1105   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1106   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1107   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1108   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1109   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1110   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1111   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1112   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1113   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1114   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1115   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1116   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1117   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1118   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1119   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1120   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1121   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1122   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1123   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1124   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1125   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1126   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1127   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1128   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1129   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1130 
  1131 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1132 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1133 
  1134 
  1135 *** FOL ***
  1136 
  1137 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1138 
  1139 
  1140 *** ZF ***
  1141 
  1142 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1143 analysis.
  1144 
  1145 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1146 
  1147 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1148 
  1149 
  1150 *** ML ***
  1151 
  1152 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1153 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1154 
  1155 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1156 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1157 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1158 
  1159 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1160 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1161 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1162 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1163 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1164 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1165 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1166 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1167 
  1168 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1169 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1170 
  1171 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1172 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1173 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1174 
  1175 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1176 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1177 
  1178 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1179 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1180 context as well.
  1181 
  1182 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1183 
  1184   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1185   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1186   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1187   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1188   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1189   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1190   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1191   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1192   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1193   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1194   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1195   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1196 
  1197 
  1198 *** System ***
  1199 
  1200 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1201 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1202 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1203 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1204 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1205 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1206 the generic user home was intended.
  1207 
  1208 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1209 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1210 
  1211 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1212 (not just JRE).
  1213 
  1214 
  1215 
  1216 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1217 ------------------------------------
  1218 
  1219 *** General ***
  1220 
  1221 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1222 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1223 
  1224   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1225     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1226     files for checking).
  1227 
  1228   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1229     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1230     positions.
  1231 
  1232   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1233     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1234     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1235 
  1236   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1237     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1238     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1239 
  1240   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1241     cores.
  1242 
  1243   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1244     versions (garbage collection).
  1245 
  1246 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1247 including some remaining limitations.
  1248 
  1249 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1250 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1251 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1252 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1253 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1255 
  1256 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1257 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1258 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1259 
  1260 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1261 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1262 usedir option -Q.
  1263 
  1264 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1265 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1266 
  1267   long_names   ~> names_long
  1268   short_names  ~> names_short
  1269   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1270 
  1271 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1272 
  1273   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1274 
  1275 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1276 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1277 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1278 
  1279 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1280 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1281 
  1282 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1283   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1284   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1285   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1286     "Classical Reasoner".
  1287 
  1288 
  1289 *** HOL ***
  1290 
  1291 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1292 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1293 
  1294 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1295 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1296 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1297 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1298 class complete_linorder.
  1299 
  1300 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1301 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1302 
  1303 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1304 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1305 
  1306   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1307   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1308   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1309   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1310   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1311   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1312   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1313   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1314   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1315   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1316   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1317 
  1318 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1319 
  1320   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1321   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1322   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1323   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1324   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1325   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1326   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1327   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1328   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1329   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1330   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1331   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1332   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1333   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1334   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1335   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1336 
  1337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1338 
  1339 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1341 
  1342 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1343 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1344 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1345 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1346 
  1347 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1348 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1349 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1351 
  1352 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1353 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1354 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1355 
  1356 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1357 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1358 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1359 
  1360 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1361 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1362 
  1363 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1364 
  1365     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1366     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1367 
  1368 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1369 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1370 
  1371 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1372 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1373 
  1374 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1375 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1376 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1377 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1378 
  1379   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1380   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1381   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1382   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1383   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1384   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1385   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1386 
  1387 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1388 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1389 
  1390   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1391   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1392   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1393   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1394   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1395   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1396   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1397   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1398   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1399   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1400   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1401   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1402   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1403   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1404   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1405   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1406   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1407   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1408   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1409   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1410   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1411   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1412   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1413   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1414   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1415   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1416   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1417   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1418   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1419   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1420   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1421   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1422   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1423   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1424   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1425   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1426   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1427   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1428   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1429   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1430   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1431   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1432   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1433   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1434   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1435   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1436   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1437   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1438   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1439   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1440   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1441   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1442   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1443   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1444   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1445   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1446   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1447   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1448   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1449   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1450   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1451   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1452   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1453   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1454   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1455   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1456   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1457   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1458   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1459   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1460   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1461   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1462   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1463   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1464   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1465   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1466   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1467   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1468   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1469   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1470   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1471   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1472 
  1473 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1474 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1475 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1476 
  1477 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1478 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1479 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1480 
  1481 * Code generation:
  1482 
  1483   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1484     characters in the target language.
  1485 
  1486   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1487     instead.
  1488 
  1489   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1490 
  1491   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1492     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1493 
  1494       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1495 
  1496 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1497 
  1498 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1499 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1500 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1501 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1502 syntax.
  1503 
  1504 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1505 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1506 
  1507 * Nitpick:
  1508   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1509   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1510   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1511     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1512 
  1513 * Sledgehammer:
  1514   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1515   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1516     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1517   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1518     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1519   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1520     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1521   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1522     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1523   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1524     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1525 
  1526 * Metis:
  1527   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1528   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1529     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1530 
  1531 * Command 'try':
  1532   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1533     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1534   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1535     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1536 
  1537 * Quickcheck:
  1538   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1539     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1540   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1541     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1542   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1543     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1544     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1545     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1546   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1547     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1548 
  1549 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1550 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1551 
  1552 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1553 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1554 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1555 
  1556 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1557 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1559 
  1560 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1561 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1562 
  1563 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1564 arithmetic.
  1565 
  1566 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1567 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1568 and lattice type classes.
  1569 
  1570 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1571 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1572 
  1573 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1574 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1575 
  1576 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1577 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1578 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1581   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1582   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1583   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1584 
  1585 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1586 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1587 constants:
  1588 
  1589   type inat   ~> type enat
  1590   Fin         ~> enat
  1591   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1592   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1593   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1594 
  1595 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1596 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1597 
  1598 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1599 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1600 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1601 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1602 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1603 
  1604 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1605 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1606 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1607 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1608 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1609 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1610 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1611 
  1612   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1613   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1614   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1615   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1616 
  1617 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1618 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1619 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1620 
  1621   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1622   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1623   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1624   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1625   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1626   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1627   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1628   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1629   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1630   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1631   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1632   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1633   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1634   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1635   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1636   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1637   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1638   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1639   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1640   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1641   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1642   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1643   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1644   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1645   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1646   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1647   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1648   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1649   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1650   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1651   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1652   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1653   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1654   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1655   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1656   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1657   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1658   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1659   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1660   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1661   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1662   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1663   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1664   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1665   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1666   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1667   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1668   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1669   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1670   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1671   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1672 
  1673 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1674   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1675   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1676   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1677   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1678     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1679 
  1680 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1681 
  1682   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1683   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1684   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1685   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1686   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1687   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1688   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1689   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1690   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1691   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1692   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1693   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1694   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1695   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1696   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1697   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1698   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1699   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1700   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1701   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1702   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1703   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1704   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1705   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1706   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1707 
  1708 
  1709 *** Document preparation ***
  1710 
  1711 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1712 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1713 same.
  1714 
  1715 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1716 result.
  1717 
  1718 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1719 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1720 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1721 
  1722 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1723 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1724 
  1725 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1726 like this:
  1727 
  1728   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1729   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1730 
  1731 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1732 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1733 layouts.
  1734 
  1735 
  1736 *** ML ***
  1737 
  1738 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1739 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1740 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1741 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1742 under external program control.
  1743 
  1744 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1745 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1746 
  1747 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1748 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1749 (better known as Proof General).
  1750 
  1751 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1752 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1753 
  1754 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1755 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1756 
  1757 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1758 (including quotes etc.).
  1759 
  1760 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1761 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1762 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1763 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1764 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1765 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1766 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1767 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1768 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1769 
  1770 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1771 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1772 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1773 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1774 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1775 
  1776 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1777 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1778 
  1779 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1780 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1781 
  1782 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1783 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1784 
  1785 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1786 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1787 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1788 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1789 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1790 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1791 proper Proof.context.
  1792 
  1793 
  1794 *** System ***
  1795 
  1796 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1797 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1798 
  1799 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1800 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1801 
  1802 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1803 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1804 
  1805   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1806   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1807   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1808   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1809   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1810 
  1811 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1812 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1813 
  1814 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1815 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1816 example:
  1817 
  1818   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1819 
  1820 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1821 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1822 
  1823 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1824 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1825 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1826 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1827 
  1828 
  1829 
  1830 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1831 ----------------------------------
  1832 
  1833 *** General ***
  1834 
  1835 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1836 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1837 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1838 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1839 like this:
  1840 
  1841   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1842 
  1843 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1844 
  1845 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1846 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1847 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1848 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1849 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1850 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1851 
  1852 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1853 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1854 the following package declarations:
  1855 
  1856   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1857   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1858 
  1859 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1860 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1861 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1862 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1863 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1864 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1865 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1866 
  1867 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1868 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1869 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1870 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1871 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1872 
  1873 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1874 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1875 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1876 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1877 
  1878 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1879 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1880 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1881 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1882 
  1883   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1884 
  1885   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1886   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1887   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1888   show_types                    show_types
  1889   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1890   show_consts                   show_consts
  1891   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1892 
  1893   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1894   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1895   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1896 
  1897   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1898   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1899 
  1900   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1901 
  1902   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1903   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1904   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1905   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1906   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1907 
  1908 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1909 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1910 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1911 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1912 
  1913 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1915 
  1916   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1917   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1918 
  1919 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1920 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1921 float_token.
  1922 
  1923 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1924 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1926 
  1927 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1928 DejaVu Sans.
  1929 
  1930 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1931 
  1932 
  1933 *** Pure ***
  1934 
  1935 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1936 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1937 time.
  1938 
  1939 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1940 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1941 
  1942 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1943 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1944 
  1945 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1946 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1947 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1948 command already provided this functionality.
  1949 
  1950 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1951 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1952 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1953 without interpretations.
  1954 
  1955 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1956 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1957 
  1958 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1959 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1960 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1961 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1962 
  1963 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1964 'definition' instead.
  1965 
  1966 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1967 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1968 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1969 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1970 
  1971 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1972 constructors.
  1973 
  1974 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1975 the local file system.
  1976 
  1977 
  1978 *** HOL ***
  1979 
  1980 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1981 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1982 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1983 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1984 
  1985   declare [[coercion f]]
  1986 
  1987 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1988 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1989 
  1990   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1991 
  1992 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1993 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1994 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1995 other theories like this:
  1996 
  1997   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1998 
  1999 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2000 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2001 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2002 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2003 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2004 for examples.
  2005 
  2006 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2007 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2008 
  2009 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2010 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2011 
  2012 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2013 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2014 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2015 
  2016 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2017 functorial structure of types.
  2018 
  2019 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2020 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2021 
  2022 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2023 languages.
  2024 
  2025 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2026 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2028 
  2029 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2030 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2031 
  2032 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2033 combinators any longer.
  2034 
  2035 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2036 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2037 
  2038 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2039 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2040 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2041 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2042 
  2043   record 'a foo = ...
  2044   ...
  2045   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2046 
  2047 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2048 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2050 
  2051 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2052 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2053 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2054 
  2055 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2056 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2057 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2058 
  2059 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2060 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2061 
  2062 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2063 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2064 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2065 independently.
  2066 
  2067 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2068 counter example search.
  2069 
  2070 * Sledgehammer:
  2071   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2072     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2073     sledgehammer").
  2074   - Renamed commands:
  2075     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2076     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2077     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2078     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2079   - Renamed options:
  2080     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2081     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2082     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2083     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2084     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2085 
  2086 * Nitpick:
  2087   - Renamed options:
  2088     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2089     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2090     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2091   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2092   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2093   - Added "whack" option.
  2094   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2095   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2096   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2097   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2098     higher cardinalities.
  2099   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2100 
  2101 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2102 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2103 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2104 
  2105     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2106 
  2107 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2108 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2109 
  2110 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2111 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2112 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2113 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2114 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2115 "smt_solver".
  2116 
  2117 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2118 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2119 
  2120 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2121 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2122 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2123 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2124 
  2125 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2126   - Renamed:
  2127     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2128     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2129     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2130   - Added:
  2131     smt_verbose
  2132     smt_random_seed
  2133     smt_datatypes
  2134     smt_infer_triggers
  2135     smt_monomorph_limit
  2136     cvc3_options
  2137     remote_cvc3_options
  2138     remote_z3_options
  2139     yices_options
  2140 
  2141 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2142 header.
  2143 
  2144 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2145 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2146 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2147 
  2148   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2149 
  2150 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2151 
  2152 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2153 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2154 
  2155 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2156 
  2157 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2158 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2159 
  2160 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2161 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2162 
  2163 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2164 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2165 
  2166 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2167 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2168 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2169 
  2170 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2171 
  2172 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2174 
  2175 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2176 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2177 
  2178 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2179 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2180 for congruent(2)).
  2181 
  2182 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2183 
  2184   types
  2185     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2186     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2187 
  2188   constants
  2189     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2190     True ~> HOL.True
  2191     False ~> HOL.False
  2192     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2193     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2194     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2195     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2196     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2197     The ~> HOL.The
  2198     All ~> HOL.All
  2199     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2200     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2201     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2202     If ~> HOL.If
  2203     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2204     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2205     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2206     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2207     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2208     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2209     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2210     op : ~> Set.member
  2211     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2212 
  2213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2214 
  2215 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2216 
  2217     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2218     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2219     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2220     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2221     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2222     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2223     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2224     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2225 
  2226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2227 
  2228 * More stylized fact names:
  2229 
  2230   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2231   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2232   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2233   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2234 
  2235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2236 
  2237 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2238 
  2239   constants
  2240     null ~> List.null
  2241 
  2242   facts
  2243     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2244     null_empty ~> null_def
  2245 
  2246 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2247 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2248 generation.
  2249 
  2250 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2251 Haskell code.
  2252 
  2253 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2254 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2255 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2256 
  2257 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2258 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2259 
  2260 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2261 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2262 
  2263 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2264 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2265 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2266 
  2267 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2268 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2269 
  2270 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2271 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2272 
  2273 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2274 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2275 referred to by its qualified name.
  2276 
  2277   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2278   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2279   product ~>  Enum.product
  2280 
  2281 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2282 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2284 
  2285 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2286 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2287 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2289 
  2290 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2291 sort_key.
  2292 
  2293 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2295 
  2296 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2297 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2298 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2299 
  2300   types
  2301     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2302               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2303               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2304         (depends on your needs)
  2305 
  2306   constants
  2307      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2308      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2309      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2310 
  2311 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2312 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2313 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2314 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2315 
  2316 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2317 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2318 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2319 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2320 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2321 
  2322 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2323 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2324 
  2325 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2326 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2327 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2328 
  2329 
  2330 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2331 
  2332 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2333 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2334 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2335 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2336 compatibility.
  2337 
  2338 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2339 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2340 
  2341 
  2342 *** HOLCF ***
  2343 
  2344 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2345 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2346 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2347 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2348 
  2349 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2350 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2351 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2352 
  2353   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2354   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2355   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2356 
  2357 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2358 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2359 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2360 
  2361 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2362 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2363 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2364 domain definition now works:
  2365 
  2366   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2367 
  2368 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2369 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2370 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2371 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2372 
  2373   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2374     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2375 
  2376   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2377 
  2378 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2379 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2380 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2381 
  2382 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2383 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2384 
  2385 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2386 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2387 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2388 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2389 
  2390 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2391 
  2392 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2393 
  2394 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2395 
  2396 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2398 
  2399 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2400 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2401 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2402 
  2403 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2404 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2405 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2406 
  2407 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2408 still supported as an input translation.
  2409 
  2410 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2411 
  2412   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2413   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2414   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2415   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2416   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2417   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2418   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2419 
  2420 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2421 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2422 
  2423   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2424   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2425   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2426   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2427   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2428   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2429 
  2430 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2431 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2432 
  2433 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2434 
  2435   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2436   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2437   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2438   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2439 
  2440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2441 
  2442 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2443 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2444 
  2445 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2446 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2447 
  2448   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2449   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2450   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2451   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2452   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2453   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2454   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2455   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2456   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2457   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2458   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2459   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2460   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2461   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2462   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2463   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2464   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2465   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2466   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2467   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2468 
  2469 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2470 
  2471   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2472   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2473   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2474   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2475   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2476   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2477   box_less             ~> box_below
  2478   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2479   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2480   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2481   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2482   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2483   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2484   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2485   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2486   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2487   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2488   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2489   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2490   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2491   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2492   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2493   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2494   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2495   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2496   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2497   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2498   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2499   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2500   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2501   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2502   up_less              ~> up_below
  2503   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2504   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2505   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2506   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2507   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2508   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2509   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2510   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2511   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2512   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2513   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2514   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2515   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2516 
  2517 
  2518 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2519 
  2520 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2521 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2522 
  2523 
  2524 *** ML ***
  2525 
  2526 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2527 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2528 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2529 
  2530 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2531 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2532 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2533 
  2534 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2535 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2536 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2537 
  2538 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2539 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2540 
  2541 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2542 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2543 
  2544 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2545 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2546 
  2547 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2548 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2549 
  2550 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2551 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2552 almost all situations.
  2553 
  2554 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2555 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2556 Isabelle/ML.
  2557 
  2558 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2559 meaning.
  2560 
  2561 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2562 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2563 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2564 
  2565 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2566 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2567 
  2568 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2569 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2570 
  2571 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2572 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2573 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2574 
  2575 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2576 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2577 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2578 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2579 configuration options.
  2580 
  2581 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2582 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2583 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2584 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2585 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2586 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2587 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2588 
  2589 
  2590 
  2591 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2592 ---------------------------------
  2593 
  2594 *** General ***
  2595 
  2596 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2597 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2598 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2599 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2600 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2601 their full internal name.
  2602 
  2603 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2604 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2605 Some hints on upgrading:
  2606 
  2607   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2608     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2609     which are independent of this issue.
  2610 
  2611   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2612     provides the following special forms:
  2613 
  2614       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2615       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2616       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2617 
  2618     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2619     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2620     extra variables".
  2621 
  2622     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2623     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2624     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2625     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2626     "logic".
  2627 
  2628   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2629     antiquotations:
  2630 
  2631       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2632       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2633       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2634       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2635 
  2636   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2637     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2638     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2639     antiquotations.
  2640 
  2641 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2642 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2643 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2644 diagnose syntax problems.
  2645 
  2646 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2647 
  2648 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2649 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2650 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2651 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2652 
  2653 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2654 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2655 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2656 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2657 
  2658 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2659 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2660 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2661 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2662 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2663 
  2664 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2665 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2666 
  2667 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2668 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2669 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2670 
  2671   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2672 
  2673 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2674 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2675 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2676 
  2677 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2678 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2679 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2680 
  2681 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2682 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2683 
  2684 
  2685 *** Pure ***
  2686 
  2687 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2688 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2689 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2690 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2691 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2692 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2693 inspect proof terms.
  2694 
  2695 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2696 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2697 are added internally.  For example:
  2698 
  2699   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2700 
  2701 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2702 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703 
  2704 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2705 
  2706 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2707 'class' instead.
  2708 
  2709 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2710 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2712 
  2713 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2714 invariants.
  2715 
  2716 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2717 user space functionality any longer.
  2718 
  2719 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2720 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2722 
  2723 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2724 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2725 
  2726 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2727 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2728 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2729 
  2730 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2731 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2732 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2733 
  2734 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2735 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2736 
  2737 
  2738 *** HOL ***
  2739 
  2740 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2741 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2742 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2743 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2744 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2745 
  2746 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2747 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2748 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2749 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2750 
  2751   fun
  2752     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2753   where
  2754     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2755 
  2756   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2757     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2758 
  2759   quotient_definition
  2760     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2761 
  2762 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2763 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2764 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2765 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2766 
  2767 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2768 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2769 
  2770 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2771 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2772 
  2773 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2775 
  2776 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2777 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2778 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2779 
  2780 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2781 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2782 
  2783 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2785 
  2786 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788 
  2789 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2790 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2791 
  2792 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2793 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2794 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2795 
  2796   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2797   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2798   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2799   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2800   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2801   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2802   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2803   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2804   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2805   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2806   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2807   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2808   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2809   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2810   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2811   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2812   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2813   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2814   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2815   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2816   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2817   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2818   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2819   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2820   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2821   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2822   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2823   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2824   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2825   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2826 
  2827 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2828 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2829 
  2830 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2831 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2832 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2833 
  2834 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2835 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2836 
  2837 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2838 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2839 
  2840 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2841 
  2842 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2843 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2844 
  2845 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2846 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2847 
  2848 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2849 
  2850 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2851 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2852 
  2853 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2854 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2855 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2856 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2857 
  2858 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2859   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2860   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2861   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2862 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2863 
  2864 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2865 lattices):
  2866 
  2867     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2868     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2869 
  2870     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2871 
  2872     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2873     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2874     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2875     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2876     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2877     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2878     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2879     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2880     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2881     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2882     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2883     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2884     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2885 
  2886     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2887     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2888     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2889     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2890     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2891     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2892     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2893     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2894     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2895     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2896     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2897     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2898     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2899     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2900     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2901     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2902     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2903     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2904 
  2905   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2906   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2907 
  2908     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2909     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2910     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2911     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2912     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2913 
  2914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2915 
  2916 * Refined field classes:
  2917   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2918     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2919     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2920   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2921 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2922 
  2923 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2924   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2925   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2926   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2927     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2928   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2929     equal_neg_zero.
  2930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2931 
  2932 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2933 sets to lattices:
  2934 
  2935   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2936   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2937   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2938   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2939   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2940   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2941   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2942   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2943   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2944   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2945 
  2946 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2947 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2948 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2949 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2950 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2951 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2952 
  2953 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2954 multiset order:
  2955 
  2956   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2957     <= and <;
  2958   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2959     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2960     multiset_order;
  2961   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2962     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2963     generation;
  2964   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2965     if needed.
  2966 
  2967 Renamed:
  2968 
  2969   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2970   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2971   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2972 
  2973 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2974 
  2975 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2976 
  2977 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2978 
  2979 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2980 
  2981 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2982 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2983 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2984 
  2985   Constants:
  2986   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2987   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2988   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2989   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2990   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2991   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2992   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2993   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2994   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2995   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2996   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2997   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2998   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2999 
  3000   Lemmas:
  3001   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3002   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3003   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3004   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3005   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3006   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3007   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3008   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3009   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3010   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3011   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3012   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3013   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3014 
  3015 * Sledgehammer:
  3016   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3017     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3018     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3019     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3020     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3021     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3022     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3024   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3025     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3026   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3027     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3028     is still experimental.)
  3029   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3030     full-typed mode.
  3031   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3032 
  3033 * Nitpick:
  3034   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3035   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3036   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3037     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3038   - Added support for quotient types.
  3039   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3040     constructs.
  3041   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3042     "termination" proofs).
  3043   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3044   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3045   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3046   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3047     record getters.
  3048   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3049   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3050   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3051   - Added "atoms" option.
  3052   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3053     problems.
  3054   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3055     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3056     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3057   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3058     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3059   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3060 
  3061 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3062   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3063   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3064   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3065   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3066   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3067   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3068   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3069   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3070   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3071 
  3072 
  3073 *** HOLCF ***
  3074 
  3075 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3076 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3077 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3078 
  3079 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3080 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3081 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3082 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3083 
  3084 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3085 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3086 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3087 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3088 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3089 
  3090 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3091 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3092 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3093 
  3094 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3095 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3096 
  3097   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3098   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3099 
  3100 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3101 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102 
  3103   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3104   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3105   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3106   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3107   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3108 
  3109 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3110 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3111 
  3112   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3113   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3114   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3115 
  3116 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3117 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3119 
  3120 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3121 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3122 
  3123 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3124 
  3125 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3126 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3127 
  3128 
  3129 *** ML ***
  3130 
  3131 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3132 
  3133     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3134     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3135 
  3136     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3137     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3138     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3139     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3140 
  3141     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3142     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3143     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3144 
  3145 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3146 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3147 
  3148 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3149 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3150 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3151 
  3152 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3153 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3154 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3155 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3156 
  3157 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3158 the context or even global references.
  3159 
  3160 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3161 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3162 
  3163 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3164 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3165 
  3166   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3167   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3168   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3169   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3170   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3171   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3172   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3173   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3174   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3175   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3176 
  3177 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3178 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3179 
  3180 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3181 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3182 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3183 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3184 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3185 
  3186 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3187 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3188 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3189 Theory_Data version.
  3190 
  3191 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3192 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3193 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3194 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3195 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3196 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3197 explicitly in rare situations.
  3198 
  3199 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3200 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3202 
  3203 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3204 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3205 
  3206 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3207 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3208 quite rare).
  3209 
  3210 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3211 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3212 
  3213 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3214 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3215 terms.
  3216 
  3217 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3218 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3219 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3220 
  3221 
  3222 *** System ***
  3223 
  3224 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3225 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3226 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3227 
  3228 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3229 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3230 respectively.
  3231 
  3232 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3233 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3234 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3235 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3236 
  3237   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3238 
  3239 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3240 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3241 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3242 component.
  3243 
  3244 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3245 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3246 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3247 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3248 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3249 the user for manual installation.
  3250 
  3251 
  3252 
  3253 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3254 -------------------------------------
  3255 
  3256 *** General ***
  3257 
  3258 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3259 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3260 
  3261 
  3262 *** Pure ***
  3263 
  3264 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3265 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3266 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3267 
  3268 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3269 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3270 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3271 
  3272 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3273 interpretation.
  3274 
  3275 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3276 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277 
  3278 
  3279 *** Document preparation ***
  3280 
  3281 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3282 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3283 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3284 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3285 
  3286 
  3287 *** HOL ***
  3288 
  3289 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3290 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3291 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3292 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3293 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3294 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3295 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3296 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3297 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3298 
  3299 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3300 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3301 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3302 
  3303 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3304 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3305 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3306 
  3307 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3308 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3309 
  3310 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3311 
  3312 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3313 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3314 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3315 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3316 
  3317 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3318 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3319 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3320 "mirabelle" utility.
  3321 
  3322 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3323 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3324 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3325 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3326 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3327 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3328 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3329 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3330 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3331 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3332 
  3333 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3334 procedure only.
  3335 
  3336 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3337 
  3338 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3339 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3340 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3341 that fail later.
  3342 
  3343 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3344 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3345 
  3346 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3347 the same method as the approximation method.
  3348 
  3349 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3350 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3351 series expansion.
  3352 
  3353 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3354 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3355 
  3356 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3357 reals.
  3358 
  3359 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3360 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3361 
  3362 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3363 fixpoint theorem.
  3364 
  3365 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3366   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3367     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3368   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3369     accordingly
  3370   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3371     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3372   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3373     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3374 
  3375 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3376 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3377 lattice.
  3378 
  3379 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3380 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3381 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3382 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3383 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3384 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3385 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3386 
  3387 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3388   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3389     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3390   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3391     le_inf_iff
  3392   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3393     sup_aci)
  3394   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3395   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3396   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3397     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3398     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3399     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3400     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3401     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3402     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3403     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3404     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3405     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3406     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3407   - authentic syntax for
  3408     Set.Pow
  3409     Set.image
  3410   - mere abbreviations:
  3411     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3412     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3413     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3414     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3415     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3416     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3417     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3418     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3419   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3420 
  3421 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3422 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3423 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3424 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3425 
  3426 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3427 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3428 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3429 
  3430 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3431 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3434 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3435 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3436 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3439 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3440 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3441 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3442 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3443 
  3444 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3445 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3447 
  3448 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3449 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450 
  3451 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3452 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3453 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3454 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3455 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3456 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3457 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3459 
  3460 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3461     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3462     code_post       replaces    code post
  3463     etc.
  3464   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3465 
  3466 * Renamed methods:
  3467     sizechange -> size_change
  3468     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3469   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3470 
  3471 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3472 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3473 
  3474 * Renamed theorems:
  3475     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3476     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3477     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3478     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3479     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3480   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3481 
  3482 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3484 
  3485 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3487 
  3488 
  3489 *** HOLCF ***
  3490 
  3491 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3492 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3493 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3494 
  3495 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3496 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3497 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3498 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3499 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3500 
  3501 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3502 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3503 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3504 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3505 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3506 
  3507 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3508 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3509 constructor are pre-configured.
  3510 
  3511 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3512 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3513 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3514 
  3515 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3516 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3517 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3518 as well.)
  3519 
  3520 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3521 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3522 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3523 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3524 examples.
  3525 
  3526 
  3527 *** ML ***
  3528 
  3529 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3530 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3531 
  3532 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3533 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3534 position, logical grouping etc.
  3535 
  3536 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3537 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3538 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3539 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3540 
  3541 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3542 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3543 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3544 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3545 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3546 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3547 
  3548 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3549 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3550 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3551 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3552 experiments with references.
  3553 
  3554 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3555 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3556 
  3557 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3558 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3559 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3560 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3561 
  3562 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3563 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3564 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3565 
  3566 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3567 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3568 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3569 
  3570 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3571 
  3572 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3574 
  3575 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3576 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3577 
  3578 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3579 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3580 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3581 
  3582 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3583 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3584 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3585 
  3586 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3587 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3588 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3589 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3590 
  3591 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3592 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3593 instead of global theory.
  3594 
  3595 
  3596 *** System ***
  3597 
  3598 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3599 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3600 usedir option -q.
  3601 
  3602 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3603 also the system manual.
  3604 
  3605 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3606 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3607 
  3608 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3609 this is always enabled.
  3610 
  3611 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3612 
  3613 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3614 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3615 currently supported on Linux only.
  3616 
  3617 
  3618 
  3619 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3620 --------------------------------
  3621 
  3622 *** General ***
  3623 
  3624 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3625 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3626 
  3627   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3628     "isatool."
  3629 
  3630   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3631     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3632 
  3633   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3634     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3635 
  3636 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3637 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3638 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3639 
  3640 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3641 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3642 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3643 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3644 via "isabelle emacs".
  3645 
  3646 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3647 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3648 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3649 
  3650 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3651 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3652 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3653 
  3654 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3655 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3656 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3657 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3658 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3659 
  3660 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3661 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3662 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3663 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3664 
  3665 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3666 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3667 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3668 
  3669 
  3670 *** Pure ***
  3671 
  3672 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3673 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3674 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3675 
  3676 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3677 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3678 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3679 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3680 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3681 
  3682 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3683 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3684 useful in locale declarations.
  3685 
  3686 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3687 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3688 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3689 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3690 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3691 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3692 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3693 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3694 no longer generated.
  3695 
  3696 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3697 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3698 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3699 
  3700 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3701 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3702 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3703 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3704 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3705 
  3706 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3707 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3708 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3709 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3710 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3711 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3712 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3713 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3714 
  3715 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3716 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3717 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3718 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3719 
  3720 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3721 
  3722 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3723 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3724 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3725 
  3726 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3727 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3728 
  3729 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3730 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3731 in HOL, write
  3732 
  3733     class foo = ...
  3734 
  3735 instead of
  3736 
  3737     class foo = type + ...
  3738 
  3739 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3740 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3741 
  3742 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3743 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3744 
  3745 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3746 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3747 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3748 
  3749 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3750 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3751 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3752 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3753 directly in regular applications.
  3754 
  3755 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3756 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3757 
  3758 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3759 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3760 
  3761 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3762 theory context.
  3763 
  3764 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3765 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3766 
  3767 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3768 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3769 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3770 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3771 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3772 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3773 
  3774   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3775 
  3776 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3777 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3778 normalization.
  3779 
  3780 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3781 addressing etc.
  3782 
  3783 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3784 
  3785   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3786   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3787 
  3788 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3789 
  3790   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3791      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3792      parts of the code generator framework).
  3793 
  3794   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3795      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3796      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3797 
  3798 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3799 
  3800 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3801 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3802 
  3803 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3804 patterns, e.g.
  3805 
  3806     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3807 
  3808 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3809 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3810 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3811 hyphen:
  3812 
  3813     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3814 
  3815 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3816 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3817 
  3818 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3819 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3820 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3821 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3822 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3823 higher-order unification.
  3824 
  3825 
  3826 *** Document preparation ***
  3827 
  3828 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3829 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3830 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3831 
  3832 
  3833 *** HOL ***
  3834 
  3835 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3836 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3837 
  3838 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3839 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3840 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3841 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3842 Main, as before.
  3843 
  3844 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3845 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3846 
  3847 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3848 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3849 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3850 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3851 
  3852 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3853 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3854 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3855 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3856 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3857 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3858 
  3859 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3860 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3861 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3862 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3863 
  3864 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3865 menu.
  3866 
  3867 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3868 (contains the empty clause).
  3869 
  3870 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3871 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3872 
  3873 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3874 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3875 
  3876 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3877 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3878 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3879 
  3880 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3881 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3882 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3883 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3884 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3885 
  3886 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3887 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3888 
  3889 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3890 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3891 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3892 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3893 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3894 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3895 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3896 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3897 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3898 
  3899 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3900 
  3901 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3902 
  3903 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3904 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3905 
  3906 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3907 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3908 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3909 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3910 
  3911 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3912 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3913 
  3914     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3915     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3916     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3917     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3918     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3919     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3920     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3921     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3922 
  3923 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3924 theory Set.
  3925 
  3926 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3927 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3928 
  3929 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3930 
  3931 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3932 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3933 
  3934 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3935 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3936 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3937 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3938 allowed. For examples see
  3939 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3940 
  3941 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3942 
  3943 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3945 
  3946 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3947 structure:
  3948 
  3949     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3950     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3951     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3952     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3953     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3954     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3955     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3956     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3957     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3958     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3959     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3960     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3961     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3962     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3963     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3964     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3965     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3966     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3967     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3968     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3969     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3970     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3971     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3972     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3973     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3974     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3975     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3976     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3977     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3978     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3979     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3980     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3981     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3982 
  3983     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3984     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3985     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3986     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3987     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3988     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3989     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3990     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3991     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3992     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3993 
  3994     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3995     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3996     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3997     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3998     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3999     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4000 
  4001 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4002 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4003 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4004 
  4005 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4006 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4007 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4008 
  4009 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4010 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4011 
  4012 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4013 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4014 
  4015 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4016 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4017 proofs, e.g.
  4018 
  4019   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4020 
  4021 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4022 
  4023 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4024 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4025 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4026 
  4027 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4028 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4029 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4030 
  4031 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4032 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4033 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4034 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035 
  4036 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4037 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4038 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4039 preorder_class.*.
  4040 
  4041 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4042 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4043 
  4044 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4045 
  4046   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4047 
  4048 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4049 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4050 fold_image.
  4051 
  4052 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4053 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4054 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4055 the former will disappear at some point.
  4056 
  4057 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4058 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4059 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4060 
  4061 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4062 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4063 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4064 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4065 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4066 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4067 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4068 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4069 
  4070 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4071 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4072 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4073 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4074 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4075 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4076 
  4077     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4078     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4079     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4080     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4081     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4082     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4083     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4084 
  4085 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4086 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4087 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4088 
  4089 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4090 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4091 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4092 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4093 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4094 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4095 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4096 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4097 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4098 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4099 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4100 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4101 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4102 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4103 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4104 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4105 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4106 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4107 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4108 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4109 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4110 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4111 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4112 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4113 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4114 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4115 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4116 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4117 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4118 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4119 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4120 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4121 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4122 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4123 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4124 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4125 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4126 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4127 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4128 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4129 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4130 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4131 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4132 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4133 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4134 
  4135 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4136 
  4137 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4138 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4139 
  4140 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4141 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4142 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4143 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4144 
  4145 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4146 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4147 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4148 theory RealVector.
  4149 
  4150 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4151 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4152 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4153 and inner products are included.
  4154 
  4155 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4156 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4157 supported.
  4158 
  4159 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4160 first diagonalization argument.
  4161 
  4162 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4163 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4164 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4165 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4166 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4167 
  4168     hide (open) const gcd
  4169     abbreviation gcd where
  4170       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4171     notation (output)
  4172       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4173 
  4174 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4175 
  4176 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4177 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4178 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4179 
  4180 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4181 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4182 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4183 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4184 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4185 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4186 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4187 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4188 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4189 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4190 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4191 cases.
  4192 
  4193 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4194 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4195 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4196 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4197 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4198 
  4199     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4200     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4201     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4202     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4203     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4204 
  4205 
  4206 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4207 
  4208 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4209 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4210 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4211 
  4212 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4213 
  4214 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4215 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4216 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4217 
  4218 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4219 
  4220 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4221 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4222 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4223 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4224 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4225 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4226 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4227 
  4228 
  4229 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4230 
  4231 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4232 
  4233 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4234 theory targets.
  4235 
  4236 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4237 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4238 'inductive' etc.
  4239 
  4240 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4241 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4242 
  4243 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4244 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4245 
  4246 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4247 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4248 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4249 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4250 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4251 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4252 the algorithm W:
  4253 
  4254  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4255  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4256          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4257 
  4258 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4259 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4260 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4261 
  4262 
  4263 *** HOLCF ***
  4264 
  4265 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4266 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4267 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4268 
  4269 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4270 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4271 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4272 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4273 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4274 
  4275 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4276 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4277 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4278 
  4279 
  4280 *** ZF ***
  4281 
  4282 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4283 
  4284 
  4285 *** ML ***
  4286 
  4287 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4288 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4289 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4290 5.2.1!
  4291 
  4292 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4293 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4294 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4295 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4296 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4297 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4298 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4299 
  4300 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4301 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4302 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4303 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4304 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4305 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4306 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4307 
  4308 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4309 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4310 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4311 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4312 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4313 
  4314 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4315 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4316 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4317 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4318 Method.add_method.
  4319 
  4320 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4321 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4322 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4323 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4324 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4325 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4326 
  4327 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4328 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4329 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4330 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4331 examples.
  4332 
  4333 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4334 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4335 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4336 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4337 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4338 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4339 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4340 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4341 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4342 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4343 
  4344 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4345 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4346 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4347 
  4348 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4349 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4350 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4351 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4352 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4353 resort for legacy applications.
  4354 
  4355 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4356 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4357 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4358 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4359 explicit runtime argument.
  4360 
  4361 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4362 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4363 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4364 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4365 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4366 
  4367 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4368 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4369 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4370 theory state.
  4371 
  4372 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4373 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4374 
  4375   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4376   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4377   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4378   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4379   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4380   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4381   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4382   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4383   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4384   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4385 
  4386 
  4387 *** System ***
  4388 
  4389 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4390 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4391 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4392 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4393 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4394 
  4395 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4396 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4397 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4398 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4399 
  4400 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4401 
  4402 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4403 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4404 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4405 prover operations.
  4406 
  4407 
  4408 
  4409 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4410 -------------------------------
  4411 
  4412 *** General ***
  4413 
  4414 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4415 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4416 
  4417 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4418 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4419 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4420 provides a proper context already.
  4421 
  4422 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4423 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4424 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4425 
  4426 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4427 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4428 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4429 swap theory imports.
  4430 
  4431 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4432 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4433 
  4434 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4435 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4436 white space without escapes.
  4437 
  4438 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4439 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4440 "foo_bar".
  4441 
  4442 
  4443 *** Pure ***
  4444 
  4445 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4446 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4447 
  4448 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4449 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4450 
  4451 (1) unused_thms
  4452      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4453 
  4454 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4455      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4456      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4457 
  4458 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4459      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4460      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4461      their ancestors.
  4462 
  4463 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4464 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4465 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4466 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4467 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4468 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4469 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4470 
  4471 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4472 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4473 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4474 
  4475 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4476 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4477 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4478 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4479 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4480 
  4481 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4482 
  4483 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4484 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4485 update of theories within ML code.
  4486 
  4487 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4488 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4489 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4490 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4491 
  4492 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4493 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4494 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4496 
  4497 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4498 
  4499 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4500 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4501 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4502 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4503 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4504 
  4505 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4506 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4507 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4508 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4509 situations.
  4510 
  4511 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4512 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4513 proof text.
  4514 
  4515 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4516 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4517 
  4518 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4519 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4520 predicates.
  4521 
  4522 
  4523 *** Document preparation ***
  4524 
  4525 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4526 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4527 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4528 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4529 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4530 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4531 
  4532 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4533 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4534 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4535 
  4536 
  4537 *** HOL ***
  4538 
  4539 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4540 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4541 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4542 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4543 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4544 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4545 
  4546 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4547 with multithreading.
  4548 
  4549 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4550 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4551 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4552 
  4553 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4554 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4555 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4556 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4557 
  4558 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4559 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4560 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4561 and makes them available separately.  See
  4562 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4563 
  4564 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4565 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4566 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4567 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4568 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4569 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4570 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4571 the declared rules.
  4572 
  4573 This setup also deals with rules like
  4574 
  4575   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4576 
  4577 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4578 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4579 
  4580 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4581 
  4582   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4583 
  4584   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4585     definitions on => and bool.
  4586 
  4587   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4588     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4589     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4590 
  4591       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4592       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4593       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4594       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4595       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4596       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4597       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4598       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4599 
  4600   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4601     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4602     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4603 
  4604   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4605     The proof pattern
  4606 
  4607       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4608       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4609 
  4610     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4611     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4612 
  4613       have "EX S. P S"
  4614       proof
  4615         show "P S" <...>
  4616       qed
  4617 
  4618   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4619     The proof pattern
  4620 
  4621       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4622       also have "S = T" <...>
  4623       finally have "P T" .
  4624 
  4625     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4626     must be replaced by something like
  4627 
  4628       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4629       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4630       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4631 
  4632   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4633     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4634 
  4635       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4636 
  4637     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4638     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4639     type of the form
  4640 
  4641       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4642 
  4643     rather than
  4644 
  4645       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4646 
  4647 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4648 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4649 
  4650 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4651 
  4652 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4653 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4655 
  4656 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4657 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4658 
  4659 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4660 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4661 
  4662 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4663 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4664 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4665 
  4666 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4667 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4668 
  4669   less_trans
  4670   less_linear
  4671   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4672   le_less_trans
  4673   less_le_trans
  4674   less_not_sym
  4675   less_asym
  4676 
  4677 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4678 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4679 and different variable names.
  4680 
  4681 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4682 
  4683 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4684 finite maps.
  4685 
  4686 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4687 
  4688 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4689 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4690 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4691 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4692 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4693 accordingly.
  4694 
  4695 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4696 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4697 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4698 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4699 
  4700 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4701 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4702 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4703 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4704 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4706 
  4707 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4708 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4709 
  4710 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4711 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4712 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4713 
  4714 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4715 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4716 
  4717 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4718 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4719 
  4720 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4721 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4722 
  4723 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4724 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4725 
  4726 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4727 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4728 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4729 
  4730 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4731 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4732 
  4733 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4734 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4735 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4736 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4737 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4738 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4739 
  4740 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4741 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4742 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4743 
  4744 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4745 
  4746 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4747 
  4748 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4749 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4750 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4751 
  4752 
  4753 *** ZF ***
  4754 
  4755 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4756 same session:
  4757 
  4758   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4759   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4760   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4761   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4762   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4763   List      -> List_ZF
  4764   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4765 
  4766 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4767 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4768 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4769 
  4770 
  4771 *** ML ***
  4772 
  4773 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4774 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4775 
  4776 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4777 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4778 
  4779 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4780 
  4781 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4782 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4783 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4784 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4785 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4786 
  4787 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4788 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4789 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4790 
  4791 
  4792 *** System ***
  4793 
  4794 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4795 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4796 
  4797 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4798 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4799 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4800 
  4801 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4802 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4803 
  4804 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4805 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4806 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4807 
  4808 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4809 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4810 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4811 
  4812 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4813 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4814 
  4815 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4816 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4817 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4818 script.
  4819 
  4820 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4821 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4822 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4823 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4824 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4825 
  4826 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4827 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4828 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4829 
  4830 
  4831 
  4832 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4833 -----------------------------------
  4834 
  4835 *** General ***
  4836 
  4837 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4838 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4839 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4840 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4841 
  4842 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4843 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4844 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4845 
  4846 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4847 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4848 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4849 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4850 
  4851 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4852 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4853 quotes.
  4854 
  4855 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4856 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4857 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4858 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4859 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4860 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4861 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4862 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4863 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4864 
  4865 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4866 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4867 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4868 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4869 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4870 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4871 
  4872 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4873 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4874 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4875 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4876 
  4877 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4878 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4879 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4880 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4881 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4882 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4883 
  4884 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4885 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4886 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4887 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4888 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4889 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4890 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4891 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4892 
  4893 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4894 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4895 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4896 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4897 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4898 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4899 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4900 
  4901 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4902 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4903 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4904 
  4905 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4906 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4907 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4908 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4909 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4910 limit is imposed.
  4911 
  4912 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4913 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4914 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4915 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4916 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4917 and scalability.
  4918 
  4919 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4920 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4921 
  4922 
  4923 *** Document preparation ***
  4924 
  4925 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4926 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4927 current context.
  4928 
  4929 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4930 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4931 
  4932 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4933 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4934 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4935 
  4936 
  4937 *** Pure ***
  4938 
  4939 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4940 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4941 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4942 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4943 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4944 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4945 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4946 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4947 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4948 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4949 
  4950 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4951 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4952 sketch:
  4953 
  4954     internal compilation:
  4955         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4956     writing SML code to a file:
  4957         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4958     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4959         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4960     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4961         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4962 
  4963     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4964         method ``eval''
  4965 
  4966 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4967 
  4968 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4969 
  4970     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4971     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4972     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4973     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4974 
  4975 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4976 
  4977     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4978       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4979 
  4980     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4981       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4982 
  4983     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4984       {(target)}+
  4985         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4986 
  4987     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4988       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4989         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4990 
  4991 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4992 
  4993 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4994 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4995 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4996 codegen".
  4997 
  4998 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4999 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5000 annotations).
  5001 
  5002 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5003 syntax.
  5004 
  5005 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5006 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5007 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5008 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5009 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5010 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5011 
  5012 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5013 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5014 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5015 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5016 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5017 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5018 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5019 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5020 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5021 equations, see section "definitions".
  5022 
  5023 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5024 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5025 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5026 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5027 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5028 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5029 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5030 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5031 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5032 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5033 
  5034 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5035 configuration options:
  5036 
  5037   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5038   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5039   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5040   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5041   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5042   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5043   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5044   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5045   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5046 
  5047 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5048 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5049 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5050 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5051 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5052 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5053 order.
  5054 
  5055 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5056 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5057 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5058 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5059 context encountered later on.
  5060 
  5061 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5062 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5063 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5064 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5065 
  5066 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5067 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5068 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5069 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5070 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5071 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5072 
  5073 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5074 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5075 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5076 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5077 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5078 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5079 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5080 more permissive.
  5081 
  5082 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5083 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5084 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5085 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5086 maintainability of proof texts.
  5087 
  5088 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5089 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5090 
  5091   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5092   then guess x and y by clarify
  5093 
  5094 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5095 proof tools being involved here.
  5096 
  5097 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5098 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5099 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5100 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5101 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5102 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5103 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5104 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5105 
  5106 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5107 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5108 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5109 
  5110   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5111   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5112   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5113   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5114 
  5115 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5116 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5117 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5118 
  5119 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5120 both named and unnamed ones.
  5121 
  5122 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5123 
  5124   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5125 
  5126 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5127 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5128 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5129 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5130 
  5131 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5132 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5133 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5134 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5135 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5136 
  5137 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5138 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5139 
  5140 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5141 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5142 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5143 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5144 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5145 originally first one.
  5146 
  5147 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5148 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5149 expected.
  5150 
  5151 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5152 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5153 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5154 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5155 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5156 
  5157   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5158     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5159     obtains x where "P x"
  5160 
  5161   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5162     assumes "A & B"
  5163     obtains A and B
  5164 
  5165   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5166     assumes "A | B"
  5167     obtains
  5168       A
  5169     | B
  5170 
  5171 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5172 explicitly:
  5173 
  5174   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5175     obtains "~ thesis"
  5176 
  5177   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5178     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5179 
  5180 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5181 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5182 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5183 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5184 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5185 case_names).
  5186 
  5187 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5188 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5189 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5190 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5191 
  5192 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5193 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5194 top-level lemma.
  5195 
  5196 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5197 introduction rule (default "that").
  5198 
  5199 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5200 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5201 to occur.
  5202 
  5203 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5204 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5205 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5206 representations independently of name spaces.
  5207 
  5208 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5209 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5210 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5211 
  5212 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5213 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5214 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5215 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5216 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5217 current context.
  5218 
  5219 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5220 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5221 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5222 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5223 
  5224   axiomatization
  5225     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5226     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5227 
  5228   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5229   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5230 
  5231   abbreviation
  5232     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5233     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5234 
  5235 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5236 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5237 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5238 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5239 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5240 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5241 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5242 
  5243 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5244 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5245 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5246 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5247 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5248 
  5249 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5250 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5251 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5252 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5253 
  5254 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5255 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5256 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5257 
  5258   definition "K x _ = x"
  5259 
  5260   inductive conj for A B
  5261   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5262 
  5263 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5264 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5265 abbreviations on output.
  5266 
  5267 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5268 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5269 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5270 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5271 
  5272 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5273 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5274 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5275 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5276 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5277 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5278 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5279 
  5280 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5281 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5282 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5283 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5284 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5285 
  5286 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5287 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5288 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5289 
  5290 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5291 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5292 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5293 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5294 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5295 
  5296   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5297     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5298 
  5299 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5300 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5301 partial_order.
  5302 
  5303 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5304 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5305 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5306 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5307 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5308 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5309 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5310 examples.
  5311 
  5312 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5313 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5314 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5315 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5316 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5317 
  5318 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5319 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5320 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5321 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5322 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5323 
  5324   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5325   (induct set: foo bar)
  5326   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5327   (induct type: foo bar)
  5328 
  5329 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5330 new format.
  5331 
  5332 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5333 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5334 
  5335 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5336 considered a legacy feature.
  5337 
  5338 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5339 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5340 
  5341 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5342 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5343 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5344 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5345 
  5346 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5347 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5348 manipulating the claset.
  5349 
  5350 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5351 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5352 least one premise.
  5353 
  5354 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5355 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5356 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5357 rule steps.
  5358 
  5359 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5360 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5361 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5362 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5363 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5364 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5365 
  5366 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5367 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5368 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5369 
  5370 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5371 the graph browser tool.
  5372 
  5373 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5374 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5375 
  5376 
  5377 *** HOL ***
  5378 
  5379 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5380 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5381 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5382 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5383 multi-threading.
  5384 
  5385 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5386 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5387 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5388 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5389 work with multi-threading.
  5390 
  5391 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5392 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5393 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5394 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5395 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5396 
  5397 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5398 
  5399 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5400 equality.
  5401 
  5402 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5403 the new 'class' package:
  5404 
  5405     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5406     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5407     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5408     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5409     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5410     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5411     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5412     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5413     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5414     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5415     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5416     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5417     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5418     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5419     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5420     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5421     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5422     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5423     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5424     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5425 
  5426 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5427 
  5428 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5429 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5430 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5431 names.
  5432 
  5433 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5434 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5435 
  5436 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5437 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5438 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5439 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5440 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5441 
  5442 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5443 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5444 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5445 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5446 
  5447 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5448 
  5449 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5450 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5451 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5452 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5454 
  5455 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5456 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5457 
  5458 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5459 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5460 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5461 
  5462 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5463 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5464 
  5465 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5466 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5467 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5468 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5469 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5470 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5471 in the current context.
  5472 
  5473 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5474 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5475 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5476 
  5477 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5478 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5479 
  5480 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5481 
  5482     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5483     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5484 
  5485     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5486       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5487     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5488     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5489 
  5490     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5491     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5492 
  5493   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5494 
  5495     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5496     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5497     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5498     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5499     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5500     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5501     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5502     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5503     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5504     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5505     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5506     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5507     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5508     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5509     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5510     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5511     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5512     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5513     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5514     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5515     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5516     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5517     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5518     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5519     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5520     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5521     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5522     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5523     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5524     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5525     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5526     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5527     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5528     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5529     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5530 
  5531     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5532     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5533     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5534     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5535     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5536     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5537     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5538     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5539     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5540     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5541     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5542     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5543     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5544     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5545     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5546     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5547     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5548 
  5549     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5550     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5551     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5552     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5553     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5554     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5555     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5556     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5557     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5558     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5559     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5560     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5561     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5562     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5563     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5564     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5565     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5566     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5567     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5568     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5569     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5570     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5571     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5572     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5573     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5574     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5575     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5576     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5577 
  5578     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5579     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5580     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5581     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5582     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5583     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5584 
  5585     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5586     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5587     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5588     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5589 
  5590     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5591     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5592 
  5593     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5594     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5595 
  5596 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5597 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5598 
  5599 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5600 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5601 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5602 "*.size".
  5603 
  5604 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5606 
  5607 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5608 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5609 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5610 
  5611 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5612 
  5613 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5614 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5615 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5616 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5617 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5618 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5619 numerals on all operations.
  5620 
  5621 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5622 
  5623 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5624 
  5625 * Code generator library theories:
  5626   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5627     languages.
  5628   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5629     languages.
  5630   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5631     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5632   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5633   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5634     denominator).
  5635   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5636     representable by rational numbers.
  5637   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5638     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5639     includes Code_Integer.
  5640   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5641     target-language built-in integers.
  5642   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5643     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5644 
  5645 * New package for inductive predicates
  5646 
  5647   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5648 
  5649     inductive
  5650       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5651       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5652     where
  5653       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5654     | ...
  5655 
  5656   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5657 
  5658     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5659 
  5660     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5661     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5662 
  5663     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5664     intros
  5665       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5666       ...
  5667 
  5668   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5669   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5670 
  5671     inductive_set
  5672       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5673       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5674     where
  5675       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5676     | ...
  5677 
  5678   or
  5679 
  5680     inductive_set
  5681       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5682       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5683       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5684     where
  5685       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5686     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5687     | ...
  5688 
  5689   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5690 
  5691   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5692   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5693 
  5694   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5695 
  5696   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5697     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5698     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5699     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5700     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5701 
  5702   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5703     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5704     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5705     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5706     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5707     statements of the form
  5708 
  5709       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5710 
  5711     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5712     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5713 
  5714       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5715 
  5716   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5717 
  5718       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5719         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5720         ==> ... ==> P
  5721 
  5722     for predicates and
  5723 
  5724       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5725         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5726         ==> ... ==> P
  5727 
  5728     for sets rather than
  5729 
  5730       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5731         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5732         ==> ... ==> P
  5733 
  5734     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5735     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5736     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5737 
  5738   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5739     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5740     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5741 
  5742 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5743 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5744 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5745 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5746 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5747 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5748 
  5749 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5750 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5751 
  5752 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5753 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5754 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5755 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5756 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5757 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5758 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5759 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5760 variable.
  5761 
  5762 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5763 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5764 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5765 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5766   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5767   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5768 
  5769 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5770 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5771 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5772 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5773 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5774 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5775 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5776 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5777 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5778 
  5779 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5780 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5781 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5782 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5783 rat, etc.
  5784 
  5785 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5786 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5787 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5788 
  5789 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5790 
  5791 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5792 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5793 
  5794 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5795 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5796 
  5797 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5798 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5799 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5800 
  5801 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5802 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5804 
  5805 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5806 
  5807 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5808 
  5809 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5810 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5811 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5812 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5813 
  5814 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5815 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5816 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5817 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5818 
  5819 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5820 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5821 algebraic operations.
  5822 
  5823 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5824 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5825 
  5826 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5827 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5828 
  5829 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5830 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5831 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5832 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5833 adapted.
  5834 
  5835 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5836 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5837 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5838 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5839 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5840 
  5841 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5842 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5843 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5844 
  5845 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5846 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5847 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5848 
  5849 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5850 
  5851 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5852 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5853 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5854   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5855       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5856   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5857   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5858   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5859 
  5860 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5861 
  5862 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5863 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5864 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5865 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5866 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5867 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5868 
  5869 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5870 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5871 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5872 
  5873 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5874 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5875 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5877 
  5878 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5879 
  5880 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5881 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5882 
  5883 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5884 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5885 
  5886 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5887 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5888 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5889 
  5890 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5891 True/False.
  5892 
  5893 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5894 
  5895 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5896 
  5897 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5898 ``rule'' method.
  5899 
  5900 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5901 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5902 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5903 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5904 
  5905 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5906 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5907 
  5908 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5909 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5910 
  5911 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5912 Library.
  5913 
  5914 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5915 
  5916 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5917 as greatest fixed-point.
  5918 
  5919 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5920 association lists.
  5921 
  5922 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5923 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5924 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5925 
  5926 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5927 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5928 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5929 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5930 behavior.
  5931 
  5932 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5933 
  5934 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5935 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5936 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5937 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5938 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5939 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5940 
  5941 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5942 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5943 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5944 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5945 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5946 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5947 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5948 
  5949 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5950 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5951 
  5952 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5953 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5954 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5955 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5956 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5957 
  5958 
  5959 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5960 
  5961 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5962 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5963 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5964 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5965 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5966 
  5967 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5968 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5969 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5970 
  5971 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5972 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5973 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5974 
  5975 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5976 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5977 
  5978 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5979 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5980 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5981 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5982 
  5983   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5984   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5985   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5986   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5987   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5988   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5989   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5990   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5991   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5992   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5993   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5994   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5995   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5996   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5997   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5998 
  5999 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6000 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6001 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6002 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6003 
  6004   approx        <-- capprox
  6005   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6006   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6007   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6008   monad         <-- cmonad
  6009   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6010   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6011   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6012   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6013 
  6014 
  6015 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6016 
  6017 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6018 
  6019 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6021 
  6022 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6023 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6024 
  6025 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6026 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6027 of algebraic structures.
  6028 
  6029 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6030 
  6031 
  6032 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6033 
  6034 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6035 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6036 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6037 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6038 
  6039 
  6040 *** ML ***
  6041 
  6042 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6043 (even on SML/NJ).
  6044 
  6045 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6046 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6047 compile-time.  For example:
  6048 
  6049 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6050 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6051 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6052 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6053 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6054 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6055 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6056 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6057 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6058 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6059 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6060 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6061 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6062 ML {* @{context} *}
  6063 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6064 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6065 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6066 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6067 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6068 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6069 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6070 
  6071 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6072 
  6073 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6074 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6075 
  6076 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6077 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6078 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6079 
  6080 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6081 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6082 
  6083 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6084 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6085 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6086 
  6087 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6088 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6089 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6090 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6091 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6092 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6093 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6094 declarations and definitions.
  6095 
  6096 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6097 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6098 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6099 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6100 
  6101 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6102 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6103 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6104 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6105 
  6106 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6107 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6108 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6109 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6110 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6111 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6112 
  6113 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6114 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6115 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6116 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6117 attributes, methods, etc.
  6118 
  6119 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6120 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6121 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6122 fold_map combinators.
  6123 
  6124 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6125 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6126 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6127 derivation.
  6128 
  6129 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6130 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6131 achieve the old behaviour.
  6132 
  6133 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6134 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6135 statements.
  6136 
  6137 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6138 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6139 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6140 
  6141 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6142 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6143 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6144 
  6145   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6146   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6147   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6148 
  6149 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6150 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6151 
  6152 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6153 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6154 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6155 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6156 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6157 
  6158 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6159 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6160 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6161 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6162 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6163 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6164 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6165 in a locale context).
  6166 
  6167 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6168 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6169 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6170 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6171 
  6172 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6173 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6174 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6175 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6176 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6177 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6178 
  6179 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6180 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6181 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6182 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6183 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6184 
  6185   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6186 
  6187 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6188 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6189 this:
  6190 
  6191   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  6192 
  6193 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  6194 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  6195 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  6196 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  6197 
  6198 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  6199 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  6200 
  6201 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  6202 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  6203 
  6204 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  6205 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  6206 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  6207 batch mode.
  6208 
  6209 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  6210 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  6211 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  6212 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6213 
  6214 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  6215 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  6216 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  6217 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  6218 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  6219 
  6220 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  6221 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  6222 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  6223 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  6224 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  6225 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  6226 
  6227 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  6228 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  6229 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  6230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6231 
  6232 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  6233 "Trueprop" etc.
  6234 
  6235 
  6236 *** System ***
  6237 
  6238 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  6239 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  6240 Is