NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu Jan 03 14:23:10 2013 +0100 (2013-01-03)
changeset 50701 054f6bf349d2
parent 50646 c02e6a75aa3f
child 50716 e04c44dc11fc
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS: ML runtime statistics;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    42 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    43 
    44 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    45 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    49 
    50 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    51 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    52 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    53 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    54 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    55 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    56 
    57 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    58 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    59 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    60 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    61 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    62 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    63 
    64 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    65 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    66 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    67 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    68 
    69 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    70 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    71 
    72 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
    73 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
    74 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    75 potentially infinite message streams.
    76 
    77 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    78 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    79 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    80 schemes.
    81 
    82 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    83 symbols.
    84 
    85 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.
    86 
    87 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
    88 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
    89 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
    90 
    91 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
    92 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
    93 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS.
    94 
    95 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
    96 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
    97 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
    98 Isabelle distribution.
    99 
   100 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   101 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   102 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   103 
   104 
   105 *** Pure ***
   106 
   107 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   108 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   109 
   110 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   111 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   112 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   113 
   114 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   115 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   116 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   117 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   118 with some care where this is really required.
   119 
   120 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   121 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   122 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   123 
   124   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   125 
   126 
   127 *** HOL ***
   128 
   129 * Sledgehammer:
   130 
   131   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   132     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   133   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   134   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   135   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill".
   136   - Renamed options:
   137       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   138       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   139       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   140       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   141 
   142 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   143 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   144 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   145 
   146 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   147 expressions.
   148 
   149 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   150 pointfree expressions.
   151 
   152 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   153 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   154 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   155 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   156 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   157 
   158 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   159 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   160 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   161 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   162 accordingly.
   163 
   164 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   165 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   166 
   167 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   168 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   169 
   170 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   171 
   172 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   173 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   174 
   175 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   176 
   177 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   178 
   179   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   180   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   181 
   182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   183 
   184 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   185 
   186   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   187   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   188 
   189 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   190 
   191 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   192 
   193   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   194     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   195     output f x converges to G.
   196 
   197   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   198     infinity (at_bot).
   199 
   200   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   201     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   202 
   203   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   204     at_top".
   205 
   206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   209 lattice type classes.
   210 
   211 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   212 
   213     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   214     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   215 
   216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   217 
   218 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   219 changes as follows.
   220 
   221   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   222 
   223       prefix ~> prefixeq
   224       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   225 
   226   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   227     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   228     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   229     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   230 
   231   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   232     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   233     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   234 
   235   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   236     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   237     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   238     Library/Prefix_Order.
   239 
   240   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   241     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   242 
   243       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   244       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   245       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   246       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   247       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   248       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   249       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   250       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   251       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   252       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   253       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   254       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   255       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   256       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   257       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   258       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   259 
   260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 
   263 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   264 
   265 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   266 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   267 
   268 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   269 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   270 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   271 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   272 
   273   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   274   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   275   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   276   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   277   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   278   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   279   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   280   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   281   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   282   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   283 
   284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   285 
   286 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   287 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   288 Data").
   289 
   290 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   291 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   292 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   293 code.
   294 
   295 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   296 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   297 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   299 
   300 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   301 
   302 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   303 
   304 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   305 
   306   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   307   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   308 
   309 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   310 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   311 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   312 
   313   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   314 
   315     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   316     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   317     cart_base i  removed
   318     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   319 
   320   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   321 
   322   Renamed lemmas:
   323 
   324     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   325     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   326     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   327     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   328     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   329     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   330     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   331     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   332     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   333     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   334 
   335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   336 
   337 * HOL/Probability:
   338 
   339   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   340 
   341   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   342     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   343     (borel_measurable_induct).
   344 
   345   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   346     projective family).
   347 
   348 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   349 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   350 
   351 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   352 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   353 datatypes.
   354 
   355 
   356 *** Document preparation ***
   357 
   358 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   359 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   360 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   361 
   362 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   363 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   364 
   365 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   366 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   367 document/root.tex.
   368 
   369 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   370 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   371 
   372 
   373 *** ML ***
   374 
   375 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   376 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   377 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   378 
   379 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   380 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   381 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   382 
   383 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   384 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   385 necessarily printing visible text.
   386 
   387 
   388 *** System ***
   389 
   390 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   391 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   392 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   393 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   394 
   395 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   396 
   397 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   398 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   399 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   400 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   401 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   402 
   403 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   404 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   405 
   406   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   407 
   408 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   409 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   410 
   411 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   412 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   413 "isabelle usedir".
   414 
   415 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   416 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   417 
   418 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   420 
   421 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   422 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   423 version of Isabelle.
   424 
   425 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   426 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   427 
   428 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   429 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   430 for home-made settings.
   431 
   432 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   433 
   434 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   435 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   436 configuration.
   437 
   438 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   439 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   440 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   441 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   442 bundled as Isabelle component.
   443 
   444 
   445 
   446 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   447 ------------------------------
   448 
   449 *** General ***
   450 
   451 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   452 
   453   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   454     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   455   - markup for bound variables
   456   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   457   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   458   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   459     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   460 
   461 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   462 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   463 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   464 
   465 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   466 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   467 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   468 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   469 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   470 
   471   context
   472     fixes x y z :: 'a
   473     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   474   begin
   475 
   476   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   477 
   478   end
   479 
   480   thm my_trans
   481 
   482 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   483 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   484 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   485 
   486 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   487 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   488 
   489 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   490 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   491 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   492 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   493 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   494 
   495 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   496 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   497 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   498 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   499 indices of schematic variables.
   500 
   501 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   502 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   503 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   504 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   505 etc. was exploited.
   506 
   507 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   508 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   509 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   510 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   511 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   512 of the material of that old tutorial.
   513 
   514 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   515 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   516 manual.
   517 
   518 
   519 *** Pure ***
   520 
   521 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   522 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   523 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   524 
   525 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   526 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   527 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   528 undocumented feature.)
   529 
   530 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   531 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   532 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   533 
   534   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   535 
   536   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   537     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   538 
   539 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   540 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   541 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   542 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   543 
   544 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   545 
   546     num ~> num_token
   547     xnum ~> xnum_token
   548     xstr ~> str_token
   549 
   550 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   551 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   552 position information via constraints).
   553 
   554 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   555 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   556 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   557 
   558 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   559 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   560 
   561 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   562 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   563 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   564 
   565 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   566 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   567 
   568 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   569 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   570 
   571   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   572 
   573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   574 
   575 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   576 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   577 
   578 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   579 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   580 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   581 
   582 
   583 *** HOL ***
   584 
   585 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   586 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   587 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   588 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   589 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   590 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   591 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   592 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   593 possible.
   594 
   595 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   596 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   597 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   598 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   599 
   600 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   601 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   602 
   603 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   604 
   605 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   606 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   607 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   608 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   609 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   610 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   611 
   612   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   613     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   614 
   615   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   616     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   617     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   618 
   619   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   620     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   621 
   622   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   623     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   624     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   625 
   626   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   627     Redefine using other integer operations.
   628 
   629 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   630 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   631 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   632 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   633 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   634 
   635   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   636     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   637     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   638     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   639     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   640 
   641     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   642     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   643 
   644   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   645     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   646     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   647     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   648     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   649     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   650     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   651     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   652 
   653   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   654     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   655     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   656     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   657 
   658   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   659     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   660     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   661     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   662 
   663   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   664     from type nat to type int.
   665 
   666 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   667 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   668 
   669   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   670     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   671     type.  Example syntax:
   672 
   673     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   674       is List.insert
   675 
   676     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   677     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   678     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   679     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   680     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   681     by the package.
   682 
   683   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   684     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   685     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   686     code generation for each constant.
   687 
   688   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   689     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   690     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   691     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   692     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   693 
   694   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   695     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   696     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   697 
   698 * Quotient package:
   699 
   700   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   701     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   702 
   703   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   704     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   705 
   706   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   707     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   708     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   709 
   710   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   711     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   712 
   713 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   714 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   715 
   716 * Quickcheck:
   717 
   718   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   719     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   720     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   721     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   722     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   723 
   724     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   725     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   726     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   727 
   728     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   729     continues searching for genuine ones.
   730 
   731     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   732     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   733     show genuine counterexamples.
   734 
   735   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   736     value generators for a given type and operations.
   737 
   738     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   739     constructors of that type.
   740 
   741   - Support for multisets.
   742 
   743   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   744 
   745   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   746     conjectures in a locale context.
   747 
   748 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   749 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   750 
   751 * Sledgehammer:
   752   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   753     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   754   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   755   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   756     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   757   - Sped up the minimizer.
   758   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   759   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   760   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   761 
   762 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   763 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   764 
   765 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   766 
   767 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   768 
   769 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   770 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   771 
   772   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   773 
   774 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   775 a list and a nat.
   776 
   777 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   778 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   779 
   780 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   781 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   782 default.
   783 
   784 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   785 
   786   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   787 
   788 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   789 
   790 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   791 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   792 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   793 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   794 one_case.
   795 
   796 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   797 the result of the fact expression.
   798 
   799 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   800 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   801 of some relation theorems:
   802 
   803   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   804   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   805   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   806   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   807   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   808   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   809 
   810 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   811 
   812 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   813 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   814 
   815 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   816 
   817 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   818 to match the constant's name:
   819 
   820   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   821   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   822   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   823   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   824   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   825   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   826   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   827   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   828   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   829   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   830   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   831   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   832   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   833   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   834   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   835   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   836   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   837   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   838   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   839   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   840   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   841   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   842   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   843   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   844 
   845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   846 
   847 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   848 and corresponding theorem names:
   849 
   850   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   851 
   852   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   853 
   854   - Renamed theorems:
   855 
   856     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   857     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   858     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   859     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   860     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   861     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   862     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   863     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   864     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   865     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   866     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   867     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   868     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   869     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   870     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   871     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   872     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   873     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   874     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   875     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   876     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   877     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   878     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   879 
   880     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   881 
   882     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   883 
   884 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   885 
   886 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   887 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   888 
   889   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   890   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   891   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   892   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   893   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   894   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   895   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   896   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   897   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   898   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   899   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   900   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   901   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   902   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   903   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   904   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   905   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   906   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   907   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   908   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   909   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   910 
   911 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   912 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   913 
   914 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   915 
   916 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   917 
   918   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   919   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   920   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   921   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   922   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   923   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   924   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   925   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   926   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   927   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   928   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   929   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   930   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   931   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   932   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   933   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   934   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   935   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   936 
   937 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   938 
   939 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   940 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   941 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   942 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   943 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   944 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   945 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   946 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   947 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   948 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   949 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   950 
   951 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   952 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   953 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   954 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   955 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   956 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   957 
   958 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   959 through option types.
   960 
   961 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   962 relations.
   963 
   964 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   965 
   966 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   967 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   968 
   969   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   970   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   971   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   972   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   973   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   974   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   975   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   976   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   977   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   978   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   979   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   980   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   981   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   982   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   983   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   984   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   985   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   986   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   987   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   988   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   989   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   990   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   991   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   992   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   993   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   994   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   995   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   996   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   997   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   998   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   999   zless_le ~> less_le
  1000   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1001   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1002   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1003 
  1004 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1005 
  1006   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1007 
  1008 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1009 
  1010 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1011 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1012 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1013 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1014 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1015 
  1016 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1017 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1018 
  1019 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1020 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1021 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1022 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1023 follows:
  1024 
  1025   Operations:
  1026   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1027   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1028   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1029   del -> rbt_del
  1030   delete -> rbt_delete
  1031   ins -> rbt_ins
  1032   insert -> rbt_insert
  1033   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1034   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1035   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1036   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1037   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1038   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1039   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1040   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1041   union -> rbt_union
  1042   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1043   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1044 
  1045   Lemmas:
  1046   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1047   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1048   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1049   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1050   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1051   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1052   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1053   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1054   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1055   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1056   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1057   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1058   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1059   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1060   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1061   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1062   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1063   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1064   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1065   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1066   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1067   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1068   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1069   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1070   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1071   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1072   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1073   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1074   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1075   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1076   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1077   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1078   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1079   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1080   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1081   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1082   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1083   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1084   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1085   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1086   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1087   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1088   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1089   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1090   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1091   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1092   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1093   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1094   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1095   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1096   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1097   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1098   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1099   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1100   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1101   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1102   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1103   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1104   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1105   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1106   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1107   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1108   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1109   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1110   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1111   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1112   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1113   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1114   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1115   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1116   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1117   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1118   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1119   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1120   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1121   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1122   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1123   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1124   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1125   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1126   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1127   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1128   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1129 
  1130 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1131 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1132 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1133 
  1134   Changed Operations:
  1135   float_abs -> abs
  1136   float_nprt -> nprt
  1137   float_pprt -> pprt
  1138   pow2 -> use powr
  1139   round_down -> float_round_down
  1140   round_up -> float_round_up
  1141   scale -> exponent
  1142 
  1143   Removed Operations:
  1144   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1145 
  1146   Renamed Lemmas:
  1147   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1148   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1149   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1150   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1151   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1152   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1153   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1154   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1155   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1156   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1157   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1158   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1159   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1160   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1161   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1162   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1163   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1164   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1165   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1166   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1167   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1168   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1169   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1170   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1171   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1172   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1173   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1174   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1175   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1176   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1177   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1178   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1179   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1180   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1181   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1182   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1183 
  1184   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1185   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1186   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1187   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1188   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1189   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1190   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1191   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1192   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1193   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1194 
  1195 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1196 association lists with distinct keys.
  1197 
  1198 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1199 annotated commands.
  1200 
  1201 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1202 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1203 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1204 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1205 
  1206 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1207 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1208 instead.
  1209 
  1210   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1211   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1212   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1213   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1214   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1215   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1216   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1217   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1218   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1219   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1220   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1221   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1222   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1223   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1224   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1225   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1226   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1227   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1228   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1229   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1230   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1231   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1232   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1233   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1234   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1235   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1236   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1237   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1238   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1239   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1240   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1241   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1242   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1243   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1244   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1245   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1246   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1247   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1248   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1249   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1250   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1251 
  1252 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1253 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1254 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1255 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1256 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1257 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1258 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1259 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1260 
  1261 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1262 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1263 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1264 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1265 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1266 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1267 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1268 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1269 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1270 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1271 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1272 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1273 
  1274   Renamed constants:
  1275   measure -> emeasure
  1276   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1277   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1278   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1279   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1280 
  1281   Removed locales:
  1282   completeable_measure_space
  1283   finite_measure_space
  1284   finite_prob_space
  1285   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1286   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1287   finite_sigma_algebra
  1288   measure_space
  1289   pair_finite_prob_space
  1290   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1291   pair_finite_space
  1292   pair_sigma_algebra
  1293   product_sigma_algebra
  1294 
  1295   Removed constants:
  1296   conditional_space
  1297   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1298   image_space
  1299   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1300   pair_measure_generator
  1301   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1302   subvimage
  1303 
  1304   Replacement theorems:
  1305   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1306   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1307   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1308   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1309   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1310   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1311   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1312   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1313   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1314   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1315   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1316   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1317   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1318   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1319   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1320   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1321   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1322   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1323   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1324   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1325   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1326   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1327   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1328   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1329   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1330   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1331   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1332   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1333   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1334   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1335   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1336   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1337   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1338   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1339   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1340   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1341   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1342   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1343   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1344   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1345   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1346   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1347   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1348   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1349   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1350   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1351   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1352   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1353   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1354   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1355   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1356   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1357   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1358   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1359   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1360   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1361   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1362   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1363   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1364   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1365   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1366   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1367   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1368   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1369   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1370   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1371   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1372   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1373   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1374   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1375   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1376   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1377   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1378   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1379   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1380   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1381   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1382   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1383   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1384   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1385   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1386   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1387   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1388   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1389   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1390   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1391   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1392   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1393   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1394   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1395   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1396   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1397   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1398   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1399   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1400   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1401   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1402   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1403   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1404   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1405   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1406   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1407   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1408   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1409   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1410   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1411   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1412   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1413   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1414   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1415   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1416   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1417   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1418   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1419   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1420   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1421   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1422   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1423   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1424   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1425   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1426   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1427   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1428   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1429   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1430   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1431   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1432   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1433 
  1434 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1435 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1436 
  1437 
  1438 *** FOL ***
  1439 
  1440 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1441 
  1442 
  1443 *** ZF ***
  1444 
  1445 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1446 analysis.
  1447 
  1448 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1449 
  1450 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1451 
  1452 
  1453 *** ML ***
  1454 
  1455 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1456 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1457 
  1458 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1459 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1460 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1461 
  1462 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1463 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1464 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1465 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1466 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1467 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1468 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1469 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1470 
  1471 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1472 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1473 
  1474 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1475 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1476 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1477 
  1478 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1479 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1480 
  1481 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1482 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1483 context as well.
  1484 
  1485 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1486 
  1487   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1488   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1489   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1490   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1491   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1492   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1493   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1494   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1495   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1496   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1497   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1498   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1499 
  1500 
  1501 *** System ***
  1502 
  1503 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1504 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1505 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1506 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1507 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1508 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1509 the generic user home was intended.
  1510 
  1511 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1512 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1513 
  1514 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1515 (not just JRE).
  1516 
  1517 
  1518 
  1519 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1520 ------------------------------------
  1521 
  1522 *** General ***
  1523 
  1524 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1525 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1526 
  1527   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1528     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1529     files for checking).
  1530 
  1531   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1532     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1533     positions.
  1534 
  1535   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1536     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1537     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1538 
  1539   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1540     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1541     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1542 
  1543   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1544     cores.
  1545 
  1546   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1547     versions (garbage collection).
  1548 
  1549 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1550 including some remaining limitations.
  1551 
  1552 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1553 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1554 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1555 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1556 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1558 
  1559 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1560 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1561 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1562 
  1563 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1564 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1565 usedir option -Q.
  1566 
  1567 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1568 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1569 
  1570   long_names   ~> names_long
  1571   short_names  ~> names_short
  1572   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1573 
  1574 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1575 
  1576   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1577 
  1578 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1579 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1580 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1581 
  1582 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1583 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1584 
  1585 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1586   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1587   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1588   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1589     "Classical Reasoner".
  1590 
  1591 
  1592 *** HOL ***
  1593 
  1594 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1595 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1596 
  1597 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1598 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1599 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1600 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1601 class complete_linorder.
  1602 
  1603 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1604 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1605 
  1606 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1607 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1608 
  1609   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1610   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1611   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1612   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1613   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1614   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1615   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1616   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1617   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1618   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1619   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1620 
  1621 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1622 
  1623   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1624   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1625   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1626   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1627   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1628   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1629   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1630   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1631   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1632   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1633   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1634   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1635   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1636   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1637   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1638   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1639 
  1640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1641 
  1642 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1644 
  1645 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1646 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1647 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1648 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1649 
  1650 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1651 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1652 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1653 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1654 
  1655 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1656 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1657 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1658 
  1659 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1660 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1661 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1662 
  1663 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1664 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1665 
  1666 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1667 
  1668     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1669     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1670 
  1671 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1672 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1673 
  1674 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1675 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1676 
  1677 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1678 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1679 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1680 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1681 
  1682   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1683   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1684   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1685   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1686   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1687   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1688   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1689 
  1690 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1691 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1692 
  1693   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1694   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1695   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1696   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1697   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1698   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1699   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1700   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1701   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1702   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1703   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1704   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1705   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1706   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1707   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1708   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1709   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1710   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1711   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1712   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1713   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1714   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1715   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1716   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1717   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1718   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1719   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1720   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1721   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1722   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1723   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1724   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1725   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1726   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1727   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1728   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1729   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1730   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1731   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1732   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1733   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1734   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1735   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1736   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1737   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1738   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1739   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1740   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1741   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1742   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1743   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1744   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1745   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1746   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1747   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1748   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1749   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1750   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1751   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1752   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1753   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1754   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1755   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1756   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1757   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1758   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1759   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1760   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1761   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1762   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1763   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1764   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1765   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1766   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1767   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1768   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1769   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1770   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1771   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1772   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1773   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1774   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1775 
  1776 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1777 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1778 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1779 
  1780 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1781 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1782 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1783 
  1784 * Code generation:
  1785 
  1786   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1787     characters in the target language.
  1788 
  1789   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1790     instead.
  1791 
  1792   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1793 
  1794   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1795     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1796 
  1797       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1798 
  1799 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1800 
  1801 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1802 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1803 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1804 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1805 syntax.
  1806 
  1807 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1808 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1809 
  1810 * Nitpick:
  1811   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1812   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1813   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1814     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1815 
  1816 * Sledgehammer:
  1817   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1818   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1819     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1820   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1821     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1822   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1823     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1824   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1825     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1826   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1827     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1828 
  1829 * Metis:
  1830   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1831   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1832     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1833 
  1834 * Command 'try':
  1835   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1836     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1837   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1838     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1839 
  1840 * Quickcheck:
  1841   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1842     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1843   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1844     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1845   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1846     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1847     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1848     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1849   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1850     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1851 
  1852 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1853 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1854 
  1855 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1856 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1857 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1858 
  1859 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1860 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1861 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1862 
  1863 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1864 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1865 
  1866 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1867 arithmetic.
  1868 
  1869 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1870 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1871 and lattice type classes.
  1872 
  1873 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1874 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1875 
  1876 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1877 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1878 
  1879 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1880 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1881 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1882 
  1883   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1884   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1885   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1886   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1887 
  1888 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1889 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1890 constants:
  1891 
  1892   type inat   ~> type enat
  1893   Fin         ~> enat
  1894   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1895   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1896   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1897 
  1898 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1899 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1900 
  1901 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1902 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1903 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1904 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1905 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1906 
  1907 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1908 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1909 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1910 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1911 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1912 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1913 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1914 
  1915   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1916   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1917   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1918   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1919 
  1920 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1921 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1922 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1923 
  1924   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1925   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1926   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1927   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1928   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1929   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1930   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1931   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1932   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1933   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1934   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1935   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1936   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1937   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1938   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1939   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1940   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1941   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1942   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1943   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1944   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1945   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1946   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1947   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1948   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1949   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1950   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1951   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1952   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1953   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1954   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1955   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1956   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1957   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1958   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1959   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1960   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1961   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1962   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1963   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1964   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1965   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1966   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1967   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1968   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1969   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1970   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1971   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1972   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1973   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1974   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1975 
  1976 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1977   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1978   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1979   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1980   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1981     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1982 
  1983 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1984 
  1985   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1986   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1987   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1988   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1989   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1990   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1991   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1992   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1993   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1994   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1995   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1996   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1997   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1998   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1999   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2000   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2001   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2002   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2003   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2004   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2005   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2006   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2007   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2008   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2009   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2010 
  2011 
  2012 *** Document preparation ***
  2013 
  2014 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2015 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2016 same.
  2017 
  2018 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2019 result.
  2020 
  2021 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2022 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2023 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2024 
  2025 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2026 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2027 
  2028 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2029 like this:
  2030 
  2031   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2032   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2033 
  2034 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2035 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2036 layouts.
  2037 
  2038 
  2039 *** ML ***
  2040 
  2041 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2042 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2043 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2044 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2045 under external program control.
  2046 
  2047 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2048 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2049 
  2050 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2051 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2052 (better known as Proof General).
  2053 
  2054 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2055 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2056 
  2057 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2058 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2059 
  2060 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2061 (including quotes etc.).
  2062 
  2063 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2064 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2065 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2066 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2067 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2068 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2069 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2070 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2071 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2072 
  2073 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2074 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2075 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2076 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2077 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2078 
  2079 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2080 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2081 
  2082 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2083 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2084 
  2085 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2086 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2087 
  2088 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2089 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2090 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2091 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2092 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2093 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2094 proper Proof.context.
  2095 
  2096 
  2097 *** System ***
  2098 
  2099 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2100 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2101 
  2102 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2103 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2104 
  2105 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2106 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2107 
  2108   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2109   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2110   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2111   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2112   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2113 
  2114 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2115 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2116 
  2117 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2118 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2119 example:
  2120 
  2121   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2122 
  2123 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2124 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2125 
  2126 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2127 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2128 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2129 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2130 
  2131 
  2132 
  2133 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2134 ----------------------------------
  2135 
  2136 *** General ***
  2137 
  2138 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2139 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2140 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2141 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2142 like this:
  2143 
  2144   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2145 
  2146 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2147 
  2148 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2149 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2150 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2151 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2152 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2153 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2154 
  2155 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2156 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2157 the following package declarations:
  2158 
  2159   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2160   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2161 
  2162 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2163 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2164 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2165 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2166 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2167 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2168 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2169 
  2170 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2171 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2172 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2173 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2174 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2175 
  2176 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2177 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2178 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2179 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2180 
  2181 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2182 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2183 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2184 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2185 
  2186   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2187 
  2188   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2189   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2190   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2191   show_types                    show_types
  2192   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2193   show_consts                   show_consts
  2194   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2195 
  2196   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2197   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2198   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2199 
  2200   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2201   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2202 
  2203   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2204 
  2205   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2206   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2207   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2208   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2209   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2210 
  2211 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2212 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2213 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2214 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2215 
  2216 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2218 
  2219   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2220   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2221 
  2222 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2223 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2224 float_token.
  2225 
  2226 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2227 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2229 
  2230 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2231 DejaVu Sans.
  2232 
  2233 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2234 
  2235 
  2236 *** Pure ***
  2237 
  2238 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2239 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2240 time.
  2241 
  2242 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2243 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2244 
  2245 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2246 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2247 
  2248 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2249 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2250 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2251 command already provided this functionality.
  2252 
  2253 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2254 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2255 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2256 without interpretations.
  2257 
  2258 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2259 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2260 
  2261 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2262 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2263 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2264 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2265 
  2266 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2267 'definition' instead.
  2268 
  2269 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2270 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2271 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2272 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2273 
  2274 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2275 constructors.
  2276 
  2277 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2278 the local file system.
  2279 
  2280 
  2281 *** HOL ***
  2282 
  2283 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2284 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2285 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2286 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2287 
  2288   declare [[coercion f]]
  2289 
  2290 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2291 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2292 
  2293   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2294 
  2295 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2296 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2297 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2298 other theories like this:
  2299 
  2300   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2301 
  2302 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2303 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2304 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2305 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2306 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2307 for examples.
  2308 
  2309 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2310 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2311 
  2312 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2313 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2314 
  2315 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2316 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2317 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2318 
  2319 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2320 functorial structure of types.
  2321 
  2322 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2323 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2324 
  2325 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2326 languages.
  2327 
  2328 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2329 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2331 
  2332 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2333 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2334 
  2335 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2336 combinators any longer.
  2337 
  2338 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2339 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2340 
  2341 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2342 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2343 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2344 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2345 
  2346   record 'a foo = ...
  2347   ...
  2348   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2349 
  2350 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2351 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2352 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2353 
  2354 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2355 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2356 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2357 
  2358 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2359 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2360 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2361 
  2362 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2363 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2364 
  2365 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2366 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2367 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2368 independently.
  2369 
  2370 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2371 counter example search.
  2372 
  2373 * Sledgehammer:
  2374   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2375     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2376     sledgehammer").
  2377   - Renamed commands:
  2378     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2379     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2380     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2381     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2382   - Renamed options:
  2383     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2384     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2385     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2386     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2387     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2388 
  2389 * Nitpick:
  2390   - Renamed options:
  2391     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2392     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2393     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2394   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2395   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2396   - Added "whack" option.
  2397   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2398   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2399   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2400   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2401     higher cardinalities.
  2402   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2403 
  2404 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2405 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2406 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2407 
  2408     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2409 
  2410 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2411 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2412 
  2413 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2414 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2415 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2416 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2417 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2418 "smt_solver".
  2419 
  2420 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2421 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2422 
  2423 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2424 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2425 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2426 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2427 
  2428 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2429   - Renamed:
  2430     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2431     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2432     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2433   - Added:
  2434     smt_verbose
  2435     smt_random_seed
  2436     smt_datatypes
  2437     smt_infer_triggers
  2438     smt_monomorph_limit
  2439     cvc3_options
  2440     remote_cvc3_options
  2441     remote_z3_options
  2442     yices_options
  2443 
  2444 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2445 header.
  2446 
  2447 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2448 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2449 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2450 
  2451   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2452 
  2453 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2454 
  2455 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2456 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2457 
  2458 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2459 
  2460 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2461 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2462 
  2463 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2464 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2465 
  2466 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2467 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2468 
  2469 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2470 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2471 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2472 
  2473 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2474 
  2475 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2477 
  2478 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2479 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2480 
  2481 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2482 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2483 for congruent(2)).
  2484 
  2485 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2486 
  2487   types
  2488     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2489     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2490 
  2491   constants
  2492     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2493     True ~> HOL.True
  2494     False ~> HOL.False
  2495     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2496     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2497     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2498     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2499     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2500     The ~> HOL.The
  2501     All ~> HOL.All
  2502     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2503     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2504     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2505     If ~> HOL.If
  2506     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2507     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2508     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2509     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2510     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2511     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2512     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2513     op : ~> Set.member
  2514     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2515 
  2516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2517 
  2518 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2519 
  2520     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2521     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2522     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2523     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2524     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2525     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2526     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2527     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2528 
  2529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2530 
  2531 * More stylized fact names:
  2532 
  2533   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2534   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2535   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2536   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2537 
  2538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2539 
  2540 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2541 
  2542   constants
  2543     null ~> List.null
  2544 
  2545   facts
  2546     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2547     null_empty ~> null_def
  2548 
  2549 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2550 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2551 generation.
  2552 
  2553 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2554 Haskell code.
  2555 
  2556 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2557 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2558 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2559 
  2560 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2561 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2562 
  2563 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2564 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2565 
  2566 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2567 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2568 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2569 
  2570 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2571 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2572 
  2573 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2574 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2575 
  2576 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2577 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2578 referred to by its qualified name.
  2579 
  2580   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2581   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2582   product ~>  Enum.product
  2583 
  2584 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2585 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2587 
  2588 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2589 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2590 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2591 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2592 
  2593 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2594 sort_key.
  2595 
  2596 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2598 
  2599 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2600 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2601 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2602 
  2603   types
  2604     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2605               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2606               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2607         (depends on your needs)
  2608 
  2609   constants
  2610      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2611      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2612      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2613 
  2614 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2615 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2616 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2617 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2618 
  2619 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2620 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2621 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2622 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2623 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2624 
  2625 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2627 
  2628 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2629 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2630 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2631 
  2632 
  2633 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2634 
  2635 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2636 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2637 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2638 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2639 compatibility.
  2640 
  2641 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2642 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2643 
  2644 
  2645 *** HOLCF ***
  2646 
  2647 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2648 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2649 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2650 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2651 
  2652 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2653 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2654 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2655 
  2656   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2657   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2658   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2659 
  2660 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2661 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2662 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2663 
  2664 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2665 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2666 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2667 domain definition now works:
  2668 
  2669   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2670 
  2671 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2672 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2673 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2674 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2675 
  2676   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2677     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2678 
  2679   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2680 
  2681 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2682 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2683 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2684 
  2685 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2686 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2687 
  2688 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2689 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2690 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2691 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2692 
  2693 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2694 
  2695 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2696 
  2697 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2698 
  2699 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2701 
  2702 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2703 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2704 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2705 
  2706 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2707 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2708 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2709 
  2710 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2711 still supported as an input translation.
  2712 
  2713 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2714 
  2715   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2716   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2717   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2718   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2719   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2720   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2721   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2722 
  2723 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2724 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2725 
  2726   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2727   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2728   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2729   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2730   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2731   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2732 
  2733 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2734 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735 
  2736 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2737 
  2738   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2739   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2740   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2741   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2742 
  2743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2746 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747 
  2748 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2749 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2752   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2753   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2754   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2755   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2756   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2757   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2758   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2759   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2760   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2761   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2762   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2763   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2764   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2765   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2766   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2767   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2768   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2769   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2770   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2771 
  2772 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2773 
  2774   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2775   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2776   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2777   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2778   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2779   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2780   box_less             ~> box_below
  2781   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2782   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2783   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2784   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2785   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2786   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2787   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2788   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2789   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2790   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2791   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2792   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2793   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2794   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2795   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2796   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2797   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2798   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2799   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2800   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2801   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2802   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2803   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2804   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2805   up_less              ~> up_below
  2806   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2807   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2808   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2809   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2810   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2811   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2812   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2813   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2814   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2815   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2816   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2817   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2818   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2819 
  2820 
  2821 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2822 
  2823 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2824 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2825 
  2826 
  2827 *** ML ***
  2828 
  2829 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2830 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2831 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2832 
  2833 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2834 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2835 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2836 
  2837 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2838 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2839 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2840 
  2841 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2842 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2843 
  2844 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2845 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2846 
  2847 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2848 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2849 
  2850 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2851 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2852 
  2853 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2854 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2855 almost all situations.
  2856 
  2857 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2858 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2859 Isabelle/ML.
  2860 
  2861 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2862 meaning.
  2863 
  2864 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2865 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2866 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2867 
  2868 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2869 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2870 
  2871 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2872 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2873 
  2874 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2875 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2876 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2877 
  2878 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2879 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2880 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2881 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2882 configuration options.
  2883 
  2884 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2885 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2886 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2887 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2888 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2889 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2890 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2891 
  2892 
  2893 
  2894 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2895 ---------------------------------
  2896 
  2897 *** General ***
  2898 
  2899 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2900 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2901 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2902 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2903 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2904 their full internal name.
  2905 
  2906 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2907 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2908 Some hints on upgrading:
  2909 
  2910   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2911     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2912     which are independent of this issue.
  2913 
  2914   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2915     provides the following special forms:
  2916 
  2917       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2918       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2919       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2920 
  2921     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2922     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2923     extra variables".
  2924 
  2925     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2926     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2927     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2928     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2929     "logic".
  2930 
  2931   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2932     antiquotations:
  2933 
  2934       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2935       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2936       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2937       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2938 
  2939   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2940     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2941     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2942     antiquotations.
  2943 
  2944 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2945 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2946 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2947 diagnose syntax problems.
  2948 
  2949 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2950 
  2951 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2952 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2953 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2954 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2955 
  2956 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2957 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2958 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2959 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2960 
  2961 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2962 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2963 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2964 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2965 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2966 
  2967 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2968 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2969 
  2970 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2971 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2972 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2973 
  2974   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2975 
  2976 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2977 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2978 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2979 
  2980 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2981 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2983 
  2984 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2985 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2986 
  2987 
  2988 *** Pure ***
  2989 
  2990 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2991 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2992 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2993 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2994 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2995 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2996 inspect proof terms.
  2997 
  2998 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2999 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3000 are added internally.  For example:
  3001 
  3002   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3003 
  3004 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3005 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3006 
  3007 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3008 
  3009 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3010 'class' instead.
  3011 
  3012 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3013 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3014 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3015 
  3016 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3017 invariants.
  3018 
  3019 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3020 user space functionality any longer.
  3021 
  3022 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3023 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3025 
  3026 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3027 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3028 
  3029 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3030 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3031 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3032 
  3033 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3034 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3035 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3036 
  3037 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3038 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3039 
  3040 
  3041 *** HOL ***
  3042 
  3043 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3044 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3045 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3046 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3047 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3048 
  3049 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3050 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3051 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3052 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3053 
  3054   fun
  3055     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3056   where
  3057     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3058 
  3059   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3060     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3061 
  3062   quotient_definition
  3063     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3064 
  3065 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3066 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3067 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3068 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3069 
  3070 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3071 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3072 
  3073 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3074 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3075 
  3076 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3078 
  3079 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3080 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3081 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3082 
  3083 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3084 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3085 
  3086 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3091 
  3092 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3093 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094 
  3095 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3096 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3097 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3098 
  3099   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3100   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3101   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3102   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3103   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3104   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3105   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3106   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3107   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3108   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3109   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3110   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3111   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3112   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3113   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3114   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3115   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3116   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3117   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3118   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3119   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3120   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3121   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3122   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3123   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3124   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3125   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3126   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3127   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3128   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3129 
  3130 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3131 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3132 
  3133 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3134 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3135 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3136 
  3137 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3138 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3139 
  3140 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3141 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3142 
  3143 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3144 
  3145 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3146 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3147 
  3148 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3149 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3150 
  3151 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3152 
  3153 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3154 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3155 
  3156 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3157 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3158 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3159 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160 
  3161 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3162   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3163   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3164   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3165 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3166 
  3167 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3168 lattices):
  3169 
  3170     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3171     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3172 
  3173     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3174 
  3175     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3176     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3177     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3178     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3179     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3180     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3181     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3182     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3183     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3184     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3185     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3186     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3187     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3188 
  3189     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3190     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3191     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3192     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3193     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3194     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3195     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3196     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3197     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3198     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3199     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3200     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3201     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3202     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3203     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3204     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3205     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3206     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3207 
  3208   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3209   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3210 
  3211     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3212     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3213     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3214     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3215     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3216 
  3217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3218 
  3219 * Refined field classes:
  3220   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3221     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3222     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3223   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3225 
  3226 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3227   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3228   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3229   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3230     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3231   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3232     equal_neg_zero.
  3233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3234 
  3235 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3236 sets to lattices:
  3237 
  3238   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3239   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3240   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3241   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3242   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3243   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3244   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3245   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3246   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3247   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3248 
  3249 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3250 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3251 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3252 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3253 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3254 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3255 
  3256 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3257 multiset order:
  3258 
  3259   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3260     <= and <;
  3261   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3262     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3263     multiset_order;
  3264   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3265     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3266     generation;
  3267   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3268     if needed.
  3269 
  3270 Renamed:
  3271 
  3272   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3273   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3274   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3275 
  3276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277 
  3278 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3279 
  3280 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3281 
  3282 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3283 
  3284 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3285 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3286 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288   Constants:
  3289   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3290   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3291   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3292   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3293   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3294   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3295   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3296   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3297   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3298   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3299   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3300   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3301   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3302 
  3303   Lemmas:
  3304   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3305   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3306   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3307   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3308   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3309   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3310   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3311   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3312   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3313   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3314   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3315   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3316   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3317 
  3318 * Sledgehammer:
  3319   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3320     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3321     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3322     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3323     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3324     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3325     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3327   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3328     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3329   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3330     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3331     is still experimental.)
  3332   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3333     full-typed mode.
  3334   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3335 
  3336 * Nitpick:
  3337   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3338   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3339   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3340     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3341   - Added support for quotient types.
  3342   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3343     constructs.
  3344   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3345     "termination" proofs).
  3346   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3347   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3348   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3349   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3350     record getters.
  3351   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3352   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3353   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3354   - Added "atoms" option.
  3355   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3356     problems.
  3357   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3358     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3359     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3361     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3362   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3363 
  3364 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3365   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3366   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3367   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3368   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3369   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3370   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3371   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3372   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3373   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3374 
  3375 
  3376 *** HOLCF ***
  3377 
  3378 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3379 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3380 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3381 
  3382 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3383 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3384 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3385 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3386 
  3387 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3388 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3389 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3390 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3391 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3392 
  3393 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3394 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3395 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396 
  3397 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3398 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3399 
  3400   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3401   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3402 
  3403 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3404 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3405 
  3406   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3407   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3408   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3409   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3410   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3411 
  3412 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3413 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3414 
  3415   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3416   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3417   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3418 
  3419 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3420 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3421 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422 
  3423 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3424 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3425 
  3426 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3427 
  3428 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3429 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 
  3432 *** ML ***
  3433 
  3434 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3435 
  3436     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3437     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3438 
  3439     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3440     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3441     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3442     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3443 
  3444     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3445     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3446     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3447 
  3448 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3449 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3450 
  3451 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3452 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3453 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3454 
  3455 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3456 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3457 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3458 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3459 
  3460 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3461 the context or even global references.
  3462 
  3463 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3464 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3465 
  3466 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3467 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3468 
  3469   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3470   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3471   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3472   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3473   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3474   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3475   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3476   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3477   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3478   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3479 
  3480 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3481 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3482 
  3483 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3484 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3485 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3486 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3487 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3488 
  3489 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3490 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3491 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3492 Theory_Data version.
  3493 
  3494 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3495 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3496 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3497 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3498 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3499 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3500 explicitly in rare situations.
  3501 
  3502 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3503 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3505 
  3506 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3507 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3510 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3511 quite rare).
  3512 
  3513 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3514 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3515 
  3516 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3517 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3518 terms.
  3519 
  3520 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3521 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3522 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3523 
  3524 
  3525 *** System ***
  3526 
  3527 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3528 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3529 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3530 
  3531 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3532 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3533 respectively.
  3534 
  3535 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3536 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3537 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3538 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3539 
  3540   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3541 
  3542 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3543 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3544 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3545 component.
  3546 
  3547 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3548 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3549 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3550 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3551 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3552 the user for manual installation.
  3553 
  3554 
  3555 
  3556 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3557 -------------------------------------
  3558 
  3559 *** General ***
  3560 
  3561 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3562 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3563 
  3564 
  3565 *** Pure ***
  3566 
  3567 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3568 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3569 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3570 
  3571 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3572 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3573 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3574 
  3575 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3576 interpretation.
  3577 
  3578 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3579 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3580 
  3581 
  3582 *** Document preparation ***
  3583 
  3584 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3585 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3586 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3587 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3588 
  3589 
  3590 *** HOL ***
  3591 
  3592 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3593 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3594 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3595 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3596 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3597 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3598 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3599 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3600 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3601 
  3602 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3603 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3604 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3605 
  3606 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3607 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3608 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3609 
  3610 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3611 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3612 
  3613 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3614 
  3615 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3616 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3617 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3618 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3619 
  3620 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3621 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3622 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3623 "mirabelle" utility.
  3624 
  3625 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3626 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3627 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3628 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3629 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3630 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3631 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3632 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3633 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3634 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3635 
  3636 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3637 procedure only.
  3638 
  3639 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3640 
  3641 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3642 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3643 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3644 that fail later.
  3645 
  3646 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3647 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3648 
  3649 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3650 the same method as the approximation method.
  3651 
  3652 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3653 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3654 series expansion.
  3655 
  3656 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3657 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3658 
  3659 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3660 reals.
  3661 
  3662 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3663 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3664 
  3665 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3666 fixpoint theorem.
  3667 
  3668 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3669   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3670     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3671   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3672     accordingly
  3673   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3674     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3675   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3676     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3677 
  3678 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3679 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3680 lattice.
  3681 
  3682 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3683 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3684 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3685 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3686 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3687 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3689 
  3690 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3691   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3692     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3693   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3694     le_inf_iff
  3695   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3696     sup_aci)
  3697   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3698   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3699   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3700     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3701     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3702     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3703     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3704     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3705     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3706     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3707     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3708     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3709     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3710   - authentic syntax for
  3711     Set.Pow
  3712     Set.image
  3713   - mere abbreviations:
  3714     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3715     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3716     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3717     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3718     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3719     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3720     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3721     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3722   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3723 
  3724 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3725 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3726 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3727 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3728 
  3729 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3730 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3731 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3732 
  3733 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3734 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3735 
  3736 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3737 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3738 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3739 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3740 
  3741 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3742 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3743 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3744 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3745 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3746 
  3747 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3748 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3750 
  3751 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3752 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3753 
  3754 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3755 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3756 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3757 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3758 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3759 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3760 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3762 
  3763 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3764     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3765     code_post       replaces    code post
  3766     etc.
  3767   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3768 
  3769 * Renamed methods:
  3770     sizechange -> size_change
  3771     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3772   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3773 
  3774 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3775 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3776 
  3777 * Renamed theorems:
  3778     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3779     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3780     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3781     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3782     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3783   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3784 
  3785 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3787 
  3788 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790 
  3791 
  3792 *** HOLCF ***
  3793 
  3794 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3795 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3796 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3797 
  3798 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3799 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3800 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3801 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3802 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3803 
  3804 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3805 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3806 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3807 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3808 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3809 
  3810 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3811 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3812 constructor are pre-configured.
  3813 
  3814 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3815 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3816 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3817 
  3818 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3819 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3820 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3821 as well.)
  3822 
  3823 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3824 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3825 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3826 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3827 examples.
  3828 
  3829 
  3830 *** ML ***
  3831 
  3832 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3833 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3834 
  3835 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3836 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3837 position, logical grouping etc.
  3838 
  3839 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3840 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3841 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3842 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3843 
  3844 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3845 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3846 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3847 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3848 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3849 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3850 
  3851 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3852 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3853 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3854 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3855 experiments with references.
  3856 
  3857 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3858 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3859 
  3860 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3861 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3862 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3863 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3864 
  3865 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3866 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3867 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3868 
  3869 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3870 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3871 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3872 
  3873 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3874 
  3875 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3877 
  3878 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3879 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3880 
  3881 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3882 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3883 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3884 
  3885 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3886 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3887 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3888 
  3889 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3890 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3891 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3893 
  3894 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3895 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3896 instead of global theory.
  3897 
  3898 
  3899 *** System ***
  3900 
  3901 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3902 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3903 usedir option -q.
  3904 
  3905 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3906 also the system manual.
  3907 
  3908 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3909 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3910 
  3911 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3912 this is always enabled.
  3913 
  3914 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3915 
  3916 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3917 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3918 currently supported on Linux only.
  3919 
  3920 
  3921 
  3922 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3923 --------------------------------
  3924 
  3925 *** General ***
  3926 
  3927 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3928 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3929 
  3930   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3931     "isatool."
  3932 
  3933   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3934     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3935 
  3936   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3937     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3938 
  3939 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3940 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3941 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3942 
  3943 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3944 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3945 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3946 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3947 via "isabelle emacs".
  3948 
  3949 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3950 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3951 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3952 
  3953 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3954 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3955 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3956 
  3957 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3958 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3959 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3960 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3961 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3962 
  3963 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3964 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3965 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3966 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3967 
  3968 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3969 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3970 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3971 
  3972 
  3973 *** Pure ***
  3974 
  3975 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3976 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3977 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3978 
  3979 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3980 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3981 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3982 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3983 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3984 
  3985 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3986 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3987 useful in locale declarations.
  3988 
  3989 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3990 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3991 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3992 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3993 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3994 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3995 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3996 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3997 no longer generated.
  3998 
  3999 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4000 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4001 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4002 
  4003 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4004 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4005 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4006 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4007 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4008 
  4009 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4010 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4011 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4012 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4013 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4014 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4015 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4016 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4017 
  4018 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4019 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4020 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4021 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4022 
  4023 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4024 
  4025 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4026 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4027 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4028 
  4029 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4030 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4031 
  4032 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4033 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4034 in HOL, write
  4035 
  4036     class foo = ...
  4037 
  4038 instead of
  4039 
  4040     class foo = type + ...
  4041 
  4042 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4043 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4044 
  4045 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4046 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4047 
  4048 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4049 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4050 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4051 
  4052 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4053 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4054 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4055 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4056 directly in regular applications.
  4057 
  4058 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4059 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4060 
  4061 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4062 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4063 
  4064 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4065 theory context.
  4066 
  4067 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4068 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4069 
  4070 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4071 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4072 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4073 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4074 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4075 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4076 
  4077   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4078 
  4079 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4080 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4081 normalization.
  4082 
  4083 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4084 addressing etc.
  4085 
  4086 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4087 
  4088   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4089   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4090 
  4091 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4092 
  4093   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4094      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4095      parts of the code generator framework).
  4096 
  4097   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4098      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4099      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4100 
  4101 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4102 
  4103 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4104 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4105 
  4106 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4107 patterns, e.g.
  4108 
  4109     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4110 
  4111 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4112 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4113 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4114 hyphen:
  4115 
  4116     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4117 
  4118 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4119 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4120 
  4121 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4122 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4123 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4124 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4125 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4126 higher-order unification.
  4127 
  4128 
  4129 *** Document preparation ***
  4130 
  4131 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4132 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4133 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4134 
  4135 
  4136 *** HOL ***
  4137 
  4138 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4139 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4140 
  4141 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4142 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4143 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4144 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4145 Main, as before.
  4146 
  4147 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4148 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4149 
  4150 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4151 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4152 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4153 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4154 
  4155 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4156 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4157 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4158 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4159 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4160 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4161 
  4162 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4163 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4164 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4165 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4166 
  4167 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4168 menu.
  4169 
  4170 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4171 (contains the empty clause).
  4172 
  4173 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4174 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4175 
  4176 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4177 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4178 
  4179 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4180 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4181 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4182 
  4183 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4184 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4185 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4186 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4187 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4188 
  4189 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4190 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4191 
  4192 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4193 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4194 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4195 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4196 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4197 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4198 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4199 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4200 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4201 
  4202 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4203 
  4204 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4205 
  4206 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4207 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4208 
  4209 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4210 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4211 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4212 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4213 
  4214 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4215 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4216 
  4217     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4218     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4219     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4220     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4221     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4222     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4223     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4224     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4225 
  4226 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4227 theory Set.
  4228 
  4229 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4230 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4231 
  4232 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4233 
  4234 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4235 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4236 
  4237 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4238 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4239 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4240 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4241 allowed. For examples see
  4242 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4243 
  4244 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4245 
  4246 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4248 
  4249 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4250 structure:
  4251 
  4252     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4253     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4254     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4255     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4256     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4257     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4258     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4259     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4260     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4261     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4262     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4263     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4264     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4265     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4266     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4267     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4268     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4269     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4270     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4271     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4272     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4273     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4274     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4275     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4276     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4277     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4278     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4279     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4280     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4281     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4282     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4283     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4284     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4285 
  4286     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4287     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4288     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4289     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4290     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4291     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4292     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4293     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4294     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4295     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4296 
  4297     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4298     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4299     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4300     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4301     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4302     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4303 
  4304 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4305 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4306 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4307 
  4308 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4309 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4310 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4311 
  4312 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4313 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4314 
  4315 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4316 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4317 
  4318 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4319 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4320 proofs, e.g.
  4321 
  4322   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4323 
  4324 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4325 
  4326 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4327 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4328 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4329 
  4330 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4331 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4333 
  4334 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4335 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4336 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4338 
  4339 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4340 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4341 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4342 preorder_class.*.
  4343 
  4344 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4345 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4346 
  4347 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4348 
  4349   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4350 
  4351 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4352 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4353 fold_image.
  4354 
  4355 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4356 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4357 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4358 the former will disappear at some point.
  4359 
  4360 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4361 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4362 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4363 
  4364 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4365 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4366 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4367 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4368 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4369 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4370 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4371 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4372 
  4373 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4374 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4375 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4376 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4377 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4378 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4379 
  4380     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4381     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4382     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4383     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4384     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4385     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4386     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4387 
  4388 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4389 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4390 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4391 
  4392 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4393 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4394 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4395 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4396 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4397 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4398 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4399 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4400 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4401 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4402 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4403 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4404 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4405 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4406 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4407 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4408 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4409 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4410 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4411 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4412 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4413 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4414 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4415 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4416 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4417 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4418 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4419 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4420 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4421 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4422 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4423 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4424 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4425 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4426 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4427 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4428 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4429 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4430 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4431 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4432 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4433 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4434 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4435 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4436 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4437 
  4438 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4439 
  4440 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4441 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4442 
  4443 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4444 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4445 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4446 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4447 
  4448 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4449 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4450 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4451 theory RealVector.
  4452 
  4453 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4454 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4455 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4456 and inner products are included.
  4457 
  4458 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4459 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4460 supported.
  4461 
  4462 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4463 first diagonalization argument.
  4464 
  4465 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4466 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4467 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4468 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4469 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4470 
  4471     hide (open) const gcd
  4472     abbreviation gcd where
  4473       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4474     notation (output)
  4475       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4476 
  4477 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4478 
  4479 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4480 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4481 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4482 
  4483 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4484 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4485 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4486 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4487 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4488 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4489 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4490 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4491 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4492 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4493 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4494 cases.
  4495 
  4496 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4497 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4498 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4499 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4500 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4501 
  4502     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4503     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4504     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4505     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4506     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4507 
  4508 
  4509 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4510 
  4511 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4512 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4513 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4514 
  4515 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4516 
  4517 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4518 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4519 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4520 
  4521 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4522 
  4523 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4524 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4525 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4526 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4527 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4528 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4529 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4530 
  4531 
  4532 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4533 
  4534 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4535 
  4536 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4537 theory targets.
  4538 
  4539 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4540 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4541 'inductive' etc.
  4542 
  4543 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4544 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4545 
  4546 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4547 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4548 
  4549 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4550 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4551 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4552 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4553 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4554 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4555 the algorithm W:
  4556 
  4557  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4558  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4559          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4560 
  4561 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4562 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4563 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4564 
  4565 
  4566 *** HOLCF ***
  4567 
  4568 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4569 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4570 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4571 
  4572 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4573 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4574 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4575 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4576 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4577 
  4578 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4579 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4580 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4581 
  4582 
  4583 *** ZF ***
  4584 
  4585 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4586 
  4587 
  4588 *** ML ***
  4589 
  4590 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4591 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4592 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4593 5.2.1!
  4594 
  4595 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4596 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4597 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4598 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4599 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4600 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4601 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4602 
  4603 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4604 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4605 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4606 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4607 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4608 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4609 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4610 
  4611 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4612 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4613 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4614 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4615 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4616 
  4617 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4618 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4619 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4620 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4621 Method.add_method.
  4622 
  4623 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4624 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4625 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4626 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4627 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4628 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4629 
  4630 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4631 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4632 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4633 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4634 examples.
  4635 
  4636 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4637 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4638 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4639 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4640 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4641 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4642 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4643 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4644 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4645 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4646 
  4647 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4648 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4649 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4650 
  4651 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4652 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4653 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4654 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4655 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4656 resort for legacy applications.
  4657 
  4658 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4659 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4660 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4661 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4662 explicit runtime argument.
  4663 
  4664 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4665 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4666 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4667 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4668 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4669 
  4670 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4671 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4672 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4673 theory state.
  4674 
  4675 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4676 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4677 
  4678   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4679   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4680   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4681   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4682   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4683   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4684   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4685   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4686   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4687   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4688 
  4689 
  4690 *** System ***
  4691 
  4692 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4693 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4694 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4695 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4696 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4697 
  4698 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4699 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4700 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4701 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4702 
  4703 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4704 
  4705 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4706 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4707 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4708 prover operations.
  4709 
  4710 
  4711 
  4712 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4713 -------------------------------
  4714 
  4715 *** General ***
  4716 
  4717 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4718 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4719 
  4720 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4721 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4722 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4723 provides a proper context already.
  4724 
  4725 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4726 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4727 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4728 
  4729 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4730 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4731 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4732 swap theory imports.
  4733 
  4734 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4735 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4736 
  4737 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4738 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4739 white space without escapes.
  4740 
  4741 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4742 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4743 "foo_bar".
  4744 
  4745 
  4746 *** Pure ***
  4747 
  4748 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4749 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4750 
  4751 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4752 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4753 
  4754 (1) unused_thms
  4755      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4756 
  4757 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4758      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4759      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4760 
  4761 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4762      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4763      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4764      their ancestors.
  4765 
  4766 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4767 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4768 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4769 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4770 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4771 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4772 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4773 
  4774 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4775 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4776 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4777 
  4778 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4779 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4780 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4781 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4782 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4783 
  4784 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4785 
  4786 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4787 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4788 update of theories within ML code.
  4789 
  4790 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4791 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4792 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4793 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4794 
  4795 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4796 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4797 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4799 
  4800 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4801 
  4802 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4803 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4804 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4805 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4806 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4807 
  4808 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4809 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4810 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4811 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4812 situations.
  4813 
  4814 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4815 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4816 proof text.
  4817 
  4818 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4819 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4820 
  4821 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4822 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4823 predicates.
  4824 
  4825 
  4826 *** Document preparation ***
  4827 
  4828 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4829 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4830 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4831 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4832 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4833 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4834 
  4835 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4836 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4837 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4838 
  4839 
  4840 *** HOL ***
  4841 
  4842 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4843 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4844 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4845 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4846 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4847 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4848 
  4849 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4850 with multithreading.
  4851 
  4852 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4853 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4854 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4855 
  4856 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4857 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4858 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4859 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4860 
  4861 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4862 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4863 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4864 and makes them available separately.  See
  4865 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4866 
  4867 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4868 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4869 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4870 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4871 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4872 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4873 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4874 the declared rules.
  4875 
  4876 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4877 
  4878   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4879 
  4880 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4881 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4882 
  4883 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4884 
  4885   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4886 
  4887   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4888     definitions on => and bool.
  4889 
  4890   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4891     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4892     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4893 
  4894       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4895       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4896       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4897       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4898       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4899       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4900       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4901       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4902 
  4903   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4904     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4905     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4906 
  4907   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4908     The proof pattern
  4909 
  4910       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4911       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4912 
  4913     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4914     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4915 
  4916       have "EX S. P S"
  4917       proof
  4918         show "P S" <...>
  4919       qed
  4920 
  4921   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4922     The proof pattern
  4923 
  4924       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4925       also have "S = T" <...>
  4926       finally have "P T" .
  4927 
  4928     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4929     must be replaced by something like
  4930 
  4931       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4932       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4933       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4934 
  4935   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4936     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4937 
  4938       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4939 
  4940     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4941     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4942     type of the form
  4943 
  4944       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4945 
  4946     rather than
  4947 
  4948       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4949 
  4950 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4951 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4952 
  4953 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4954 
  4955 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4956 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4957 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4958 
  4959 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4960 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4961 
  4962 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4963 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4964 
  4965 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4966 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4967 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4968 
  4969 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4970 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4971 
  4972   less_trans
  4973   less_linear
  4974   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4975   le_less_trans
  4976   less_le_trans
  4977   less_not_sym
  4978   less_asym
  4979 
  4980 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4981 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4982 and different variable names.
  4983 
  4984 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4985 
  4986 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4987 finite maps.
  4988 
  4989 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4990 
  4991 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4992 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4993 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4994 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4995 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4996 accordingly.
  4997 
  4998 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4999 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5000 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5001 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5002 
  5003 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5004 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5005 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5006 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5007 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5009 
  5010 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5011 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5012 
  5013 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5014 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5015 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5016 
  5017 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5019 
  5020 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5021 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5022 
  5023 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5024 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5025 
  5026 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5027 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5028 
  5029 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5030 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5032 
  5033 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5034 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5035 
  5036 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5037 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5038 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5039 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5040 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5041 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5042 
  5043 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5044 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5045 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5046 
  5047 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5048 
  5049 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5050 
  5051 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5052 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5053 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5054 
  5055 
  5056 *** ZF ***
  5057 
  5058 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5059 same session:
  5060 
  5061   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5062   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5063   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5064   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5065   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5066   List      -> List_ZF
  5067   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5068 
  5069 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5070 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5071 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5072 
  5073 
  5074 *** ML ***
  5075 
  5076 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5077 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5078 
  5079 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5080 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5081 
  5082 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5083 
  5084 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5085 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5086 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5087 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5088 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5089 
  5090 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5091 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5092 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5093 
  5094 
  5095 *** System ***
  5096 
  5097 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5098 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5099 
  5100 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5101 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5102 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5103 
  5104 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5105 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5106 
  5107 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5108 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5109 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5110 
  5111 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5112 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5113 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5114 
  5115 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5116 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5117 
  5118 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5119 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5120 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5121 script.
  5122 
  5123 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5124 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5125 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5126 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5127 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5128 
  5129 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5130 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5131 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5132 
  5133 
  5134 
  5135 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5136 -----------------------------------
  5137 
  5138 *** General ***
  5139 
  5140 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5141 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5142 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5143 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5144 
  5145 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5146 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5147 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5148 
  5149 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5150 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5151 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5152 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5153 
  5154 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5155 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5156 quotes.
  5157 
  5158 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5159 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5160 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5161 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5162 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5163 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5164 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5165 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5166 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5167 
  5168 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5169 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5170 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5171 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5172 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5173 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5174 
  5175 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5176 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5177 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5178 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5179 
  5180 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5181 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5182 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5183 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5184 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5185 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5186 
  5187 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5188 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5189 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5190 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5191 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5192 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5193 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5194 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5195 
  5196 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5197 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5198 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5199 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5200 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5201 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5202 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5203 
  5204 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5205 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5206 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5207 
  5208 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5209 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5210 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5211 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5212 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5213 limit is imposed.
  5214 
  5215 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5216 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5217 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5218 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5219 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5220 and scalability.
  5221 
  5222 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5223 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5224 
  5225 
  5226 *** Document preparation ***
  5227 
  5228 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5229 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5230 current context.
  5231 
  5232 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5233 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5234 
  5235 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5236 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5237 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5238 
  5239 
  5240 *** Pure ***
  5241 
  5242 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5243 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5244 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5245 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5246 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5247 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5248 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5249 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5250 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5251 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5252 
  5253 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5254 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5255 sketch:
  5256 
  5257     internal compilation:
  5258         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5259     writing SML code to a file:
  5260         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5261     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5262         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5263     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5264         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5265 
  5266     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5267         method ``eval''
  5268 
  5269 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5270 
  5271 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5272 
  5273     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5274     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5275     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5276     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5277 
  5278 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5279 
  5280     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5281       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5282 
  5283     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5284       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5285 
  5286     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5287       {(target)}+
  5288         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5289 
  5290     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5291       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5292         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5293 
  5294 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5295 
  5296 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5297 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5298 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5299 codegen".
  5300 
  5301 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5302 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5303 annotations).
  5304 
  5305 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5306 syntax.
  5307 
  5308 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5309 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5310 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5311 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5312 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5313 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5314 
  5315 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5316 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5317 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5318 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5319 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5320 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5321 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5322 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5323 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5324 equations, see section "definitions".
  5325 
  5326 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5327 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5328 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5329 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5330 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5331 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5332 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5333 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5334 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5335 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5336 
  5337 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5338 configuration options:
  5339 
  5340   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5341   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5342   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5343   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5344   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5345   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5346   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5347   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5348   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5349 
  5350 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5351 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5352 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5353 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5354 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5355 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5356 order.
  5357 
  5358 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5359 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5360 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5361 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5362 context encountered later on.
  5363 
  5364 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5365 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5366 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5367 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5368 
  5369 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5370 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5371 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5372 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5373 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5374 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5375 
  5376 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5377 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5378 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5379 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5380 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5381 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5382 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5383 more permissive.
  5384 
  5385 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5386 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5387 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5388 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5389 maintainability of proof texts.
  5390 
  5391 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5392 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5393 
  5394   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5395   then guess x and y by clarify
  5396 
  5397 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5398 proof tools being involved here.
  5399 
  5400 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5401 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5402 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5403 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5404 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5405 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5406 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5407 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5408 
  5409 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5410 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5411 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5412 
  5413   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5414   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5415   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5416   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5417 
  5418 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5419 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5420 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5421 
  5422 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5423 both named and unnamed ones.
  5424 
  5425 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5426 
  5427   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5428 
  5429 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5430 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5431 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5432 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5433 
  5434 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5435 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5436 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5437 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5438 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5439 
  5440 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5441 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5442 
  5443 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5444 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5445 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5446 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5447 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5448 originally first one.
  5449 
  5450 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5451 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5452 expected.
  5453 
  5454 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5455 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5456 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5457 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5458 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5459 
  5460   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5461     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5462     obtains x where "P x"
  5463 
  5464   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5465     assumes "A & B"
  5466     obtains A and B
  5467 
  5468   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5469     assumes "A | B"
  5470     obtains
  5471       A
  5472     | B
  5473 
  5474 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5475 explicitly:
  5476 
  5477   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5478     obtains "~ thesis"
  5479 
  5480   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5481     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5482 
  5483 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5484 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5485 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5486 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5487 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5488 case_names).
  5489 
  5490 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5491 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5492 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5493 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5494 
  5495 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5496 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5497 top-level lemma.
  5498 
  5499 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5500 introduction rule (default "that").
  5501 
  5502 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5503 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5504 to occur.
  5505 
  5506 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5507 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5508 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5509 representations independently of name spaces.
  5510 
  5511 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5512 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5513 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5514 
  5515 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5516 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5517 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5518 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5519 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5520 current context.
  5521 
  5522 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5523 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5524 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5525 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5526 
  5527   axiomatization
  5528     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5529     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5530 
  5531   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5532   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5533 
  5534   abbreviation
  5535     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5536     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5537 
  5538 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5539 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5540 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5541 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5542 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5543 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5544 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5545 
  5546 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5547 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5548 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5549 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5550 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5551 
  5552 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5553 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5554 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5555 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5556 
  5557 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5558 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5559 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5560 
  5561   definition "K x _ = x"
  5562 
  5563   inductive conj for A B
  5564   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5565 
  5566 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5567 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5568 abbreviations on output.
  5569 
  5570 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5571 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5572 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5573 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5574 
  5575 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5576 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5577 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5578 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5579 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5580 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5581 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5582 
  5583 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5584 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5585 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5586 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5587 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5588 
  5589 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5590 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5591 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5592 
  5593 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5594 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5595 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5596 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5597 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5598 
  5599   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5600     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5601 
  5602 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5603 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5604 partial_order.
  5605 
  5606 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5607 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5608 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5609 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5610 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5611 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5612 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5613 examples.
  5614 
  5615 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5616 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5617 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5618 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5619 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5620 
  5621 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5622 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5623 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5624 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5625 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5626 
  5627   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5628   (induct set: foo bar)
  5629   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5630   (induct type: foo bar)
  5631 
  5632 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5633 new format.
  5634 
  5635 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5636 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5637 
  5638 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5639 considered a legacy feature.
  5640 
  5641 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5642 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5643 
  5644 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5645 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5646 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5647 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5648   
  5649 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5650 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5651 manipulating the claset.
  5652 
  5653 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5654 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5655 least one premise.
  5656 
  5657 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5658 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5659 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5660 rule steps.
  5661 
  5662 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5663 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5664 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5665 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5666 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5667 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5668 
  5669 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5670 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5671 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5672 
  5673 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5674 the graph browser tool.
  5675 
  5676 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5677 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5678 
  5679 
  5680 *** HOL ***
  5681 
  5682 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5683 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5684 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5685 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5686 multi-threading.
  5687   
  5688 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5689 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5690 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5691 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5692 work with multi-threading.
  5693 
  5694 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5695 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5696 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5697 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5698 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5699 
  5700 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5701 
  5702 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5703 equality.
  5704 
  5705 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5706 the new 'class' package:
  5707 
  5708     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5709     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5710     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5711     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5712     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5713     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5714     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5715     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5716     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5717     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5718     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5719     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5720     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5721     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5722     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5723     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5724     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5725     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5726     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5727     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5728 
  5729 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5730 
  5731 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5732 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5733 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5734 names.
  5735 
  5736 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5737 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5738 
  5739 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5740 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5741 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5742 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5743 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5744 
  5745 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5746 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5747 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5748 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5749 
  5750 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5751 
  5752 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5753 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5754 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5755 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5757 
  5758 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5759 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5760 
  5761 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5762 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5763 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5764 
  5765 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5766 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5767 
  5768 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5769 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5770 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5771 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5772 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5773 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5774 in the current context.
  5775 
  5776 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5777 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5779 
  5780 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5781 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5782 
  5783 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5784 
  5785     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5786     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5787 
  5788     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5789       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5790     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5791     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5792 
  5793     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5794     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5795 
  5796   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5797 
  5798     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5799     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5800     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5801     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5802     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5803     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5804     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5805     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5806     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5807     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5808     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5809     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5810     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5811     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5812     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5813     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5814     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5815     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5816     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5817     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5818     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5819     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5820     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5821     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5822     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5823     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5824     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5825     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5826     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5827     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5828     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5829     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5830     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5831     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5832     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5833 
  5834     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5835     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5836     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5837     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5838     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5839     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5840     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5841     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5842     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5843     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5844     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5845     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5846     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5847     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5848     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5849     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5850     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5851 
  5852     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5853     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5854     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5855     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5856     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5857     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5858     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5859     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5860     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5861     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5862     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5863     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5864     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5865     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5866     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5867     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5868     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5869     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5870     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5871     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5872     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5873     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5874     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5875     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5876     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5877     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5878     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5879     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5880 
  5881     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5882     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5883     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5884     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5885     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5886     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5887 
  5888     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5889     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5890     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5891     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5892 
  5893     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5894     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5895 
  5896     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5897     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5898 
  5899 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5900 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5901 
  5902 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5903 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5904 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5905 "*.size".
  5906 
  5907 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5908 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5909 
  5910 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5911 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5912 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5913 
  5914 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5915 
  5916 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5917 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5918 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5919 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5920 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5921 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5922 numerals on all operations.
  5923 
  5924 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5925 
  5926 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5927 
  5928 * Code generator library theories:
  5929   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5930     languages.
  5931   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5932     languages.
  5933   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5934     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5935   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5936   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5937     denominator).
  5938   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5939     representable by rational numbers.
  5940   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5941     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5942     includes Code_Integer.
  5943   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5944     target-language built-in integers.
  5945   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5946     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5947 
  5948 * New package for inductive predicates
  5949 
  5950   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5951 
  5952     inductive
  5953       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5954       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5955     where
  5956       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5957     | ...
  5958 
  5959   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5960 
  5961     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5962 
  5963     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5964     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5965 
  5966     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5967     intros
  5968       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5969       ...
  5970 
  5971   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5972   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5973 
  5974     inductive_set
  5975       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5976       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5977     where
  5978       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5979     | ...
  5980 
  5981   or
  5982 
  5983     inductive_set
  5984       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5985       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5986       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5987     where
  5988       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5989     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5990     | ...
  5991 
  5992   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5993 
  5994   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5995   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5996 
  5997   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5998 
  5999   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6000     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6001     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6002     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6003     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6004 
  6005   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6006     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6007     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6008     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6009     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6010     statements of the form
  6011 
  6012       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6013 
  6014     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6015     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6016 
  6017       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6018 
  6019   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6020 
  6021       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6022         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6023         ==> ... ==> P
  6024 
  6025     for predicates and
  6026 
  6027       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6028         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6029         ==> ... ==> P
  6030 
  6031     for sets rather than
  6032 
  6033       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6034         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6035         ==> ... ==> P
  6036 
  6037     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6038     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6039     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6040 
  6041   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6042     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6043     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6044 
  6045 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6046 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6047 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6048 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6049 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6050 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6051 
  6052 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6053 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6054 
  6055 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6056 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6057 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6058 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6059 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6060 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6061 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6062 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6063 variable.
  6064 
  6065 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6066 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6067 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6068 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6069   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6070   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6071 
  6072 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6073 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6074 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6075 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6076 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6077 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6078 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6079 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6080 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6081 
  6082 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6083 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6084 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6085 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6086 rat, etc.
  6087 
  6088 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6089 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6090 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6091 
  6092 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6093 
  6094 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6095 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6096 
  6097 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6098 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6099 
  6100 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6101 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6102 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6103 
  6104 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6105 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6107 
  6108 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6109 
  6110 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6111 
  6112 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6113 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6114 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6115 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6116 
  6117 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6118 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6119 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6120 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6121 
  6122 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6123 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6124 algebraic operations.
  6125 
  6126 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6128 
  6129 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6131 
  6132 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6133 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6134 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6135 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6136 adapted.
  6137  
  6138 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6139 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6140 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6141 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6142 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6143 
  6144 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6145 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6146 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6147 
  6148 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6149 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6150 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6151 
  6152 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6153 
  6154 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6155 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6156 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6157   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6158       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6159   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6160   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6161   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6162 
  6163 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6164 
  6165 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6166 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6167 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6168 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6169 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6170 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6171 
  6172 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6173 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6174 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6175 
  6176 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6177 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6178 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6179 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6180 
  6181 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6182 
  6183 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6184 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6185 
  6186 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6187 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6188 
  6189 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6190 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6191 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6192 
  6193 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6194 True/False.
  6195 
  6196 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6197 
  6198 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6199 
  6200 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6201 ``rule'' method.
  6202 
  6203 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6204 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6205 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6206 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6207 
  6208 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6209 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6210 
  6211 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6212 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6213 
  6214 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6215 Library.
  6216 
  6217 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6218 
  6219 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6220 as greatest fixed-point.
  6221 
  6222 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6223 association lists.
  6224 
  6225 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6226 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6227 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6228 
  6229 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6230 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6231 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6232 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6233 behavior.
  6234 
  6235 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6236 
  6237 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6238 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6239 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6240 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6241 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6242 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.