NEWS
author hoelzl
Mon Apr 23 12:14:35 2012 +0200 (2012-04-23)
changeset 47694 05663f75964c
parent 47673 dd253cfa5b23
child 47702 5f9ce06f281e
child 47703 400fccb77ec8
permissions -rw-r--r--
reworked Probability theory
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
     5 ------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10 
    11   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
    12     command line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
    13   - markup for bound variables
    14   - markup for types of term variables (e.g. displayed as tooltips)
    15   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    16   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
    17     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
    18 
    19 * Updated and extended reference manuals ("isar-ref" and
    20 "implementation"); reduced remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    21 
    22 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    23 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    24 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    25 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    26 etc. was exploited.
    27 
    28 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    29 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    30 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    31 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    32 indices of schematic variables.
    33 
    34 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
    35 
    36     num ~> num_token
    37     xnum ~> xnum_token
    38     xstr ~> str_token
    39 
    40 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
    41 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
    42 position information via constraints).
    43 
    44 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
    45 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
    46 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    47 
    48 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    49 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    50 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    51 
    52 
    53 *** Pure ***
    54 
    55 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
    56 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
    57 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
    58 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
    59 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
    60 
    61   context
    62     fixes x y z :: 'a
    63     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
    64   begin
    65 
    66   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
    67 
    68   end
    69 
    70   thm my_trans
    71 
    72 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
    73 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
    74 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
    75 
    76 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
    77 ... begin ... end" block as well.
    78 
    79 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
    80 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
    81 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
    82 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.
    83 
    84 See commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref
    85 manual.
    86 
    87 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
    88 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
    89 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
    90 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
    91 
    92 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
    93 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
    94 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
    95 
    96 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
    97 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
    98 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
    99 undocumented feature.)
   100 
   101 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   102 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   103 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   104 
   105 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   106 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   107 
   108 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   109 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   110 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   111 
   112 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   113 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   114 
   115 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   116 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   117 
   118   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   119 
   120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   121 
   122 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   123 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   124 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   125 
   126   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   127 
   128   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   129     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   130 
   131 
   132 *** HOL ***
   133 
   134 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL" ("prog-prove").
   135 It completely supercedes "A Tutorial Introduction to Structured Isar Proofs",
   136 which has been removed. It supercedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant
   137 for Higher-Order Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial
   138 but does not cover all of the material of that old tutorial.
   139 
   140 * Discontinued old Tutorial on Isar ("isar-overview");
   141 
   142 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   143 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   144 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   145 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase sets S accidentally
   146 used as predicates by "%x. x : S" and predicates P accidentally used
   147 as sets by "{x. P x}".  Corresponding proofs in a first step should be
   148 pruned from any tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def
   149 as far as possible.
   150 
   151 For developments which deliberately mixed predicates and sets, a
   152 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   153 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   154 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   155 
   156 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   157 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   158 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   159 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. (See definitions
   160 in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.) Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some user theories
   161 may require adaptations as follows:
   162 
   163   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   164     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   165 
   166   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   167     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   168     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   169 
   170   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   171     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   172 
   173   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   174     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   175     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   176 
   177   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   178     Redefine using other integer operations.
   179 
   180 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   181 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183 * New proof import from HOL Light: Faster, simpler, and more scalable.
   184 Requires a proof bundle, which is available as an external component.
   185 Discontinued old (and mostly dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.
   186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   189 
   190 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   191 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   192 of some relation theorems:
   193 
   194   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   195   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   196   symp_def ~> (dropped, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   197   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   198   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   199   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   200 
   201 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   202 
   203 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   204 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   205 
   206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   209 to match the constant's name:
   210 
   211   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   212   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   213   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   214   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   215   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   216   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   217   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   218   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   219   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   220   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   221   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   222   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   223   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   224   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   225   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   226   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   227   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   228   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   229   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   230   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   231   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   232   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   233   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   234   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   235 
   236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   237 
   238 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   239 and corresponding theorem names:
   240 
   241   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   242 
   243   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   244 
   245   - Renamed theorems:
   246 
   247     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   248     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   249     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   250     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   251     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   252     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   253     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   254     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   255     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   256     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   257     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   258     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   259     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   260     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   261     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   262     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   263     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   264     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   265     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   266     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   267     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   268     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   269     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   270 
   271     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   272 
   273     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   274 
   275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   278 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   279 
   280   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   281   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   282   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   283   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   284   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   285   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   286   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   287   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   288   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   289   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   290   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   291   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   292   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   293   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   294   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   295   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   296   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   297   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   298   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   299   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   300   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   301 
   302 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   303 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306 
   307 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   308 
   309   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   310   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   311   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   312   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   313   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   314   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   315   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   316   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   317   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   318   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   319   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   320   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   321   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   322   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   323   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   324   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   325   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   326   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   327 
   328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   329 
   330 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   331 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   332 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   333 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   334 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   335 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   336 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   337 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   338 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   339 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   340 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   341 
   342 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   343 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   344 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   345 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   346 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   347 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   348 
   349 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   350 through option types.
   351 
   352 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   353 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   354 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   355 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   356 one_case.
   357 
   358 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   359 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   360 
   361 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   362 association lists with distinct keys.
   363 
   364 * 'datatype' specifications allow explicit sort constraints.
   365 
   366 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   367 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   368 
   369 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   370 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   371 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   372 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   373 follows:
   374 
   375   Operations:
   376   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   377   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   378   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   379   del -> rbt_del
   380   delete -> rbt_delete
   381   ins -> rbt_ins
   382   insert -> rbt_insert
   383   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   384   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   385   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   386   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   387   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   388   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   389   tree_less -> rbt_less
   390   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   391   union -> rbt_union
   392   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   393   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   394 
   395   Lemmas:
   396   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   397   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   398   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   399   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   400   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   401   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   402   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   403   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   404   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   405   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   406   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   407   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   408   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   409   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   410   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   411   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   412   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   413   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   414   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   415   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   416   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   417   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   418   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   419   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   420   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   421   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   422   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   423   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   424   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   425   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   426   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   427   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   428   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   429   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   430   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   431   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   432   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   433   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   434   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   435   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   436   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   437   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   438   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   439   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   440   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   441   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   442   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   443   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   444   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   445   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   446   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   447   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   448   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   449   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   450   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   451   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   452   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   453   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   454   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   455   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   456   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   457   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   458   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   459   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   460   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   461   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   462   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   463   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   464   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   465   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   466   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   467   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   468   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   469   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   470   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   471   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   472   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   473   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   474   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   475   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   476   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   477   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   478   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   479 
   480 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as a
   481 subset of the real numbers. All operations are defined using the
   482 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.
   483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   484 
   485   Changed Operations:
   486   float_abs -> abs
   487   float_nprt -> nprt
   488   float_pprt -> pprt
   489   pow2 -> use powr
   490   round_down -> float_round_down
   491   round_up -> float_round_up
   492   scale -> exponent
   493 
   494   Removed Operations:
   495   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   496 
   497   Renamed Lemmas:
   498   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   499   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   500   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   501   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   502   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   503   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   504   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   505   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   506   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   507   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   508   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   509   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   510   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   511   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   512   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   513   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   514   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   515   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   516   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   517   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   518   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   519   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   520   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   521   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   522   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   523   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   524   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   525   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   526   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   527   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   528   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   529   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   530   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   531   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   532   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   533   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   534 
   535   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   536   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   537   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   538   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   539   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   540   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   541   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   542   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   543   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   544   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   545 
   546 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   547 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   548 instead.
   549 
   550   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   551   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   552   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   553   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   554   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   555   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   556   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   557   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   558   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   559   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   560   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   561   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   562   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   563   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   564   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   565   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   566   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   567   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   568   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   569   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   570   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   571   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   572   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   573   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   574   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   575   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   576   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   577   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   578   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   579   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   580   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   581   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   582   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   583   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   584   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   585   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   586   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   587   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   588   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   589   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   590   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   591 
   592 * New tactic "word_bitwise" for splitting machine word equalities and
   593 inequalities into logical circuits. Requires theory "WordBitwise" from HOL-Word
   594 session. Supports addition, subtraction, multiplication, shifting by
   595 constants, bitwise operators and numeric constants. Requires fixed-length word
   596 types, cannot operate on 'a word. Solves many standard word identies outright
   597 and converts more into first order problems amenable to blast or similar. See
   598 HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy and examples in HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   599 
   600 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   601 the result of the fact expression.
   602 
   603 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   604 relations.
   605 
   606 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   607 
   608 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   609 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   610 
   611   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   612   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   613   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   614   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   615   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   616   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   617   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   618   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   619   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   620   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   621   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   622   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   623   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   624   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   625   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   626   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   627   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   628   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   629   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   630   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   631   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   632   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   633   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   634   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   635   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   636   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   637   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   638   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   639   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   640   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   641   zless_le ~> less_le
   642   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   643   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   644   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   645 
   646 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   647 
   648   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   649 
   650 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   651 
   652 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to represent
   653 measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a measure_space. The
   654 locales based on subset_class now have two locale-parameters the space
   655 \<Omega> and the set of measurables sets M. The product of probability spaces
   656 uses now the same constant as the finite product of sigma-finite measure
   657 spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a) measure". Most constants are defined now
   658 outside of locales and gain an additional parameter, like null_sets,
   659 almost_eventually or \<mu>'. Measure space constructions for distributions
   660 and densities now got their own constants distr and density. Instead of
   661 using locales to describe measure spaces with a finite space, the
   662 measure count_space and point_measure is introduced. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   663 
   664   Renamed constants:
   665   measure -> emeasure
   666   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
   667   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
   668   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
   669   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
   670 
   671   Removed locales:
   672   completeable_measure_space
   673   finite_measure_space
   674   finite_prob_space
   675   finite_product_finite_prob_space
   676   finite_product_sigma_algebra
   677   finite_sigma_algebra
   678   measure_space
   679   pair_finite_prob_space
   680   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
   681   pair_finite_space
   682   pair_sigma_algebra
   683   product_sigma_algebra
   684 
   685   Removed constants:
   686   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   687   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   688   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
   689   subvimage
   690   image_space
   691   conditional_space
   692   pair_measure_generator
   693 
   694   Replacement theorems:
   695   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
   696   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
   697   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
   698   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
   699   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
   700   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
   701   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
   702   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
   703   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
   704   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
   705   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
   706   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
   707   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
   708   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
   709   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
   710   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
   711   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
   712   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
   713   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
   714   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
   715   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
   716   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
   717   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
   718   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
   719   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   720   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
   721   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
   722   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
   723   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
   724   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
   725   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
   726   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
   727   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
   728   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
   729   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
   730   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
   731   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   732   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
   733   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
   734   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
   735   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
   736   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
   737   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
   738   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
   739   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
   740   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
   741   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
   742   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   743   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
   744   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
   745   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
   746   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
   747   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
   748   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
   749   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
   750   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
   751   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
   752   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
   753   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
   754   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
   755   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
   756   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
   757   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
   758   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
   759   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
   760   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
   761   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
   762   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
   763   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
   764   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
   765   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
   766   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
   767   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
   768   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
   769   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   770   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
   771   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
   772   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
   773   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
   774   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
   775   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
   776   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
   777   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
   778   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
   779   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   780   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
   781   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
   782   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
   783   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
   784   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
   785   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
   786   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
   787   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
   788   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
   789   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
   790   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
   791   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
   792   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
   793   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   794   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   795   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
   796   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
   797   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
   798   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
   799   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
   800   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
   801   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
   802   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
   803   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
   804   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
   805   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
   806   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
   807   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
   808   conditional_entropy_positive -> conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
   809   conditional_entropy_eq -> conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
   810   conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
   811   conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   812   conditional_mutual_information_positive -> conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   813   entropy_commute -> entropy_commute_simple
   814   entropy_eq -> entropy_simple_distributed
   815   entropy_generic_eq -> entropy_simple_distributed
   816   entropy_positive -> entropy_nonneg_simple
   817   entropy_uniform_max -> entropy_uniform
   818   KL_eq_0 -> KL_same_eq_0
   819   KL_eq_0_imp -> KL_eq_0_iff_eq
   820   KL_ge_0 -> KL_nonneg
   821   mutual_information_eq -> mutual_information_simple_distributed
   822   mutual_information_positive -> mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   823 
   824 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   825 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   826 
   827   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   828 
   829 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   830 a list and a nat.
   831 
   832 * New Transfer package:
   833 
   834   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   835     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   836     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   837     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   838     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   839 
   840     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   841     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   842 
   843   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   844     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   845     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   846     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   847     necessary for variables whose types changes, but can be overridden
   848     for specific variables with e.g. 'transfer fixing: x y z'.
   849     The variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with
   850     one that is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   851 
   852   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   853     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)". The
   854     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   855     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   856 
   857   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   858     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   859     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   860     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   861 
   862   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   863     from type nat to type int.
   864 
   865 * New Lifting package:
   866 
   867   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   868     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation type. Example
   869     syntax:
   870 
   871     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   872       is List.insert
   873 
   874     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   875     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   876     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   877     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   878     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   879     by the package.
   880 
   881   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   882     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   883     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   884     code generation for each constant.
   885 
   886   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with
   887     a user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient
   888     theorem or a type_definition theorem. The package configures
   889     transfer rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets
   890     up the lift_definition command to work with the type.
   891 
   892   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   893     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Word/Word.thy and
   894     Library/Float.thy.
   895 
   896 * Quotient package:
   897 
   898   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   899     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   900 
   901   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   902     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   903 
   904   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   905     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   906     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   907 
   908   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   909     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   910 
   911 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   912 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   913 
   914 * Quickcheck:
   915 
   916   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   917     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   918     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   919     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   920     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   921 
   922     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   923     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   924     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   925 
   926     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   927     continues searching for genuine ones.
   928 
   929     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   930     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   931     show genuine counterexamples.
   932 
   933   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   934     value generators for a given type and operations.
   935 
   936     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   937     constructors of that type.
   938 
   939   - Support for multisets.
   940 
   941   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   942 
   943   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   944     conjectures in a locale context.
   945 
   946 * Nitpick:
   947   - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and
   948     affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   949 
   950 * Sledgehammer:
   951   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012 paper "More
   952     SPASS with Isabelle".
   953   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   954   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and TFF1),
   955     iProver, iProver-Eq.
   956   - Replaced remote E-SInE with remote Satallax in the default setup.
   957   - Sped up the minimizer.
   958   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   959   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   960   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   961 
   962 * Metis:
   963   - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   964     parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   965 
   966 * SMT:
   967   - Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   968 
   969 * Command 'try0':
   970   - Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   971 
   972 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   973 eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.
   974 
   975 * HOL/TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all languages)
   976 into Isabelle/HOL.
   977 
   978 
   979 *** FOL ***
   980 
   981 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
   982 
   983 
   984 *** ZF ***
   985 
   986 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
   987 analysis.
   988 
   989 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
   990 
   991 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   992 
   993 
   994 *** ML ***
   995 
   996 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
   997 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
   998 
   999 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1000 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1001 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1002 
  1003 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1004 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1005 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1006 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1007 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1008 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1009 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1010 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1011 
  1012 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1013 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1014 
  1015 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1016 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1017 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1018 
  1019 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1020 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1021 
  1022 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1023 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1024 context as well.
  1025 
  1026 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1027 
  1028   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1029   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1030   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1031   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1032   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1033   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1034   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1035   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1036   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1037   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1038   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1039   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1040 
  1041 
  1042 *** System ***
  1043 
  1044 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1045 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1046 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1047 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1048 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1049 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1050 the generic user home was intended.
  1051 
  1052 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1053 (not just JRE).
  1054 
  1055 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1056 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1057 
  1058 
  1059 
  1060 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1061 ------------------------------------
  1062 
  1063 *** General ***
  1064 
  1065 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1066 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1067 
  1068   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1069     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1070     files for checking).
  1071 
  1072   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1073     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1074     positions.
  1075 
  1076   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1077     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1078     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1079 
  1080   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1081     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1082     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1083 
  1084   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1085     cores.
  1086 
  1087   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1088     versions (garbage collection).
  1089 
  1090 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1091 including some remaining limitations.
  1092 
  1093 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1094 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1095 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1096 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1097 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1099 
  1100 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1101 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1102 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1103 
  1104 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1105 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1106 usedir option -Q.
  1107 
  1108 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1109 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1110 
  1111   long_names   ~> names_long
  1112   short_names  ~> names_short
  1113   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1114 
  1115 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1116 
  1117   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1118 
  1119 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1120 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1121 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1122 
  1123 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1124 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1125 
  1126 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1127   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1128   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1129   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1130     "Classical Reasoner".
  1131 
  1132 
  1133 *** HOL ***
  1134 
  1135 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1136 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1137 
  1138 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1139 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1140 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1141 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1142 class complete_linorder.
  1143 
  1144 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1145 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1146 
  1147 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1148 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1149 
  1150   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1151   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1152   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1153   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1154   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1155   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1156   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1157   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1158   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1159   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1160   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1161 
  1162 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1163 
  1164   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1165   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1166   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1167   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1168   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1169   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1170   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1171   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1172   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1173   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1174   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1175   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1176   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1177   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1178   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1179   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1180 
  1181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1182 
  1183 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1185 
  1186 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1187 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1188 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1189 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1190 
  1191 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1192 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1193 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1195 
  1196 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1197 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1198 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1199 
  1200 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1201 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1202 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1203 
  1204 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1205 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1206 
  1207 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1208 
  1209     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1210     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1211 
  1212 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1213 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1214 
  1215 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1216 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1217 
  1218 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1219 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1220 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1221 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1222 
  1223   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1224   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1225   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1226   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1227   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1228   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1229   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1230 
  1231 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1232 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1233 
  1234   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1235   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1236   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1237   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1238   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1239   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1240   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1241   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1242   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1243   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1244   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1245   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1246   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1247   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1248   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1249   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1250   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1251   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1252   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1253   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1254   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1255   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1256   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1257   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1258   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1259   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1260   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1261   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1262   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1263   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1264   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1265   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1266   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1267   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1268   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1269   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1270   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1271   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1272   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1273   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1274   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1275   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1276   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1277   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1278   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1279   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1280   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1281   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1282   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1283   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1284   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1285   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1286   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1287   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1288   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1289   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1290   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1291   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1292   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1293   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1294   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1295   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1296   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1297   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1298   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1299   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1300   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1301   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1302   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1303   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1304   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1305   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1306   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1307   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1308   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1309   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1310   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1311   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1312   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1313   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1314   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1315   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1316 
  1317 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1318 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1319 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1320 
  1321 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1322 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1323 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1324 
  1325 * Code generation:
  1326 
  1327   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1328     characters in the target language.
  1329 
  1330   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1331     instead.
  1332 
  1333   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1334 
  1335   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1336     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1337 
  1338       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1339 
  1340 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1341 
  1342 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1343 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1344 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1345 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1346 syntax.
  1347 
  1348 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1349 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1350 
  1351 * Nitpick:
  1352   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1353   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1354   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1355     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1356 
  1357 * Sledgehammer:
  1358   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1359   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1360     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1361   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1362     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1363   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1364     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1365   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1366     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1367   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1368     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1369 
  1370 * Metis:
  1371   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1372   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1373     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1374 
  1375 * Command 'try':
  1376   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1377     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1378   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1379     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1380 
  1381 * Quickcheck:
  1382   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1383     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1384   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1385     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1386   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1387     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1388     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1389     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1390   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1391     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1392 
  1393 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1394 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1395 
  1396 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1397 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1398 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1399 
  1400 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1401 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1403 
  1404 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1405 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1406 
  1407 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1408 arithmetic.
  1409 
  1410 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1411 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1412 and lattice type classes.
  1413 
  1414 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1415 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1416 
  1417 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1418 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1419 
  1420 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1421 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1422 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1423 
  1424   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1425   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1426   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1427   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1428 
  1429 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1430 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1431 constants:
  1432 
  1433   type inat   ~> type enat
  1434   Fin         ~> enat
  1435   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1436   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1437   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1438 
  1439 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1440 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1441 
  1442 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1443 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1444 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1445 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1446 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1447 
  1448 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1449 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1450 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1451 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1452 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1453 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1454 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1455 
  1456   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1457   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1458   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1459   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1460 
  1461 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1462 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1463 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1464 
  1465   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1466   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1467   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1468   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1469   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1470   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1471   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1472   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1473   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1474   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1475   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1476   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1477   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1478   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1479   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1480   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1481   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1482   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1483   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1484   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1485   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1486   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1487   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1488   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1489   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1490   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1491   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1492   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1493   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1494   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1495   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1496   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1497   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1498   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1499   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1500   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1501   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1502   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1503   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1504   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1505   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1506   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1507   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1508   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1509   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1510   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1511   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1512   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1513   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1514   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1515   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1516 
  1517 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1518   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1519   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1520   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1521   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1522     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1523 
  1524 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1525 
  1526   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1527   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1528   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1529   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1530   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1531   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1532   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1533   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1534   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1535   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1536   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1537   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1538   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1539   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1540   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1541   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1542   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1543   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1544   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1545   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1546   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1547   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1548   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1549   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1550   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1551 
  1552 
  1553 *** Document preparation ***
  1554 
  1555 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1556 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1557 same.
  1558 
  1559 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1560 result.
  1561 
  1562 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1563 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1564 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1565 
  1566 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1567 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1568 
  1569 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1570 like this:
  1571 
  1572   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1573   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1574 
  1575 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1576 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1577 layouts.
  1578 
  1579 
  1580 *** ML ***
  1581 
  1582 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1583 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1584 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1585 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1586 under external program control.
  1587 
  1588 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1589 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1590 
  1591 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1592 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1593 (better known as Proof General).
  1594 
  1595 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1596 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1597 
  1598 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1599 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1600 
  1601 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1602 (including quotes etc.).
  1603 
  1604 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1605 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1606 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1607 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1608 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1609 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1610 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1611 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1612 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1613 
  1614 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1615 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1616 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1617 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1618 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1619 
  1620 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1621 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1622 
  1623 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1624 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1625 
  1626 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1627 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1628 
  1629 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1630 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1631 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1632 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1633 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1634 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1635 proper Proof.context.
  1636 
  1637 
  1638 *** System ***
  1639 
  1640 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1641 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1642 
  1643 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1644 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1645 
  1646 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1647 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1648 
  1649   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1650   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1651   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1652   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1653   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1654 
  1655 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1656 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1657 
  1658 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1659 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1660 example:
  1661 
  1662   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1663 
  1664 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1665 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1666 
  1667 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1668 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1669 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1670 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1671 
  1672 
  1673 
  1674 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1675 ----------------------------------
  1676 
  1677 *** General ***
  1678 
  1679 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1680 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1681 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1682 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1683 like this:
  1684 
  1685   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1686 
  1687 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1688 
  1689 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1690 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1691 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1692 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1693 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1694 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1695 
  1696 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1697 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1698 the following package declarations:
  1699 
  1700   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1701   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1702 
  1703 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1704 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1705 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1706 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1707 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1708 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1709 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1710 
  1711 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1712 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1713 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1714 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1715 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1716 
  1717 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1718 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1719 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1720 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1721 
  1722 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1723 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1724 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1725 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1726 
  1727   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1728 
  1729   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1730   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1731   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1732   show_types                    show_types
  1733   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1734   show_consts                   show_consts
  1735   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1736 
  1737   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1738   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1739   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1740 
  1741   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1742   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1743 
  1744   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1745 
  1746   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1747   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1748   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1749   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1750   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1751 
  1752 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1753 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1754 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1755 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1756 
  1757 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1759 
  1760   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1761   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1762 
  1763 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1764 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1765 float_token.
  1766 
  1767 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1768 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1770 
  1771 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1772 DejaVu Sans.
  1773 
  1774 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1775 
  1776 
  1777 *** Pure ***
  1778 
  1779 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1780 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1781 time.
  1782 
  1783 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1784 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1785 
  1786 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1787 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1788 
  1789 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1790 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1791 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1792 command already provided this functionality.
  1793 
  1794 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1795 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1796 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1797 without interpretations.
  1798 
  1799 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1800 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1801 
  1802 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1803 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1804 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1805 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1806 
  1807 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1808 'definition' instead.
  1809 
  1810 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1811 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1812 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1813 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1814 
  1815 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1816 constructors.
  1817 
  1818 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1819 the local file system.
  1820 
  1821 
  1822 *** HOL ***
  1823 
  1824 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1825 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1826 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1827 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1828 
  1829   declare [[coercion f]]
  1830 
  1831 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1832 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1833 
  1834   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1835 
  1836 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1837 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1838 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1839 other theories like this:
  1840 
  1841   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1842 
  1843 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1844 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1845 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1846 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1847 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1848 for examples.
  1849 
  1850 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1851 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1852 
  1853 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1854 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1855 
  1856 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1857 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1858 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1859 
  1860 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1861 functorial structure of types.
  1862 
  1863 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1864 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1865 
  1866 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1867 languages.
  1868 
  1869 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1870 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1871 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1872 
  1873 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1874 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1875 
  1876 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1877 combinators any longer.
  1878 
  1879 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1880 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1881 
  1882 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1883 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1884 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1885 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1886 
  1887   record 'a foo = ...
  1888   ...
  1889   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1890 
  1891 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1892 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1894 
  1895 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1896 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1897 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1898 
  1899 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1900 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1901 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1902 
  1903 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1904 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1905 
  1906 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1907 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1908 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1909 independently.
  1910 
  1911 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1912 counter example search.
  1913 
  1914 * Sledgehammer:
  1915   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1916     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1917     sledgehammer").
  1918   - Renamed commands:
  1919     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1920     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1921     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1922     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1923   - Renamed options:
  1924     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1925     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1926     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1927     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1928     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1929 
  1930 * Nitpick:
  1931   - Renamed options:
  1932     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1933     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1934     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1935   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1936   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1937   - Added "whack" option.
  1938   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1939   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1940   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1941   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1942     higher cardinalities.
  1943   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1944 
  1945 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1946 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1947 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1948 
  1949     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1950 
  1951 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1952 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1953 
  1954 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1955 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1956 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1957 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1958 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1959 "smt_solver".
  1960 
  1961 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1962 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1963 
  1964 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1965 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1966 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1967 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1968 
  1969 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1970   - Renamed:
  1971     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1972     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1973     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1974   - Added:
  1975     smt_verbose
  1976     smt_random_seed
  1977     smt_datatypes
  1978     smt_infer_triggers
  1979     smt_monomorph_limit
  1980     cvc3_options
  1981     remote_cvc3_options
  1982     remote_z3_options
  1983     yices_options
  1984 
  1985 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  1986 header.
  1987 
  1988 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  1989 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  1990 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  1991 
  1992   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  1993 
  1994 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1995 
  1996 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  1997 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1998 
  1999 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2000 
  2001 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2002 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2003 
  2004 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2005 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2006 
  2007 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2008 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2009 
  2010 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2011 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2012 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2013 
  2014 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2015 
  2016 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2018 
  2019 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2020 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2021 
  2022 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2023 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2024 for congruent(2)).
  2025 
  2026 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2027 
  2028   types
  2029     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2030     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2031 
  2032   constants
  2033     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2034     True ~> HOL.True
  2035     False ~> HOL.False
  2036     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2037     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2038     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2039     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2040     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2041     The ~> HOL.The
  2042     All ~> HOL.All
  2043     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2044     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2045     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2046     If ~> HOL.If
  2047     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2048     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2049     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2050     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2051     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2052     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2053     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2054     op : ~> Set.member
  2055     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2056 
  2057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2058 
  2059 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2060 
  2061     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2062     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2063     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2064     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2065     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2066     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2067     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2068     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2069 
  2070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2071 
  2072 * More stylized fact names:
  2073 
  2074   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2075   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2076   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2077   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2078 
  2079 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2080 
  2081 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2082 
  2083   constants
  2084     null ~> List.null
  2085 
  2086   facts
  2087     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2088     null_empty ~> null_def
  2089 
  2090 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2091 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2092 generation.
  2093 
  2094 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2095 Haskell code.
  2096 
  2097 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2098 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2099 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2100 
  2101 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2102 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2103 
  2104 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2105 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2106 
  2107 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2108 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2109 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2110 
  2111 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2112 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2113 
  2114 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2116 
  2117 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2118 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2119 referred to by its qualified name.
  2120 
  2121   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2122   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2123   product ~>  Enum.product
  2124 
  2125 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2126 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2128 
  2129 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2130 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2131 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2133 
  2134 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2135 sort_key.
  2136 
  2137 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2139 
  2140 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2141 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2142 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2143 
  2144   types
  2145     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2146               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2147               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2148         (depends on your needs)
  2149 
  2150   constants
  2151      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2152      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2153      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2154 
  2155 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2156 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2157 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2158 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2159 
  2160 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2161 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2162 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2163 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2164 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2165 
  2166 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2168 
  2169 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2170 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2171 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2172 
  2173 
  2174 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2175 
  2176 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2177 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2178 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2179 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2180 compatibility.
  2181 
  2182 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2183 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2184 
  2185 
  2186 *** HOLCF ***
  2187 
  2188 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2189 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2190 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2192 
  2193 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2194 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2195 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2196 
  2197   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2198   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2199   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2200 
  2201 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2202 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2203 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2204 
  2205 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2206 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2207 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2208 domain definition now works:
  2209 
  2210   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2211 
  2212 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2213 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2214 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2215 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2216 
  2217   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2218     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2219 
  2220   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2221 
  2222 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2223 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2224 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2225 
  2226 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2227 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2228 
  2229 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2230 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2231 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2232 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2233 
  2234 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2235 
  2236 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2237 
  2238 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2239 
  2240 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2242 
  2243 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2244 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2245 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2246 
  2247 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2248 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2249 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2250 
  2251 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2252 still supported as an input translation.
  2253 
  2254 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2255 
  2256   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2257   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2258   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2259   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2260   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2261   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2262   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2263 
  2264 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2265 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2266 
  2267   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2268   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2269   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2270   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2271   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2272   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2273 
  2274 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2275 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2276 
  2277 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2278 
  2279   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2280   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2281   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2282   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2283 
  2284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2285 
  2286 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2287 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2288 
  2289 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2290 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2291 
  2292   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2293   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2294   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2295   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2296   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2297   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2298   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2299   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2300   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2301   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2302   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2303   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2304   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2305   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2306   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2307   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2308   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2309   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2310   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2311   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2312 
  2313 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2314 
  2315   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2316   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2317   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2318   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2319   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2320   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2321   box_less             ~> box_below
  2322   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2323   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2324   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2325   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2326   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2327   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2328   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2329   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2330   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2331   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2332   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2333   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2334   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2335   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2336   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2337   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2338   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2339   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2340   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2341   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2342   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2343   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2344   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2345   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2346   up_less              ~> up_below
  2347   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2348   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2349   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2350   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2351   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2352   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2353   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2354   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2355   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2356   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2357   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2358   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2359   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2360 
  2361 
  2362 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2363 
  2364 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2365 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367 
  2368 *** ML ***
  2369 
  2370 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2371 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2372 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2373 
  2374 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2375 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2376 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2377 
  2378 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2379 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2380 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2381 
  2382 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2383 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2384 
  2385 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2386 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2387 
  2388 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2389 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2390 
  2391 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2392 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2393 
  2394 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2395 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2396 almost all situations.
  2397 
  2398 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2399 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2400 Isabelle/ML.
  2401 
  2402 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2403 meaning.
  2404 
  2405 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2406 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2407 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2408 
  2409 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2410 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2411 
  2412 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2413 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2414 
  2415 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2416 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2417 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2418 
  2419 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2420 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2421 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2422 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2423 configuration options.
  2424 
  2425 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2426 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2427 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2428 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2429 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2430 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2431 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2432 
  2433 
  2434 
  2435 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2436 ---------------------------------
  2437 
  2438 *** General ***
  2439 
  2440 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2441 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2442 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2443 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2444 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2445 their full internal name.
  2446 
  2447 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2448 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2449 Some hints on upgrading:
  2450 
  2451   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2452     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2453     which are independent of this issue.
  2454 
  2455   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2456     provides the following special forms:
  2457 
  2458       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2459       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2460       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2461 
  2462     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2463     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2464     extra variables".
  2465 
  2466     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2467     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2468     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2469     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2470     "logic".
  2471 
  2472   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2473     antiquotations:
  2474 
  2475       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2476       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2477       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2478       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2479 
  2480   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2481     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2482     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2483     antiquotations.
  2484 
  2485 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2486 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2487 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2488 diagnose syntax problems.
  2489 
  2490 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2491 
  2492 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2493 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2494 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2495 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2496 
  2497 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2498 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2499 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2500 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2501 
  2502 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2503 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2504 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2505 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2506 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2507 
  2508 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2509 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2510 
  2511 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2512 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2513 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2514 
  2515   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2516 
  2517 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2518 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2519 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2520 
  2521 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2522 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2523 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2524 
  2525 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2526 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2527 
  2528 
  2529 *** Pure ***
  2530 
  2531 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2532 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2533 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2534 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2535 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2536 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2537 inspect proof terms.
  2538 
  2539 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2540 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2541 are added internally.  For example:
  2542 
  2543   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2544 
  2545 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2546 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2547 
  2548 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2549 
  2550 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2551 'class' instead.
  2552 
  2553 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2554 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2556 
  2557 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2558 invariants.
  2559 
  2560 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2561 user space functionality any longer.
  2562 
  2563 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2564 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2566 
  2567 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2568 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2569 
  2570 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2571 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2572 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2573 
  2574 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2575 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2576 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2577 
  2578 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2579 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2580 
  2581 
  2582 *** HOL ***
  2583 
  2584 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2585 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2586 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2587 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2588 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2589 
  2590 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2591 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2592 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2593 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2594 
  2595   fun
  2596     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2597   where
  2598     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2599 
  2600   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2601     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2602 
  2603   quotient_definition
  2604     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2605 
  2606 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2607 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2608 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2609 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2610 
  2611 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2612 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2613 
  2614 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2615 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2616 
  2617 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2619 
  2620 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2621 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2622 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2623 
  2624 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2625 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2628 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2629 
  2630 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2632 
  2633 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2634 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2635 
  2636 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2637 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2638 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2639 
  2640   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2641   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2642   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2643   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2644   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2645   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2646   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2647   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2648   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2649   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2650   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2651   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2652   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2653   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2654   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2655   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2656   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2657   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2658   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2659   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2660   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2661   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2662   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2663   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2664   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2665   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2666   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2667   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2668   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2669   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2670 
  2671 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2672 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2673 
  2674 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2675 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2676 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2677 
  2678 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2679 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2680 
  2681 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2682 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2683 
  2684 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2685 
  2686 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2687 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2688 
  2689 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2690 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2691 
  2692 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2693 
  2694 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2695 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2696 
  2697 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2698 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2699 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2700 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2701 
  2702 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2703   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2704   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2705   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2707 
  2708 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2709 lattices):
  2710 
  2711     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2712     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2713 
  2714     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2715 
  2716     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2717     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2718     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2719     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2720     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2721     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2722     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2723     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2724     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2725     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2726     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2727     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2728     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2729 
  2730     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2731     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2732     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2733     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2734     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2735     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2736     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2737     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2738     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2739     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2740     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2741     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2742     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2743     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2744     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2745     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2746     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2747     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2748 
  2749   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2750   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2751 
  2752     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2753     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2754     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2755     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2756     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2757 
  2758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2759 
  2760 * Refined field classes:
  2761   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2762     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2763     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2764   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2765 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2766 
  2767 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2768   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2769   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2770   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2771     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2772   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2773     equal_neg_zero.
  2774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2775 
  2776 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2777 sets to lattices:
  2778 
  2779   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2780   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2781   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2782   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2783   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2784   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2785   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2786   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2787   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2788   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2789 
  2790 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2791 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2792 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2793 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2794 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2795 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2796 
  2797 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2798 multiset order:
  2799 
  2800   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2801     <= and <;
  2802   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2803     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2804     multiset_order;
  2805   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2806     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2807     generation;
  2808   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2809     if needed.
  2810 
  2811 Renamed:
  2812 
  2813   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2814   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2815   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2816 
  2817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2818 
  2819 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2820 
  2821 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2822 
  2823 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2824 
  2825 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2826 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2827 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2828 
  2829   Constants:
  2830   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2831   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2832   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2833   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2834   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2835   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2836   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2837   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2838   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2839   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2840   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2841   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2842   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2843 
  2844   Lemmas:
  2845   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2846   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2847   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2848   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2849   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2850   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2851   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2852   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2853   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2854   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2855   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2856   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2857   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2858 
  2859 * Sledgehammer:
  2860   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2861     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2862     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2863     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2864     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2865     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2866     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2867   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2868   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2869     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2870   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2871     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2872     is still experimental.)
  2873   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2874     full-typed mode.
  2875   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2876 
  2877 * Nitpick:
  2878   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2879   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2880   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2881     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2882   - Added support for quotient types.
  2883   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2884     constructs.
  2885   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2886     "termination" proofs).
  2887   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2888   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2889   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2890   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2891     record getters.
  2892   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2893   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2894   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2895   - Added "atoms" option.
  2896   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2897     problems.
  2898   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2899     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2900     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2901   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2902     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2903   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2904 
  2905 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2906   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2907   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2908   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2909   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2910   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2911   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2912   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2913   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2914   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2915 
  2916 
  2917 *** HOLCF ***
  2918 
  2919 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2920 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2921 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2922 
  2923 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2924 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2925 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2926 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2927 
  2928 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2929 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2930 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2931 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2932 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2933 
  2934 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2935 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2936 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2937 
  2938 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2939 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2940 
  2941   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2942   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2943 
  2944 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2945 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2946 
  2947   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2948   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2949   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2950   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2951   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2952 
  2953 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2954 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2955 
  2956   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2957   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2958   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2959 
  2960 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2961 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2963 
  2964 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2965 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2966 
  2967 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2968 
  2969 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2970 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 
  2972 
  2973 *** ML ***
  2974 
  2975 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2976 
  2977     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2978     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2979 
  2980     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  2981     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  2982     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  2983     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2984 
  2985     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  2986     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  2987     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2988 
  2989 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  2990 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  2991 
  2992 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  2993 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  2994 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  2995 
  2996 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  2997 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  2998 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  2999 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3000 
  3001 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3002 the context or even global references.
  3003 
  3004 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3005 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3006 
  3007 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3008 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3009 
  3010   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3011   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3012   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3013   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3014   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3015   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3016   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3017   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3018   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3019   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3020 
  3021 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3022 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3023 
  3024 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3025 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3026 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3027 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3028 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3029 
  3030 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3031 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3032 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3033 Theory_Data version.
  3034 
  3035 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3036 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3037 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3038 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3039 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3040 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3041 explicitly in rare situations.
  3042 
  3043 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3044 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3046 
  3047 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3048 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3049 
  3050 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3051 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3052 quite rare).
  3053 
  3054 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3055 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3056 
  3057 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3058 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3059 terms.
  3060 
  3061 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3062 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3063 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3064 
  3065 
  3066 *** System ***
  3067 
  3068 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3069 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3070 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3071 
  3072 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3073 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3074 respectively.
  3075 
  3076 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3077 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3078 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3079 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3080 
  3081   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3082 
  3083 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3084 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3085 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3086 component.
  3087 
  3088 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3089 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3090 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3091 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3092 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3093 the user for manual installation.
  3094 
  3095 
  3096 
  3097 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3098 -------------------------------------
  3099 
  3100 *** General ***
  3101 
  3102 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3103 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3104 
  3105 
  3106 *** Pure ***
  3107 
  3108 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3109 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3110 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3111 
  3112 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3113 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3114 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3115 
  3116 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3117 interpretation.
  3118 
  3119 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3120 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 
  3123 *** Document preparation ***
  3124 
  3125 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3126 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3127 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3128 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3129 
  3130 
  3131 *** HOL ***
  3132 
  3133 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3134 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3135 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3136 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3137 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3138 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3139 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3140 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3141 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3142 
  3143 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3144 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3145 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3146 
  3147 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3148 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3149 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3150 
  3151 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3152 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3153 
  3154 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3155 
  3156 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3157 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3158 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3159 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3160 
  3161 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3162 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3163 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3164 "mirabelle" utility.
  3165 
  3166 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3167 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3168 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3169 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3170 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3171 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3172 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3173 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3174 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3175 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3176 
  3177 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3178 procedure only.
  3179 
  3180 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3181 
  3182 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3183 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3184 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3185 that fail later.
  3186 
  3187 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3188 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3189 
  3190 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3191 the same method as the approximation method.
  3192 
  3193 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3194 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3195 series expansion.
  3196 
  3197 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3198 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3199 
  3200 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3201 reals.
  3202 
  3203 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3204 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3205 
  3206 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3207 fixpoint theorem.
  3208 
  3209 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3210   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3211     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3212   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3213     accordingly
  3214   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3215     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3216   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3217     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3218 
  3219 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3220 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3221 lattice.
  3222 
  3223 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3224 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3225 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3226 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3227 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3228 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3230 
  3231 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3232   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3233     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3234   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3235     le_inf_iff
  3236   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3237     sup_aci)
  3238   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3239   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3240   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3241     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3242     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3243     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3244     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3245     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3246     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3247     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3248     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3249     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3250     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3251   - authentic syntax for
  3252     Set.Pow
  3253     Set.image
  3254   - mere abbreviations:
  3255     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3256     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3257     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3258     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3259     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3260     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3261     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3262     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3263   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3264 
  3265 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3266 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3267 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3268 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3269 
  3270 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3271 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3272 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273 
  3274 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3275 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3276 
  3277 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3278 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3279 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3280 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3281 
  3282 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3283 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3284 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3285 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3286 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3287 
  3288 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3289 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3291 
  3292 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3293 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3294 
  3295 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3296 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3297 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3298 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3299 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3300 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3301 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303 
  3304 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3305     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3306     code_post       replaces    code post
  3307     etc.
  3308   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3309 
  3310 * Renamed methods:
  3311     sizechange -> size_change
  3312     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3313   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3314 
  3315 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3316 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3317 
  3318 * Renamed theorems:
  3319     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3320     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3321     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3322     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3323     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3324   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3325 
  3326 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3328 
  3329 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3331 
  3332 
  3333 *** HOLCF ***
  3334 
  3335 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3336 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3337 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3338 
  3339 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3340 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3341 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3342 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3343 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3344 
  3345 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3346 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3347 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3348 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3349 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3350 
  3351 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3352 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3353 constructor are pre-configured.
  3354 
  3355 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3356 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3357 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3358 
  3359 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3360 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3361 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3362 as well.)
  3363 
  3364 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3365 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3366 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3367 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3368 examples.
  3369 
  3370 
  3371 *** ML ***
  3372 
  3373 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3374 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3375 
  3376 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3377 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3378 position, logical grouping etc.
  3379 
  3380 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3381 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3382 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3383 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3384 
  3385 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3386 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3387 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3388 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3389 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3390 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3391 
  3392 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3393 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3394 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3395 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3396 experiments with references.
  3397 
  3398 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3399 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3400 
  3401 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3402 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3403 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3404 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3405 
  3406 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3407 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3408 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3409 
  3410 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3411 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3412 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3413 
  3414 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3415 
  3416 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3418 
  3419 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3420 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3421 
  3422 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3423 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3424 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3425 
  3426 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3427 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3428 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3429 
  3430 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3431 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3432 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434 
  3435 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3436 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3437 instead of global theory.
  3438 
  3439 
  3440 *** System ***
  3441 
  3442 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3443 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3444 usedir option -q.
  3445 
  3446 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3447 also the system manual.
  3448 
  3449 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3450 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3451 
  3452 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3453 this is always enabled.
  3454 
  3455 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3456 
  3457 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3458 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3459 currently supported on Linux only.
  3460 
  3461 
  3462 
  3463 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3464 --------------------------------
  3465 
  3466 *** General ***
  3467 
  3468 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3469 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3470 
  3471   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3472     "isatool."
  3473 
  3474   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3475     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3476 
  3477   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3478     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3479 
  3480 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3481 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3482 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3483 
  3484 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3485 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3486 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3487 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3488 via "isabelle emacs".
  3489 
  3490 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3491 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3492 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3493 
  3494 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3495 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3496 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3497 
  3498 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3499 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3500 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3501 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3502 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3503 
  3504 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3505 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3506 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3507 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3508 
  3509 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3510 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3511 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3512 
  3513 
  3514 *** Pure ***
  3515 
  3516 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3517 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3518 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3519 
  3520 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3521 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3522 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3523 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3524 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3525 
  3526 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3527 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3528 useful in locale declarations.
  3529 
  3530 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3531 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3532 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3533 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3534 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3535 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3536 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3537 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3538 no longer generated.
  3539 
  3540 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3541 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3542 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3543 
  3544 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3545 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3546 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3547 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3548 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3549 
  3550 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3552 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3553 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3554 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3555 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3556 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3557 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3558 
  3559 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3560 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3561 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3562 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3563 
  3564 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3565 
  3566 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3567 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3568 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3569 
  3570 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3571 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3572 
  3573 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3574 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3575 in HOL, write
  3576 
  3577     class foo = ...
  3578 
  3579 instead of
  3580 
  3581     class foo = type + ...
  3582 
  3583 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3584 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3585 
  3586 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3587 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3588 
  3589 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3590 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3591 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3592 
  3593 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3594 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3595 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3596 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3597 directly in regular applications.
  3598 
  3599 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3600 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3601 
  3602 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3603 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3604 
  3605 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3606 theory context.
  3607 
  3608 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3609 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3610 
  3611 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3612 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3613 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3614 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3615 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3616 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3617 
  3618   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3619 
  3620 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3621 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3622 normalization.
  3623 
  3624 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3625 addressing etc.
  3626 
  3627 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3628 
  3629   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3630   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3631 
  3632 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3633 
  3634   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3635      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3636      parts of the code generator framework).
  3637 
  3638   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3639      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3640      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3641 
  3642 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3645 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3646 
  3647 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3648 patterns, e.g.
  3649 
  3650     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3651 
  3652 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3653 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3654 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3655 hyphen:
  3656 
  3657     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3658 
  3659 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3660 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3661 
  3662 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3663 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3664 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3665 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3666 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3667 higher-order unification.
  3668 
  3669 
  3670 *** Document preparation ***
  3671 
  3672 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3673 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3674 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3675 
  3676 
  3677 *** HOL ***
  3678 
  3679 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3680 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3681 
  3682 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3683 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3684 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3685 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3686 Main, as before.
  3687 
  3688 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3689 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3690 
  3691 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3692 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3693 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3694 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3695 
  3696 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3697 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3698 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3699 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3700 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3701 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3702 
  3703 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3704 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3705 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3706 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3707 
  3708 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3709 menu.
  3710 
  3711 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3712 (contains the empty clause).
  3713 
  3714 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3715 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3716 
  3717 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3718 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3719 
  3720 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3721 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3722 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3723 
  3724 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3725 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3726 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3727 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3728 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3729 
  3730 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3731 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3732 
  3733 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3734 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3735 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3736 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3737 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3738 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3739 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3740 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3741 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3742 
  3743 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3744 
  3745 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3746 
  3747 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3748 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3749 
  3750 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3751 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3752 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3753 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3754 
  3755 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3756 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3757 
  3758     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3759     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3760     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3761     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3762     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3763     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3764     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3765     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3766 
  3767 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3768 theory Set.
  3769 
  3770 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3771 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3772 
  3773 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3774 
  3775 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3776 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3777 
  3778 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3779 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3780 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3781 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3782 allowed. For examples see
  3783 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3784 
  3785 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3786 
  3787 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3789 
  3790 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3791 structure:
  3792 
  3793     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3794     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3795     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3796     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3797     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3798     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3799     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3800     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3801     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3802     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3803     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3804     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3805     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3806     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3807     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3808     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3809     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3810     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3811     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3812     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3813     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3814     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3815     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3816     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3817     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3818     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3819     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3820     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3821     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3822     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3823     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3824     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3825     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3826 
  3827     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3828     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3829     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3830     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3831     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3832     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3833     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3834     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3835     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3836     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3837 
  3838     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3839     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3840     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3841     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3842     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3843     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3844 
  3845 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3846 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3847 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3848 
  3849 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3850 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3851 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3852 
  3853 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3854 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3855 
  3856 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3857 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3858 
  3859 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3860 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3861 proofs, e.g.
  3862 
  3863   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3864 
  3865 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3866 
  3867 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3868 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3869 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3870 
  3871 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3872 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3874 
  3875 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3876 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3877 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3879 
  3880 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3881 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3882 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3883 preorder_class.*.
  3884 
  3885 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3886 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3887 
  3888 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3889 
  3890   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3891 
  3892 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3893 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3894 fold_image.
  3895 
  3896 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3897 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3898 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3899 the former will disappear at some point.
  3900 
  3901 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3902 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3903 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3904 
  3905 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3906 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3907 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3908 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3909 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3910 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3911 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3912 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3913 
  3914 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3915 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3916 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3917 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3918 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3919 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3920 
  3921     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3922     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3923     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3924     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3925     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3926     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3927     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3928 
  3929 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3930 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3931 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3932 
  3933 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3934 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3935 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3936 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3937 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3938 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3939 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3940 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3941 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3942 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3943 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3944 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3945 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3946 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3947 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3948 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3949 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3950 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3951 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3952 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3953 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3954 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3955 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3956 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3957 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3958 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3959 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3960 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3961 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3962 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3963 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3964 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3965 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3966 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3967 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3968 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3969 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3970 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3971 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3972 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3973 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3974 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3975 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3976 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3977 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3978 
  3979 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980 
  3981 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  3982 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  3983 
  3984 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  3985 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  3986 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  3987 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  3988 
  3989 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  3990 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  3991 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  3992 theory RealVector.
  3993 
  3994 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  3995 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  3996 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  3997 and inner products are included.
  3998 
  3999 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4000 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4001 supported.
  4002 
  4003 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4004 first diagonalization argument.
  4005 
  4006 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4007 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4008 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4009 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4010 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4011 
  4012     hide (open) const gcd
  4013     abbreviation gcd where
  4014       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4015     notation (output)
  4016       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4017 
  4018 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4019 
  4020 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4021 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4022 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4023 
  4024 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4025 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4026 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4027 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4028 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4029 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4030 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4031 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4032 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4033 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4034 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4035 cases.
  4036 
  4037 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4038 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4039 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4040 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4041 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4042 
  4043     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4044     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4045     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4046     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4047     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4048 
  4049 
  4050 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4051 
  4052 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4053 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4054 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4055 
  4056 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4057 
  4058 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4059 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4060 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4061 
  4062 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4063 
  4064 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4065 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4066 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4067 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4068 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4069 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4070 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4071 
  4072 
  4073 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4074 
  4075 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4076 
  4077 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4078 theory targets.
  4079 
  4080 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4081 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4082 'inductive' etc.
  4083 
  4084 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4085 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4086 
  4087 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4088 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4089 
  4090 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4091 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4092 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4093 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4094 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4095 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4096 the algorithm W:
  4097 
  4098  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4099  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4100          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4101 
  4102 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4103 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4104 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4105 
  4106 
  4107 *** HOLCF ***
  4108 
  4109 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4110 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4111 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4112 
  4113 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4114 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4115 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4116 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4117 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4118 
  4119 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4120 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4121 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4122 
  4123 
  4124 *** ZF ***
  4125 
  4126 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4127 
  4128 
  4129 *** ML ***
  4130 
  4131 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4132 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4133 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4134 5.2.1!
  4135 
  4136 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4137 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4138 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4139 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4140 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4141 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4142 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4143 
  4144 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4145 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4146 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4147 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4148 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4149 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4150 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4151 
  4152 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4153 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4154 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4155 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4156 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4157 
  4158 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4159 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4160 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4161 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4162 Method.add_method.
  4163 
  4164 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4165 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4166 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4167 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4168 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4169 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4170 
  4171 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4172 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4173 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4174 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4175 examples.
  4176 
  4177 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4178 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4179 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4180 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4181 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4182 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4183 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4184 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4185 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4186 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4187 
  4188 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4189 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4190 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4191 
  4192 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4193 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4194 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4195 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4196 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4197 resort for legacy applications.
  4198 
  4199 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4200 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4201 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4202 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4203 explicit runtime argument.
  4204 
  4205 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4206 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4207 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4208 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4209 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4210 
  4211 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4212 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4213 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4214 theory state.
  4215 
  4216 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4217 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4218 
  4219   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4220   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4221   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4222   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4223   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4224   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4225   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4226   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4227   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4228   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4229 
  4230 
  4231 *** System ***
  4232 
  4233 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4234 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4235 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4236 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4237 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4238 
  4239 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4240 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4241 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4242 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4243 
  4244 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4245 
  4246 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4247 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4248 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4249 prover operations.
  4250 
  4251 
  4252 
  4253 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4254 -------------------------------
  4255 
  4256 *** General ***
  4257 
  4258 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4259 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4260 
  4261 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4262 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4263 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4264 provides a proper context already.
  4265 
  4266 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4267 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4268 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4269 
  4270 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4271 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4272 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4273 swap theory imports.
  4274 
  4275 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4276 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4277 
  4278 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4279 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4280 white space without escapes.
  4281 
  4282 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4283 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4284 "foo_bar".
  4285 
  4286 
  4287 *** Pure ***
  4288 
  4289 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4290 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4291 
  4292 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4293 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4294 
  4295 (1) unused_thms
  4296      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4297 
  4298 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4299      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4300      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4301 
  4302 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4303      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4304      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4305      their ancestors.
  4306 
  4307 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4308 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4309 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4310 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4311 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4312 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4313 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4314 
  4315 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4316 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4317 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4318 
  4319 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4320 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4321 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4322 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4323 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4324 
  4325 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4326 
  4327 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4328 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4329 update of theories within ML code.
  4330 
  4331 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4332 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4333 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4334 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4335 
  4336 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4337 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4338 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4339 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4340 
  4341 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4342 
  4343 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4344 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4345 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4346 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4347 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4348 
  4349 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4350 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4351 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4352 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4353 situations.
  4354 
  4355 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4356 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4357 proof text.
  4358 
  4359 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4360 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4361 
  4362 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4363 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4364 predicates.
  4365 
  4366 
  4367 *** Document preparation ***
  4368 
  4369 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4370 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4371 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4372 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4373 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4374 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4375 
  4376 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4377 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4378 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4379 
  4380 
  4381 *** HOL ***
  4382 
  4383 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4384 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4385 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4386 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4387 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4388 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4389 
  4390 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4391 with multithreading.
  4392 
  4393 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4394 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4395 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4396 
  4397 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4398 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4399 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4400 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4401 
  4402 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4403 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4404 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4405 and makes them available separately.  See
  4406 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4407 
  4408 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4409 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4410 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4411 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4412 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4413 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4414 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4415 the declared rules.
  4416 
  4417 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4418 
  4419   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4420 
  4421 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4422 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4423 
  4424 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4425 
  4426   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4427 
  4428   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4429     definitions on => and bool.
  4430 
  4431   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4432     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4433     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4434 
  4435       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4436       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4437       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4438       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4439       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4440       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4441       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4442       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4443 
  4444   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4445     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4446     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4447 
  4448   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4449     The proof pattern
  4450 
  4451       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4452       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4453 
  4454     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4455     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4456 
  4457       have "EX S. P S"
  4458       proof
  4459         show "P S" <...>
  4460       qed
  4461 
  4462   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4463     The proof pattern
  4464 
  4465       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4466       also have "S = T" <...>
  4467       finally have "P T" .
  4468 
  4469     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4470     must be replaced by something like
  4471 
  4472       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4473       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4474       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4475 
  4476   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4477     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4478 
  4479       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4480 
  4481     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4482     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4483     type of the form
  4484 
  4485       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4486 
  4487     rather than
  4488 
  4489       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4490 
  4491 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4492 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4493 
  4494 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4495 
  4496 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4497 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4499 
  4500 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4501 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4502 
  4503 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4504 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4505 
  4506 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4507 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4508 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4509 
  4510 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4511 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4512 
  4513   less_trans
  4514   less_linear
  4515   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4516   le_less_trans
  4517   less_le_trans
  4518   less_not_sym
  4519   less_asym
  4520 
  4521 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4522 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4523 and different variable names.
  4524 
  4525 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4526 
  4527 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4528 finite maps.
  4529 
  4530 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4531 
  4532 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4533 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4534 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4535 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4536 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4537 accordingly.
  4538 
  4539 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4540 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4541 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4542 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4543 
  4544 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4545 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4546 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4547 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4548 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4550 
  4551 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4552 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4553 
  4554 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4555 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4556 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4557 
  4558 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4559 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4560 
  4561 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4562 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4563 
  4564 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4565 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 
  4567 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4568 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4569 
  4570 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4571 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4573 
  4574 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4575 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4576 
  4577 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4578 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4579 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4580 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4581 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4582 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4583 
  4584 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4585 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4586 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4587 
  4588 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4589 
  4590 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4591 
  4592 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4593 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4594 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4595 
  4596 
  4597 *** ZF ***
  4598 
  4599 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4600 same session:
  4601 
  4602   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4603   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4604   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4605   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4606   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4607   List      -> List_ZF
  4608   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4609 
  4610 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4611 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4612 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4613 
  4614 
  4615 *** ML ***
  4616 
  4617 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4618 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4619 
  4620 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4621 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4622 
  4623 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4624 
  4625 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4626 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4627 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4628 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4629 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4630 
  4631 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4632 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4633 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4634 
  4635 
  4636 *** System ***
  4637 
  4638 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4639 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4640 
  4641 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4642 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4643 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4644 
  4645 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4646 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4647 
  4648 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4649 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4650 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4651 
  4652 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4653 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4654 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4655 
  4656 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4657 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4658 
  4659 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4660 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4661 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4662 script.
  4663 
  4664 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4665 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4666 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4667 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4668 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4669 
  4670 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4671 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4672 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4673 
  4674 
  4675 
  4676 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4677 -----------------------------------
  4678 
  4679 *** General ***
  4680 
  4681 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4682 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4683 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4684 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4685 
  4686 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4687 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4688 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4689 
  4690 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4691 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4692 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4693 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4694 
  4695 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4696 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4697 quotes.
  4698 
  4699 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4700 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4701 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4702 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4703 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4704 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4705 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4706 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4707 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4708 
  4709 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4710 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4711 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4712 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4713 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4714 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4715 
  4716 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4717 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4718 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4719 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4720 
  4721 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4722 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4723 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4724 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4725 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4726 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4727 
  4728 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4729 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4730 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4731 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4732 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4733 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4734 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4735 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4736 
  4737 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4738 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4739 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4740 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4741 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4742 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4743 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4744 
  4745 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4746 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4747 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4748 
  4749 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4750 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4751 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4752 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4753 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4754 limit is imposed.
  4755 
  4756 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4757 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4758 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4759 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4760 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4761 and scalability.
  4762 
  4763 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4764 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4765 
  4766 
  4767 *** Document preparation ***
  4768 
  4769 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4770 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4771 current context.
  4772 
  4773 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4774 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4775 
  4776 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4777 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4778 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4779 
  4780 
  4781 *** Pure ***
  4782 
  4783 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4784 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4785 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4786 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4787 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4788 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4789 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4790 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4791 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4792 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4793 
  4794 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4795 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4796 sketch:
  4797 
  4798     internal compilation:
  4799         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4800     writing SML code to a file:
  4801         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4802     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4803         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4804     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4805         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4806 
  4807     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4808         method ``eval''
  4809 
  4810 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4811 
  4812 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4813 
  4814     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4815     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4816     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4817     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4818 
  4819 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4820 
  4821     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4822       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4823 
  4824     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4825       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4826 
  4827     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4828       {(target)}+
  4829         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4830 
  4831     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4832       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4833         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4834 
  4835 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4836 
  4837 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4838 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4839 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4840 codegen".
  4841 
  4842 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4843 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4844 annotations).
  4845 
  4846 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4847 syntax.
  4848 
  4849 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4850 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4851 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4852 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4853 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4854 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4855 
  4856 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4857 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4858 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4859 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4860 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4861 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4862 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4863 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4864 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4865 equations, see section "definitions".
  4866 
  4867 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4868 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4869 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4870 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4871 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4872 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4873 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4874 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4875 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4876 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4877 
  4878 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4879 configuration options:
  4880 
  4881   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4882   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4883   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4884   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4885   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4886   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4887   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4888   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4889   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4890 
  4891 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4892 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4893 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4894 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4895 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4896 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4897 order.
  4898 
  4899 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4900 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4901 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4902 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4903 context encountered later on.
  4904 
  4905 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4906 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4907 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4908 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4909 
  4910 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4911 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4912 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4913 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4914 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4915 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4916 
  4917 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4918 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4919 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4920 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4921 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4922 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4923 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4924 more permissive.
  4925 
  4926 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4927 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4928 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4929 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4930 maintainability of proof texts.
  4931 
  4932 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4933 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4934 
  4935   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4936   then guess x and y by clarify
  4937 
  4938 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4939 proof tools being involved here.
  4940 
  4941 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4942 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4943 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4944 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4945 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4946 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4947 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4948 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4949 
  4950 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4951 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4952 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4953 
  4954   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4955   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4956   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4957   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4958 
  4959 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4960 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4961 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4962 
  4963 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4964 both named and unnamed ones.
  4965 
  4966 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4967 
  4968   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4969 
  4970 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4971 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4972 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4973 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4974 
  4975 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4976 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4977 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4978 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4979 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4980 
  4981 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  4982 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  4983 
  4984 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  4985 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  4986 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  4987 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  4988 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  4989 originally first one.
  4990 
  4991 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  4992 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  4993 expected.
  4994 
  4995 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  4996 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  4997 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  4998 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  4999 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5000 
  5001   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5002     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5003     obtains x where "P x"
  5004 
  5005   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5006     assumes "A & B"
  5007     obtains A and B
  5008 
  5009   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5010     assumes "A | B"
  5011     obtains
  5012       A
  5013     | B
  5014 
  5015 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5016 explicitly:
  5017 
  5018   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5019     obtains "~ thesis"
  5020 
  5021   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5022     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5023 
  5024 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5025 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5026 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5027 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5028 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5029 case_names).
  5030 
  5031 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5032 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5033 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5034 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5035 
  5036 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5037 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5038 top-level lemma.
  5039 
  5040 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5041 introduction rule (default "that").
  5042 
  5043 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5044 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5045 to occur.
  5046 
  5047 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5048 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5049 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5050 representations independently of name spaces.
  5051 
  5052 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5053 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5054 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5055 
  5056 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5057 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5058 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5059 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5060 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5061 current context.
  5062 
  5063 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5064 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5065 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5066 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5067 
  5068   axiomatization
  5069     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5070     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5071 
  5072   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5073   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5074 
  5075   abbreviation
  5076     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5077     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5078 
  5079 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5080 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5081 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5082 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5083 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5084 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5085 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5086 
  5087 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5088 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5089 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5090 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5091 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5092 
  5093 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5094 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5095 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5096 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5097 
  5098 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5099 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5100 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5101 
  5102   definition "K x _ = x"
  5103 
  5104   inductive conj for A B
  5105   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5106 
  5107 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5108 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5109 abbreviations on output.
  5110 
  5111 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5112 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5113 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5114 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5115 
  5116 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5117 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5118 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5119 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5120 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5121 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5122 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5123 
  5124 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5125 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5126 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5127 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5128 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5129 
  5130 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5131 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5132 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5133 
  5134 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5135 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5136 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5137 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5138 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5139 
  5140   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5141     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5142 
  5143 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5144 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5145 partial_order.
  5146 
  5147 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5148 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5149 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5150 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5151 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5152 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5153 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5154 examples.
  5155 
  5156 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5157 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5158 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5159 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5160 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5161 
  5162 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5163 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5164 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5165 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5166 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5167 
  5168   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5169   (induct set: foo bar)
  5170   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5171   (induct type: foo bar)
  5172 
  5173 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5174 new format.
  5175 
  5176 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5177 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5178 
  5179 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5180 considered a legacy feature.
  5181 
  5182 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5183 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5184 
  5185 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5186 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5187 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5188 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5189   
  5190 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5191 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5192 manipulating the claset.
  5193 
  5194 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5195 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5196 least one premise.
  5197 
  5198 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5199 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5200 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5201 rule steps.
  5202 
  5203 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5204 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5205 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5206 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5207 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5208 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5209 
  5210 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5211 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5212 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5213 
  5214 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5215 the graph browser tool.
  5216 
  5217 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5218 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5219 
  5220 
  5221 *** HOL ***
  5222 
  5223 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5224 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5225 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5226 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5227 multi-threading.
  5228   
  5229 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5230 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5231 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5232 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5233 work with multi-threading.
  5234 
  5235 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5236 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5237 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5238 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5239 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5240 
  5241 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5242 
  5243 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5244 equality.
  5245 
  5246 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5247 the new 'class' package:
  5248 
  5249     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5250     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5251     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5252     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5253     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5254     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5255     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5256     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5257     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5258     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5259     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5260     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5261     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5262     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5263     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5264     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5265     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5266     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5267     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5268     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5269 
  5270 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5271 
  5272 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5273 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5274 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5275 names.
  5276 
  5277 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5278 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5279 
  5280 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5281 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5282 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5283 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5284 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5285 
  5286 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5287 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5288 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5289 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5290 
  5291 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5292 
  5293 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5294 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5295 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5296 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5298 
  5299 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5300 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5301 
  5302 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5303 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5304 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5305 
  5306 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5307 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5308 
  5309 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5310 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5311 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5312 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5313 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5314 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5315 in the current context.
  5316 
  5317 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5318 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5320 
  5321 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5322 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5323 
  5324 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5325 
  5326     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5327     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5328 
  5329     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5330       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5331     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5332     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5333 
  5334     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5335     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5336 
  5337   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5338 
  5339     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5340     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5341     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5342     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5343     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5344     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5345     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5346     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5347     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5348     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5349     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5350     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5351     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5352     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5353     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5354     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5355     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5356     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5357     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5358     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5359     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5360     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5361     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5362     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5363     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5364     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5365     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5366     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5367     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5368     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5369     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5370     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5371     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5372     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5373     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5374 
  5375     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5376     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5377     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5378     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5379     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5380     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5381     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5382     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5383     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5384     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5385     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5386     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5387     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5388     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5389     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5390     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5391     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5392 
  5393     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5394     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5395     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5396     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5397     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5398     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5399     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5400     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5401     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5402     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5403     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5404     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5405     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5406     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5407     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5408     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5409     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5410     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5411     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5412     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5413     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5414     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5415     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5416     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5417     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5418     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5419     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5420     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5421 
  5422     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5423     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5424     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5425     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5426     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5427     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5428 
  5429     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5430     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5431     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5432     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5433 
  5434     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5435     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5436 
  5437     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5438     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5439 
  5440 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5441 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5442 
  5443 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5444 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5445 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5446 "*.size".
  5447 
  5448 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5450 
  5451 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5452 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5453 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5454 
  5455 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5456 
  5457 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5458 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5459 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5460 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5461 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5462 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5463 numerals on all operations.
  5464 
  5465 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5466 
  5467 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5468 
  5469 * Code generator library theories:
  5470   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5471     languages.
  5472   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5473     languages.
  5474   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5475     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5476   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5477   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5478     denominator).
  5479   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5480     representable by rational numbers.
  5481   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5482     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5483     includes Code_Integer.
  5484   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5485     target-language built-in integers.
  5486   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5487     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5488 
  5489 * New package for inductive predicates
  5490 
  5491   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5492 
  5493     inductive
  5494       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5495       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5496     where
  5497       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5498     | ...
  5499 
  5500   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5501 
  5502     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5503 
  5504     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5505     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5506 
  5507     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5508     intros
  5509       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5510       ...
  5511 
  5512   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5513   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5514 
  5515     inductive_set
  5516       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5517       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5518     where
  5519       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5520     | ...
  5521 
  5522   or
  5523 
  5524     inductive_set
  5525       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5526       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5527       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5528     where
  5529       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5530     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5531     | ...
  5532 
  5533   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5534 
  5535   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5536   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5537 
  5538   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5539 
  5540   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5541     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5542     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5543     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5544     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5545 
  5546   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5547     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5548     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5549     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5550     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5551     statements of the form
  5552 
  5553       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5554 
  5555     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5556     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5557 
  5558       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5559 
  5560   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5561 
  5562       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5563         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5564         ==> ... ==> P
  5565 
  5566     for predicates and
  5567 
  5568       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5569         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5570         ==> ... ==> P
  5571 
  5572     for sets rather than
  5573 
  5574       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5575         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5576         ==> ... ==> P
  5577 
  5578     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5579     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5580     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5581 
  5582   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5583     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5584     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5585 
  5586 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5587 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5588 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5589 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5590 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5591 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5592 
  5593 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5594 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5595 
  5596 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5597 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5598 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5599 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5600 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5601 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5602 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5603 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5604 variable.
  5605 
  5606 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5607 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5608 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5609 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5610   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5611   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5612 
  5613 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5614 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5615 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5616 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5617 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5618 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5619 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5620 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5621 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5622 
  5623 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5624 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5625 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5626 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5627 rat, etc.
  5628 
  5629 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5630 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5631 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5632 
  5633 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5634 
  5635 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5636 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5637 
  5638 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5639 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5640 
  5641 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5642 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5643 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5644 
  5645 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5646 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5648 
  5649 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5650 
  5651 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5652 
  5653 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5654 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5655 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5656 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5657 
  5658 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5659 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5660 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5661 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5662 
  5663 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5664 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5665 algebraic operations.
  5666 
  5667 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5669 
  5670 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5671 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5672 
  5673 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5674 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5675 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5676 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5677 adapted.
  5678  
  5679 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5680 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5681 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5682 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5683 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5684 
  5685 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5686 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5687 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5688 
  5689 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5690 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5691 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5692 
  5693 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5694 
  5695 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5696 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5697 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5698   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5699       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5700   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5701   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5702   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5703 
  5704 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5705 
  5706 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5707 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5708 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5709 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5710 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5711 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5712 
  5713 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5714 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5715 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5716 
  5717 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5718 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5719 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5721 
  5722 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5723 
  5724 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5725 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5726 
  5727 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5728 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5729 
  5730 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5731 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5732 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5733 
  5734 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5735 True/False.
  5736 
  5737 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5738 
  5739 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5740 
  5741 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5742 ``rule'' method.
  5743 
  5744 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5745 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5746 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5747 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5748 
  5749 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5750 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5751 
  5752 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5753 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5754 
  5755 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5756 Library.
  5757 
  5758 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5759 
  5760 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5761 as greatest fixed-point.
  5762 
  5763 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5764 association lists.
  5765 
  5766 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5767 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5768 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5769 
  5770 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5771 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5772 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5773 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5774 behavior.
  5775 
  5776 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5777 
  5778 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5779 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5780 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5781 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5782 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5783 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5784 
  5785 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5786 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5787 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5788 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5789 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5790 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5791 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5792 
  5793 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5794 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5795 
  5796 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5797 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5798 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5799 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5800 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5801 
  5802 
  5803 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5804 
  5805 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5806 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5807 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5808 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5809 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5810 
  5811 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5812 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5813 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5814 
  5815 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5816 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5817 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5818 
  5819 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5820 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5821 
  5822 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5823 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5824 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5826 
  5827   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5828   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5829   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5830   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5831   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5832   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5833   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5834   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5835   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5836   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5837   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5838   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5839   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5840   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5841   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5842 
  5843 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5844 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5845 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5846 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5847 
  5848   approx        <-- capprox
  5849   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5850   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5851   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5852   monad         <-- cmonad
  5853   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5854   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5855   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5856   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5857 
  5858 
  5859 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5860 
  5861 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5862 
  5863 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5865 
  5866 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5867 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5868 
  5869 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5870 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5871 of algebraic structures.
  5872 
  5873 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5874 
  5875 
  5876 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5877 
  5878 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5879 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5880 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5881 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5882 
  5883 
  5884 *** ML ***
  5885 
  5886 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5887 (even on SML/NJ).
  5888 
  5889 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5890 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5891 compile-time.  For example:
  5892 
  5893 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5894 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5895 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5896 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5897 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5898 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5899 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5900 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5901 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5902 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5903 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5904 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5905 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5906 ML {* @{context} *}
  5907 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5908 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5909 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5910 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5911 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5912 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5913 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5914 
  5915 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5916 
  5917 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5918 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5919 
  5920 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5921 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5922 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5923 
  5924 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5925 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5926 
  5927 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5928 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5929 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5930 
  5931 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5932 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5933 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5934 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5935 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5936 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5937 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5938 declarations and definitions.
  5939 
  5940 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5941 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5942 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5943 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5944 
  5945 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5946 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5947 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5948 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5949 
  5950 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5951 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5952 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5953 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5954 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5955 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5956 
  5957 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5958 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5959 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5960 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5961 attributes, methods, etc.
  5962 
  5963 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5964 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5965 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5966 fold_map combinators.
  5967 
  5968 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5969 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5970 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5971 derivation.
  5972 
  5973 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5974 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5975 achieve the old behaviour.
  5976 
  5977 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5978 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5979 statements.
  5980 
  5981 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  5982 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  5983 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  5984 
  5985 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  5986 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  5987 some popular functions from term.ML:
  5988 
  5989   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  5990   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  5991   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  5992 
  5993 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  5994 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  5995 
  5996 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  5997 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  5998 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  5999 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6000 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6001 
  6002 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6003 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6004 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6005 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6006 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6007 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6008 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6009 in a locale context).
  6010 
  6011 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6012 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6013 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6014 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6015 
  6016 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6017 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6018 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6019 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6020 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6021 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6022 
  6023 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6024 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6025 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6026 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6027 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6028 
  6029   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6030 
  6031 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6032 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6033 this:
  6034 
  6035   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  6036 
  6037 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  6038 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  6039 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  6040 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  6041 
  6042 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  6043 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  6044 
  6045 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  6046 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  6047 
  6048 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  6049 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  6050 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  6051 batch mode.
  6052 
  6053 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  6054 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  6055 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  6056 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6057 
  6058 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  6059 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  6060 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  6061 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  6062 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  6063 
  6064 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  6065 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  6066 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  6067 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  6068 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  6069 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  6070 
  6071 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  6072 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  6073 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  6074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6075 
  6076 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  6077 "Trueprop" etc.
  6078 
  6079 
  6080 *** System ***
  6081 
  6082 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  6083 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  6084 Isabelle installations.
  6085 
  6086 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  6087 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  6088 code.
  6089 
  6090 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  6091 
  6092 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  6093 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  6094 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  6095 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  6096 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  6097 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  6098 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  6099 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  6100 Implementation manual.
  6101 
  6102 
  6103 
  6104 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  6105 ----------------------------------
  6106 
  6107 *** General ***
  6108 
  6109 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  6110 
  6111   theory <name>
  6112   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  6113   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  6114   begin
  6115 
  6116 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  6117 
  6118   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  6119 
  6120 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  6121 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  6122 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  6123 
  6124 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  6125 relative and absolute paths.
  6126 
  6127 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  6128 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  6129 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  6130 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  6131 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  6132 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  6133 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  6134 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  6135 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  6136 
  6137   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  6138 
  6139 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  6140 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  6141 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  6142 
  6143 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  6144 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6145 
  6146 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  6147 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  6148 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  6149 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  6150 
  6151   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  6152   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  6153 
  6154 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  6155 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  6156 faster.
  6157 
  6158 
  6159 *** Document preparation ***
  6160 
  6161 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  6162 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  6163 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  6164 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  6165 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  6166 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  6167 
  6168 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  6169 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  6170 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  6171 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  6172 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  6173 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  6174 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  6175 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  6176 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  6177 \isadroptag.
  6178 
  6179 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  6180 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  6181 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  6182 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  6183 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  6184 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  6185 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  6186 specified above.
  6187 
  6188 * Several new antiquotations:
  6189 
  6190   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  6191 
  6192   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  6193 
  6194   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  6195   argument is a known logical constant;
  6196 
  6197   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  6198   theorem applying a "style" to it
  6199 
  6200   @{ML text}
  6201 
  6202 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  6203 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  6204 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  6205 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  6206 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  6207 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  6208 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  6209 
  6210 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  6211 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  6212 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  6213 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  6214 
  6215 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  6216 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  6217 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  6218 
  6219 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  6220 a proof context.
  6221 
  6222 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  6223 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  6224 
  6225 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  6226 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  6227 
  6228 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  6229 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  6230 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  6231 
  6232 
  6233 *** Pure ***
  6234 
  6235 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  6236 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  6237 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  6238 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly