NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed Nov 20 17:00:49 2013 +0100 (2013-11-20)
changeset 54533 05738b7d8191
parent 54502 e7c9a14632d0
child 54587 19cd731eb745
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
     8 
     9 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    10 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    11 
    12 
    13 *** HOL ***
    14 
    15 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
    16 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    17 
    18 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
    19     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
    20 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    21 
    22 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
    23     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
    24     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
    25 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    26 
    27 * Abolished neg_numeral.
    28   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
    29   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
    30   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
    31     following cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
    32   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
    33 INCOMPATBILITY.
    34 
    35 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
    36     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
    37     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
    38 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    39 
    40 * Fact name consolidation:
    41     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
    42     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
    43     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
    44     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
    45     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
    46 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    47 
    48 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
    49 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
    50 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
    51 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
    52 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
    53 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
    54 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
    55 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    56 
    57 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
    58 
    59 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
    60 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
    61 
    62 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
    63 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [… "- _" …]" by simp".
    64 
    65 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
    66 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
    67 or the brute way with
    68 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
    69 
    70 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
    71 
    72 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
    73 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    74 
    75 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
    76 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
    77 
    78 
    79 *** ML ***
    80 
    81 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
    82 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    83 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
    84 formal context.
    85 
    86 
    87 
    88 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
    89 -------------------------------------
    90 
    91 *** General ***
    92 
    93 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    94 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    95 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    96 
    97 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    98 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    99 
   100 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   101 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   102 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   103 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   104 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   105 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   106 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   107 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   108 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   109 syntax.
   110 
   111 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   112 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   113 
   114 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   115 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   116 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   117 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   118 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   119 
   120 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   124 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   125 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   126 
   127 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   128 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   129 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   130 
   131 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   132 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   133 
   134 
   135 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   136 
   137 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   138 Documentation panel.
   139 
   140 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   141 documentation.
   142 
   143 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   144 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   145 
   146 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   147 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   148 normal editing and checking process.
   149 
   150 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   151 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   152 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   153 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   154 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   155 
   156 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   157 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   158 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   159 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   160 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   161 
   162 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   163 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   164 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   165 
   166 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   167 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   168 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   169 to resolve conflict.
   170 
   171 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   172 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   173 
   174 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   175 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   176 such command executions while editing.
   177 
   178 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   179 document content.
   180 
   181 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   182 toplevel theorem statements.
   183 
   184 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   185 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   186 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   187 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   188 
   189 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   190 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   191 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   192 
   193 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   194 / Global Options / Appearance".
   195 
   196 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   197 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   198 
   199 
   200 *** Pure ***
   201 
   202 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   203 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   204 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   205 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   206 details.
   207 
   208 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   209 
   210 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   211 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   212 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   213 
   214 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216 
   217 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   218 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   219 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   220 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   221 
   222 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   223 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   224 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   227 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   228 
   229 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   230 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   231 situations.
   232 
   233 
   234 *** HOL ***
   235 
   236 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   237 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   241 
   242 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   243 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   244 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   245 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   246 
   247   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   248 
   249 * Code generator:
   250   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   251     'code_instance'.
   252   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   253     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   254 
   255 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   256 examples.
   257 
   258 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   259 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   260 to distinguish both when desired.
   261 
   262 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   263 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   264 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   265 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   266 
   267 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   268 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   269 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   270 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   271 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   272 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   273 
   274 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   275 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   276 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   277 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   278 
   279 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   280 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   281 
   282 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   283 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   284 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   285 
   286 * Lifting:
   287   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   288     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   289       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   290       transfer rules
   291     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   292       correspondence relation can be generated
   293     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   294       parametricity
   295     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   296   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   297   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   298     copies
   299   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   300     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   301     anonymous context)
   302   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   303     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   304   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   305     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   306   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   307     INCOMPATIBILITY
   308 
   309 * Transfer:
   310   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   311     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   312   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   313   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   314     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   315   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   316 
   317 * Reification and reflection:
   318   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   319     "Reification".
   320   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   321   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   323 
   324 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   325   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   326     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   327     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   328   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   329     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   330   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   331     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   332     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   333     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   334     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   335     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   336     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   337     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   338   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   339     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   340   - Fact renames:
   341       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   342       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   344 
   345 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   346 
   347 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   348 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   349 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   351 
   352 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   353 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   354 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   355 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   356 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   357 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   358 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   359 lemmas.
   360 
   361 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   362 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   363 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   364 
   365 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   366 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   367 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   368 
   369 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   370 top and bottom elements.
   371 
   372 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   373 
   374 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   375 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   376 
   377  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   378    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   379    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   380 
   381  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   382    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   383    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   384 
   385    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   386    arbitrary filter.
   387 
   388  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   389    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   390    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   391    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   392    on a compact set.
   393 
   394  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   395    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   396    linear_continuum_topology).
   397 
   398  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   399    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   400    on all sequences converging to x.
   401 
   402  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   403    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   404    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   405    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   406    left or right.
   407 
   408  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   409 
   410      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   411 
   412  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   413    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   414 
   415  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   416    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   417    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   418    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   419    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   420    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   421 
   422  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   423 
   424    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   425 
   426    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   427      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   428 
   429    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   430 
   431    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   432      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   433 
   434    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   435 
   436    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   437 
   438  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   439 
   440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   441 
   442 * Nitpick:
   443   - Added option "spy"
   444   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   445 
   446 * Sledgehammer:
   447   - Renamed option:
   448       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   449     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   450   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   451   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   452   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   453 
   454 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   455 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   456 
   457 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   458   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   459   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   460     generated code.
   461   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   462   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   463   - Fact renames:
   464     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   465     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   466     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   467 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   468 
   469 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   470 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   471 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   472 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   473 
   474 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   475 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   476 
   477 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   478 
   479 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   480 
   481     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   482     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   483 
   484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   485 
   486 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   487 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   488 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   489 
   490 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   491 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   492 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   493 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   494 
   495 * HOL-BNF:
   496   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   497     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   498     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   499     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   500   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   501     coinduct).
   502   - Renamed keywords:
   503     data ~> datatype_new
   504     codata ~> codatatype
   505     bnf_def ~> bnf
   506   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   507     discs ~> disc
   508     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   509     map_id' ~> map_id
   510     sels ~> sel
   511     set_map' ~> set_map
   512     sets ~> set
   513 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   514 
   515 
   516 *** ML ***
   517 
   518 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   519 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   520 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   521 Examples.thy in particular.
   522 
   523 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   524 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   525 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   526 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   527 
   528 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   529 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   530 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   531 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   532 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   533 
   534 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   535 
   536     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   537     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   538 
   539 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   540 
   541 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   542 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   543 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   544 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   545 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   546 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   547 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   548 
   549 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   550 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   551 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   552 clasets separately from the context.
   553 
   554 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   555 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   556 
   557 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   558 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   559 
   560 
   561 *** System ***
   562 
   563 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   564 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   565 
   566 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   567 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   568 
   569 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   570 settings variable.
   571 
   572 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   573 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   574 always pdf.
   575 
   576 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   577 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   578 
   579 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   580 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   581 
   582 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   583 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   584 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   585 
   586 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   587 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   588 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   589 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   590 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   591 for HTML presentation of theories.
   592 
   593 
   594 
   595 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   596 -----------------------------------
   597 
   598 *** General ***
   599 
   600 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   601 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   602 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   603 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   604 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   605 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   606 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   607 
   608 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   609 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   610 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   611 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   612 
   613 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   614 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   615 
   616 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   617 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   618 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   619 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   620 dependencies properly.
   621 
   622 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   623 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   624 
   625 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   626 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   627 
   628 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   629 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   630 and "class ... context ...".
   631 
   632 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   633 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   634 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   635 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   636 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   637 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   638 
   639 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   640 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   641 
   642 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   643 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   644 
   645 
   646 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   647 
   648 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   649 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   650 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   651 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   652 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   653 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   654 
   655 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   656 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   657 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   658 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   659 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   660 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   661 
   662 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   663 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   664 browser on demand.
   665 
   666 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   667 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   668 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   669 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   670 
   671 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   672 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   673 
   674 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   675 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   676 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   677 potentially infinite message streams.
   678 
   679 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   680 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   681 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   682 schemes.
   683 
   684 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   685 symbols.
   686 
   687 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   688 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   689 
   690 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   691 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   692 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   693 
   694 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   695 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   696 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   697 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   698 
   699 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   700 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   701 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   702 
   703 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   704 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   705 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   706 Isabelle distribution.
   707 
   708 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   709 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   710 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   711 
   712 
   713 *** Pure ***
   714 
   715 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   716 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   717 
   718 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   719 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   720 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   721 
   722 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   723 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   724 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   725 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   726 with some care where this is really required.
   727 
   728 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   729 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   730 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   731 
   732   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   733 
   734 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   735 a Hasse diagram.
   736 
   737 
   738 *** HOL ***
   739 
   740 * Sledgehammer:
   741 
   742   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   743     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   744   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   745   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   746   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   747   - Renamed options:
   748       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   749       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   750       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   751       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   752 
   753 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   754 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   755 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   756 
   757 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   759 
   760 * Lifting:
   761   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   762   - quot_del attribute
   763   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   764 
   765 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   766 expressions.
   767 
   768 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   769 pointfree expressions.
   770 
   771 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   772 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   773 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   774 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   776 
   777 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   778 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   779 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   780 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   781 accordingly.
   782 
   783 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   784 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   785 
   786 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   787 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   788 
   789 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   790 
   791 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   792 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   793 
   794 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   795 
   796 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   797 
   798   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   799   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   800 
   801 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   802 
   803 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   804 
   805   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   806   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   807 
   808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   809 
   810 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   811 
   812   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   813     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   814     output f x converges to G.
   815 
   816   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   817     infinity (at_bot).
   818 
   819   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   820     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   821 
   822   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   823     at_top".
   824 
   825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   826 
   827 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   828 lattice type classes.
   829 
   830 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   831 
   832     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   833     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   834 
   835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   836 
   837 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   838 changes as follows.
   839 
   840   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   841 
   842       prefix ~> prefixeq
   843       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   844 
   845   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   846     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   847     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   848     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   849 
   850   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   851     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   852     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   853 
   854   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   855     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   856     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   857     Library/Prefix_Order.
   858 
   859   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   860     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   861 
   862       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   863       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   864       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   865       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   866       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   867       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   868       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   869       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   870       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   871       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   872       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   873       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   874       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   875       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   876       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   877       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   878 
   879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   880 
   881 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   882 
   883 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   884 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   885 
   886 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   887 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   888 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   889 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   890 
   891   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   892   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   893   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   894   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   895   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   896   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   897   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   898   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   899   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   900   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   901 
   902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   903 
   904 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   905 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   906 Data").
   907 
   908 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   909 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   910 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   911 code.
   912 
   913 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   914 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   915 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   917 
   918 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   919 
   920 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   921 
   922 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   923 
   924   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   925   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   926 
   927 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   928 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   929 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   930 
   931   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   932 
   933     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   934     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   935     cart_base i  removed
   936     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   937 
   938   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   939 
   940   Renamed lemmas:
   941 
   942     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   943     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   944     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   945     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   946     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   947     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   948     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   949     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   950     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   951     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   952 
   953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   954 
   955 * HOL/Probability:
   956 
   957   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   958 
   959   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   960     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   961     (borel_measurable_induct).
   962 
   963   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   964     projective family).
   965 
   966 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   967 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   968 
   969 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   970 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   971 datatypes.
   972 
   973 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   974 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   975 
   976 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   977 trees for the code generator.
   978 
   979 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   980 Lifting/Transfer.
   981 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   982 
   983 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   984 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   985 
   986 
   987 *** Document preparation ***
   988 
   989 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   990 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   991 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   992 
   993 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   994 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   995 
   996 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   997 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   998 document/root.tex.
   999 
  1000 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1001 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1002 
  1003 
  1004 *** ML ***
  1005 
  1006 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1007 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1008 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1009 
  1010 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1011 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1012 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1013 
  1014 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1015 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1016 necessarily printing visible text.
  1017 
  1018 
  1019 *** System ***
  1020 
  1021 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1022 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1023 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1024 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1025 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1026 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1027 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1028 
  1029 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1030 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1031 
  1032   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1033 
  1034 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1035 
  1036 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1037 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1038 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1039 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1040 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1041 
  1042 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1043 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1044 
  1045 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1046 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1047 
  1048 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1050 
  1051 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1052 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1053 version of Isabelle.
  1054 
  1055 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1056 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1057 
  1058 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1059 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1060 for home-made settings.
  1061 
  1062 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1063 
  1064 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1065 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1066 configuration.
  1067 
  1068 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1069 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1070 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1071 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1072 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1073 
  1074 
  1075 
  1076 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1077 ------------------------------
  1078 
  1079 *** General ***
  1080 
  1081 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1082 
  1083   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1084     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1085   - markup for bound variables
  1086   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1087   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1088   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1089     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1090 
  1091 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1092 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1093 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1094 
  1095 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1096 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1097 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1098 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1099 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1100 
  1101   context
  1102     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1103     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1104   begin
  1105 
  1106   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1107 
  1108   end
  1109 
  1110   thm my_trans
  1111 
  1112 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1113 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1114 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1115 
  1116 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1117 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1118 
  1119 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1120 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1121 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1122 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1123 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1124 
  1125 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1126 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1127 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1128 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1129 indices of schematic variables.
  1130 
  1131 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1132 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1133 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1134 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1135 etc. was exploited.
  1136 
  1137 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1138 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1139 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1140 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1141 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1142 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1143 
  1144 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1145 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1146 manual.
  1147 
  1148 
  1149 *** Pure ***
  1150 
  1151 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1152 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1153 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1154 
  1155 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1156 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1157 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1158 undocumented feature.)
  1159 
  1160 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1161 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1162 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1163 
  1164   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1165 
  1166   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1167     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1168 
  1169 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1170 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1171 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1172 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1173 
  1174 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1175 
  1176     num ~> num_token
  1177     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1178     xstr ~> str_token
  1179 
  1180 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1181 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1182 position information via constraints).
  1183 
  1184 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1185 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1186 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1187 
  1188 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1189 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1190 
  1191 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1192 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1193 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1194 
  1195 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1196 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1197 
  1198 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1199 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1200 
  1201   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1202 
  1203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1204 
  1205 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1206 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1207 
  1208 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1209 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1210 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1211 
  1212 
  1213 *** HOL ***
  1214 
  1215 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1216 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1217 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1218 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1219 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1220 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1221 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1222 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1223 possible.
  1224 
  1225 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1226 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1227 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1228 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1229 
  1230 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1231 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1232 
  1233 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1234 
  1235 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1236 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1237 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1238 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1239 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1240 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1241 
  1242   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1243     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1244 
  1245   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1246     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1247     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1248 
  1249   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1250     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1251 
  1252   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1253     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1254     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1255 
  1256   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1257     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1258 
  1259 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1260 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1261 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1262 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1263 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1264 
  1265   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1266     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1267     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1268     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1269     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1270 
  1271     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1272     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1273 
  1274   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1275     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1276     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1277     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1278     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1279     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1280     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1281     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1282 
  1283   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1284     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1285     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1286     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1287 
  1288   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1289     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1290     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1291     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1292 
  1293   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1294     from type nat to type int.
  1295 
  1296 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1297 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1298 
  1299   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1300     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1301     type.  Example syntax:
  1302 
  1303     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1304       is List.insert
  1305 
  1306     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1307     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1308     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1309     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1310     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1311     by the package.
  1312 
  1313   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1314     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1315     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1316     code generation for each constant.
  1317 
  1318   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1319     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1320     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1321     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1322     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1323 
  1324   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1325     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1326     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1327 
  1328 * Quotient package:
  1329 
  1330   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1331     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1332 
  1333   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1334     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1335 
  1336   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1337     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1338     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1339 
  1340   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1341     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1342 
  1343 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1344 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1345 
  1346 * Quickcheck:
  1347 
  1348   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1349     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1350     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1351     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1352     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1353 
  1354     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1355     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1356     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1357 
  1358     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1359     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1360 
  1361     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1362     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1363     show genuine counterexamples.
  1364 
  1365   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1366     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1367 
  1368     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1369     constructors of that type.
  1370 
  1371   - Support for multisets.
  1372 
  1373   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1374 
  1375   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1376     conjectures in a locale context.
  1377 
  1378 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1379 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1380 
  1381 * Sledgehammer:
  1382   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1383     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1384   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1385   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1386     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1387   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1388   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1389   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1390   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1391 
  1392 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1393 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1394 
  1395 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1396 
  1397 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1398 
  1399 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1400 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1401 
  1402   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1403 
  1404 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1405 a list and a nat.
  1406 
  1407 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1408 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1409 
  1410 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1411 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1412 default.
  1413 
  1414 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1415 
  1416   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1417 
  1418 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1419 
  1420 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1421 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1422 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1423 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1424 one_case.
  1425 
  1426 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1427 the result of the fact expression.
  1428 
  1429 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1430 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1431 of some relation theorems:
  1432 
  1433   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1434   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1435   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1436   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1437   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1438   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1439 
  1440 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1441 
  1442 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1443 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1444 
  1445 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1446 
  1447 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1448 to match the constant's name:
  1449 
  1450   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1451   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1452   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1453   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1454   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1455   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1456   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1457   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1458   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1459   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1460   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1461   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1462   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1463   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1464   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1465   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1466   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1467   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1468   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1469   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1470   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1471   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1472   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1473   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1474 
  1475 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1476 
  1477 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1478 and corresponding theorem names:
  1479 
  1480   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1481 
  1482   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1483 
  1484   - Renamed theorems:
  1485 
  1486     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1487     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1488     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1489     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1490     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1491     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1492     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1493     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1494     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1495     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1496     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1497     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1498     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1499     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1500     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1501     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1502     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1503     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1504     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1505     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1506     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1507     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1508     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1509 
  1510     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1511 
  1512     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1513 
  1514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1515 
  1516 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1517 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1518 
  1519   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1520   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1521   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1522   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1523   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1524   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1525   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1526   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1527   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1528   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1529   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1530   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1531   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1532   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1533   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1534   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1535   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1536   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1537   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1538   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1539   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1540 
  1541 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1542 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1543 
  1544 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1545 
  1546 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1547 
  1548   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1549   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1550   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1551   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1552   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1553   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1554   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1555   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1556   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1557   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1558   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1559   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1560   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1561   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1562   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1563   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1564   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1565   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1566 
  1567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1568 
  1569 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1570 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1571 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1572 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1573 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1574 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1575 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1576 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1577 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1578 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1579 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1580 
  1581 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1582 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1583 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1584 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1585 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1586 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1587 
  1588 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1589 through option types.
  1590 
  1591 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1592 relations.
  1593 
  1594 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1595 
  1596 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1597 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1598 
  1599   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1600   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1601   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1602   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1603   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1604   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1605   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1606   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1607   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1608   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1609   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1610   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1611   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1612   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1613   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1614   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1615   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1616   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1617   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1618   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1619   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1620   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1621   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1622   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1623   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1624   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1625   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1626   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1627   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1628   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1629   zless_le ~> less_le
  1630   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1631   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1632   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1633 
  1634 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1635 
  1636   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1637 
  1638 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1639 
  1640 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1641 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1642 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1643 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1645 
  1646 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1647 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1648 
  1649 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1650 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1651 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1652 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1653 follows:
  1654 
  1655   Operations:
  1656   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1657   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1658   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1659   del -> rbt_del
  1660   delete -> rbt_delete
  1661   ins -> rbt_ins
  1662   insert -> rbt_insert
  1663   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1664   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1665   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1666   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1667   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1668   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1669   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1670   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1671   union -> rbt_union
  1672   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1673   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1674 
  1675   Lemmas:
  1676   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1677   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1678   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1679   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1680   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1681   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1682   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1683   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1684   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1685   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1686   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1687   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1688   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1689   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1690   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1691   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1692   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1693   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1694   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1695   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1696   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1697   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1698   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1699   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1700   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1701   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1702   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1703   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1704   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1705   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1706   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1707   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1708   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1709   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1710   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1711   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1712   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1713   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1714   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1715   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1716   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1717   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1718   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1719   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1720   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1721   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1722   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1723   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1724   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1725   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1726   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1727   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1728   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1729   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1730   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1731   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1732   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1733   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1734   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1735   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1736   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1737   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1738   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1739   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1740   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1741   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1742   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1743   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1744   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1745   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1746   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1747   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1748   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1749   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1750   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1751   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1752   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1753   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1754   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1755   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1756   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1757   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1758   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1759 
  1760 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1761 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1762 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1763 
  1764   Changed Operations:
  1765   float_abs -> abs
  1766   float_nprt -> nprt
  1767   float_pprt -> pprt
  1768   pow2 -> use powr
  1769   round_down -> float_round_down
  1770   round_up -> float_round_up
  1771   scale -> exponent
  1772 
  1773   Removed Operations:
  1774   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1775 
  1776   Renamed Lemmas:
  1777   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1778   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1779   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1780   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1781   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1782   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1783   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1784   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1785   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1786   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1787   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1788   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1789   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1790   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1791   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1792   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1793   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1794   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1795   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1796   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1797   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1798   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1799   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1800   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1801   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1802   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1803   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1804   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1805   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1806   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1807   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1808   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1809   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1810   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1811   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1812   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1813 
  1814   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1815   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1816   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1817   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1818   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1819   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1820   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1821   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1822   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1823   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1824 
  1825 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1826 association lists with distinct keys.
  1827 
  1828 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1829 annotated commands.
  1830 
  1831 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1832 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1833 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1834 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1835 
  1836 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1837 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1838 instead.
  1839 
  1840   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1841   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1842   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1843   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1844   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1845   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1846   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1847   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1848   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1849   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1850   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1851   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1852   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1853   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1854   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1855   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1856   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1857   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1858   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1859   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1860   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1861   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1862   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1863   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1864   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1865   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1866   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1867   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1868   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1869   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1870   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1871   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1872   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1873   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1874   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1875   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1876   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1877   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1878   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1879   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1880   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1881 
  1882 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1883 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1884 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1885 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1886 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1887 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1888 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1889 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1890 
  1891 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1892 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1893 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1894 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1895 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1896 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1897 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1898 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1899 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1900 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1901 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1902 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1903 
  1904   Renamed constants:
  1905   measure -> emeasure
  1906   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1907   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1908   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1909   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1910 
  1911   Removed locales:
  1912   completeable_measure_space
  1913   finite_measure_space
  1914   finite_prob_space
  1915   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1916   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1917   finite_sigma_algebra
  1918   measure_space
  1919   pair_finite_prob_space
  1920   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1921   pair_finite_space
  1922   pair_sigma_algebra
  1923   product_sigma_algebra
  1924 
  1925   Removed constants:
  1926   conditional_space
  1927   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1928   image_space
  1929   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1930   pair_measure_generator
  1931   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1932   subvimage
  1933 
  1934   Replacement theorems:
  1935   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1936   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1937   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1938   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1939   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1940   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1941   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1942   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1943   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1944   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1945   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1946   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1947   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1948   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1949   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1950   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1951   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1952   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1953   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1954   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1955   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1956   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1957   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1958   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1959   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1960   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1961   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1962   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1963   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1964   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1965   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1966   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1967   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1968   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1969   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1970   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1971   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1972   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1973   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1974   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1975   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1976   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1977   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1978   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1979   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1980   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1981   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1982   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1983   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1984   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1985   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1986   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1987   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1988   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1989   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1990   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1991   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1992   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1993   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1994   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1995   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1996   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1997   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1998   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1999   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2000   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2001   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2002   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2003   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2004   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2005   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2006   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2007   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2008   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2009   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2010   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2011   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2012   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2013   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2014   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2015   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2016   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2017   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2018   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2019   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2020   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2021   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2022   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2023   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2024   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2025   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2026   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2027   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2028   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2029   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2030   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2031   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2032   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2033   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2034   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2035   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2036   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2037   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2038   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2039   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2040   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2041   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2042   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2043   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2044   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2045   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2046   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2047   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2048   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2049   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2050   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2051   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2052   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2053   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2054   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2055   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2056   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2057   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2058   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2059   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2060   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2061   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2062   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2063 
  2064 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2065 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2066 
  2067 
  2068 *** FOL ***
  2069 
  2070 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2071 
  2072 
  2073 *** ZF ***
  2074 
  2075 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2076 analysis.
  2077 
  2078 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2079 
  2080 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2081 
  2082 
  2083 *** ML ***
  2084 
  2085 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2086 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2087 
  2088 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2089 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2090 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2091 
  2092 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2093 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2094 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2095 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2096 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2097 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2098 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2099 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2100 
  2101 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2102 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2103 
  2104 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2105 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2106 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2107 
  2108 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2109 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2110 
  2111 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2112 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2113 context as well.
  2114 
  2115 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2116 
  2117   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2118   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2119   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2120   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2121   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2122   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2123   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2124   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2125   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2126   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2127   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2128   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2129 
  2130 
  2131 *** System ***
  2132 
  2133 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2134 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2135 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2136 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2137 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2138 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2139 the generic user home was intended.
  2140 
  2141 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2142 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2143 
  2144 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2145 (not just JRE).
  2146 
  2147 
  2148 
  2149 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2150 ------------------------------------
  2151 
  2152 *** General ***
  2153 
  2154 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2155 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2156 
  2157   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2158     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2159     files for checking).
  2160 
  2161   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2162     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2163     positions.
  2164 
  2165   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2166     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2167     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2168 
  2169   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2170     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2171     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2172 
  2173   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2174     cores.
  2175 
  2176   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2177     versions (garbage collection).
  2178 
  2179 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2180 including some remaining limitations.
  2181 
  2182 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2183 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2184 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2185 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2186 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2188 
  2189 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2190 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2191 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2192 
  2193 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2194 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2195 usedir option -Q.
  2196 
  2197 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2198 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2199 
  2200   long_names   ~> names_long
  2201   short_names  ~> names_short
  2202   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2203 
  2204 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2205 
  2206   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2207 
  2208 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2209 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2210 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2211 
  2212 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2213 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2214 
  2215 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2216   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2217   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2218   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2219     "Classical Reasoner".
  2220 
  2221 
  2222 *** HOL ***
  2223 
  2224 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2225 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2226 
  2227 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2228 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2229 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2230 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2231 class complete_linorder.
  2232 
  2233 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2234 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2235 
  2236 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2237 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2238 
  2239   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2240   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2241   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2242   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2243   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2244   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2245   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2246   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2247   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2248   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2249   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2250 
  2251 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2252 
  2253   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2254   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2255   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2256   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2257   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2258   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2259   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2260   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2261   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2262   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2263   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2264   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2265   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2266   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2267   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2268   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2269 
  2270 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2271 
  2272 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2274 
  2275 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2276 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2277 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2278 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2279 
  2280 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2281 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2282 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2284 
  2285 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2286 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2287 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2288 
  2289 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2290 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2291 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2292 
  2293 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2294 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2295 
  2296 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2297 
  2298     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2299     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2300 
  2301 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2302 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2303 
  2304 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2305 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2306 
  2307 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2308 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2309 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2310 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2311 
  2312   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2313   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2314   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2315   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2316   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2317   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2318   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2319 
  2320 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2321 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2322 
  2323   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2324   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2325   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2326   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2327   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2328   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2329   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2330   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2331   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2332   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2333   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2334   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2335   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2336   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2337   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2338   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2339   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2340   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2341   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2342   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2343   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2344   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2345   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2346   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2347   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2348   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2349   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2350   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2351   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2352   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2353   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2354   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2355   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2356   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2357   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2358   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2359   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2360   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2361   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2362   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2363   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2364   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2365   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2366   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2367   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2368   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2369   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2370   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2371   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2372   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2373   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2374   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2375   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2376   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2377   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2378   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2379   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2380   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2381   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2382   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2383   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2384   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2385   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2386   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2387   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2388   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2389   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2390   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2391   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2392   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2393   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2394   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2395   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2396   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2397   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2398   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2399   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2400   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2401   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2402   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2403   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2404   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2405 
  2406 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2407 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2408 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2409 
  2410 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2411 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2412 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2413 
  2414 * Code generation:
  2415 
  2416   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2417     characters in the target language.
  2418 
  2419   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2420     instead.
  2421 
  2422   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2423 
  2424   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2425     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2426 
  2427       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2428 
  2429 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2430 
  2431 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2432 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2433 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2434 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2435 syntax.
  2436 
  2437 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2438 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2439 
  2440 * Nitpick:
  2441   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2442   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2443   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2444     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2445 
  2446 * Sledgehammer:
  2447   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2448   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2449     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2450   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2451     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2452   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2453     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2454   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2455     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2456   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2457     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2458 
  2459 * Metis:
  2460   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2461   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2462     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2463 
  2464 * Command 'try':
  2465   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2466     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2467   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2468     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2469 
  2470 * Quickcheck:
  2471   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2472     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2473   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2474     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2475   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2476     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2477     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2478     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2479   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2480     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2481 
  2482 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2483 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2484 
  2485 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2486 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2487 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2488 
  2489 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2490 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2492 
  2493 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2494 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2495 
  2496 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2497 arithmetic.
  2498 
  2499 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2500 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2501 and lattice type classes.
  2502 
  2503 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2504 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2505 
  2506 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2507 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2508 
  2509 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2510 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2511 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2512 
  2513   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2514   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2515   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2516   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2517 
  2518 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2519 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2520 constants:
  2521 
  2522   type inat   ~> type enat
  2523   Fin         ~> enat
  2524   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2525   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2526   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2527 
  2528 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2529 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2530 
  2531 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2532 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2533 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2534 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2535 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2536 
  2537 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2538 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2539 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2540 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2541 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2542 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2543 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2544 
  2545   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2546   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2547   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2548   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2549 
  2550 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2551 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2552 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2553 
  2554   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2555   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2556   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2557   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2558   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2559   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2560   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2561   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2562   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2563   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2564   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2565   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2566   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2567   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2568   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2569   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2570   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2571   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2572   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2573   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2574   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2575   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2576   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2577   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2578   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2579   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2580   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2581   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2582   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2583   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2584   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2585   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2586   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2587   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2588   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2589   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2590   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2591   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2592   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2593   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2594   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2595   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2596   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2597   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2598   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2599   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2600   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2601   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2602   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2603   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2604   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2605 
  2606 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2607   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2608   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2609   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2610   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2611     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2612 
  2613 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2614 
  2615   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2616   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2617   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2618   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2619   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2620   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2621   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2622   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2623   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2624   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2625   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2626   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2627   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2628   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2629   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2630   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2631   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2632   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2633   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2634   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2635   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2636   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2637   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2638   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2639   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2640 
  2641 
  2642 *** Document preparation ***
  2643 
  2644 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2645 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2646 same.
  2647 
  2648 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2649 result.
  2650 
  2651 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2652 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2653 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2654 
  2655 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2656 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2657 
  2658 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2659 like this:
  2660 
  2661   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2662   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2663 
  2664 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2665 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2666 layouts.
  2667 
  2668 
  2669 *** ML ***
  2670 
  2671 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2672 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2673 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2674 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2675 under external program control.
  2676 
  2677 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2678 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2679 
  2680 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2681 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2682 (better known as Proof General).
  2683 
  2684 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2685 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2686 
  2687 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2688 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2689 
  2690 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2691 (including quotes etc.).
  2692 
  2693 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2694 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2695 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2696 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2697 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2698 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2699 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2700 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2701 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2702 
  2703 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2704 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2705 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2706 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2707 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2708 
  2709 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2710 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2711 
  2712 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2713 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2714 
  2715 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2716 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2717 
  2718 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2719 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2720 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2721 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2722 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2723 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2724 proper Proof.context.
  2725 
  2726 
  2727 *** System ***
  2728 
  2729 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2730 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2731 
  2732 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2733 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2734 
  2735 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2736 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2737 
  2738   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2739   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2740   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2741   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2742   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2743 
  2744 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2745 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2746 
  2747 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2748 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2749 example:
  2750 
  2751   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2752 
  2753 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2754 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2755 
  2756 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2757 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2758 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2759 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2760 
  2761 
  2762 
  2763 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2764 ----------------------------------
  2765 
  2766 *** General ***
  2767 
  2768 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2769 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2770 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2771 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2772 like this:
  2773 
  2774   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2775 
  2776 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2777 
  2778 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2779 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2780 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2781 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2782 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2783 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2784 
  2785 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2786 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2787 the following package declarations:
  2788 
  2789   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2790   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2791 
  2792 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2793 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2794 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2795 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2796 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2797 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2798 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2799 
  2800 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2801 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2802 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2803 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2804 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2805 
  2806 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2807 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2808 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2809 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2810 
  2811 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2812 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2813 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2814 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2815 
  2816   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2817 
  2818   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2819   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2820   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2821   show_types                    show_types
  2822   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2823   show_consts                   show_consts
  2824   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2825 
  2826   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2827   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2828   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2829 
  2830   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2831   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2832 
  2833   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2834 
  2835   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2836   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2837   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2838   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2839   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2840 
  2841 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2842 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2843 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2844 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2845 
  2846 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2848 
  2849   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2850   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2851 
  2852 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2853 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2854 float_token.
  2855 
  2856 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2857 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2858 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2859 
  2860 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2861 DejaVu Sans.
  2862 
  2863 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2864 
  2865 
  2866 *** Pure ***
  2867 
  2868 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2869 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2870 time.
  2871 
  2872 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2873 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2874 
  2875 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2876 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2877 
  2878 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2879 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2880 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2881 command already provided this functionality.
  2882 
  2883 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2884 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2885 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2886 without interpretations.
  2887 
  2888 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2889 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2890 
  2891 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2892 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2893 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2894 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2895 
  2896 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2897 'definition' instead.
  2898 
  2899 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2900 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2901 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2902 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2903 
  2904 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2905 constructors.
  2906 
  2907 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2908 the local file system.
  2909 
  2910 
  2911 *** HOL ***
  2912 
  2913 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2914 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2915 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2916 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2917 
  2918   declare [[coercion f]]
  2919 
  2920 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2921 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2922 
  2923   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2924 
  2925 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2926 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2927 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2928 other theories like this:
  2929 
  2930   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2931 
  2932 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2933 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2934 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2935 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2936 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2937 for examples.
  2938 
  2939 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2940 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2941 
  2942 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2943 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2944 
  2945 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2946 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2947 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2948 
  2949 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2950 functorial structure of types.
  2951 
  2952 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2953 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2954 
  2955 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2956 languages.
  2957 
  2958 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2959 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2961 
  2962 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2963 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2964 
  2965 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2966 combinators any longer.
  2967 
  2968 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2969 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2970 
  2971 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2972 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2973 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2974 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2975 
  2976   record 'a foo = ...
  2977   ...
  2978   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2979 
  2980 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2981 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2983 
  2984 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2985 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2986 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2987 
  2988 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2989 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2990 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2991 
  2992 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2993 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2994 
  2995 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2996 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2997 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2998 independently.
  2999 
  3000 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3001 counter example search.
  3002 
  3003 * Sledgehammer:
  3004   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3005     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3006     sledgehammer").
  3007   - Renamed commands:
  3008     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3009     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3010     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3011     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3012   - Renamed options:
  3013     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3014     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3015     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3016     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3017     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018 
  3019 * Nitpick:
  3020   - Renamed options:
  3021     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3022     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3023     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3024   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3025   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3026   - Added "whack" option.
  3027   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3028   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3029   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3030   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3031     higher cardinalities.
  3032   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3033 
  3034 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3035 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3036 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3037 
  3038     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3039 
  3040 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3041 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3042 
  3043 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3044 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3045 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3046 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3047 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3048 "smt_solver".
  3049 
  3050 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3051 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3052 
  3053 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3054 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3055 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3056 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3057 
  3058 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3059   - Renamed:
  3060     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3061     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3062     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3063   - Added:
  3064     smt_verbose
  3065     smt_random_seed
  3066     smt_datatypes
  3067     smt_infer_triggers
  3068     smt_monomorph_limit
  3069     cvc3_options
  3070     remote_cvc3_options
  3071     remote_z3_options
  3072     yices_options
  3073 
  3074 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3075 header.
  3076 
  3077 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3078 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3079 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3080 
  3081   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3082 
  3083 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3084 
  3085 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3086 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3087 
  3088 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3089 
  3090 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3091 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3092 
  3093 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3094 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3095 
  3096 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3097 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3098 
  3099 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3100 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3101 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102 
  3103 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3104 
  3105 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3107 
  3108 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3109 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3110 
  3111 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3112 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3113 for congruent(2)).
  3114 
  3115 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3116 
  3117   types
  3118     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3119     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3120 
  3121   constants
  3122     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3123     True ~> HOL.True
  3124     False ~> HOL.False
  3125     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3126     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3127     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3128     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3129     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3130     The ~> HOL.The
  3131     All ~> HOL.All
  3132     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3133     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3134     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3135     If ~> HOL.If
  3136     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3137     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3138     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3139     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3140     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3141     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3142     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3143     op : ~> Set.member
  3144     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3145 
  3146 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3147 
  3148 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3149 
  3150     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3151     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3152     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3153     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3154     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3155     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3156     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3157     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3158 
  3159 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160 
  3161 * More stylized fact names:
  3162 
  3163   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3164   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3165   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3166   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3167 
  3168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3169 
  3170 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3171 
  3172   constants
  3173     null ~> List.null
  3174 
  3175   facts
  3176     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3177     null_empty ~> null_def
  3178 
  3179 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3180 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3181 generation.
  3182 
  3183 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3184 Haskell code.
  3185 
  3186 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3187 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3188 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3189 
  3190 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3191 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3192 
  3193 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3194 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3195 
  3196 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3197 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3198 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3201 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3202 
  3203 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3205 
  3206 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3207 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3208 referred to by its qualified name.
  3209 
  3210   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3211   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3212   product ~>  Enum.product
  3213 
  3214 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3215 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3217 
  3218 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3219 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3220 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3222 
  3223 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3224 sort_key.
  3225 
  3226 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3228 
  3229 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3230 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3231 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3232 
  3233   types
  3234     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3235               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3236               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3237         (depends on your needs)
  3238 
  3239   constants
  3240      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3241      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3242      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3243 
  3244 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3245 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3246 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3247 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3248 
  3249 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3250 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3251 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3252 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3253 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254 
  3255 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3256 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3257 
  3258 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3259 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3260 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3261 
  3262 
  3263 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3264 
  3265 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3266 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3267 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3268 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3269 compatibility.
  3270 
  3271 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3272 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3273 
  3274 
  3275 *** HOLCF ***
  3276 
  3277 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3278 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3279 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3280 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3281 
  3282 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3283 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3284 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3285 
  3286   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3287   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3288   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3289 
  3290 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3291 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3292 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3293 
  3294 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3295 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3296 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3297 domain definition now works:
  3298 
  3299   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3300 
  3301 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3302 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3303 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3304 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3305 
  3306   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3307     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3308 
  3309   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3310 
  3311 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3312 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3313 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3314 
  3315 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3316 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317 
  3318 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3319 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3320 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3321 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3322 
  3323 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3324 
  3325 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326 
  3327 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3328 
  3329 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3331 
  3332 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3333 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3334 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3335 
  3336 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3337 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3338 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3339 
  3340 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3341 still supported as an input translation.
  3342 
  3343 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3344 
  3345   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3346   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3347   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3348   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3349   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3350   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3351   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3352 
  3353 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3354 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3355 
  3356   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3357   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3358   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3359   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3360   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3361   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3362 
  3363 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3364 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3365 
  3366 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3367 
  3368   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3369   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3370   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3371   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3372 
  3373 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3374 
  3375 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3376 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3377 
  3378 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3379 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3380 
  3381   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3382   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3383   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3384   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3385   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3386   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3387   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3388   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3389   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3390   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3391   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3392   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3393   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3394   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3395   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3396   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3397   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3398   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3399   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3400   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3401 
  3402 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403 
  3404   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3405   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3406   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3407   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3408   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3409   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3410   box_less             ~> box_below
  3411   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3412   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3413   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3414   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3415   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3416   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3417   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3418   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3419   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3420   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3421   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3422   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3423   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3424   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3425   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3426   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3427   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3428   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3429   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3430   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3431   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3432   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3433   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3434   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3435   up_less              ~> up_below
  3436   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3437   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3438   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3439   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3440   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3441   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3442   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3443   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3444   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3445   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3446   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3447   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3448   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3449 
  3450 
  3451 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3452 
  3453 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3454 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3455 
  3456 
  3457 *** ML ***
  3458 
  3459 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3460 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3461 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3462 
  3463 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3464 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3465 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3466 
  3467 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3468 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3469 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3470 
  3471 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3472 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3473 
  3474 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3475 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3476 
  3477 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3478 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3479 
  3480 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3481 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3482 
  3483 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3484 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3485 almost all situations.
  3486 
  3487 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3488 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3489 Isabelle/ML.
  3490 
  3491 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3492 meaning.
  3493 
  3494 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3495 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3496 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3497 
  3498 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3499 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3500 
  3501 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3502 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3503 
  3504 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3505 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3506 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3507 
  3508 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3509 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3510 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3511 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3512 configuration options.
  3513 
  3514 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3515 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3516 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3517 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3518 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3519 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3520 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3521 
  3522 
  3523 
  3524 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3525 ---------------------------------
  3526 
  3527 *** General ***
  3528 
  3529 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3530 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3531 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3532 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3533 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3534 their full internal name.
  3535 
  3536 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3537 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3538 Some hints on upgrading:
  3539 
  3540   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3541     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3542     which are independent of this issue.
  3543 
  3544   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3545     provides the following special forms:
  3546 
  3547       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3548       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3549       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3550 
  3551     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3552     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3553     extra variables".
  3554 
  3555     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3556     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3557     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3558     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3559     "logic".
  3560 
  3561   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3562     antiquotations:
  3563 
  3564       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3565       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3566       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3567       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3568 
  3569   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3570     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3571     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3572     antiquotations.
  3573 
  3574 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3575 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3576 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3577 diagnose syntax problems.
  3578 
  3579 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3580 
  3581 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3582 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3583 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3584 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3585 
  3586 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3587 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3588 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3589 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3590 
  3591 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3592 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3593 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3594 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3595 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3596 
  3597 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3598 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3599 
  3600 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3601 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3602 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3603 
  3604   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3605 
  3606 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3607 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3608 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3609 
  3610 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3611 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3613 
  3614 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3615 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3616 
  3617 
  3618 *** Pure ***
  3619 
  3620 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3621 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3622 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3623 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3624 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3625 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3626 inspect proof terms.
  3627 
  3628 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3629 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3630 are added internally.  For example:
  3631 
  3632   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3633 
  3634 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3635 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3636 
  3637 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3640 'class' instead.
  3641 
  3642 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3643 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3645 
  3646 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3647 invariants.
  3648 
  3649 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3650 user space functionality any longer.
  3651 
  3652 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3653 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3655 
  3656 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3657 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3658 
  3659 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3660 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3661 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3662 
  3663 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3664 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3665 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3666 
  3667 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3668 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3669 
  3670 
  3671 *** HOL ***
  3672 
  3673 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3674 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3675 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3676 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3677 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3678 
  3679 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3680 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3681 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3682 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3683 
  3684   fun
  3685     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3686   where
  3687     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3688 
  3689   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3690     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3691 
  3692   quotient_definition
  3693     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3694 
  3695 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3696 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3697 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3698 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3699 
  3700 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3701 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3702 
  3703 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3704 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3705 
  3706 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3707 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3708 
  3709 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3710 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3711 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3712 
  3713 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3714 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3715 
  3716 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3717 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3718 
  3719 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3721 
  3722 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3723 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3724 
  3725 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3726 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3727 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3728 
  3729   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3730   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3731   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3732   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3733   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3734   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3735   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3736   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3737   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3738   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3739   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3740   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3741   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3742   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3743   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3744   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3745   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3746   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3747   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3748   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3749   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3750   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3751   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3752   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3753   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3754   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3755   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3756   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3757   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3758   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3759 
  3760 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3761 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3762 
  3763 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3764 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3765 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3766 
  3767 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3768 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3769 
  3770 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3771 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3772 
  3773 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3774 
  3775 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3776 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3777 
  3778 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3779 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3780 
  3781 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3782 
  3783 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3784 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3785 
  3786 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3787 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3788 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3789 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790 
  3791 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3792   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3793   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3794   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3795 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3796 
  3797 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3798 lattices):
  3799 
  3800     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3801     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3802 
  3803     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3804 
  3805     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3806     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3807     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3808     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3809     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3810     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3811     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3812     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3813     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3814     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3815     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3816     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3817     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3818 
  3819     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3820     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3821     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3822     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3823     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3824     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3825     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3826     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3827     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3828     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3829     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3830     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3831     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3832     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3833     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3834     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3835     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3836     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3837 
  3838   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3839   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3840 
  3841     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3842     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3843     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3844     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3845     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3846 
  3847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3848 
  3849 * Refined field classes:
  3850   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3851     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3852     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3853   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3855 
  3856 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3857   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3858   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3859   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3860     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3861   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3862     equal_neg_zero.
  3863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3864 
  3865 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3866 sets to lattices:
  3867 
  3868   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3869   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3870   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3871   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3872   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3873   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3874   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3875   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3876   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3877   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3878 
  3879 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3880 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3881 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3882 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3883 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3884 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3887 multiset order:
  3888 
  3889   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3890     <= and <;
  3891   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3892     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3893     multiset_order;
  3894   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3895     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3896     generation;
  3897   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3898     if needed.
  3899 
  3900 Renamed:
  3901 
  3902   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3903   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3904   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3905 
  3906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3907 
  3908 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3909 
  3910 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3911 
  3912 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3913 
  3914 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3915 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3916 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3917 
  3918   Constants:
  3919   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3920   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3921   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3922   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3923   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3924   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3925   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3926   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3927   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3928   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3929   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3930   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3931   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3932 
  3933   Lemmas:
  3934   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3935   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3936   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3937   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3938   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3939   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3940   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3941   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3942   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3943   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3944   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3945   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3946   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3947 
  3948 * Sledgehammer:
  3949   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3950     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3951     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3952     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3953     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3954     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3955     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3957   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3958     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3959   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3960     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3961     is still experimental.)
  3962   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3963     full-typed mode.
  3964   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3965 
  3966 * Nitpick:
  3967   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3968   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3969   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3970     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3971   - Added support for quotient types.
  3972   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3973     constructs.
  3974   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3975     "termination" proofs).
  3976   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3977   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3978   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3979   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3980     record getters.
  3981   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3982   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3983   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3984   - Added "atoms" option.
  3985   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3986     problems.
  3987   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3988     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3989     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3990   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3991     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3992   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3993 
  3994 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3995   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3996   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3997   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3998   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3999   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4000   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4001   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4002   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4003   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4004 
  4005 
  4006 *** HOLCF ***
  4007 
  4008 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4009 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4010 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4011 
  4012 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4013 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4014 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4015 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4016 
  4017 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4018 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4019 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4020 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4021 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022 
  4023 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4024 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4025 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4026 
  4027 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4028 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4031   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4032 
  4033 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4034 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035 
  4036   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4037   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4038   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4039   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4040   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4041 
  4042 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4043 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4044 
  4045   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4046   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4047   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4048 
  4049 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4050 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4052 
  4053 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4054 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4055 
  4056 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4057 
  4058 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4059 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4060 
  4061 
  4062 *** ML ***
  4063 
  4064 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4065 
  4066     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4067     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4068 
  4069     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4070     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4071     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4072     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4073 
  4074     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4075     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4076     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4077 
  4078 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4079 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4080 
  4081 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4082 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4083 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4084 
  4085 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4086 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4087 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4088 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4089 
  4090 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4091 the context or even global references.
  4092 
  4093 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4094 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4095 
  4096 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4097 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4098 
  4099   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4100   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4101   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4102   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4103   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4104   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4105   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4106   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4107   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4108   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4109 
  4110 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4111 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4112 
  4113 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4114 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4115 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4116 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4117 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4118 
  4119 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4120 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4121 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4122 Theory_Data version.
  4123 
  4124 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4125 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4126 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4127 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4128 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4129 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4130 explicitly in rare situations.
  4131 
  4132 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4133 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4135 
  4136 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4137 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4138 
  4139 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4140 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4141 quite rare).
  4142 
  4143 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4144 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4145 
  4146 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4147 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4148 terms.
  4149 
  4150 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4151 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4152 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4153 
  4154 
  4155 *** System ***
  4156 
  4157 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4158 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4159 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4160 
  4161 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4162 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4163 respectively.
  4164 
  4165 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4166 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4167 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4168 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4169 
  4170   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4171 
  4172 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4173 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4174 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4175 component.
  4176 
  4177 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4178 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4179 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4180 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4181 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4182 the user for manual installation.
  4183 
  4184 
  4185 
  4186 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4187 -------------------------------------
  4188 
  4189 *** General ***
  4190 
  4191 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4192 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4193 
  4194 
  4195 *** Pure ***
  4196 
  4197 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4198 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4199 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4200 
  4201 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4202 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4203 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4204 
  4205 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4206 interpretation.
  4207 
  4208 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4209 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4210 
  4211 
  4212 *** Document preparation ***
  4213 
  4214 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4215 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4216 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4217 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4218 
  4219 
  4220 *** HOL ***
  4221 
  4222 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4223 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4224 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4225 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4226 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4227 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4228 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4229 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4230 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4231 
  4232 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4233 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4234 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4235 
  4236 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4237 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4238 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4239 
  4240 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4241 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4242 
  4243 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4244 
  4245 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4246 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4247 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4248 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4249 
  4250 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4251 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4252 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4253 "mirabelle" utility.
  4254 
  4255 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4256 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4257 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4258 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4259 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4260 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4261 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4262 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4263 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4264 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4265 
  4266 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4267 procedure only.
  4268 
  4269 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4270 
  4271 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4272 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4273 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4274 that fail later.
  4275 
  4276 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4277 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4278 
  4279 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4280 the same method as the approximation method.
  4281 
  4282 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4283 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4284 series expansion.
  4285 
  4286 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4287 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4288 
  4289 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4290 reals.
  4291 
  4292 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4293 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4294 
  4295 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4296 fixpoint theorem.
  4297 
  4298 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4299   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4300     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4301   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4302     accordingly
  4303   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4304     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4305   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4306     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4307 
  4308 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4309 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4310 lattice.
  4311 
  4312 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4313 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4314 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4315 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4316 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4317 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4319 
  4320 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4321   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4322     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4323   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4324     le_inf_iff
  4325   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4326     sup_aci)
  4327   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4328   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4329   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4330     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4331     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4332     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4333     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4334     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4335     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4336     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4337     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4338     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4339     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4340   - authentic syntax for
  4341     Set.Pow
  4342     Set.image
  4343   - mere abbreviations:
  4344     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4345     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4346     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4347     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4348     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4349     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4350     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4351     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4352   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4353 
  4354 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4355 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4356 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4357 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4358 
  4359 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4360 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4361 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4362 
  4363 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4364 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4365 
  4366 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4367 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4368 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4369 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4370 
  4371 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4372 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4373 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4374 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4375 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4376 
  4377 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4378 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4379 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4380 
  4381 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4382 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4383 
  4384 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4385 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4386 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4387 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4388 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4389 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4390 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4392 
  4393 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4394     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4395     code_post       replaces    code post
  4396     etc.
  4397   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4398 
  4399 * Renamed methods:
  4400     sizechange -> size_change
  4401     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4402   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4403 
  4404 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4405 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4406 
  4407 * Renamed theorems:
  4408     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4409     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4410     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4411     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4412     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4413   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4414 
  4415 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4417 
  4418 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4420 
  4421 
  4422 *** HOLCF ***
  4423 
  4424 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4425 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4426 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4427 
  4428 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4429 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4430 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4431 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4432 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4433 
  4434 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4435 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4436 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4437 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4438 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4439 
  4440 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4441 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4442 constructor are pre-configured.
  4443 
  4444 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4445 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4446 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4447 
  4448 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4449 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4450 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4451 as well.)
  4452 
  4453 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4454 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4455 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4456 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4457 examples.
  4458 
  4459 
  4460 *** ML ***
  4461 
  4462 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4463 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4464 
  4465 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4466 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4467 position, logical grouping etc.
  4468 
  4469 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4470 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4471 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4472 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4473 
  4474 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4475 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4476 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4477 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4478 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4479 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4480 
  4481 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4482 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4483 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4484 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4485 experiments with references.
  4486 
  4487 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4488 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4489 
  4490 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4491 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4492 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4493 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4494 
  4495 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4496 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4497 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4498 
  4499 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4500 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4501 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4502 
  4503 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4504 
  4505 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4506 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4507 
  4508 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4509 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4510 
  4511 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4512 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4513 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4514 
  4515 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4516 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4517 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4518 
  4519 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4520 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4521 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4523 
  4524 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4525 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4526 instead of global theory.
  4527 
  4528 
  4529 *** System ***
  4530 
  4531 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4532 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4533 usedir option -q.
  4534 
  4535 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4536 also the system manual.
  4537 
  4538 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4539 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4540 
  4541 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4542 this is always enabled.
  4543 
  4544 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4545 
  4546 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4547 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4548 currently supported on Linux only.
  4549 
  4550 
  4551 
  4552 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4553 --------------------------------
  4554 
  4555 *** General ***
  4556 
  4557 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4558 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4559 
  4560   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4561     "isatool."
  4562 
  4563   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4564     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4565 
  4566   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4567     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4568 
  4569 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4570 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4571 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4572 
  4573 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4574 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4575 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4576 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4577 via "isabelle emacs".
  4578 
  4579 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4580 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4581 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4582 
  4583 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4584 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4585 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4586 
  4587 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4588 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4589 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4590 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4591 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4592 
  4593 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4594 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4595 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4596 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4597 
  4598 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4599 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4600 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4601 
  4602 
  4603 *** Pure ***
  4604 
  4605 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4606 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4607 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4608 
  4609 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4610 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4611 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4612 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4613 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4614 
  4615 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4616 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4617 useful in locale declarations.
  4618 
  4619 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4620 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4621 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4622 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4623 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4624 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4625 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4626 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4627 no longer generated.
  4628 
  4629 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4630 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4631 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4632 
  4633 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4634 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4635 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4636 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4637 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4638 
  4639 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4640 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4641 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4642 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4643 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4644 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4645 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4646 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4647 
  4648 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4649 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4650 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4651 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4652 
  4653 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4654 
  4655 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4656 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4657 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4658 
  4659 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4660 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4661 
  4662 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4663 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4664 in HOL, write
  4665 
  4666     class foo = ...
  4667 
  4668 instead of
  4669 
  4670     class foo = type + ...
  4671 
  4672 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4673 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4674 
  4675 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4676 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4677 
  4678 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4679 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4680 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4681 
  4682 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4683 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4684 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4685 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4686 directly in regular applications.
  4687 
  4688 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4689 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4690 
  4691 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4692 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4693 
  4694 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4695 theory context.
  4696 
  4697 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4698 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4699 
  4700 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4701 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4702 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4703 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4704 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4705 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4706 
  4707   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4708 
  4709 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4710 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4711 normalization.
  4712 
  4713 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4714 addressing etc.
  4715 
  4716 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4717 
  4718   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4719   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4720 
  4721 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4722 
  4723   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4724      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4725      parts of the code generator framework).
  4726 
  4727   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4728      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4729      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4730 
  4731 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4732 
  4733 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4734 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4735 
  4736 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4737 patterns, e.g.
  4738 
  4739     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4740 
  4741 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4742 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4743 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4744 hyphen:
  4745 
  4746     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4747 
  4748 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4749 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4750 
  4751 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4752 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4753 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4754 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4755 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4756 higher-order unification.
  4757 
  4758 
  4759 *** Document preparation ***
  4760 
  4761 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4762 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4763 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4764 
  4765 
  4766 *** HOL ***
  4767 
  4768 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4769 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4770 
  4771 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4772 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4773 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4774 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4775 Main, as before.
  4776 
  4777 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4778 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4779 
  4780 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4781 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4782 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4783 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4784 
  4785 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4786 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4787 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4788 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4789 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4790 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4791 
  4792 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4793 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4794 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4795 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4796 
  4797 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4798 menu.
  4799 
  4800 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4801 (contains the empty clause).
  4802 
  4803 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4804 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4805 
  4806 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4807 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4808 
  4809 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4810 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4811 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4812 
  4813 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4814 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4815 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4816 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4817 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4818 
  4819 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4820 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4821 
  4822 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4823 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4824 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4825 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4826 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4827 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4828 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4829 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4830 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4831 
  4832 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4833 
  4834 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4835 
  4836 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4837 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4838 
  4839 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4840 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4841 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4842 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4843 
  4844 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4845 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4846 
  4847     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4848     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4849     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4850     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4851     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4852     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4853     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4854     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4855 
  4856 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4857 theory Set.
  4858 
  4859 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4860 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4861 
  4862 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4863 
  4864 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4865 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4866 
  4867 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4868 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4869 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4870 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4871 allowed. For examples see
  4872 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4873 
  4874 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4875 
  4876 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4878 
  4879 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4880 structure:
  4881 
  4882     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4883     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4884     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4885     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4886     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4887     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4888     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4889     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4890     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4891     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4892     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4893     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4894     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4895     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4896     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4897     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4898     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4899     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4900     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4901     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4902     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4903     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4904     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4905     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4906     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4907     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4908     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4909     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4910     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4911     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4912     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4913     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4914     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4915 
  4916     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4917     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4918     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4919     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4920     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4921     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4922     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4923     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4924     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4925     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4926 
  4927     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4928     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4929     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4930     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4931     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4932     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4933 
  4934 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4935 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4936 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4937 
  4938 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4939 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4940 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4941 
  4942 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4943 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4944 
  4945 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4946 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4947 
  4948 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4949 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4950 proofs, e.g.
  4951 
  4952   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4953 
  4954 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4955 
  4956 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4957 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4958 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4959 
  4960 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4961 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4963 
  4964 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4965 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4966 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4967 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4968 
  4969 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4970 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4971 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4972 preorder_class.*.
  4973 
  4974 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4975 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4976 
  4977 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4978 
  4979   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4980 
  4981 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4982 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4983 fold_image.
  4984 
  4985 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4986 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4987 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4988 the former will disappear at some point.
  4989 
  4990 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4991 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4992 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4993 
  4994 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4995 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4996 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4997 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4998 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4999 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5000 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5001 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5002 
  5003 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5004 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5005 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5006 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5007 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5008 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5009 
  5010     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5011     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5012     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5013     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5014     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5015     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5016     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5017 
  5018 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5019 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5020 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5021 
  5022 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5023 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5024 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5025 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5026 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5027 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5028 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5029 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5030 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5031 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5032 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5033 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5034 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5035 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5036 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5037 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5038 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5039 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5040 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5041 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5042 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5043 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5044 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5045 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5046 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5047 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5048 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5049 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5050 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5051 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5052 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5053 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5054 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5055 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5056 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5057 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5058 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5059 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5060 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5061 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5062 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5063 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5064 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5065 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5066 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5067 
  5068 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5069 
  5070 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5071 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5072 
  5073 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5074 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5075 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5076 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5077 
  5078 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5079 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5080 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5081 theory RealVector.
  5082 
  5083 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5084 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5085 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5086 and inner products are included.
  5087 
  5088 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5089 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5090 supported.
  5091 
  5092 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5093 first diagonalization argument.
  5094 
  5095 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5096 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5097 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5098 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5099 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5100 
  5101     hide (open) const gcd
  5102     abbreviation gcd where
  5103       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5104     notation (output)
  5105       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5106 
  5107 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5108 
  5109 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5110 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5111 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5112 
  5113 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5114 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5115 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5116 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5117 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5118 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5119 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5120 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5121 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5122 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5123 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5124 cases.
  5125 
  5126 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5127 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5128 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5129 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5130 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5131 
  5132     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5133     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5134     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5135     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5136     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5137 
  5138 
  5139 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5140 
  5141 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5142 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5143 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5144 
  5145 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5146 
  5147 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5148 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5149 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5150 
  5151 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5152 
  5153 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5154 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5155 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5156 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5157 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5158 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5159 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5160 
  5161 
  5162 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5163 
  5164 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5165 
  5166 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5167 theory targets.
  5168 
  5169 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5170 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5171 'inductive' etc.
  5172 
  5173 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5174 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5175 
  5176 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5177 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5178 
  5179 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5180 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5181 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5182 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5183 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5184 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5185 the algorithm W:
  5186 
  5187  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5188  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5189          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5190 
  5191 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5192 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5193 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5194 
  5195 
  5196 *** HOLCF ***
  5197 
  5198 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5199 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5200 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5201 
  5202 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5203 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5204 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5205 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5206 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5207 
  5208 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5209 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5210 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5211 
  5212 
  5213 *** ZF ***
  5214 
  5215 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5216 
  5217 
  5218 *** ML ***
  5219 
  5220 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5221 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5222 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5223 5.2.1!
  5224 
  5225 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5226 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5227 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5228 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5229 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5230 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5231 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5232 
  5233 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5234 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5235 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5236 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5237 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5238 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5239 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5240 
  5241 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5242 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5243 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5244 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5245 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5246 
  5247 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5248 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5249 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5250 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5251 Method.add_method.
  5252 
  5253 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5254 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5255 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5256 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5257 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5258 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5259 
  5260 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5261 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5262 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5263 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5264 examples.
  5265 
  5266 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5267 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5268 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5269 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5270 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5271 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5272 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5273 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5274 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5275 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5276 
  5277 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5278 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5279 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5280 
  5281 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5282 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5283 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5284 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5285 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5286 resort for legacy applications.
  5287 
  5288 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5289 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5290 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5291 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5292 explicit runtime argument.
  5293 
  5294 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5295 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5296 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5297 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5298 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5299 
  5300 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5301 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5302 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5303 theory state.
  5304 
  5305 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5306 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5307 
  5308   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5309   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5310   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5311   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5312   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5313   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5314   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5315   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5316   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5317   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5318 
  5319 
  5320 *** System ***
  5321 
  5322 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5323 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5324 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5325 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5326 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5327 
  5328 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5329 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5330 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5331 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5332 
  5333 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5334 
  5335 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5336 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5337 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5338 prover operations.
  5339 
  5340 
  5341 
  5342 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5343 -------------------------------
  5344 
  5345 *** General ***
  5346 
  5347 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5348 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5349 
  5350 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5351 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5352 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5353 provides a proper context already.
  5354 
  5355 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5356 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5357 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5358 
  5359 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5360 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5361 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5362 swap theory imports.
  5363 
  5364 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5365 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5366 
  5367 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5368 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5369 white space without escapes.
  5370 
  5371 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5372 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5373 "foo_bar".
  5374 
  5375 
  5376 *** Pure ***
  5377 
  5378 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5379 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5380 
  5381 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5382 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5383 
  5384 (1) unused_thms
  5385      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5386 
  5387 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5388      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5389      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5390 
  5391 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5392      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5393      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5394      their ancestors.
  5395 
  5396 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5397 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5398 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5399 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5400 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5401 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5402 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5403 
  5404 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5405 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5406 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5407 
  5408 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5409 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5410 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5411 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5412 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5413 
  5414 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5415 
  5416 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5417 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5418 update of theories within ML code.
  5419 
  5420 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5421 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5422 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5423 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5424 
  5425 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5426 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5427 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5429 
  5430 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5431 
  5432 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5433 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5434 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5435 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5436 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5437 
  5438 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5439 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5440 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5441 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5442 situations.
  5443 
  5444 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5445 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5446 proof text.
  5447 
  5448 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5449 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5450 
  5451 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5452 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5453 predicates.
  5454 
  5455 
  5456 *** Document preparation ***
  5457 
  5458 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5459 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5460 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5461 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5462 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5463 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5464 
  5465 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5466 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5467 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5468 
  5469 
  5470 *** HOL ***
  5471 
  5472 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5473 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5474 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5475 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5476 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5477 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5478 
  5479 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5480 with multithreading.
  5481 
  5482 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5483 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5484 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5485 
  5486 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5487 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5488 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5489 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5490 
  5491 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5492 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5493 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5494 and makes them available separately.  See
  5495 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5496 
  5497 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5498 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5499 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5500 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5501 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5502 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5503 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5504 the declared rules.
  5505 
  5506 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5507 
  5508   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5509 
  5510 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5511 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5512 
  5513 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5514 
  5515   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5516 
  5517   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5518     definitions on => and bool.
  5519 
  5520   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5521     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5522     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5523 
  5524       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5525       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5526       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5527       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5528       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5529       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5530       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5531       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5532 
  5533   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5534     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5535     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5536 
  5537   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5538     The proof pattern
  5539 
  5540       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5541       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5542 
  5543     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5544     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5545 
  5546       have "EX S. P S"
  5547       proof
  5548         show "P S" <...>
  5549       qed
  5550 
  5551   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5552     The proof pattern
  5553 
  5554       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5555       also have "S = T" <...>
  5556       finally have "P T" .
  5557 
  5558     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5559     must be replaced by something like
  5560 
  5561       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5562       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5563       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5564 
  5565   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5566     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5567 
  5568       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5569 
  5570     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5571     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5572     type of the form
  5573 
  5574       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5575 
  5576     rather than
  5577 
  5578       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5579 
  5580 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5581 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5582 
  5583 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5584 
  5585 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5586 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5588 
  5589 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5590 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5591 
  5592 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5593 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5594 
  5595 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5596 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5597 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5598 
  5599 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5600 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5601 
  5602   less_trans
  5603   less_linear
  5604   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5605   le_less_trans
  5606   less_le_trans
  5607   less_not_sym
  5608   less_asym
  5609 
  5610 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5611 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5612 and different variable names.
  5613 
  5614 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5615 
  5616 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5617 finite maps.
  5618 
  5619 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5620 
  5621 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5622 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5623 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5624 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5625 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5626 accordingly.
  5627 
  5628 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5629 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5630 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5631 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5632 
  5633 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5634 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5635 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5636 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5637 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5638 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5639 
  5640 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5641 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5642 
  5643 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5644 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5645 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5646 
  5647 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5648 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5649 
  5650 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5651 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5652 
  5653 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5654 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5655 
  5656 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5657 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5658 
  5659 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5660 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5662 
  5663 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5664 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5665 
  5666 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5667 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5668 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5669 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5670 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5671 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5672 
  5673 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5674 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5675 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5676 
  5677 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5678 
  5679 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5680 
  5681 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5682 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5683 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5684 
  5685 
  5686 *** ZF ***
  5687 
  5688 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5689 same session:
  5690 
  5691   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5692   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5693   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5694   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5695   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5696   List      -> List_ZF
  5697   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5698 
  5699 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5700 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5701 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5702 
  5703 
  5704 *** ML ***
  5705 
  5706 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5707 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5708 
  5709 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5710 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5711 
  5712 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5713 
  5714 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5715 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5716 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5717 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5718 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5719 
  5720 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5721 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5722 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5723 
  5724 
  5725 *** System ***
  5726 
  5727 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5728 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5729 
  5730 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5731 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5732 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5733 
  5734 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5735 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5736 
  5737 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5738 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5739 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5740 
  5741 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5742 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5743 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5744 
  5745 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5746 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5747 
  5748 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5749 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5750 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5751 script.
  5752 
  5753 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5754 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5755 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5756 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5757 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5758 
  5759 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5760 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5761 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5762 
  5763 
  5764 
  5765 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5766 -----------------------------------
  5767 
  5768 *** General ***
  5769 
  5770 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5771 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5772 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5773 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5774 
  5775 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5776 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5777 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5778 
  5779 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5780 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5781 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5782 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5783 
  5784 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5785 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5786 quotes.
  5787 
  5788 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5789 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5790 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5791 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5792 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5793 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5794 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5795 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5796 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5797 
  5798 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5799 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5800 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5801 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5802 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5803 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5804 
  5805 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5806 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5807 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5808 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5809 
  5810 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5811 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5812 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5813 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5814 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5815 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5816 
  5817 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5818 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5819 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5820 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5821 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5822 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5823 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5824 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5825 
  5826 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5827 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5828 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5829 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5830 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5831 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5832 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5833 
  5834 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5835 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5836 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5837 
  5838 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5839 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5840 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5841 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5842 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5843 limit is imposed.
  5844 
  5845 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5846 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5847 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5848 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5849 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5850 and scalability.
  5851 
  5852 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5853 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5854 
  5855 
  5856 *** Document preparation ***
  5857 
  5858 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5859 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5860 current context.
  5861 
  5862 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5863 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5864 
  5865 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5866 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5867 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5868 
  5869 
  5870 *** Pure ***
  5871 
  5872 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5873 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5874 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5875 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5876 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5877 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5878 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5879 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5880 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5881 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5882 
  5883 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5884 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5885 sketch:
  5886 
  5887     internal compilation:
  5888         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5889     writing SML code to a file:
  5890         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5891     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5892         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5893     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5894         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5895 
  5896     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5897         method ``eval''
  5898 
  5899 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5900 
  5901 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5902 
  5903     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5904     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5905     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5906     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5907 
  5908 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5909 
  5910     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5911       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5912 
  5913     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5914       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5915 
  5916     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5917       {(target)}+
  5918         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5919 
  5920     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5921       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5922         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5923 
  5924 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5925 
  5926 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5927 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5928 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5929 codegen".
  5930 
  5931 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5932 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5933 annotations).
  5934 
  5935 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5936 syntax.
  5937 
  5938 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5939 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5940 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5941 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5942 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5943 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5944 
  5945 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5946 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5947 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5948 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5949 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5950 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5951 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5952 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5953 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5954 equations, see section "definitions".
  5955 
  5956 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5957 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5958 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5959 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5960 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5961 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5962 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5963 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5964 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5965 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5966 
  5967 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5968 configuration options:
  5969 
  5970   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5971   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5972   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5973   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5974   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5975   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5976   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5977   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5978   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5979 
  5980 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5981 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5982 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5983 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5984 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5985 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5986 order.
  5987 
  5988 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5989 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5990 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5991 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5992 context encountered later on.
  5993 
  5994 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5995 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5996 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5997 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5998 
  5999 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6000 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6001 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6002 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6003 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6004 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6005 
  6006 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6007 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6008 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6009 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6010 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6011 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6012 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6013 more permissive.
  6014 
  6015 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6016 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6017 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6018 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6019 maintainability of proof texts.
  6020 
  6021 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6022 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6023 
  6024   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6025   then guess x and y by clarify
  6026 
  6027 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6028 proof tools being involved here.
  6029 
  6030 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6031 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6032 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6033 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6034 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6035 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6036 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6037 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6038 
  6039 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6040 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6041 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6042 
  6043   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6044   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6045   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6046   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6047 
  6048 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6049 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6050 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6051 
  6052 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6053 both named and unnamed ones.
  6054 
  6055 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6056 
  6057   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6058 
  6059 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6060 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6061 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6062 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6063 
  6064 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6065 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6066 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6067 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6068 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6069 
  6070 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6071 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6072 
  6073 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6074 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6075 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6076 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6077 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6078 originally first one.
  6079 
  6080 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6081 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6082 expected.
  6083 
  6084 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6085 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6086 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6087 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6088 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6089 
  6090   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6091     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6092     obtains x where "P x"
  6093 
  6094   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6095     assumes "A & B"
  6096     obtains A and B
  6097 
  6098   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6099     assumes "A | B"
  6100     obtains
  6101       A
  6102     | B
  6103 
  6104 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6105 explicitly:
  6106 
  6107   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6108     obtains "~ thesis"
  6109 
  6110   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6111     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6112 
  6113 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6114 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6115 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6116 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6117 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6118 case_names).
  6119 
  6120 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6121 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6122 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6123 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6124 
  6125 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6126 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6127 top-level lemma.
  6128 
  6129 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6130 introduction rule (default "that").
  6131 
  6132 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6133 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6134 to occur.
  6135 
  6136 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6137 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6138 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6139 representations independently of name spaces.
  6140 
  6141 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6142 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6143 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6144 
  6145 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6146 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6147 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6148 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6149 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6150 current context.
  6151 
  6152 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6153 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6154 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6155 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6156 
  6157   axiomatization
  6158     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6159     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6160 
  6161   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6162   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6163 
  6164   abbreviation
  6165     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6166     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6167 
  6168 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6169 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6170 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6171 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6172 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6173 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6174 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6175 
  6176 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6177 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6178 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6179 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6180 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6181 
  6182 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6183 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6184 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6185 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6186 
  6187 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6188 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6189 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6190 
  6191   definition "K x _ = x"
  6192 
  6193   inductive conj for A B
  6194   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6195 
  6196 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6197 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6198 abbreviations on output.
  6199 
  6200 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6201 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6202 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6203 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6204 
  6205 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6206 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6207 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6208 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6209 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6210 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6211 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6212 
  6213 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6214 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6215 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6216 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6217 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6218 
  6219 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6220 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6221 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6222 
  6223 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6224 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6225 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6226 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6227 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6228 
  6229   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6230     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6231 
  6232 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6233 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6234 partial_order.
  6235 
  6236 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6237 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6238 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6239 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6240 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6241 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6242 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6243 examples.
  6244 
  6245 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6246 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6247 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6248 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6249 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6250 
  6251 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6252 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6253 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6254 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6255 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this: