NEWS
author blanchet
Fri Feb 15 09:17:20 2013 +0100 (2013-02-15)
changeset 51137 077456580eca
parent 51115 7dbd6832a689
child 51143 0a2371e7ced3
permissions -rw-r--r--
updated news
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** HOL ***
     8 
     9 * Theory "RealVector" and "Limits": Introduce type class
    10 (lin)order_topology. Allows to generalize theorems about limits and
    11 order. Instances are reals and extended reals.
    12 
    13 *** HOL ***
    14 
    15 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
    16 
    17     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
    18     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
    19 
    20 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    21 
    22 * Sledgehammer:
    23 
    24   - Renamed option:
    25       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
    26 
    27 
    28 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
    29 -----------------------------------
    30 
    31 *** General ***
    32 
    33 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    34 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    35 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    36 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    37 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    38 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    39 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    40 
    41 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    42 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    43 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    44 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    45 
    46 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    47 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    48 
    49 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    50 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    51 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    52 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    53 dependencies properly.
    54 
    55 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    56 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    57 
    58 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    59 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    60 
    61 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
    62 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    63 and "class ... context ...".
    64 
    65 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
    66 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
    67 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
    68 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
    69 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
    70 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
    71 
    72 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    73 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    74 
    75 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    76 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    77 
    78 
    79 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    80 
    81 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    82 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    83 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    84 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    85 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    86 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    87 
    88 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    89 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    90 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    91 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    92 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    93 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    94 
    95 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
    96 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
    97 browser on demand.
    98 
    99 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   100 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   101 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   102 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   103 
   104 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   105 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   106 
   107 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   108 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   109 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   110 potentially infinite message streams.
   111 
   112 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   113 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   114 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   115 schemes.
   116 
   117 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   118 symbols.
   119 
   120 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   121 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   122 
   123 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   124 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   125 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   126 
   127 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   128 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   129 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   130 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   131 
   132 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   133 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   134 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   135 
   136 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   137 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   138 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   139 Isabelle distribution.
   140 
   141 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   142 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   143 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   144 
   145 
   146 *** Pure ***
   147 
   148 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   149 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   150 
   151 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   152 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   153 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   154 
   155 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   156 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   157 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   158 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   159 with some care where this is really required.
   160 
   161 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   162 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   163 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   164 
   165   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   166 
   167 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   168 a Hasse diagram.
   169 
   170 
   171 *** HOL ***
   172 
   173 * Sledgehammer:
   174 
   175   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   176     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   177   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   178   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   179   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   180   - Renamed options:
   181       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   182       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   183       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   184       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   185 
   186 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   187 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   188 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   189 
   190 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192 
   193 * Lifting:
   194   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   195   - quot_del attribute
   196   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   197 
   198 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   199 expressions.
   200 
   201 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   202 pointfree expressions.
   203 
   204 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   205 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   206 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   207 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   209 
   210 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   211 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   212 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   213 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   214 accordingly.
   215 
   216 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   217 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   218 
   219 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   220 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   221 
   222 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   223 
   224 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   225 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   226 
   227 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   228 
   229 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   230 
   231   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   232   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   233 
   234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   237 
   238   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   239   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   240 
   241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   244 
   245   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   246     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   247     output f x converges to G.
   248 
   249   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   250     infinity (at_bot).
   251 
   252   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   253     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   254 
   255   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   256     at_top".
   257 
   258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259 
   260 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   261 lattice type classes.
   262 
   263 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   264 
   265     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   266     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   267 
   268 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   269 
   270 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   271 changes as follows.
   272 
   273   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   274 
   275       prefix ~> prefixeq
   276       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   277 
   278   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   279     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   280     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   281     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   282 
   283   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   284     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   285     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   286 
   287   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   288     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   289     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   290     Library/Prefix_Order.
   291 
   292   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   293     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   294 
   295       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   296       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   297       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   298       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   299       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   300       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   301       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   302       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   303       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   304       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   305       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   306       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   307       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   308       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   309       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   310       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   311 
   312 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313 
   314 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   315 
   316 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   317 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   318 
   319 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   320 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   321 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   322 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   323 
   324   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   325   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   326   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   327   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   328   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   329   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   330   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   331   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   332   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   333   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   334 
   335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   336 
   337 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   338 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   339 Data").
   340 
   341 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   342 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   343 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   344 code.
   345 
   346 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   347 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   348 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   350 
   351 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   352 
   353 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   354 
   355 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   356 
   357   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   358   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   359 
   360 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   361 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   362 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   363 
   364   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   365 
   366     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   367     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   368     cart_base i  removed
   369     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   370 
   371   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   372 
   373   Renamed lemmas:
   374 
   375     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   376     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   377     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   378     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   379     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   380     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   381     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   382     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   383     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   384     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   385 
   386 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   387 
   388 * HOL/Probability:
   389 
   390   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   391 
   392   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   393     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   394     (borel_measurable_induct).
   395 
   396   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   397     projective family).
   398 
   399 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   400 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   401 
   402 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   403 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   404 datatypes.
   405 
   406 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   407 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   408 
   409 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   410 trees for the code generator.
   411 
   412 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   413 Lifting/Transfer.
   414 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   415 
   416 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   418 
   419 
   420 *** Document preparation ***
   421 
   422 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   423 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   424 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   425 
   426 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   427 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   428 
   429 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   430 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   431 document/root.tex.
   432 
   433 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   434 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   435 
   436 
   437 *** ML ***
   438 
   439 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   440 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   441 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   442 
   443 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   444 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   445 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   446 
   447 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   448 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   449 necessarily printing visible text.
   450 
   451 
   452 *** System ***
   453 
   454 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   455 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   456 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   457 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   458 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   459 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   460 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   461 
   462 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   463 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   464 
   465   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   466 
   467 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   468 
   469 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   470 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   471 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   472 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   473 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   474 
   475 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   476 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   477 
   478 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   479 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   480 
   481 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   483 
   484 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   485 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   486 version of Isabelle.
   487 
   488 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   489 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   490 
   491 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   492 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   493 for home-made settings.
   494 
   495 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   496 
   497 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   498 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   499 configuration.
   500 
   501 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   502 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   503 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   504 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   505 bundled as Isabelle component.
   506 
   507 
   508 
   509 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   510 ------------------------------
   511 
   512 *** General ***
   513 
   514 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   515 
   516   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   517     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   518   - markup for bound variables
   519   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   520   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   521   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   522     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   523 
   524 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   525 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   526 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   527 
   528 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   529 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   530 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   531 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   532 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   533 
   534   context
   535     fixes x y z :: 'a
   536     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   537   begin
   538 
   539   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   540 
   541   end
   542 
   543   thm my_trans
   544 
   545 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   546 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   547 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   548 
   549 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   550 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   551 
   552 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   553 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   554 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   555 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   556 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   557 
   558 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   559 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   560 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   561 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   562 indices of schematic variables.
   563 
   564 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   565 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   566 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   567 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   568 etc. was exploited.
   569 
   570 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   571 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   572 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   573 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   574 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   575 of the material of that old tutorial.
   576 
   577 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   578 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   579 manual.
   580 
   581 
   582 *** Pure ***
   583 
   584 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   585 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   586 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   587 
   588 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   589 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   590 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   591 undocumented feature.)
   592 
   593 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   594 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   595 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   596 
   597   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   598 
   599   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   600     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   601 
   602 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   603 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   604 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   605 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   606 
   607 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   608 
   609     num ~> num_token
   610     xnum ~> xnum_token
   611     xstr ~> str_token
   612 
   613 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   614 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   615 position information via constraints).
   616 
   617 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   618 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   619 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   620 
   621 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   622 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   623 
   624 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   625 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   626 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   627 
   628 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   629 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   630 
   631 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   632 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   633 
   634   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   635 
   636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   637 
   638 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   639 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   640 
   641 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   642 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   643 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   644 
   645 
   646 *** HOL ***
   647 
   648 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   649 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   650 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   651 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   652 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   653 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   654 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   655 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   656 possible.
   657 
   658 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   659 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   660 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   661 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   662 
   663 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   664 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   665 
   666 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   667 
   668 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   669 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   670 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   671 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   672 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   673 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   674 
   675   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   676     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   677 
   678   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   679     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   680     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   681 
   682   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   683     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   684 
   685   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   686     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   687     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   688 
   689   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   690     Redefine using other integer operations.
   691 
   692 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   693 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   694 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   695 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   696 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   697 
   698   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   699     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   700     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   701     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   702     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   703 
   704     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   705     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   706 
   707   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   708     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   709     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   710     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   711     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   712     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   713     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   714     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   715 
   716   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   717     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   718     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   719     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   720 
   721   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   722     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   723     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   724     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   725 
   726   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   727     from type nat to type int.
   728 
   729 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   730 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   731 
   732   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   733     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   734     type.  Example syntax:
   735 
   736     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   737       is List.insert
   738 
   739     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   740     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   741     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   742     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   743     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   744     by the package.
   745 
   746   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   747     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   748     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   749     code generation for each constant.
   750 
   751   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   752     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   753     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   754     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   755     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   756 
   757   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   758     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   759     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   760 
   761 * Quotient package:
   762 
   763   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   764     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   765 
   766   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   767     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   768 
   769   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   770     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   771     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   772 
   773   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   774     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   775 
   776 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   777 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   778 
   779 * Quickcheck:
   780 
   781   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   782     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   783     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   784     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   785     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   786 
   787     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   788     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   789     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   790 
   791     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   792     continues searching for genuine ones.
   793 
   794     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   795     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   796     show genuine counterexamples.
   797 
   798   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   799     value generators for a given type and operations.
   800 
   801     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   802     constructors of that type.
   803 
   804   - Support for multisets.
   805 
   806   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   807 
   808   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   809     conjectures in a locale context.
   810 
   811 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   812 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   813 
   814 * Sledgehammer:
   815   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   816     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   817   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   818   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   819     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   820   - Sped up the minimizer.
   821   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   822   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   823   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   824 
   825 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   826 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   827 
   828 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   829 
   830 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   831 
   832 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   833 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   834 
   835   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   836 
   837 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   838 a list and a nat.
   839 
   840 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   841 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   842 
   843 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   844 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   845 default.
   846 
   847 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   848 
   849   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   850 
   851 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   852 
   853 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   854 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   855 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   856 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   857 one_case.
   858 
   859 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   860 the result of the fact expression.
   861 
   862 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   863 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   864 of some relation theorems:
   865 
   866   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   867   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   868   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   869   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   870   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   871   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   872 
   873 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   874 
   875 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   876 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   877 
   878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   879 
   880 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   881 to match the constant's name:
   882 
   883   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   884   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   885   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   886   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   887   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   888   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   889   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   890   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   891   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   892   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   893   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   894   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   895   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   896   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   897   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   898   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   899   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   900   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   901   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   902   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   903   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   904   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   905   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   906   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   907 
   908 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   909 
   910 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   911 and corresponding theorem names:
   912 
   913   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   914 
   915   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   916 
   917   - Renamed theorems:
   918 
   919     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   920     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   921     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   922     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   923     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   924     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   925     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   926     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   927     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   928     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   929     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   930     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   931     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   932     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   933     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   934     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   935     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   936     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   937     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   938     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   939     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   940     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   941     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   942 
   943     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   944 
   945     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   946 
   947 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   948 
   949 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   950 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   951 
   952   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   953   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   954   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   955   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   956   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   957   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   958   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   959   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   960   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   961   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   962   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   963   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   964   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   965   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   966   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   967   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   968   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   969   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   970   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   971   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   972   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   973 
   974 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   975 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   976 
   977 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   978 
   979 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   980 
   981   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   982   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   983   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   984   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   985   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   986   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   987   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   988   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   989   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   990   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   991   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   992   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   993   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   994   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   995   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   996   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   997   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   998   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   999 
  1000 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1001 
  1002 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1003 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1004 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1005 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1006 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1007 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1008 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1009 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1010 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1011 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1012 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1013 
  1014 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1015 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1016 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1017 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1018 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1019 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1020 
  1021 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1022 through option types.
  1023 
  1024 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1025 relations.
  1026 
  1027 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1028 
  1029 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1030 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1031 
  1032   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1033   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1034   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1035   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1036   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1037   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1038   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1039   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1040   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1041   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1042   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1043   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1044   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1045   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1046   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1047   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1048   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1049   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1050   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1051   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1052   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1053   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1054   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1055   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1056   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1057   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1058   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1059   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1060   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1061   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1062   zless_le ~> less_le
  1063   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1064   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1065   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1066 
  1067 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1068 
  1069   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1070 
  1071 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1072 
  1073 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1074 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1075 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1076 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1078 
  1079 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1080 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1081 
  1082 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1083 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1084 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1085 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1086 follows:
  1087 
  1088   Operations:
  1089   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1090   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1091   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1092   del -> rbt_del
  1093   delete -> rbt_delete
  1094   ins -> rbt_ins
  1095   insert -> rbt_insert
  1096   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1097   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1098   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1099   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1100   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1101   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1102   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1103   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1104   union -> rbt_union
  1105   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1106   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1107 
  1108   Lemmas:
  1109   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1110   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1111   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1112   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1113   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1114   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1115   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1116   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1117   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1118   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1119   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1120   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1121   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1122   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1123   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1124   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1125   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1126   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1127   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1128   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1129   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1130   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1131   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1132   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1133   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1134   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1135   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1136   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1137   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1138   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1139   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1140   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1141   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1142   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1143   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1144   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1145   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1146   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1147   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1148   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1149   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1150   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1151   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1152   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1153   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1154   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1155   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1156   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1157   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1158   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1159   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1160   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1161   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1162   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1163   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1164   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1165   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1166   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1167   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1168   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1169   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1170   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1171   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1172   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1173   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1174   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1175   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1176   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1177   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1178   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1179   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1180   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1181   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1182   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1183   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1184   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1185   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1186   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1187   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1188   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1189   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1190   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1191   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1192 
  1193 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1194 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1195 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1196 
  1197   Changed Operations:
  1198   float_abs -> abs
  1199   float_nprt -> nprt
  1200   float_pprt -> pprt
  1201   pow2 -> use powr
  1202   round_down -> float_round_down
  1203   round_up -> float_round_up
  1204   scale -> exponent
  1205 
  1206   Removed Operations:
  1207   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1208 
  1209   Renamed Lemmas:
  1210   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1211   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1212   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1213   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1214   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1215   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1216   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1217   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1218   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1219   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1220   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1221   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1222   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1223   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1224   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1225   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1226   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1227   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1228   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1229   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1230   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1231   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1232   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1233   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1234   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1235   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1236   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1237   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1238   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1239   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1240   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1241   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1242   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1243   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1244   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1245   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1246 
  1247   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1248   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1249   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1250   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1251   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1252   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1253   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1254   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1255   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1256   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1257 
  1258 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1259 association lists with distinct keys.
  1260 
  1261 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1262 annotated commands.
  1263 
  1264 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1265 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1266 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1267 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1268 
  1269 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1270 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1271 instead.
  1272 
  1273   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1274   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1275   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1276   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1277   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1278   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1279   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1280   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1281   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1282   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1283   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1284   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1285   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1286   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1287   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1288   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1289   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1290   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1291   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1292   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1293   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1294   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1295   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1296   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1297   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1298   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1299   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1300   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1301   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1302   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1303   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1304   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1305   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1306   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1307   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1308   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1309   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1310   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1311   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1312   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1313   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1314 
  1315 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1316 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1317 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1318 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1319 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1320 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1321 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1322 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1323 
  1324 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1325 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1326 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1327 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1328 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1329 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1330 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1331 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1332 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1333 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1334 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1335 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1336 
  1337   Renamed constants:
  1338   measure -> emeasure
  1339   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1340   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1341   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1342   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1343 
  1344   Removed locales:
  1345   completeable_measure_space
  1346   finite_measure_space
  1347   finite_prob_space
  1348   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1349   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1350   finite_sigma_algebra
  1351   measure_space
  1352   pair_finite_prob_space
  1353   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1354   pair_finite_space
  1355   pair_sigma_algebra
  1356   product_sigma_algebra
  1357 
  1358   Removed constants:
  1359   conditional_space
  1360   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1361   image_space
  1362   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1363   pair_measure_generator
  1364   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1365   subvimage
  1366 
  1367   Replacement theorems:
  1368   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1369   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1370   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1371   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1372   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1373   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1374   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1375   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1376   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1377   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1378   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1379   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1380   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1381   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1382   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1383   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1384   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1385   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1386   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1387   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1388   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1389   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1390   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1391   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1392   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1393   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1394   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1395   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1396   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1397   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1398   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1399   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1400   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1401   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1402   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1403   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1404   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1405   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1406   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1407   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1408   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1409   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1410   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1411   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1412   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1413   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1414   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1415   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1416   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1417   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1418   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1419   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1420   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1421   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1422   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1423   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1424   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1425   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1426   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1427   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1428   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1429   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1430   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1431   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1432   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1433   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1434   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1435   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1436   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1437   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1438   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1439   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1440   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1441   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1442   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1443   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1444   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1445   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1446   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1447   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1448   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1449   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1450   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1451   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1452   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1453   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1454   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1455   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1456   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1457   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1458   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1459   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1460   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1461   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1462   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1463   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1464   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1465   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1466   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1467   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1468   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1469   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1470   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1471   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1472   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1473   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1474   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1475   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1476   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1477   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1478   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1479   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1480   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1481   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1482   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1483   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1484   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1485   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1486   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1487   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1488   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1489   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1490   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1491   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1492   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1493   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1494   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1495   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1496 
  1497 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1498 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1499 
  1500 
  1501 *** FOL ***
  1502 
  1503 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1504 
  1505 
  1506 *** ZF ***
  1507 
  1508 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1509 analysis.
  1510 
  1511 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1512 
  1513 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1514 
  1515 
  1516 *** ML ***
  1517 
  1518 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1519 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1520 
  1521 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1522 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1523 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1524 
  1525 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1526 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1527 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1528 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1529 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1530 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1531 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1532 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1533 
  1534 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1535 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1536 
  1537 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1538 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1539 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1540 
  1541 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1542 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1543 
  1544 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1545 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1546 context as well.
  1547 
  1548 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1549 
  1550   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1551   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1552   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1553   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1554   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1555   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1556   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1557   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1558   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1559   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1560   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1561   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1562 
  1563 
  1564 *** System ***
  1565 
  1566 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1567 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1568 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1569 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1570 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1571 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1572 the generic user home was intended.
  1573 
  1574 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1575 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1576 
  1577 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1578 (not just JRE).
  1579 
  1580 
  1581 
  1582 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1583 ------------------------------------
  1584 
  1585 *** General ***
  1586 
  1587 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1588 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1589 
  1590   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1591     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1592     files for checking).
  1593 
  1594   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1595     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1596     positions.
  1597 
  1598   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1599     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1600     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1601 
  1602   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1603     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1604     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1605 
  1606   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1607     cores.
  1608 
  1609   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1610     versions (garbage collection).
  1611 
  1612 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1613 including some remaining limitations.
  1614 
  1615 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1616 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1617 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1618 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1619 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1620 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1621 
  1622 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1623 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1624 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1625 
  1626 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1627 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1628 usedir option -Q.
  1629 
  1630 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1631 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1632 
  1633   long_names   ~> names_long
  1634   short_names  ~> names_short
  1635   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1636 
  1637 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1638 
  1639   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1640 
  1641 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1642 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1643 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1644 
  1645 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1646 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1647 
  1648 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1649   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1650   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1651   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1652     "Classical Reasoner".
  1653 
  1654 
  1655 *** HOL ***
  1656 
  1657 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1658 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1659 
  1660 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1661 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1662 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1663 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1664 class complete_linorder.
  1665 
  1666 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1667 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1668 
  1669 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1670 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1671 
  1672   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1673   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1674   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1675   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1676   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1677   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1678   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1679   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1680   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1681   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1682   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1683 
  1684 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1685 
  1686   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1687   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1688   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1689   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1690   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1691   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1692   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1693   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1694   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1695   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1696   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1697   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1698   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1699   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1700   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1701   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1702 
  1703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1704 
  1705 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1707 
  1708 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1709 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1710 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1711 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1712 
  1713 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1714 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1715 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1717 
  1718 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1719 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1720 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1721 
  1722 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1723 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1724 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1725 
  1726 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1727 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1728 
  1729 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1730 
  1731     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1732     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1733 
  1734 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1735 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1736 
  1737 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1738 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1739 
  1740 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1741 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1742 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1743 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1744 
  1745   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1746   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1747   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1748   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1749   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1750   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1751   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1752 
  1753 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1754 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1755 
  1756   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1757   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1758   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1759   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1760   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1761   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1762   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1763   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1764   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1765   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1766   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1767   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1768   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1769   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1770   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1771   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1772   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1773   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1774   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1775   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1776   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1777   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1778   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1779   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1780   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1781   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1782   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1783   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1784   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1785   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1786   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1787   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1788   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1789   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1790   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1791   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1792   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1793   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1794   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1795   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1796   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1797   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1798   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1799   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1800   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1801   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1802   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1803   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1804   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1805   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1806   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1807   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1808   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1809   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1810   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1811   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1812   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1813   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1814   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1815   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1816   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1817   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1818   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1819   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1820   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1821   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1822   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1823   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1824   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1825   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1826   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1827   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1828   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1829   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1830   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1831   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1832   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1833   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1834   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1835   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1836   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1837   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1838 
  1839 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1840 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1841 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1842 
  1843 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1844 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1845 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1846 
  1847 * Code generation:
  1848 
  1849   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1850     characters in the target language.
  1851 
  1852   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1853     instead.
  1854 
  1855   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1856 
  1857   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1858     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1859 
  1860       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1861 
  1862 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1863 
  1864 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1865 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1866 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1867 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1868 syntax.
  1869 
  1870 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1871 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1872 
  1873 * Nitpick:
  1874   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1875   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1876   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1877     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1878 
  1879 * Sledgehammer:
  1880   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1881   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1882     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1883   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1884     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1885   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1886     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1887   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1888     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1889   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1890     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1891 
  1892 * Metis:
  1893   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1894   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1895     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1896 
  1897 * Command 'try':
  1898   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1899     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1900   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1901     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1902 
  1903 * Quickcheck:
  1904   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1905     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1906   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1907     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1908   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1909     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1910     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1911     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1912   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1913     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1914 
  1915 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1916 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1917 
  1918 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1919 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1920 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1921 
  1922 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1923 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1925 
  1926 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1927 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1928 
  1929 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1930 arithmetic.
  1931 
  1932 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1933 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1934 and lattice type classes.
  1935 
  1936 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1937 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1938 
  1939 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1940 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1941 
  1942 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1943 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1944 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1945 
  1946   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1947   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1948   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1949   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1950 
  1951 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1952 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1953 constants:
  1954 
  1955   type inat   ~> type enat
  1956   Fin         ~> enat
  1957   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1958   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1959   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1960 
  1961 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1962 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1963 
  1964 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1965 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1966 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1967 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1968 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1969 
  1970 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1971 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1972 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1973 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1974 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1975 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1976 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1977 
  1978   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1979   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1980   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1981   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1982 
  1983 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1984 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1985 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1986 
  1987   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1988   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1989   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1990   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1991   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1992   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1993   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1994   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1995   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1996   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1997   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1998   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1999   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2000   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2001   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2002   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2003   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2004   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2005   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2006   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2007   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2008   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2009   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2010   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2011   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2012   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2013   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2014   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2015   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2016   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2017   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2018   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2019   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2020   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2021   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2022   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2023   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2024   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2025   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2026   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2027   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2028   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2029   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2030   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2031   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2032   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2033   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2034   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2035   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2036   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2037   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2038 
  2039 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2040   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2041   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2042   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2043   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2044     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2045 
  2046 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2047 
  2048   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2049   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2050   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2051   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2052   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2053   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2054   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2055   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2056   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2057   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2058   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2059   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2060   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2061   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2062   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2063   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2064   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2065   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2066   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2067   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2068   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2069   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2070   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2071   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2072   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2073 
  2074 
  2075 *** Document preparation ***
  2076 
  2077 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2078 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2079 same.
  2080 
  2081 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2082 result.
  2083 
  2084 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2085 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2086 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2087 
  2088 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2089 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2090 
  2091 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2092 like this:
  2093 
  2094   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2095   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2096 
  2097 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2098 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2099 layouts.
  2100 
  2101 
  2102 *** ML ***
  2103 
  2104 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2105 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2106 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2107 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2108 under external program control.
  2109 
  2110 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2111 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2112 
  2113 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2114 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2115 (better known as Proof General).
  2116 
  2117 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2118 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2119 
  2120 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2121 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2122 
  2123 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2124 (including quotes etc.).
  2125 
  2126 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2127 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2128 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2129 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2130 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2131 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2132 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2133 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2134 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2135 
  2136 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2137 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2138 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2139 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2140 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2141 
  2142 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2143 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2144 
  2145 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2146 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2147 
  2148 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2149 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2150 
  2151 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2152 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2153 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2154 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2155 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2156 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2157 proper Proof.context.
  2158 
  2159 
  2160 *** System ***
  2161 
  2162 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2163 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2164 
  2165 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2166 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2167 
  2168 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2169 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2170 
  2171   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2172   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2173   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2174   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2175   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2176 
  2177 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2178 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2179 
  2180 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2181 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2182 example:
  2183 
  2184   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2185 
  2186 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2187 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2188 
  2189 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2190 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2191 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2192 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2193 
  2194 
  2195 
  2196 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2197 ----------------------------------
  2198 
  2199 *** General ***
  2200 
  2201 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2202 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2203 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2204 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2205 like this:
  2206 
  2207   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2208 
  2209 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2210 
  2211 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2212 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2213 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2214 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2215 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2216 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2217 
  2218 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2219 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2220 the following package declarations:
  2221 
  2222   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2223   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2224 
  2225 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2226 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2227 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2228 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2229 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2230 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2231 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2232 
  2233 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2234 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2235 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2236 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2237 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2238 
  2239 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2240 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2241 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2242 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2243 
  2244 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2245 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2246 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2247 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2248 
  2249   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2250 
  2251   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2252   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2253   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2254   show_types                    show_types
  2255   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2256   show_consts                   show_consts
  2257   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2258 
  2259   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2260   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2261   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2262 
  2263   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2264   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2265 
  2266   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2267 
  2268   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2269   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2270   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2271   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2272   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2273 
  2274 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2275 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2276 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2277 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2278 
  2279 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2280 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2281 
  2282   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2283   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2284 
  2285 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2286 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2287 float_token.
  2288 
  2289 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2290 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2292 
  2293 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2294 DejaVu Sans.
  2295 
  2296 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2297 
  2298 
  2299 *** Pure ***
  2300 
  2301 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2302 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2303 time.
  2304 
  2305 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2306 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2307 
  2308 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2309 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2310 
  2311 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2312 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2313 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2314 command already provided this functionality.
  2315 
  2316 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2317 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2318 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2319 without interpretations.
  2320 
  2321 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2322 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2323 
  2324 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2325 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2326 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2327 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2328 
  2329 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2330 'definition' instead.
  2331 
  2332 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2333 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2334 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2335 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2336 
  2337 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2338 constructors.
  2339 
  2340 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2341 the local file system.
  2342 
  2343 
  2344 *** HOL ***
  2345 
  2346 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2347 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2348 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2349 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2350 
  2351   declare [[coercion f]]
  2352 
  2353 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2354 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2355 
  2356   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2357 
  2358 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2359 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2360 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2361 other theories like this:
  2362 
  2363   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2364 
  2365 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2366 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2367 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2368 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2369 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2370 for examples.
  2371 
  2372 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2373 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2374 
  2375 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2376 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2377 
  2378 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2379 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2380 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2381 
  2382 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2383 functorial structure of types.
  2384 
  2385 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2386 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2387 
  2388 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2389 languages.
  2390 
  2391 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2392 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2394 
  2395 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2396 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2397 
  2398 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2399 combinators any longer.
  2400 
  2401 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2402 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2403 
  2404 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2405 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2406 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2407 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2408 
  2409   record 'a foo = ...
  2410   ...
  2411   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2412 
  2413 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2414 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2416 
  2417 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2418 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2419 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2420 
  2421 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2422 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2423 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2424 
  2425 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2426 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2427 
  2428 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2429 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2430 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2431 independently.
  2432 
  2433 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2434 counter example search.
  2435 
  2436 * Sledgehammer:
  2437   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2438     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2439     sledgehammer").
  2440   - Renamed commands:
  2441     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2442     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2443     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2444     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2445   - Renamed options:
  2446     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2447     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2448     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2449     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2450     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2451 
  2452 * Nitpick:
  2453   - Renamed options:
  2454     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2455     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2456     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2457   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2458   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2459   - Added "whack" option.
  2460   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2461   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2462   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2463   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2464     higher cardinalities.
  2465   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2466 
  2467 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2468 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2469 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2470 
  2471     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2472 
  2473 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2474 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2475 
  2476 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2477 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2478 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2479 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2480 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2481 "smt_solver".
  2482 
  2483 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2484 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2485 
  2486 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2487 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2488 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2489 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2490 
  2491 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2492   - Renamed:
  2493     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2494     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2495     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2496   - Added:
  2497     smt_verbose
  2498     smt_random_seed
  2499     smt_datatypes
  2500     smt_infer_triggers
  2501     smt_monomorph_limit
  2502     cvc3_options
  2503     remote_cvc3_options
  2504     remote_z3_options
  2505     yices_options
  2506 
  2507 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2508 header.
  2509 
  2510 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2511 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2512 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2513 
  2514   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2515 
  2516 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2517 
  2518 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2519 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2520 
  2521 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2522 
  2523 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2524 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2525 
  2526 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2527 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2528 
  2529 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2530 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2531 
  2532 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2533 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2534 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2535 
  2536 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2537 
  2538 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540 
  2541 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2542 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2543 
  2544 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2545 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2546 for congruent(2)).
  2547 
  2548 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2549 
  2550   types
  2551     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2552     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2553 
  2554   constants
  2555     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2556     True ~> HOL.True
  2557     False ~> HOL.False
  2558     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2559     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2560     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2561     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2562     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2563     The ~> HOL.The
  2564     All ~> HOL.All
  2565     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2566     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2567     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2568     If ~> HOL.If
  2569     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2570     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2571     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2572     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2573     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2574     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2575     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2576     op : ~> Set.member
  2577     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2578 
  2579 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2580 
  2581 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2582 
  2583     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2584     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2585     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2586     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2587     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2588     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2589     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2590     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2591 
  2592 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2593 
  2594 * More stylized fact names:
  2595 
  2596   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2597   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2598   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2599   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2600 
  2601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2602 
  2603 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2604 
  2605   constants
  2606     null ~> List.null
  2607 
  2608   facts
  2609     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2610     null_empty ~> null_def
  2611 
  2612 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2613 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2614 generation.
  2615 
  2616 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2617 Haskell code.
  2618 
  2619 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2620 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2621 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2622 
  2623 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2624 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2625 
  2626 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2627 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2628 
  2629 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2630 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2631 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2632 
  2633 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2634 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2635 
  2636 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2638 
  2639 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2640 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2641 referred to by its qualified name.
  2642 
  2643   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2644   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2645   product ~>  Enum.product
  2646 
  2647 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2648 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2650 
  2651 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2652 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2653 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2655 
  2656 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2657 sort_key.
  2658 
  2659 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2661 
  2662 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2663 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2664 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2665 
  2666   types
  2667     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2668               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2669               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2670         (depends on your needs)
  2671 
  2672   constants
  2673      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2674      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2675      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2676 
  2677 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2678 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2679 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2680 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2681 
  2682 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2683 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2684 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2685 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2686 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2687 
  2688 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2689 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2690 
  2691 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2692 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2693 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2694 
  2695 
  2696 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2697 
  2698 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2699 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2700 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2701 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2702 compatibility.
  2703 
  2704 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2705 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2706 
  2707 
  2708 *** HOLCF ***
  2709 
  2710 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2711 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2712 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2714 
  2715 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2716 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2717 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2718 
  2719   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2720   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2721   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2722 
  2723 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2724 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2725 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2726 
  2727 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2728 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2729 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2730 domain definition now works:
  2731 
  2732   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2733 
  2734 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2735 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2736 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2737 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2738 
  2739   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2740     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2741 
  2742   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2743 
  2744 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2745 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2746 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747 
  2748 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2749 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2752 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2753 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2754 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2755 
  2756 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2757 
  2758 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2759 
  2760 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2761 
  2762 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2763 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2764 
  2765 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2766 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2767 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2768 
  2769 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2770 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2771 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2772 
  2773 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2774 still supported as an input translation.
  2775 
  2776 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2777 
  2778   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2779   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2780   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2781   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2782   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2783   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2784   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2785 
  2786 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2787 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788 
  2789   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2790   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2791   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2792   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2793   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2794   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2795 
  2796 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2797 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2798 
  2799 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2800 
  2801   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2802   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2803   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2804   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2805 
  2806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2807 
  2808 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2809 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2810 
  2811 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2812 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2813 
  2814   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2815   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2816   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2817   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2818   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2819   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2820   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2821   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2822   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2823   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2824   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2825   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2826   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2827   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2828   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2829   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2830   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2831   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2832   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2833   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2834 
  2835 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2836 
  2837   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2838   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2839   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2840   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2841   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2842   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2843   box_less             ~> box_below
  2844   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2845   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2846   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2847   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2848   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2849   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2850   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2851   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2852   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2853   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2854   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2855   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2856   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2857   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2858   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2859   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2860   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2861   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2862   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2863   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2864   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2865   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2866   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2867   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2868   up_less              ~> up_below
  2869   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2870   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2871   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2872   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2873   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2874   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2875   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2876   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2877   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2878   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2879   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2880   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2881   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2882 
  2883 
  2884 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2885 
  2886 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2887 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2888 
  2889 
  2890 *** ML ***
  2891 
  2892 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2893 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2894 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2895 
  2896 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2897 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2898 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2899 
  2900 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2901 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2902 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2903 
  2904 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2905 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2906 
  2907 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2908 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2909 
  2910 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2911 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2912 
  2913 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2914 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2915 
  2916 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2917 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2918 almost all situations.
  2919 
  2920 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2921 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2922 Isabelle/ML.
  2923 
  2924 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2925 meaning.
  2926 
  2927 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2928 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2929 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2930 
  2931 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2932 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2933 
  2934 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2935 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2936 
  2937 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2938 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2939 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2940 
  2941 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2942 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2943 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2944 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2945 configuration options.
  2946 
  2947 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2948 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2949 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2950 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2951 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2952 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2953 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2954 
  2955 
  2956 
  2957 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2958 ---------------------------------
  2959 
  2960 *** General ***
  2961 
  2962 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2963 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2964 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2965 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2966 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2967 their full internal name.
  2968 
  2969 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2970 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2971 Some hints on upgrading:
  2972 
  2973   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2974     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2975     which are independent of this issue.
  2976 
  2977   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2978     provides the following special forms:
  2979 
  2980       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2981       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2982       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2983 
  2984     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2985     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2986     extra variables".
  2987 
  2988     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2989     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2990     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2991     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2992     "logic".
  2993 
  2994   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2995     antiquotations:
  2996 
  2997       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2998       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2999       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3000       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3001 
  3002   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3003     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3004     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3005     antiquotations.
  3006 
  3007 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3008 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3009 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3010 diagnose syntax problems.
  3011 
  3012 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3013 
  3014 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3015 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3016 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3017 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3018 
  3019 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3020 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3021 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3022 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023 
  3024 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3025 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3026 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3027 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3028 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3029 
  3030 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3031 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3032 
  3033 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3034 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3035 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3036 
  3037   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3038 
  3039 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3040 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3041 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3042 
  3043 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3044 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3046 
  3047 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3048 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3049 
  3050 
  3051 *** Pure ***
  3052 
  3053 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3054 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3055 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3056 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3057 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3058 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3059 inspect proof terms.
  3060 
  3061 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3062 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3063 are added internally.  For example:
  3064 
  3065   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3066 
  3067 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3068 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3069 
  3070 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3071 
  3072 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3073 'class' instead.
  3074 
  3075 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3076 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3078 
  3079 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3080 invariants.
  3081 
  3082 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3083 user space functionality any longer.
  3084 
  3085 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3086 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3090 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3091 
  3092 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3093 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3094 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3095 
  3096 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3097 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3098 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3099 
  3100 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3101 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102 
  3103 
  3104 *** HOL ***
  3105 
  3106 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3107 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3108 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3109 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3110 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3111 
  3112 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3113 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3114 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3115 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3116 
  3117   fun
  3118     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3119   where
  3120     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3121 
  3122   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3123     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3124 
  3125   quotient_definition
  3126     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3127 
  3128 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3129 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3130 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3131 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3132 
  3133 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3134 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3135 
  3136 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3137 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3138 
  3139 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3141 
  3142 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3143 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3144 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3145 
  3146 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3147 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3148 
  3149 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3151 
  3152 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3153 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3156 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3157 
  3158 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3159 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3160 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3161 
  3162   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3163   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3164   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3165   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3166   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3167   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3168   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3169   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3170   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3171   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3172   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3173   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3174   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3175   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3176   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3177   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3178   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3179   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3180   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3181   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3182   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3183   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3184   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3185   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3186   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3187   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3188   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3189   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3190   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3191   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3192 
  3193 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3194 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3195 
  3196 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3197 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3198 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3199 
  3200 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3201 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3202 
  3203 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3204 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3205 
  3206 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3207 
  3208 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3209 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3210 
  3211 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3212 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3213 
  3214 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3215 
  3216 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3217 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3218 
  3219 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3220 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3221 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3222 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3223 
  3224 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3225   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3226   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3227   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3229 
  3230 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3231 lattices):
  3232 
  3233     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3234     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3235 
  3236     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3237 
  3238     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3239     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3240     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3241     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3242     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3243     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3244     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3245     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3246     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3247     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3248     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3249     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3250     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3251 
  3252     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3253     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3254     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3255     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3256     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3257     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3258     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3259     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3260     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3261     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3262     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3263     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3264     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3265     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3266     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3267     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3268     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3269     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3270 
  3271   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3272   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3273 
  3274     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3275     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3276     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3277     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3278     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3279 
  3280 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3281 
  3282 * Refined field classes:
  3283   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3284     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3285     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3286   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3288 
  3289 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3290   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3291   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3292   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3293     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3294   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3295     equal_neg_zero.
  3296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3297 
  3298 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3299 sets to lattices:
  3300 
  3301   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3302   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3303   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3304   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3305   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3306   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3307   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3308   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3309   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3310   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3311 
  3312 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3313 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3314 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3315 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3316 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3317 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3318 
  3319 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3320 multiset order:
  3321 
  3322   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3323     <= and <;
  3324   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3325     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3326     multiset_order;
  3327   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3328     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3329     generation;
  3330   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3331     if needed.
  3332 
  3333 Renamed:
  3334 
  3335   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3336   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3337   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3338 
  3339 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3340 
  3341 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3342 
  3343 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3344 
  3345 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3346 
  3347 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3348 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3349 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3350 
  3351   Constants:
  3352   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3353   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3354   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3355   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3356   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3357   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3358   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3359   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3360   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3361   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3362   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3363   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3364   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3365 
  3366   Lemmas:
  3367   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3368   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3369   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3370   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3371   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3372   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3373   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3374   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3375   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3376   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3377   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3378   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3379   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3380 
  3381 * Sledgehammer:
  3382   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3383     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3384     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3385     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3386     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3387     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3388     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3389   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3390   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3391     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3392   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3393     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3394     is still experimental.)
  3395   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3396     full-typed mode.
  3397   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3398 
  3399 * Nitpick:
  3400   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3401   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3402   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3403     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3404   - Added support for quotient types.
  3405   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3406     constructs.
  3407   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3408     "termination" proofs).
  3409   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3410   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3411   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3412   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3413     record getters.
  3414   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3415   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3416   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3417   - Added "atoms" option.
  3418   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3419     problems.
  3420   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3421     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3422     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3423   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3424     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3425   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3426 
  3427 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3428   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3429   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3430   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3431   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3432   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3433   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3434   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3435   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3436   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 
  3439 *** HOLCF ***
  3440 
  3441 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3442 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3443 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444 
  3445 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3446 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3447 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3448 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3449 
  3450 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3451 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3452 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3453 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3454 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3455 
  3456 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3457 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3458 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3459 
  3460 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3461 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3462 
  3463   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3464   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3465 
  3466 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3467 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3468 
  3469   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3470   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3471   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3472   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3473   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3474 
  3475 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3476 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3477 
  3478   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3479   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3480   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3481 
  3482 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3483 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3485 
  3486 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3487 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3488 
  3489 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3490 
  3491 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3492 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3493 
  3494 
  3495 *** ML ***
  3496 
  3497 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3498 
  3499     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3500     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3501 
  3502     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3503     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3504     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3505     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3506 
  3507     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3508     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3509     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3510 
  3511 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3512 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3513 
  3514 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3515 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3516 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3517 
  3518 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3519 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3520 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3521 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3522 
  3523 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3524 the context or even global references.
  3525 
  3526 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3527 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3528 
  3529 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3530 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3531 
  3532   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3533   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3534   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3535   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3536   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3537   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3538   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3539   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3540   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3541   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3542 
  3543 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3544 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3545 
  3546 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3547 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3548 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3549 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3550 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3551 
  3552 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3553 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3554 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3555 Theory_Data version.
  3556 
  3557 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3558 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3559 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3560 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3561 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3562 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3563 explicitly in rare situations.
  3564 
  3565 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3566 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3568 
  3569 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3570 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3571 
  3572 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3573 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3574 quite rare).
  3575 
  3576 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3577 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3578 
  3579 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3580 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3581 terms.
  3582 
  3583 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3584 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3585 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3586 
  3587 
  3588 *** System ***
  3589 
  3590 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3591 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3592 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3593 
  3594 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3595 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3596 respectively.
  3597 
  3598 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3599 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3600 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3601 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3602 
  3603   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3604 
  3605 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3606 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3607 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3608 component.
  3609 
  3610 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3611 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3612 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3613 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3614 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3615 the user for manual installation.
  3616 
  3617 
  3618 
  3619 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3620 -------------------------------------
  3621 
  3622 *** General ***
  3623 
  3624 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3625 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3626 
  3627 
  3628 *** Pure ***
  3629 
  3630 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3631 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3632 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3633 
  3634 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3635 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3636 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3637 
  3638 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3639 interpretation.
  3640 
  3641 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3642 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644 
  3645 *** Document preparation ***
  3646 
  3647 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3648 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3649 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3650 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3651 
  3652 
  3653 *** HOL ***
  3654 
  3655 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3656 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3657 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3658 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3659 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3660 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3661 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3662 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3663 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3664 
  3665 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3666 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3667 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3668 
  3669 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3670 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3671 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3672 
  3673 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3674 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3675 
  3676 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3677 
  3678 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3679 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3680 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3681 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3682 
  3683 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3684 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3685 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3686 "mirabelle" utility.
  3687 
  3688 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3689 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3690 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3691 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3692 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3693 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3694 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3695 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3696 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3697 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3698 
  3699 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3700 procedure only.
  3701 
  3702 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3703 
  3704 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3705 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3706 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3707 that fail later.
  3708 
  3709 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3710 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3711 
  3712 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3713 the same method as the approximation method.
  3714 
  3715 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3716 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3717 series expansion.
  3718 
  3719 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3720 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3721 
  3722 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3723 reals.
  3724 
  3725 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3726 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3727 
  3728 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3729 fixpoint theorem.
  3730 
  3731 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3732   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3733     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3734   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3735     accordingly
  3736   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3737     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3738   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3739     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3740 
  3741 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3742 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3743 lattice.
  3744 
  3745 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3746 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3747 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3748 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3749 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3750 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3751 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3752 
  3753 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3754   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3755     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3756   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3757     le_inf_iff
  3758   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3759     sup_aci)
  3760   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3761   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3762   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3763     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3764     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3765     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3766     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3767     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3768     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3769     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3770     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3771     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3772     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3773   - authentic syntax for
  3774     Set.Pow
  3775     Set.image
  3776   - mere abbreviations:
  3777     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3778     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3779     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3780     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3781     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3782     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3783     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3784     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3785   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3786 
  3787 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3788 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3789 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3790 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3791 
  3792 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3793 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3794 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3795 
  3796 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3797 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3798 
  3799 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3800 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3801 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3802 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3803 
  3804 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3805 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3806 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3807 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3808 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3809 
  3810 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3811 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3812 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3813 
  3814 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3815 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3816 
  3817 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3818 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3819 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3820 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3821 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3822 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3823 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3824 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3825 
  3826 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3827     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3828     code_post       replaces    code post
  3829     etc.
  3830   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3831 
  3832 * Renamed methods:
  3833     sizechange -> size_change
  3834     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3835   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3836 
  3837 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3838 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3839 
  3840 * Renamed theorems:
  3841     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3842     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3843     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3844     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3845     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3846   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3847 
  3848 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3850 
  3851 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3853 
  3854 
  3855 *** HOLCF ***
  3856 
  3857 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3858 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3859 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3860 
  3861 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3862 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3863 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3864 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3865 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3866 
  3867 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3868 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3869 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3870 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3871 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3872 
  3873 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3874 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3875 constructor are pre-configured.
  3876 
  3877 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3878 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3879 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3880 
  3881 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3882 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3883 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3884 as well.)
  3885 
  3886 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3887 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3888 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3889 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3890 examples.
  3891 
  3892 
  3893 *** ML ***
  3894 
  3895 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3896 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3897 
  3898 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3899 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3900 position, logical grouping etc.
  3901 
  3902 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3903 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3904 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3905 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3906 
  3907 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3908 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3909 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3910 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3911 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3912 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3913 
  3914 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3915 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3916 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3917 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3918 experiments with references.
  3919 
  3920 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3921 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3922 
  3923 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3924 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3925 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3926 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3927 
  3928 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3929 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3930 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3931 
  3932 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3933 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3934 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3935 
  3936 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3937 
  3938 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3940 
  3941 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3942 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3943 
  3944 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3945 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3946 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3947 
  3948 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3949 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3950 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3951 
  3952 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3953 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3954 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3955 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956 
  3957 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3958 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3959 instead of global theory.
  3960 
  3961 
  3962 *** System ***
  3963 
  3964 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3965 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3966 usedir option -q.
  3967 
  3968 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3969 also the system manual.
  3970 
  3971 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3972 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3973 
  3974 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3975 this is always enabled.
  3976 
  3977 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3978 
  3979 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3980 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3981 currently supported on Linux only.
  3982 
  3983 
  3984 
  3985 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3986 --------------------------------
  3987 
  3988 *** General ***
  3989 
  3990 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3991 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3992 
  3993   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3994     "isatool."
  3995 
  3996   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3997     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3998 
  3999   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4000     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4001 
  4002 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4003 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4004 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4005 
  4006 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4007 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4008 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4009 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4010 via "isabelle emacs".
  4011 
  4012 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4013 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4014 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4015 
  4016 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4017 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4018 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4019 
  4020 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4021 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4022 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4023 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4024 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4025 
  4026 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4027 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4028 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4029 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4030 
  4031 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4032 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4033 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4034 
  4035 
  4036 *** Pure ***
  4037 
  4038 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4039 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4040 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4041 
  4042 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4043 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4044 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4045 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4046 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4047 
  4048 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4049 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4050 useful in locale declarations.
  4051 
  4052 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4053 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4054 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4055 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4056 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4057 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4058 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4059 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4060 no longer generated.
  4061 
  4062 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4063 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4064 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4065 
  4066 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4067 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4068 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4069 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4070 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4071 
  4072 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4073 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4074 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4075 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4076 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4077 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4078 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4079 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4080 
  4081 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4082 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4083 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4084 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4085 
  4086 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4087 
  4088 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4089 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4090 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4091 
  4092 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4093 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094 
  4095 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4096 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4097 in HOL, write
  4098 
  4099     class foo = ...
  4100 
  4101 instead of
  4102 
  4103     class foo = type + ...
  4104 
  4105 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4106 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4107 
  4108 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4109 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4110 
  4111 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4112 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4113 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4114 
  4115 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4116 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4117 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4118 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4119 directly in regular applications.
  4120 
  4121 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4122 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4123 
  4124 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4125 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4126 
  4127 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4128 theory context.
  4129 
  4130 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4131 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4132 
  4133 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4134 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4135 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4136 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4137 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4138 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4139 
  4140   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4141 
  4142 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4143 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4144 normalization.
  4145 
  4146 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4147 addressing etc.
  4148 
  4149 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4150 
  4151   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4152   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4153 
  4154 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4155 
  4156   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4157      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4158      parts of the code generator framework).
  4159 
  4160   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4161      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4162      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4163 
  4164 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4165 
  4166 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4167 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4168 
  4169 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4170 patterns, e.g.
  4171 
  4172     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4173 
  4174 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4175 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4176 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4177 hyphen:
  4178 
  4179     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4180 
  4181 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4182 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4183 
  4184 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4185 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4186 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4187 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4188 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4189 higher-order unification.
  4190 
  4191 
  4192 *** Document preparation ***
  4193 
  4194 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4195 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4196 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4197 
  4198 
  4199 *** HOL ***
  4200 
  4201 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4202 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4203 
  4204 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4205 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4206 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4207 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4208 Main, as before.
  4209 
  4210 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4211 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4212 
  4213 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4214 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4215 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4216 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4217 
  4218 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4219 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4220 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4221 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4222 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4223 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4224 
  4225 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4226 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4227 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4228 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4229 
  4230 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4231 menu.
  4232 
  4233 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4234 (contains the empty clause).
  4235 
  4236 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4237 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4238 
  4239 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4240 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4241 
  4242 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4243 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4244 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4245 
  4246 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4247 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4248 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4249 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4250 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4251 
  4252 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4253 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4254 
  4255 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4256 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4257 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4258 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4259 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4260 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4261 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4262 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4263 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4264 
  4265 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4266 
  4267 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4268 
  4269 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4270 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4271 
  4272 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4273 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4274 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4275 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4276 
  4277 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4278 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4279 
  4280     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4281     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4282     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4283     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4284     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4285     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4286     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4287     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4288 
  4289 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4290 theory Set.
  4291 
  4292 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4293 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4294 
  4295 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4296 
  4297 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4298 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4299 
  4300 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4301 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4302 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4303 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4304 allowed. For examples see
  4305 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4306 
  4307 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4308 
  4309 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4311 
  4312 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4313 structure:
  4314 
  4315     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4316     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4317     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4318     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4319     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4320     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4321     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4322     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4323     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4324     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4325     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4326     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4327     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4328     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4329     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4330     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4331     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4332     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4333     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4334     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4335     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4336     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4337     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4338     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4339     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4340     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4341     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4342     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4343     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4344     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4345     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4346     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4347     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4348 
  4349     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4350     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4351     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4352     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4353     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4354     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4355     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4356     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4357     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4358     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4359 
  4360     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4361     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4362     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4363     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4364     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4365     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4366 
  4367 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4368 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4369 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4370 
  4371 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4372 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4373 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4374 
  4375 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4376 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4377 
  4378 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4379 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4380 
  4381 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4382 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4383 proofs, e.g.
  4384 
  4385   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4386 
  4387 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4388 
  4389 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4390 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4391 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4392 
  4393 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4394 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4395 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4396 
  4397 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4398 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4399 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4401 
  4402 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4403 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4404 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4405 preorder_class.*.
  4406 
  4407 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4408 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4409 
  4410 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4411 
  4412   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4413 
  4414 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4415 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4416 fold_image.
  4417 
  4418 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4419 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4420 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4421 the former will disappear at some point.
  4422 
  4423 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4424 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4425 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4426 
  4427 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4428 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4429 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4430 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4431 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4432 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4433 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4434 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4435 
  4436 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4437 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4438 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4439 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4440 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4441 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4442 
  4443     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4444     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4445     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4446     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4447     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4448     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4449     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4450 
  4451 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4452 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4453 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4454 
  4455 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4456 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4457 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4458 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4459 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4460 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4461 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4462 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4463 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4464 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4465 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4466 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4467 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4468 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4469 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4470 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4471 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4472 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4473 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4474 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4475 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4476 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4477 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4478 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4479 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4480 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4481 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4482 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4483 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4484 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4485 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4486 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4487 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4488 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4489 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4490 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4491 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4492 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4493 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4494 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4495 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4496 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4497 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4498 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4499 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4500 
  4501 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4502 
  4503 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4504 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4505 
  4506 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4507 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4508 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4509 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4510 
  4511 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4512 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4513 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4514 theory RealVector.
  4515 
  4516 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4517 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4518 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4519 and inner products are included.
  4520 
  4521 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4522 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4523 supported.
  4524 
  4525 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4526 first diagonalization argument.
  4527 
  4528 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4529 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4530 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4531 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4532 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4533 
  4534     hide (open) const gcd
  4535     abbreviation gcd where
  4536       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4537     notation (output)
  4538       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4539 
  4540 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4541 
  4542 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4543 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4544 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4545 
  4546 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4547 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4548 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4549 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4550 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4551 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4552 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4553 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4554 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4555 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4556 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4557 cases.
  4558 
  4559 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4560 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4561 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4562 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4563 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4564 
  4565     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4566     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4567     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4568     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4569     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4570 
  4571 
  4572 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4573 
  4574 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4575 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4576 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4577 
  4578 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4579 
  4580 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4581 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4582 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4583 
  4584 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4585 
  4586 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4587 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4588 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4589 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4590 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4591 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4592 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4593 
  4594 
  4595 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4596 
  4597 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4598 
  4599 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4600 theory targets.
  4601 
  4602 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4603 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4604 'inductive' etc.
  4605 
  4606 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4607 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4608 
  4609 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4610 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4611 
  4612 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4613 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4614 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4615 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4616 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4617 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4618 the algorithm W:
  4619 
  4620  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4621  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4622          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4623 
  4624 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4625 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4626 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4627 
  4628 
  4629 *** HOLCF ***
  4630 
  4631 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4632 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4633 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4634 
  4635 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4636 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4637 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4638 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4639 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4640 
  4641 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4642 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4643 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4644 
  4645 
  4646 *** ZF ***
  4647 
  4648 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4649 
  4650 
  4651 *** ML ***
  4652 
  4653 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4654 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4655 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4656 5.2.1!
  4657 
  4658 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4659 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4660 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4661 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4662 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4663 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4664 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4665 
  4666 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4667 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4668 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4669 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4670 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4671 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4672 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4673 
  4674 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4675 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4676 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4677 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4678 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4679 
  4680 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4681 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4682 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4683 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4684 Method.add_method.
  4685 
  4686 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4687 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4688 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4689 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4690 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4691 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4692 
  4693 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4694 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4695 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4696 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4697 examples.
  4698 
  4699 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4700 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4701 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4702 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4703 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4704 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4705 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4706 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4707 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4708 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4709 
  4710 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4711 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4712 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4713 
  4714 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4715 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4716 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4717 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4718 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4719 resort for legacy applications.
  4720 
  4721 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4722 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4723 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4724 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4725 explicit runtime argument.
  4726 
  4727 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4728 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4729 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4730 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4731 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4732 
  4733 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4734 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4735 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4736 theory state.
  4737 
  4738 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4739 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4740 
  4741   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4742   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4743   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4744   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4745   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4746   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4747   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4748   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4749   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4750   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4751 
  4752 
  4753 *** System ***
  4754 
  4755 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4756 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4757 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4758 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4759 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4760 
  4761 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4762 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4763 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4764 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4765 
  4766 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4767 
  4768 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4769 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4770 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4771 prover operations.
  4772 
  4773 
  4774 
  4775 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4776 -------------------------------
  4777 
  4778 *** General ***
  4779 
  4780 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4781 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4782 
  4783 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4784 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4785 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4786 provides a proper context already.
  4787 
  4788 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4789 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4790 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4791 
  4792 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4793 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4794 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4795 swap theory imports.
  4796 
  4797 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4798 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4799 
  4800 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4801 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4802 white space without escapes.
  4803 
  4804 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4805 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4806 "foo_bar".
  4807 
  4808 
  4809 *** Pure ***
  4810 
  4811 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4812 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4813 
  4814 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4815 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4816 
  4817 (1) unused_thms
  4818      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4819 
  4820 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4821      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4822      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4823 
  4824 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4825      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4826      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4827      their ancestors.
  4828 
  4829 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4830 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4831 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4832 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4833 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4834 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4835 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4836 
  4837 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4838 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4839 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4840 
  4841 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4842 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4843 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4844 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4845 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4846 
  4847 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4848 
  4849 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4850 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4851 update of theories within ML code.
  4852 
  4853 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4854 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4855 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4856 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4857 
  4858 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4859 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4860 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4861 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4862 
  4863 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4864 
  4865 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4866 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4867 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4868 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4869 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4870 
  4871 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4872 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4873 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4874 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4875 situations.
  4876 
  4877 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4878 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4879 proof text.
  4880 
  4881 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4882 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4883 
  4884 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4885 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4886 predicates.
  4887 
  4888 
  4889 *** Document preparation ***
  4890 
  4891 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4892 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4893 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4894 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4895 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4896 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4897 
  4898 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4899 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4900 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4901 
  4902 
  4903 *** HOL ***
  4904 
  4905 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4906 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4907 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4908 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4909 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4910 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4911 
  4912 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4913 with multithreading.
  4914 
  4915 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4916 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4917 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4918 
  4919 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4920 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4921 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4922 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4923 
  4924 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4925 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4926 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4927 and makes them available separately.  See
  4928 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4929 
  4930 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4931 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4932 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4933 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4934 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4935 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4936 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4937 the declared rules.
  4938 
  4939 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4940 
  4941   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4942 
  4943 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4944 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4945 
  4946 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4947 
  4948   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4949 
  4950   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4951     definitions on => and bool.
  4952 
  4953   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4954     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4955     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4956 
  4957       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4958       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4959       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4960       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4961       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4962       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4963       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4964       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4965 
  4966   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4967     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4968     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4969 
  4970   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4971     The proof pattern
  4972 
  4973       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4974       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4975 
  4976     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4977     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4978 
  4979       have "EX S. P S"
  4980       proof
  4981         show "P S" <...>
  4982       qed
  4983 
  4984   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4985     The proof pattern
  4986 
  4987       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4988       also have "S = T" <...>
  4989       finally have "P T" .
  4990 
  4991     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4992     must be replaced by something like
  4993 
  4994       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4995       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4996       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4997 
  4998   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4999     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5000 
  5001       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5002 
  5003     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5004     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5005     type of the form
  5006 
  5007       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5008 
  5009     rather than
  5010 
  5011       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5012 
  5013 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5014 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5015 
  5016 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5017 
  5018 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5019 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5021 
  5022 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5023 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5024 
  5025 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5026 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5027 
  5028 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5029 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5030 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5031 
  5032 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5033 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5034 
  5035   less_trans
  5036   less_linear
  5037   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5038   le_less_trans
  5039   less_le_trans
  5040   less_not_sym
  5041   less_asym
  5042 
  5043 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5044 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5045 and different variable names.
  5046 
  5047 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5048 
  5049 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5050 finite maps.
  5051 
  5052 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5053 
  5054 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5055 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5056 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5057 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5058 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5059 accordingly.
  5060 
  5061 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5062 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5063 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5064 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5065 
  5066 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5067 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5068 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5069 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5070 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5072 
  5073 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5074 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5075 
  5076 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5077 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5078 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5079 
  5080 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5081 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5082 
  5083 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5084 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5085 
  5086 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5087 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5088 
  5089 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5090 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5091 
  5092 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5093 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5094 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5095 
  5096 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5097 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5098 
  5099 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5100 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5101 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5102 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5103 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5104 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5105 
  5106 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5107 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5108 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5109 
  5110 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5111 
  5112 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5113 
  5114 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5115 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5116 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5117 
  5118 
  5119 *** ZF ***
  5120 
  5121 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5122 same session:
  5123 
  5124   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5125   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5126   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5127   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5128   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5129   List      -> List_ZF
  5130   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5131 
  5132 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5133 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5134 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5135 
  5136 
  5137 *** ML ***
  5138 
  5139 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5140 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5141 
  5142 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5143 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5144 
  5145 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5146 
  5147 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5148 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5149 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5150 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5151 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5152 
  5153 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5154 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5155 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5156 
  5157 
  5158 *** System ***
  5159 
  5160 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5161 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5162 
  5163 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5164 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5165 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5166 
  5167 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5168 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5169 
  5170 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5171 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5172 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5173 
  5174 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5175 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5176 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5177 
  5178 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5179 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5180 
  5181 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5182 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5183 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5184 script.
  5185 
  5186 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5187 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5188 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5189 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5190 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5191 
  5192 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5193 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5194 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5195 
  5196 
  5197 
  5198 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5199 -----------------------------------
  5200 
  5201 *** General ***
  5202 
  5203 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5204 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5205 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5206 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5207 
  5208 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5209 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5210 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5211 
  5212 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5213 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5214 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5215 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5216 
  5217 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5218 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5219 quotes.
  5220 
  5221 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5222 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5223 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5224 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5225 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5226 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5227 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5228 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5229 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5230 
  5231 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5232 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5233 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5234 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5235 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5236 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5237 
  5238 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5239 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5240 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5241 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5242 
  5243 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5244 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5245 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5246 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5247 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5248 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5249 
  5250 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5251 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5252 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5253 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5254 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5255 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5256 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5257 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5258 
  5259 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5260 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5261 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5262 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5263 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5264 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5265 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5266 
  5267 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5268 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5269 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5270 
  5271 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5272 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5273 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5274 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5275 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5276 limit is imposed.
  5277 
  5278 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5279 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5280 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5281 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5282 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5283 and scalability.
  5284 
  5285 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5286 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5287 
  5288 
  5289 *** Document preparation ***
  5290 
  5291 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5292 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5293 current context.
  5294 
  5295 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5296 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5297 
  5298 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5299 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5300 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5301 
  5302 
  5303 *** Pure ***
  5304 
  5305 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5306 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5307 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5308 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5309 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5310 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5311 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5312 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5313 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5314 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5315 
  5316 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5317 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5318 sketch:
  5319 
  5320     internal compilation:
  5321         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5322     writing SML code to a file:
  5323         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5324     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5325         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5326     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5327         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5328 
  5329     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5330         method ``eval''
  5331 
  5332 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5333 
  5334 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5335 
  5336     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5337     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5338     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5339     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5340 
  5341 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5342 
  5343     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5344       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5345 
  5346     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5347       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5348 
  5349     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5350       {(target)}+
  5351         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5352 
  5353     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5354       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5355         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5356 
  5357 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5358 
  5359 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5360 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5361 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5362 codegen".
  5363 
  5364 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5365 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5366 annotations).
  5367 
  5368 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5369 syntax.
  5370 
  5371 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5372 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5373 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5374 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5375 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5376 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5377 
  5378 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5379 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5380 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5381 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5382 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5383 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5384 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5385 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5386 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5387 equations, see section "definitions".
  5388 
  5389 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5390 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5391 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5392 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5393 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5394 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5395 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5396 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5397 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5398 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5399 
  5400 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5401 configuration options:
  5402 
  5403   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5404   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5405   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5406   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5407   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5408   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5409   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5410   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5411   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5412 
  5413 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5414 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5415 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5416 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5417 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5418 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5419 order.
  5420 
  5421 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5422 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5423 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5424 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5425 context encountered later on.
  5426 
  5427 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5428 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5429 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5430 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5431 
  5432 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5433 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5434 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5435 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5436 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5437 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5438 
  5439 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5440 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5441 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5442 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5443 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5444 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5445 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5446 more permissive.
  5447 
  5448 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5449 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5450 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5451 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5452 maintainability of proof texts.
  5453 
  5454 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5455 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5456 
  5457   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5458   then guess x and y by clarify
  5459 
  5460 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5461 proof tools being involved here.
  5462 
  5463 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5464 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5465 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5466 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5467 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5468 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5469 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5470 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5471 
  5472 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5473 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5474 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5475 
  5476   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5477   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5478   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5479   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5480 
  5481 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5482 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5483 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5484 
  5485 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5486 both named and unnamed ones.
  5487 
  5488 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5489 
  5490   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5491 
  5492 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5493 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5494 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5495 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5496 
  5497 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5498 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5499 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5500 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5501 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5502 
  5503 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5504 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5505 
  5506 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5507 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5508 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5509 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5510 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5511 originally first one.
  5512 
  5513 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5514 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5515 expected.
  5516 
  5517 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5518 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5519 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5520 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5521 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5522 
  5523   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5524     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5525     obtains x where "P x"
  5526 
  5527   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5528     assumes "A & B"
  5529     obtains A and B
  5530 
  5531   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5532     assumes "A | B"
  5533     obtains
  5534       A
  5535     | B
  5536 
  5537 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5538 explicitly:
  5539 
  5540   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5541     obtains "~ thesis"
  5542 
  5543   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5544     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5545 
  5546 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5547 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5548 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5549 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5550 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5551 case_names).
  5552 
  5553 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5554 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5555 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5556 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5557 
  5558 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5559 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5560 top-level lemma.
  5561 
  5562 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5563 introduction rule (default "that").
  5564 
  5565 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5566 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5567 to occur.
  5568 
  5569 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5570 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5571 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5572 representations independently of name spaces.
  5573 
  5574 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5575 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5576 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5577 
  5578 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5579 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5580 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5581 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5582 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5583 current context.
  5584 
  5585 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5586 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5587 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5588 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5589 
  5590   axiomatization
  5591     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5592     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5593 
  5594   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5595   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5596 
  5597   abbreviation
  5598     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5599     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5600 
  5601 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5602 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5603 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5604 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5605 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5606 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5607 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5608 
  5609 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5610 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5611 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5612 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5613 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5614 
  5615 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5616 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5617 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5618 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5619 
  5620 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5621 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5622 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5623 
  5624   definition "K x _ = x"
  5625 
  5626   inductive conj for A B
  5627   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5628 
  5629 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5630 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5631 abbreviations on output.
  5632 
  5633 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5634 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5635 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5636 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5637 
  5638 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5639 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5640 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5641 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5642 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5643 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5644 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5645 
  5646 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5647 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5648 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5649 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5650 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5651 
  5652 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5653 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5654 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5655 
  5656 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5657 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5658 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5659 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5660 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5661 
  5662   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5663     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5664 
  5665 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5666 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5667 partial_order.
  5668 
  5669 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5670 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5671 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5672 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5673 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5674 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5675 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5676 examples.
  5677 
  5678 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5679 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5680 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5681 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5682 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5683 
  5684 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5685 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5686 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5687 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5688 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5689 
  5690   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5691   (induct set: foo bar)
  5692   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5693   (induct type: foo bar)
  5694 
  5695 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5696 new format.
  5697 
  5698 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5699 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5700 
  5701 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5702 considered a legacy feature.
  5703 
  5704 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5705 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5706 
  5707 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5708 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5709 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5710 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5711   
  5712 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5713 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5714 manipulating the claset.
  5715 
  5716 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5717 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5718 least one premise.
  5719 
  5720 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5721 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5722 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5723 rule steps.
  5724 
  5725 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5726 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5727 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5728 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5729 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5730 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5731 
  5732 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5733 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5734 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5735 
  5736 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5737 the graph browser tool.
  5738 
  5739 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5740 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5741 
  5742 
  5743 *** HOL ***
  5744 
  5745 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5746 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5747 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5748 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5749 multi-threading.
  5750   
  5751 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5752 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5753 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5754 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5755 work with multi-threading.
  5756 
  5757 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5758 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5759 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5760 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5761 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5762 
  5763 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5764 
  5765 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5766 equality.
  5767 
  5768 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5769 the new 'class' package:
  5770 
  5771     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5772     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5773     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5774     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5775     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5776     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5777     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5778     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5779     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5780     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5781     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5782     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5783     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5784     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5785     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5786     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5787     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5788     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5789     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5790     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5791 
  5792 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5793 
  5794 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5795 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5796 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5797 names.
  5798 
  5799 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5800 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5801 
  5802 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5803 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5804 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5805 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5806 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5807 
  5808 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5809 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5810 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5811 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5812 
  5813 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5814 
  5815 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5816 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5817 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5818 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5819 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5820 
  5821 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5822 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5823 
  5824 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5825 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5826 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5827 
  5828 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5829 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5830 
  5831 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5832 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5833 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5834 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5835 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5836 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5837 in the current context.
  5838 
  5839 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5840 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5841 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5842 
  5843 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5844 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5845 
  5846 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5847 
  5848     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5849     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5850 
  5851     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5852       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5853     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5854     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5855 
  5856     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5857     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5858 
  5859   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5860 
  5861     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5862     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5863     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5864     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5865     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5866     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5867     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5868     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5869     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5870     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5871     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5872     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5873     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5874     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5875     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5876     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5877     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5878     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5879     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5880     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5881     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5882     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5883     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5884     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5885     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5886     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5887     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5888     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5889     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5890     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5891     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5892     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5893     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5894     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5895     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5896 
  5897     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5898     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5899     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5900     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5901     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5902     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5903     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5904     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5905     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5906     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5907     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5908     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5909     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5910     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5911     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5912     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5913     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5914 
  5915     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5916     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5917     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5918     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5919     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5920     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5921     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5922     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5923     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5924     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5925     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5926     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5927     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5928     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5929     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5930     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5931     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5932     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5933     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5934     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5935     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5936     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5937     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5938     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5939     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5940     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5941     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5942     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5943 
  5944     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5945     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5946     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5947     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5948     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5949     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5950 
  5951     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5952     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5953     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5954     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5955 
  5956     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5957     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5958 
  5959     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5960     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5961 
  5962 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5963 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5964 
  5965 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5966 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5967 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5968 "*.size".
  5969 
  5970 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5971 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5972 
  5973 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5974 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5975 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5976 
  5977 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5978 
  5979 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5980 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5981 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5982 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5983 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5984 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5985 numerals on all operations.
  5986 
  5987 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5988 
  5989 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5990 
  5991 * Code generator library theories:
  5992   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5993     languages.
  5994   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5995     languages.
  5996   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5997     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5998   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5999   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  6000     denominator).
  6001   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  6002     representable by rational numbers.
  6003   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  6004     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  6005     includes Code_Integer.
  6006   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  6007     target-language built-in integers.
  6008   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  6009     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  6010 
  6011 * New package for inductive predicates
  6012 
  6013   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  6014 
  6015     inductive
  6016       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6017       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6018     where
  6019       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6020     | ...
  6021 
  6022   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  6023 
  6024     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6025 
  6026     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6027     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6028 
  6029     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  6030     intros
  6031       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6032       ...
  6033 
  6034   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  6035   sets to be defined with the new package via
  6036 
  6037     inductive_set
  6038       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6039       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6040     where
  6041       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6042     | ...
  6043 
  6044   or
  6045 
  6046     inductive_set
  6047       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6048       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6049       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6050     where
  6051       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6052     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6053     | ...
  6054 
  6055   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  6056 
  6057   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  6058   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  6059 
  6060   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6061 
  6062   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6063     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6064     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6065     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6066     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6067 
  6068   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6069     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6070     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6071     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6072     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6073     statements of the form
  6074 
  6075       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6076 
  6077     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6078     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6079 
  6080       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6081 
  6082   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6083 
  6084       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6085         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6086         ==> ... ==> P
  6087 
  6088     for predicates and
  6089 
  6090       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6091         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6092         ==> ... ==> P
  6093 
  6094     for sets rather than
  6095 
  6096       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6097         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6098         ==> ... ==> P
  6099 
  6100     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6101     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6102     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6103 
  6104   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6105     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6106     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6107 
  6108 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6109 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6110 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6111 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6112 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6113 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6114 
  6115 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6116 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6117 
  6118 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6119 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6120 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6121 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6122 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6123 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6124 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6125 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6126 variable.
  6127 
  6128 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6129 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6130 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6131 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6132   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6133   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6134 
  6135 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6136 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6137 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6138 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6139 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6140 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6141 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6142 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6143 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6144 
  6145 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6146 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6147 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6148 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6149 rat, etc.
  6150 
  6151 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6152 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6153 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6154 
  6155 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6156 
  6157 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6158 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6159 
  6160 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6161 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6162 
  6163 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6164 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6165 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6166 
  6167 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6168 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6169 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6170 
  6171 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6172 
  6173 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6174 
  6175 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6176 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6177 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6178 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6179 
  6180 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6181 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6182 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6183 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6184 
  6185 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6186 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6187 algebraic operations.
  6188 
  6189 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6191 
  6192 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6194 
  6195 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6196 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6197 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6198 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6199 adapted.
  6200  
  6201 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6202 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6203 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6204 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6205 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6206 
  6207 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6208 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6209 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6210 
  6211 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6212 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6213 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6214 
  6215 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6216 
  6217 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6218 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6219 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6220   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6221       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6222   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6223   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6224   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6225 
  6226 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6227 
  6228 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6229 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6230 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6231 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6232 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6233 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6234 
  6235 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6236 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6237 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6238 
  6239 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6240 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6241 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6243 
  6244 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6245