NEWS
author blanchet
Mon Feb 17 22:54:38 2014 +0100 (2014-02-17)
changeset 55539 0819931d652d
parent 55536 56ebc4d4d008
child 55547 384bfd19ee61
permissions -rw-r--r--
simplified data structure by reducing the incidence of clumsy indices
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.
    25 
    26 
    27 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    28 
    29 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    30 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    31 
    32 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    33 auxiliary ML files.
    34 
    35 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    36 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    37 
    38 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    39 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    40 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    41 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    42 
    43 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    44 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    45 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Pure ***
    49 
    50 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    51 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    52 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    53 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    54 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    55 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    56 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    57 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    58 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    59 
    60 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    61 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    62 instantiated theorem.
    63 
    64 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    65 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    66 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    67 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    68 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    69 
    70   attribute_setup standard =
    71     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    72 
    73 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    74 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    75 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    76 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    77 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    78 
    79 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    80 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    81 differently).
    82 
    83 
    84 *** HOL ***
    85 
    86 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
    87 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    88 
    89 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
    90   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
    91   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
    92   "Main".
    93   Theory renamings:
    94     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
    95     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
    96     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
    97     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
    98     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
    99     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   100     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   101     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   102     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   103     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   104     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   105     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   106     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   107     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   108     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   109     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   110     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   111     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   112     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   113     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   114     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   115     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   116   New theories:
   117     List_Prefix.thy (split from Library/Sublist.thy)
   118     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   119     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   120     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   121     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   122     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   123   Discontinued theories:
   124     BNF/BNF.thy
   125     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   126   Renamed commands:
   127     datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   128     primrec_new ~> primrec
   129     wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   130   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   131 
   132 * Old datatype package:
   133   * Generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed "case_xxx"
   134     and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   135     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   136 
   137 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   138   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based datatype
   139   package.
   140   Renamed constants:
   141     Option.set ~> set_option
   142     Option.map ~> map_option
   143     option_rel ~> rel_option
   144   Renamed theorems:
   145     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   146     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   147     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   148     map.simps ~> list.map
   149     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   150     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   151     the.simps ~> option.sel
   152   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   153 
   154 * New theory:
   155     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   156 
   157 * Theory reorganizations:
   158   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   159 
   160 * Sledgehammer:
   161   - New option:
   162       smt_proofs
   163   - Renamed options:
   164       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   165       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   166     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   167 
   168 * Metis:
   169   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   170     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   171 
   172 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   173 
   174 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   175 
   176 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   177 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   178 
   179 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   180 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   181 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   182 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   183 
   184 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186 
   187 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   188 with the given constants.
   189 
   190 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   191 
   192 Fact consolidations:
   193     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   194     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   195     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   196     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   197     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   198     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   199     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   200     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   201     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   202     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   203     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   204     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   205     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   206     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   207     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   208     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   209     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   210     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   211     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   212     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   213     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   214     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   215     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   216     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   217     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   218     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   219     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   220     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   221     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   222     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   223     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   224     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   225     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   226     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   227     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   228     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   229     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   230     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   231     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   232     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   233 
   234 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   235 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   236 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   237 
   238 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   239 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   240 
   241 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   242 
   243 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   244 
   245 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   247 
   248 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   249 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   250 
   251 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   252 operations on records.
   253 
   254 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   256 
   257 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   258     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   260 
   261 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   262     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   263     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   265 
   266 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   267   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   268   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   269   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   270     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   271   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   272     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   273   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   274 INCOMPATBILITY.
   275 
   276 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   277     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   278     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   279     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   280     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   282 
   283 * Fact name consolidation:
   284     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   285     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   286     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   287     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   288     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   289 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   290 
   291 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   292 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   293 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   294 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   295 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   296 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   297 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   298 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   299 
   300 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   301 
   302 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   303 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   304 
   305 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   306 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   307 
   308 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   309 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   310 or the brute way with
   311 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   312 
   313 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   314 
   315 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   316 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   317 
   318 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   319 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   320 
   321 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   322 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   323 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   324 INCOMPATIBILITY
   325 
   326 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   327 
   328 * Nitpick:
   329   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   330     infinite values.
   331 
   332 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   333   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   334   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   335     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   336     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   337     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   338     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   339     intervals.
   340 
   341 
   342 *** ML ***
   343 
   344 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   345 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   346 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   347 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   348 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   349 of schematic variables.
   350 
   351 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   352 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   353 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   354 formal context.
   355 
   356 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   357 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   358 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   359 actually belongs to it).
   360 
   361 
   362 *** System ***
   363 
   364 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   365 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   366 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   367 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   368 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   369 
   370 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   371 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   372 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   373 
   374 
   375 
   376 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   377 -------------------------------------
   378 
   379 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   380 
   381 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   382 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   383 
   384 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   385 after edits surrounding the command location.
   386 
   387 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   388 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   389 e.g. out-of-memory).
   390 
   391 
   392 *** System ***
   393 
   394 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   395 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   396 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   397 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   398 
   399 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   400 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   401 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   402 
   403 
   404 
   405 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   406 -------------------------------------
   407 
   408 *** General ***
   409 
   410 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   411 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   412 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   413 
   414 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   415 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   416 
   417 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   418 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   419 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   420 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   421 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   422 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   423 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   424 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   425 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   426 syntax.
   427 
   428 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   429 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   430 
   431 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   432 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   433 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   434 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   435 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   436 
   437 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   439 
   440 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   441 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   442 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   443 
   444 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   445 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   446 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   447 
   448 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   449 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   450 
   451 
   452 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   453 
   454 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   455 Documentation panel.
   456 
   457 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   458 documentation.
   459 
   460 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   461 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   462 
   463 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   464 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   465 normal editing and checking process.
   466 
   467 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   468 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   469 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   470 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   471 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   472 
   473 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   474 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   475 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   476 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   477 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   478 
   479 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   480 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   481 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   482 
   483 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   484 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   485 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   486 to resolve conflict.
   487 
   488 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   489 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   490 
   491 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   492 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   493 such command executions while editing.
   494 
   495 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   496 document content.
   497 
   498 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   499 toplevel theorem statements.
   500 
   501 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   502 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   503 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   504 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   505 
   506 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   507 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   508 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   509 
   510 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   511 / Global Options / Appearance".
   512 
   513 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   514 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   515 
   516 
   517 *** Pure ***
   518 
   519 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   520 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   521 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   522 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   523 details.
   524 
   525 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   526 
   527 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   528 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   529 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   530 
   531 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   532 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   533 
   534 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   535 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   536 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   537 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   538 
   539 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   540 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   541 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   542 
   543 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   544 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   545 
   546 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   547 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   548 situations.
   549 
   550 
   551 *** HOL ***
   552 
   553 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   554 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   556 
   557 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   558 
   559 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   560 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   561 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   562 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   563 
   564   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   565 
   566 * Code generator:
   567   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   568     'code_instance'.
   569   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   570     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   571 
   572 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   573 examples.
   574 
   575 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   576 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   577 to distinguish both when desired.
   578 
   579 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   580 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   581 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   582 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   583 
   584 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   585 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   586 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   587 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   588 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   589 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   590 
   591 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   592 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   593 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   594 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   595 
   596 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   597 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   598 
   599 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   600 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   601 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   602 
   603 * Lifting:
   604   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   605     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   606       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   607       transfer rules
   608     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   609       correspondence relation can be generated
   610     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   611       parametricity
   612     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   613   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   614   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   615     copies
   616   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   617     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   618     anonymous context)
   619   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   620     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   621   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   622     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   623   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   624     INCOMPATIBILITY
   625 
   626 * Transfer:
   627   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   628     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   629   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   630   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   631     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   632   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   633 
   634 * Reification and reflection:
   635   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   636     "Reification".
   637   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   638   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   639 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   640 
   641 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   642   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   643     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   644     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   645   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   646     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   647   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   648     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   649     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   650     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   651     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   652     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   653     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   654     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   655   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   656     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   657   - Fact renames:
   658       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   659       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   661 
   662 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   663 
   664 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   665 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   666 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   668 
   669 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   670 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   671 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   672 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   673 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   674 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   675 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   676 lemmas.
   677 
   678 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   679 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   680 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   681 
   682 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   683 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   684 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   685 
   686 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   687 top and bottom elements.
   688 
   689 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   690 
   691 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   692 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   693 
   694  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   695    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   696    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   697 
   698  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   699    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   700    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   701 
   702    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   703    arbitrary filter.
   704 
   705  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   706    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   707    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   708    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   709    on a compact set.
   710 
   711  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   712    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   713    linear_continuum_topology).
   714 
   715  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   716    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   717    on all sequences converging to x.
   718 
   719  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   720    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   721    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   722    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   723    left or right.
   724 
   725  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   726 
   727      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   728 
   729  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   730    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   731 
   732  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   733    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   734    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   735    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   736    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   737    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   738 
   739  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   740 
   741    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   742 
   743    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   744      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   745 
   746    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   747 
   748    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   749      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   750 
   751    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   752 
   753    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   754 
   755  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   756 
   757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   758 
   759 * Nitpick:
   760   - Added option "spy"
   761   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   762 
   763 * Sledgehammer:
   764   - Renamed option:
   765       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   766     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   767   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   768   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   769   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   770 
   771 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   772 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   773 
   774 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   775   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   776   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   777     generated code.
   778   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   779   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   780   - Fact renames:
   781     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   782     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   783     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   784 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   785 
   786 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   787 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   788 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   789 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   790 
   791 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   792 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   793 
   794 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   795 
   796 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   797 
   798     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   799     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   800 
   801 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   802 
   803 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   804 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   805 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   806 
   807 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   808 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   809 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   810 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   811 
   812 * HOL-BNF:
   813   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   814     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   815     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   816     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   817   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   818     coinduct).
   819   - Renamed keywords:
   820     data ~> datatype_new
   821     codata ~> codatatype
   822     bnf_def ~> bnf
   823   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   824     discs ~> disc
   825     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   826     map_id' ~> map_id
   827     sels ~> sel
   828     set_map' ~> set_map
   829     sets ~> set
   830 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   831 
   832 
   833 *** ML ***
   834 
   835 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   836 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   837 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   838 Examples.thy in particular.
   839 
   840 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   841 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   842 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   843 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   844 
   845 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   846 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   847 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   848 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   850 
   851 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   852 
   853     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   854     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   855 
   856 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   857 
   858 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   859 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   860 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   861 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   862 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   863 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   864 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   865 
   866 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   867 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   868 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   869 clasets separately from the context.
   870 
   871 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   872 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   873 
   874 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   875 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   876 
   877 
   878 *** System ***
   879 
   880 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   881 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   882 
   883 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   884 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   885 
   886 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   887 settings variable.
   888 
   889 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   890 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   891 always pdf.
   892 
   893 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   894 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   895 
   896 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   897 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   898 
   899 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   900 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   901 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   902 
   903 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   904 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   905 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   906 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   907 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   908 for HTML presentation of theories.
   909 
   910 
   911 
   912 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   913 -----------------------------------
   914 
   915 *** General ***
   916 
   917 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   918 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   919 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   920 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   921 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   922 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   923 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   924 
   925 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   926 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   927 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   928 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   929 
   930 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   931 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   932 
   933 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   934 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   935 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   936 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   937 dependencies properly.
   938 
   939 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   940 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   941 
   942 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   943 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   944 
   945 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   946 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   947 and "class ... context ...".
   948 
   949 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   950 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   951 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   952 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   953 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   954 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   955 
   956 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   957 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   958 
   959 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   960 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   961 
   962 
   963 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   964 
   965 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   966 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   967 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   968 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   969 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   970 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   971 
   972 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   973 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   974 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   975 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   976 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   977 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   978 
   979 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   980 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   981 browser on demand.
   982 
   983 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   984 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   985 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   986 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   987 
   988 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   989 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   990 
   991 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   992 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   993 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   994 potentially infinite message streams.
   995 
   996 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   997 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   998 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   999 schemes.
  1000 
  1001 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1002 symbols.
  1003 
  1004 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1005 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1006 
  1007 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1008 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1009 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1010 
  1011 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1012 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1013 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1014 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1015 
  1016 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1017 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1018 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1019 
  1020 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1021 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1022 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1023 Isabelle distribution.
  1024 
  1025 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1026 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1027 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1028 
  1029 
  1030 *** Pure ***
  1031 
  1032 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1033 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1034 
  1035 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1036 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1037 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1038 
  1039 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1040 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1041 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1042 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1043 with some care where this is really required.
  1044 
  1045 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1046 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1047 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1048 
  1049   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1050 
  1051 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1052 a Hasse diagram.
  1053 
  1054 
  1055 *** HOL ***
  1056 
  1057 * Sledgehammer:
  1058 
  1059   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1060     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1061   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1062   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1063   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1064   - Renamed options:
  1065       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1066       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1067       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1068       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1069 
  1070 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1071 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1072 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1073 
  1074 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1076 
  1077 * Lifting:
  1078   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1079   - quot_del attribute
  1080   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1081 
  1082 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1083 expressions.
  1084 
  1085 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1086 pointfree expressions.
  1087 
  1088 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1089 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1090 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1091 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1093 
  1094 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1095 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1096 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1097 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1098 accordingly.
  1099 
  1100 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1101 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1102 
  1103 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1104 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1105 
  1106 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1107 
  1108 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1109 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1110 
  1111 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1112 
  1113 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1114 
  1115   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1116   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1117 
  1118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1119 
  1120 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1121 
  1122   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1123   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1124 
  1125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1126 
  1127 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1128 
  1129   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1130     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1131     output f x converges to G.
  1132 
  1133   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1134     infinity (at_bot).
  1135 
  1136   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1137     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1138 
  1139   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1140     at_top".
  1141 
  1142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1143 
  1144 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1145 lattice type classes.
  1146 
  1147 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1148 
  1149     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1150     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1151 
  1152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1153 
  1154 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1155 changes as follows.
  1156 
  1157   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1158 
  1159       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1160       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1161 
  1162   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1163     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1164     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1165     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1166 
  1167   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1168     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1169     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1170 
  1171   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1172     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1173     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1174     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1175 
  1176   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1177     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1178 
  1179       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1180       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1181       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1182       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1183       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1184       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1185       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1186       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1187       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1188       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1189       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1190       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1191       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1192       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1193       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1194       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1195 
  1196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1197 
  1198 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1199 
  1200 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1201 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1202 
  1203 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1204 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1205 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1206 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1207 
  1208   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1209   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1210   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1211   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1212   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1213   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1214   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1215   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1216   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1217   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1218 
  1219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1220 
  1221 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1222 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1223 Data").
  1224 
  1225 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1226 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1227 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1228 code.
  1229 
  1230 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1231 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1232 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1234 
  1235 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1236 
  1237 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1238 
  1239 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1240 
  1241   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1242   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1243 
  1244 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1245 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1246 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1247 
  1248   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1249 
  1250     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1251     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1252     cart_base i  removed
  1253     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1254 
  1255   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1256 
  1257   Renamed lemmas:
  1258 
  1259     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1260     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1261     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1262     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1263     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1264     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1265     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1266     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1267     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1268     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1269 
  1270 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1271 
  1272 * HOL/Probability:
  1273 
  1274   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1275 
  1276   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1277     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1278     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1279 
  1280   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1281     projective family).
  1282 
  1283 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1284 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1285 
  1286 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1287 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1288 datatypes.
  1289 
  1290 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1291 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1292 
  1293 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1294 trees for the code generator.
  1295 
  1296 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1297 Lifting/Transfer.
  1298 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1299 
  1300 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1302 
  1303 
  1304 *** Document preparation ***
  1305 
  1306 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1307 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1308 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1309 
  1310 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1311 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1312 
  1313 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1314 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1315 document/root.tex.
  1316 
  1317 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1318 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 
  1321 *** ML ***
  1322 
  1323 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1324 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1325 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1326 
  1327 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1328 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1329 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1330 
  1331 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1332 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1333 necessarily printing visible text.
  1334 
  1335 
  1336 *** System ***
  1337 
  1338 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1339 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1340 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1341 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1342 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1343 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1344 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1345 
  1346 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1347 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1348 
  1349   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1350 
  1351 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1352 
  1353 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1354 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1355 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1356 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1357 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1358 
  1359 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1360 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1361 
  1362 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1363 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1364 
  1365 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1366 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1367 
  1368 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1369 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1370 version of Isabelle.
  1371 
  1372 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1373 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1374 
  1375 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1376 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1377 for home-made settings.
  1378 
  1379 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1380 
  1381 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1382 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1383 configuration.
  1384 
  1385 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1386 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1387 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1388 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1389 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1390 
  1391 
  1392 
  1393 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1394 ------------------------------
  1395 
  1396 *** General ***
  1397 
  1398 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1399 
  1400   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1401     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1402   - markup for bound variables
  1403   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1404   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1405   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1406     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1407 
  1408 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1409 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1410 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1411 
  1412 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1413 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1414 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1415 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1416 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1417 
  1418   context
  1419     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1420     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1421   begin
  1422 
  1423   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1424 
  1425   end
  1426 
  1427   thm my_trans
  1428 
  1429 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1430 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1431 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1432 
  1433 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1434 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1435 
  1436 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1437 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1438 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1439 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1440 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1441 
  1442 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1443 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1444 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1445 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1446 indices of schematic variables.
  1447 
  1448 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1449 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1450 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1451 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1452 etc. was exploited.
  1453 
  1454 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1455 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1456 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1457 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1458 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1459 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1460 
  1461 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1462 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1463 manual.
  1464 
  1465 
  1466 *** Pure ***
  1467 
  1468 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1469 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1470 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1471 
  1472 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1473 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1474 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1475 undocumented feature.)
  1476 
  1477 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1478 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1479 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1480 
  1481   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1482 
  1483   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1484     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1485 
  1486 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1487 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1488 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1489 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1490 
  1491 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1492 
  1493     num ~> num_token
  1494     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1495     xstr ~> str_token
  1496 
  1497 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1498 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1499 position information via constraints).
  1500 
  1501 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1502 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1503 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1504 
  1505 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1506 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1507 
  1508 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1509 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1510 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511 
  1512 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1513 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1514 
  1515 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1516 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1517 
  1518   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1519 
  1520 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1521 
  1522 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1523 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1524 
  1525 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1526 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1527 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1528 
  1529 
  1530 *** HOL ***
  1531 
  1532 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1533 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1534 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1535 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1536 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1537 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1538 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1539 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1540 possible.
  1541 
  1542 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1543 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1544 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1545 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1546 
  1547 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1548 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1549 
  1550 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1551 
  1552 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1553 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1554 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1555 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1556 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1557 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1558 
  1559   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1560     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1561 
  1562   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1563     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1564     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1565 
  1566   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1567     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1568 
  1569   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1570     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1571     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1572 
  1573   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1574     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1575 
  1576 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1577 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1578 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1579 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1580 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1581 
  1582   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1583     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1584     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1585     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1586     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1587 
  1588     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1589     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1590 
  1591   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1592     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1593     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1594     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1595     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1596     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1597     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1598     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1599 
  1600   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1601     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1602     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1603     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1604 
  1605   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1606     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1607     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1608     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1609 
  1610   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1611     from type nat to type int.
  1612 
  1613 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1614 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1615 
  1616   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1617     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1618     type.  Example syntax:
  1619 
  1620     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1621       is List.insert
  1622 
  1623     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1624     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1625     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1626     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1627     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1628     by the package.
  1629 
  1630   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1631     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1632     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1633     code generation for each constant.
  1634 
  1635   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1636     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1637     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1638     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1639     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1640 
  1641   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1642     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1643     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1644 
  1645 * Quotient package:
  1646 
  1647   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1648     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1649 
  1650   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1651     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1652 
  1653   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1654     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1655     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656 
  1657   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1658     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1659 
  1660 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1661 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1662 
  1663 * Quickcheck:
  1664 
  1665   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1666     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1667     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1668     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1669     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1670 
  1671     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1672     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1673     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1674 
  1675     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1676     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1677 
  1678     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1679     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1680     show genuine counterexamples.
  1681 
  1682   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1683     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1684 
  1685     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1686     constructors of that type.
  1687 
  1688   - Support for multisets.
  1689 
  1690   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1691 
  1692   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1693     conjectures in a locale context.
  1694 
  1695 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1696 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1697 
  1698 * Sledgehammer:
  1699   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1700     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1701   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1702   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1703     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1704   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1705   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1706   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1707   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1708 
  1709 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1710 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1711 
  1712 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1713 
  1714 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1715 
  1716 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1717 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1718 
  1719   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1720 
  1721 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1722 a list and a nat.
  1723 
  1724 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1725 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1726 
  1727 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1728 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1729 default.
  1730 
  1731 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1732 
  1733   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1734 
  1735 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1736 
  1737 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1738 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1739 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1740 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1741 one_case.
  1742 
  1743 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1744 the result of the fact expression.
  1745 
  1746 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1747 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1748 of some relation theorems:
  1749 
  1750   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1751   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1752   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1753   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1754   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1755   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1756 
  1757 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1758 
  1759 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1760 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1761 
  1762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1763 
  1764 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1765 to match the constant's name:
  1766 
  1767   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1768   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1769   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1770   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1771   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1772   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1773   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1774   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1775   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1776   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1777   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1778   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1779   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1780   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1781   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1782   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1783   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1784   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1785   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1786   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1787   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1788   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1789   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1790   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1791 
  1792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1793 
  1794 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1795 and corresponding theorem names:
  1796 
  1797   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1798 
  1799   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1800 
  1801   - Renamed theorems:
  1802 
  1803     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1804     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1805     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1806     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1807     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1808     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1809     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1810     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1811     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1812     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1813     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1814     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1815     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1816     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1817     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1818     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1819     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1820     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1821     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1822     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1823     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1824     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1825     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1826 
  1827     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1828 
  1829     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1830 
  1831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1832 
  1833 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1834 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1835 
  1836   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1837   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1838   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1839   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1840   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1841   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1842   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1843   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1844   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1845   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1846   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1847   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1848   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1849   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1850   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1851   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1852   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1853   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1854   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1855   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1856   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1857 
  1858 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1859 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1860 
  1861 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1862 
  1863 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1864 
  1865   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1866   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1867   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1868   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1869   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1870   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1871   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1872   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1873   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1874   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1875   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1876   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1877   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1878   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1879   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1880   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1881   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1882   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1883 
  1884 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1885 
  1886 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1887 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1888 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1889 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1890 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1891 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1892 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1893 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1894 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1895 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1896 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1897 
  1898 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1899 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1900 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1901 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1902 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1903 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1904 
  1905 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1906 through option types.
  1907 
  1908 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1909 relations.
  1910 
  1911 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1912 
  1913 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1914 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1915 
  1916   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1917   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1918   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1919   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1920   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1921   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1922   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1923   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1924   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1925   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1926   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1927   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1928   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1929   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1930   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1931   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1932   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1933   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1934   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1935   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1936   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1937   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1938   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1939   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1940   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1941   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1942   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1943   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1944   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1945   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1946   zless_le ~> less_le
  1947   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1948   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1949   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1950 
  1951 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1952 
  1953   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1954 
  1955 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1956 
  1957 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1958 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1959 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1960 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1962 
  1963 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1964 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1965 
  1966 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1967 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1968 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1969 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1970 follows:
  1971 
  1972   Operations:
  1973   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1974   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1975   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1976   del -> rbt_del
  1977   delete -> rbt_delete
  1978   ins -> rbt_ins
  1979   insert -> rbt_insert
  1980   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1981   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1982   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1983   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1984   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1985   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1986   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1987   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1988   union -> rbt_union
  1989   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1990   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1991 
  1992   Lemmas:
  1993   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1994   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1995   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1996   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1997   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1998   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1999   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2000   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2001   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2002   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2003   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2004   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2005   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2006   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2007   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2008   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2009   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2010   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2011   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2012   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2013   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2014   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2015   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2016   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2017   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2018   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2019   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2020   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2021   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2022   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2023   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2024   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2025   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2026   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2027   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2028   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2029   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2030   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2031   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2032   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2033   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2034   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2035   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2036   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2037   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2038   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2039   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2040   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2041   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2042   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2043   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2044   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2045   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2046   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2047   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2048   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2049   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2050   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2051   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2052   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2053   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2054   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2055   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2056   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2057   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2058   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2059   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2060   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2061   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2062   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2063   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2064   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2065   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2066   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2067   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2068   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2069   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2070   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2071   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2072   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2073   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2074   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2075   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2076 
  2077 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2078 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2079 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2080 
  2081   Changed Operations:
  2082   float_abs -> abs
  2083   float_nprt -> nprt
  2084   float_pprt -> pprt
  2085   pow2 -> use powr
  2086   round_down -> float_round_down
  2087   round_up -> float_round_up
  2088   scale -> exponent
  2089 
  2090   Removed Operations:
  2091   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2092 
  2093   Renamed Lemmas:
  2094   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2095   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2096   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2097   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2098   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2099   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2100   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2101   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2102   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2103   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2104   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2105   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2106   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2107   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2108   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2109   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2110   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2111   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2112   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2113   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2114   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2115   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2116   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2117   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2118   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2119   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2120   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2121   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2122   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2123   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2124   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2125   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2126   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2127   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2128   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2129   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2130 
  2131   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2132   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2133   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2134   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2135   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2136   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2137   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2138   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2139   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2140   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2141 
  2142 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2143 association lists with distinct keys.
  2144 
  2145 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2146 annotated commands.
  2147 
  2148 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2149 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2150 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2151 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2152 
  2153 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2154 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2155 instead.
  2156 
  2157   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2158   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2159   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2160   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2161   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2162   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2163   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2164   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2165   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2166   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2167   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2168   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2169   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2170   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2171   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2172   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2173   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2174   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2175   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2176   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2177   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2178   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2179   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2180   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2181   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2182   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2183   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2184   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2185   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2186   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2187   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2188   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2189   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2190   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2191   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2192   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2193   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2194   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2195   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2196   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2197   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2198 
  2199 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2200 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2201 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2202 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2203 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2204 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2205 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2206 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2207 
  2208 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2209 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2210 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2211 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2212 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2213 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2214 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2215 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2216 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2217 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2218 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2219 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2220 
  2221   Renamed constants:
  2222   measure -> emeasure
  2223   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2224   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2225   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2226   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2227 
  2228   Removed locales:
  2229   completeable_measure_space
  2230   finite_measure_space
  2231   finite_prob_space
  2232   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2233   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2234   finite_sigma_algebra
  2235   measure_space
  2236   pair_finite_prob_space
  2237   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2238   pair_finite_space
  2239   pair_sigma_algebra
  2240   product_sigma_algebra
  2241 
  2242   Removed constants:
  2243   conditional_space
  2244   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2245   image_space
  2246   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2247   pair_measure_generator
  2248   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2249   subvimage
  2250 
  2251   Replacement theorems:
  2252   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2253   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2254   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2255   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2256   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2257   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2258   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2259   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2260   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2261   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2262   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2263   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2264   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2265   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2266   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2267   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2268   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2269   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2270   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2271   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2272   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2273   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2274   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2275   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2276   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2277   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2278   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2279   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2280   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2281   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2282   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2283   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2284   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2285   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2286   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2287   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2288   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2289   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2290   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2291   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2292   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2293   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2294   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2295   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2296   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2297   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2298   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2299   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2300   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2301   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2302   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2303   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2304   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2305   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2306   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2307   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2308   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2309   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2310   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2311   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2312   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2313   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2314   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2315   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2316   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2317   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2318   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2319   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2320   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2321   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2322   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2323   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2324   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2325   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2326   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2327   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2328   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2329   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2330   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2331   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2332   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2333   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2334   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2335   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2336   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2337   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2338   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2339   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2340   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2341   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2342   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2343   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2344   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2345   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2346   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2347   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2348   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2349   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2350   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2351   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2352   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2353   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2354   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2355   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2356   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2357   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2358   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2359   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2360   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2361   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2362   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2363   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2364   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2365   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2366   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2367   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2368   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2369   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2370   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2371   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2372   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2373   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2374   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2375   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2376   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2377   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2378   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2379   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2380 
  2381 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2382 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2383 
  2384 
  2385 *** FOL ***
  2386 
  2387 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2388 
  2389 
  2390 *** ZF ***
  2391 
  2392 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2393 analysis.
  2394 
  2395 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2396 
  2397 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2398 
  2399 
  2400 *** ML ***
  2401 
  2402 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2403 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2404 
  2405 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2406 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2407 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2408 
  2409 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2410 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2411 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2412 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2413 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2414 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2415 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2416 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2417 
  2418 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2419 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2420 
  2421 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2422 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2423 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2424 
  2425 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2426 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2427 
  2428 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2429 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2430 context as well.
  2431 
  2432 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2433 
  2434   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2435   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2436   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2437   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2438   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2439   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2440   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2441   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2442   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2443   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2444   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2445   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2446 
  2447 
  2448 *** System ***
  2449 
  2450 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2451 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2452 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2453 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2454 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2455 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2456 the generic user home was intended.
  2457 
  2458 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2459 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2460 
  2461 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2462 (not just JRE).
  2463 
  2464 
  2465 
  2466 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2467 ------------------------------------
  2468 
  2469 *** General ***
  2470 
  2471 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2472 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2473 
  2474   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2475     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2476     files for checking).
  2477 
  2478   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2479     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2480     positions.
  2481 
  2482   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2483     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2484     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2485 
  2486   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2487     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2488     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2489 
  2490   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2491     cores.
  2492 
  2493   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2494     versions (garbage collection).
  2495 
  2496 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2497 including some remaining limitations.
  2498 
  2499 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2500 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2501 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2502 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2503 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2505 
  2506 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2507 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2508 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2509 
  2510 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2511 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2512 usedir option -Q.
  2513 
  2514 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2515 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2516 
  2517   long_names   ~> names_long
  2518   short_names  ~> names_short
  2519   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2520 
  2521 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2522 
  2523   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2524 
  2525 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2526 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2527 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2528 
  2529 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2530 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2531 
  2532 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2533   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2534   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2535   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2536     "Classical Reasoner".
  2537 
  2538 
  2539 *** HOL ***
  2540 
  2541 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2542 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2543 
  2544 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2545 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2546 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2547 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2548 class complete_linorder.
  2549 
  2550 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2551 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2552 
  2553 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2554 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2555 
  2556   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2557   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2558   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2559   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2560   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2561   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2562   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2563   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2564   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2565   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2566   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2567 
  2568 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2569 
  2570   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2571   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2572   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2573   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2574   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2575   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2576   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2577   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2578   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2579   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2580   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2581   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2582   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2583   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2584   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2585   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2586 
  2587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2588 
  2589 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2591 
  2592 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2593 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2594 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2595 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2596 
  2597 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2598 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2599 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2600 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2601 
  2602 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2603 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2604 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2605 
  2606 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2607 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2608 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2609 
  2610 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2611 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2612 
  2613 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2614 
  2615     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2616     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2617 
  2618 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2619 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2620 
  2621 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2622 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2623 
  2624 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2625 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2626 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2627 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2628 
  2629   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2630   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2631   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2632   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2633   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2634   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2635   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2636 
  2637 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2638 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2639 
  2640   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2641   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2642   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2643   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2644   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2645   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2646   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2647   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2648   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2649   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2650   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2651   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2652   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2653   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2654   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2655   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2656   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2657   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2658   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2659   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2660   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2661   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2662   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2663   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2664   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2665   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2666   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2667   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2668   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2669   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2670   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2671   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2672   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2673   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2674   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2675   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2676   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2677   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2678   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2679   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2680   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2681   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2682   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2683   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2684   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2685   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2686   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2687   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2688   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2689   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2690   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2691   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2692   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2693   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2694   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2695   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2696   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2697   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2698   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2699   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2700   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2701   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2702   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2703   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2704   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2705   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2706   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2707   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2708   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2709   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2710   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2711   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2712   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2713   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2714   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2715   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2716   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2717   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2718   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2719   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2720   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2721   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2722 
  2723 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2724 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2725 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2726 
  2727 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2728 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2729 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2730 
  2731 * Code generation:
  2732 
  2733   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2734     characters in the target language.
  2735 
  2736   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2737     instead.
  2738 
  2739   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2740 
  2741   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2742     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2743 
  2744       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2745 
  2746 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747 
  2748 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2749 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2750 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2751 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2752 syntax.
  2753 
  2754 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2755 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2756 
  2757 * Nitpick:
  2758   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2759   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2760   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2761     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2762 
  2763 * Sledgehammer:
  2764   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2765   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2766     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2767   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2768     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2769   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2770     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2771   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2772     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2773   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2774     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2775 
  2776 * Metis:
  2777   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2778   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2779     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2780 
  2781 * Command 'try':
  2782   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2783     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2784   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2785     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2786 
  2787 * Quickcheck:
  2788   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2789     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2790   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2791     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2792   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2793     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2794     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2795     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2796   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2797     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2798 
  2799 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2800 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2801 
  2802 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2803 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2804 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2805 
  2806 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2807 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2809 
  2810 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2811 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2812 
  2813 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2814 arithmetic.
  2815 
  2816 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2817 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2818 and lattice type classes.
  2819 
  2820 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2821 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2822 
  2823 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2824 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2825 
  2826 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2827 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2828 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2829 
  2830   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2831   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2832   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2833   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2834 
  2835 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2836 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2837 constants:
  2838 
  2839   type inat   ~> type enat
  2840   Fin         ~> enat
  2841   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2842   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2843   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2844 
  2845 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2846 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2847 
  2848 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2849 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2850 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2851 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2852 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2853 
  2854 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2855 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2856 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2857 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2858 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2859 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2860 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2861 
  2862   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2863   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2864   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2865   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2866 
  2867 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2868 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2869 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2870 
  2871   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2872   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2873   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2874   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2875   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2876   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2877   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2878   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2879   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2880   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2881   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2882   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2883   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2884   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2885   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2886   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2887   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2888   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2889   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2890   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2891   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2892   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2893   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2894   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2895   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2896   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2897   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2898   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2899   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2900   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2901   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2902   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2903   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2904   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2905   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2906   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2907   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2908   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2909   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2910   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2911   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2912   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2913   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2914   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2915   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2916   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2917   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2918   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2919   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2920   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2921   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2922 
  2923 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2924   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2925   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2926   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2927   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2928     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2929 
  2930 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2931 
  2932   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2933   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2934   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2935   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2936   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2937   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2938   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2939   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2940   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2941   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2942   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2943   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2944   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2945   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2946   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2947   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2948   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2949   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2950   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2951   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2952   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2953   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2954   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2955   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2956   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2957 
  2958 
  2959 *** Document preparation ***
  2960 
  2961 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2962 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2963 same.
  2964 
  2965 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2966 result.
  2967 
  2968 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2969 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2970 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2971 
  2972 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2973 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2974 
  2975 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2976 like this:
  2977 
  2978   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2979   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2980 
  2981 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2982 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2983 layouts.
  2984 
  2985 
  2986 *** ML ***
  2987 
  2988 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2989 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2990 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2991 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2992 under external program control.
  2993 
  2994 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2995 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2996 
  2997 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2998 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2999 (better known as Proof General).
  3000 
  3001 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3002 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3003 
  3004 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3005 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3006 
  3007 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3008 (including quotes etc.).
  3009 
  3010 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3011 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3012 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3013 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3014 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3015 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3016 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3017 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3018 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3019 
  3020 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3021 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3022 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3023 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3024 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3025 
  3026 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3027 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3028 
  3029 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3030 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3031 
  3032 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3033 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3034 
  3035 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3036 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3037 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3038 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3039 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3040 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3041 proper Proof.context.
  3042 
  3043 
  3044 *** System ***
  3045 
  3046 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3047 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3048 
  3049 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3050 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3051 
  3052 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3053 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3054 
  3055   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3056   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3057   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3058   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3059   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3060 
  3061 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3062 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3063 
  3064 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3065 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3066 example:
  3067 
  3068   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3069 
  3070 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3071 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3072 
  3073 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3074 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3075 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3076 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3077 
  3078 
  3079 
  3080 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3081 ----------------------------------
  3082 
  3083 *** General ***
  3084 
  3085 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3086 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3087 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3088 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3089 like this:
  3090 
  3091   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3092 
  3093 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3094 
  3095 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3096 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3097 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3098 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3099 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3100 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3101 
  3102 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3103 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3104 the following package declarations:
  3105 
  3106   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3107   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3108 
  3109 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3110 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3111 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3112 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3113 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3114 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3115 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3116 
  3117 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3118 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3119 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3120 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3121 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3122 
  3123 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3124 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3125 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3126 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3127 
  3128 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3129 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3130 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3131 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3132 
  3133   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3134 
  3135   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3136   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3137   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3138   show_types                    show_types
  3139   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3140   show_consts                   show_consts
  3141   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3142 
  3143   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3144   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3145   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3146 
  3147   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3148   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3149 
  3150   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3151 
  3152   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3153   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3154   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3155   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3156   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3157 
  3158 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3159 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3160 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3161 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3162 
  3163 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3167   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3168 
  3169 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3170 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3171 float_token.
  3172 
  3173 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3174 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3176 
  3177 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3178 DejaVu Sans.
  3179 
  3180 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3181 
  3182 
  3183 *** Pure ***
  3184 
  3185 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3186 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3187 time.
  3188 
  3189 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3190 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3191 
  3192 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3193 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3194 
  3195 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3196 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3197 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3198 command already provided this functionality.
  3199 
  3200 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3201 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3202 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3203 without interpretations.
  3204 
  3205 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3206 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3207 
  3208 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3209 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3210 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3211 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3212 
  3213 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3214 'definition' instead.
  3215 
  3216 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3217 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3218 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3219 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3220 
  3221 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3222 constructors.
  3223 
  3224 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3225 the local file system.
  3226 
  3227 
  3228 *** HOL ***
  3229 
  3230 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3231 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3232 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3233 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3234 
  3235   declare [[coercion f]]
  3236 
  3237 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3238 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3239 
  3240   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3241 
  3242 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3243 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3244 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3245 other theories like this:
  3246 
  3247   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3248 
  3249 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3250 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3251 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3252 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3253 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3254 for examples.
  3255 
  3256 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3257 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258 
  3259 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3260 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3261 
  3262 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3263 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3264 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3265 
  3266 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3267 functorial structure of types.
  3268 
  3269 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3270 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3271 
  3272 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3273 languages.
  3274 
  3275 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3276 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3277 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3278 
  3279 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3280 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3281 
  3282 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3283 combinators any longer.
  3284 
  3285 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3286 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3287 
  3288 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3289 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3290 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3291 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3292 
  3293   record 'a foo = ...
  3294   ...
  3295   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3296 
  3297 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3298 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3299 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3300 
  3301 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3302 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3303 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3304 
  3305 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3306 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3307 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3308 
  3309 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3310 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3311 
  3312 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3313 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3314 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3315 independently.
  3316 
  3317 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3318 counter example search.
  3319 
  3320 * Sledgehammer:
  3321   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3322     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3323     sledgehammer").
  3324   - Renamed commands:
  3325     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3326     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3327     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3328     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3329   - Renamed options:
  3330     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3331     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3332     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3333     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3334     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3335 
  3336 * Nitpick:
  3337   - Renamed options:
  3338     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3339     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3340     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3341   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3342   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3343   - Added "whack" option.
  3344   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3345   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3346   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3347   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3348     higher cardinalities.
  3349   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3350 
  3351 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3352 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3353 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3354 
  3355     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3356 
  3357 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3358 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3359 
  3360 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3361 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3362 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3363 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3364 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3365 "smt_solver".
  3366 
  3367 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3368 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3369 
  3370 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3371 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3372 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3373 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3374 
  3375 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3376   - Renamed:
  3377     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3378     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3379     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3380   - Added:
  3381     smt_verbose
  3382     smt_random_seed
  3383     smt_datatypes
  3384     smt_infer_triggers
  3385     smt_monomorph_limit
  3386     cvc3_options
  3387     remote_cvc3_options
  3388     remote_z3_options
  3389     yices_options
  3390 
  3391 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3392 header.
  3393 
  3394 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3395 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3396 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3397 
  3398   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3399 
  3400 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3403 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404 
  3405 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3406 
  3407 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3408 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3409 
  3410 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3411 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3412 
  3413 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3414 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3415 
  3416 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3417 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3418 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419 
  3420 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3421 
  3422 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3423 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3424 
  3425 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3426 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3427 
  3428 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3429 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3430 for congruent(2)).
  3431 
  3432 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3433 
  3434   types
  3435     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3436     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3437 
  3438   constants
  3439     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3440     True ~> HOL.True
  3441     False ~> HOL.False
  3442     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3443     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3444     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3445     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3446     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3447     The ~> HOL.The
  3448     All ~> HOL.All
  3449     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3450     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3451     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3452     If ~> HOL.If
  3453     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3454     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3455     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3456     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3457     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3458     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3459     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3460     op : ~> Set.member
  3461     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3462 
  3463 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3464 
  3465 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3466 
  3467     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3468     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3469     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3470     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3471     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3472     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3473     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3474     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3475 
  3476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3477 
  3478 * More stylized fact names:
  3479 
  3480   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3481   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3482   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3483   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3484 
  3485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3486 
  3487 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3488 
  3489   constants
  3490     null ~> List.null
  3491 
  3492   facts
  3493     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3494     null_empty ~> null_def
  3495 
  3496 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3497 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3498 generation.
  3499 
  3500 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3501 Haskell code.
  3502 
  3503 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3504 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3505 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3506 
  3507 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3508 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3509 
  3510 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3511 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3512 
  3513 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3514 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3515 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3516 
  3517 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3518 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3521 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3522 
  3523 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3524 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3525 referred to by its qualified name.
  3526 
  3527   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3528   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3529   product ~>  Enum.product
  3530 
  3531 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3532 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3534 
  3535 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3536 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3537 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3539 
  3540 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3541 sort_key.
  3542 
  3543 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3544 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3547 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3548 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3549 
  3550   types
  3551     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3552               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3553               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3554         (depends on your needs)
  3555 
  3556   constants
  3557      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3558      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3559      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3560 
  3561 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3562 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3563 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3564 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3565 
  3566 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3567 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3568 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3569 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3570 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3571 
  3572 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3574 
  3575 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3576 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3577 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3578 
  3579 
  3580 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3581 
  3582 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3583 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3584 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3585 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3586 compatibility.
  3587 
  3588 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3589 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3590 
  3591 
  3592 *** HOLCF ***
  3593 
  3594 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3595 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3596 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3598 
  3599 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3600 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3601 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3602 
  3603   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3604   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3605   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3606 
  3607 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3608 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3609 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3610 
  3611 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3612 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3613 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3614 domain definition now works:
  3615 
  3616   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3617 
  3618 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3619 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3620 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3621 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3622 
  3623   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3624     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3625 
  3626   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3627 
  3628 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3629 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3630 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3631 
  3632 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3633 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3634 
  3635 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3636 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3637 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3638 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3639 
  3640 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3641 
  3642 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3645 
  3646 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3648 
  3649 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3650 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3651 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3652 
  3653 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3654 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3655 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3656 
  3657 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3658 still supported as an input translation.
  3659 
  3660 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3661 
  3662   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3663   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3664   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3665   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3666   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3667   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3668   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3669 
  3670 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3671 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3672 
  3673   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3674   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3675   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3676   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3677   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3678   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3679 
  3680 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3681 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3682 
  3683 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3684 
  3685   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3686   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3687   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3688   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3689 
  3690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3691 
  3692 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3693 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3696 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3697 
  3698   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3699   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3700   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3701   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3702   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3703   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3704   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3705   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3706   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3707   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3708   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3709   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3710   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3711   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3712   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3713   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3714   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3715   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3716   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3717   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3718 
  3719 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3720 
  3721   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3722   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3723   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3724   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3725   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3726   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3727   box_less             ~> box_below
  3728   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3729   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3730   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3731   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3732   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3733   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3734   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3735   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3736   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3737   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3738   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3739   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3740   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3741   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3742   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3743   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3744   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3745   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3746   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3747   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3748   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3749   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3750   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3751   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3752   up_less              ~> up_below
  3753   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3754   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3755   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3756   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3757   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3758   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3759   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3760   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3761   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3762   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3763   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3764   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3765   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3766 
  3767 
  3768 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3769 
  3770 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3771 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3772 
  3773 
  3774 *** ML ***
  3775 
  3776 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3777 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3778 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3779 
  3780 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3781 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3782 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3783 
  3784 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3785 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3786 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3787 
  3788 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3789 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3790 
  3791 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3792 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3793 
  3794 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3795 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3796 
  3797 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3798 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3799 
  3800 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3801 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3802 almost all situations.
  3803 
  3804 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3805 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3806 Isabelle/ML.
  3807 
  3808 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3809 meaning.
  3810 
  3811 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3812 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3813 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3814 
  3815 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3816 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3817 
  3818 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3819 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3820 
  3821 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3822 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3823 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3824 
  3825 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3826 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3827 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3828 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3829 configuration options.
  3830 
  3831 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3832 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3833 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3834 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3835 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3836 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3837 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3838 
  3839 
  3840 
  3841 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3842 ---------------------------------
  3843 
  3844 *** General ***
  3845 
  3846 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3847 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3848 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3849 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3850 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3851 their full internal name.
  3852 
  3853 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3854 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3855 Some hints on upgrading:
  3856 
  3857   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3858     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3859     which are independent of this issue.
  3860 
  3861   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3862     provides the following special forms:
  3863 
  3864       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3865       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3866       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3867 
  3868     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3869     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3870     extra variables".
  3871 
  3872     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3873     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3874     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3875     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3876     "logic".
  3877 
  3878   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3879     antiquotations:
  3880 
  3881       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3882       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3883       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3884       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3885 
  3886   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3887     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3888     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3889     antiquotations.
  3890 
  3891 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3892 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3893 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3894 diagnose syntax problems.
  3895 
  3896 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3897 
  3898 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3899 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3900 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3901 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3902 
  3903 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3904 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3905 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3906 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3907 
  3908 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3909 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3910 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3911 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3912 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3913 
  3914 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3915 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3916 
  3917 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3918 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3919 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3920 
  3921   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3922 
  3923 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3924 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3925 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3926 
  3927 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3928 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3930 
  3931 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3932 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3933 
  3934 
  3935 *** Pure ***
  3936 
  3937 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3938 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3939 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3940 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3941 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3942 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3943 inspect proof terms.
  3944 
  3945 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3946 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3947 are added internally.  For example:
  3948 
  3949   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3950 
  3951 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3952 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3953 
  3954 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955 
  3956 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3957 'class' instead.
  3958 
  3959 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3960 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3962 
  3963 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3964 invariants.
  3965 
  3966 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3967 user space functionality any longer.
  3968 
  3969 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3970 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3971 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3972 
  3973 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3974 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3975 
  3976 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3977 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3978 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3979 
  3980 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3981 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3982 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3983 
  3984 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3985 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 
  3988 *** HOL ***
  3989 
  3990 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3991 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3992 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3993 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3994 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3995 
  3996 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3997 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3998 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3999 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4000 
  4001   fun
  4002     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4003   where
  4004     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4005 
  4006   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4007     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4008 
  4009   quotient_definition
  4010     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4011 
  4012 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4013 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4014 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4015 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4016 
  4017 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4018 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4019 
  4020 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4021 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4022 
  4023 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4025 
  4026 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4027 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4028 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4029 
  4030 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4031 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032 
  4033 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4034 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035 
  4036 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4040 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4041 
  4042 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4043 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4044 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4045 
  4046   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4047   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4048   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4049   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4050   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4051   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4052   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4053   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4054   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4055   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4056   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4057   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4058   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4059   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4060   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4061   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4062   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4063   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4064   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4065   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4066   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4067   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4068   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4069   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4070   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4071   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4072   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4073   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4074   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4075   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4076 
  4077 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4078 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4079 
  4080 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4081 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4082 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4083 
  4084 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4085 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4086 
  4087 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4088 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4089 
  4090 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4091 
  4092 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4093 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094 
  4095 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4096 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4097 
  4098 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4101 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4102 
  4103 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4104 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4105 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4106 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4107 
  4108 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4109   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4110   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4111   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4113 
  4114 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4115 lattices):
  4116 
  4117     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4118     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4119 
  4120     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4121 
  4122     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4123     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4124     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4125     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4126     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4127     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4128     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4129     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4130     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4131     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4132     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4133     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4134     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4135 
  4136     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4137     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4138     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4139     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4140     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4141     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4142     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4143     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4144     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4145     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4146     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4147     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4148     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4149     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4150     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4151     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4152     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4153     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4154 
  4155   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4156   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4157 
  4158     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4159     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4160     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4161     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4162     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4163 
  4164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4165 
  4166 * Refined field classes:
  4167   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4168     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4169     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4170   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4172 
  4173 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4174   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4175   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4176   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4177     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4178   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4179     equal_neg_zero.
  4180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4181 
  4182 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4183 sets to lattices:
  4184 
  4185   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4186   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4187   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4188   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4189   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4190   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4191   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4192   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4193   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4194   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4195 
  4196 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4197 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4198 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4199 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4200 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4201 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4202 
  4203 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4204 multiset order:
  4205 
  4206   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4207     <= and <;
  4208   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4209     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4210     multiset_order;
  4211   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4212     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4213     generation;
  4214   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4215     if needed.
  4216 
  4217 Renamed:
  4218 
  4219   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4220   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4221   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4222 
  4223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4224 
  4225 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4226 
  4227 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4228 
  4229 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4230 
  4231 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4232 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4233 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4234 
  4235   Constants:
  4236   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4237   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4238   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4239   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4240   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4241   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4242   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4243   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4244   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4245   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4246   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4247   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4248   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4249 
  4250   Lemmas:
  4251   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4252   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4253   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4254   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4255   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4256   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4257   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4258   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4259   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4260   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4261   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4262   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4263   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4264 
  4265 * Sledgehammer:
  4266   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4267     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4268     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4269     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4270     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4271     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4272     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4273   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4274   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4275     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4276   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4277     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4278     is still experimental.)
  4279   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4280     full-typed mode.
  4281   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4282 
  4283 * Nitpick:
  4284   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4285   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4286   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4287     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4288   - Added support for quotient types.
  4289   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4290     constructs.
  4291   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4292     "termination" proofs).
  4293   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4294   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4295   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4296   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4297     record getters.
  4298   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4299   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4300   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4301   - Added "atoms" option.
  4302   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4303     problems.
  4304   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4305     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4306     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4307   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4308     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4309   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4310 
  4311 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4312   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4313   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4314   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4315   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4316   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4317   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4318   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4319   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4320   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4321 
  4322 
  4323 *** HOLCF ***
  4324 
  4325 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4326 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4327 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4328 
  4329 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4330 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4331 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4332 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4333 
  4334 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4335 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4336 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4337 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4338 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4339 
  4340 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4341 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4342 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4343 
  4344 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4345 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4346 
  4347   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4348   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4349 
  4350 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4351 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4352 
  4353   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4354   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4355   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4356   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4357   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4358 
  4359 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4360 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4361 
  4362   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4363   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4364   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4365 
  4366 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4367 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4368 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369 
  4370 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4371 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4372 
  4373 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4374 
  4375 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4376 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4377 
  4378 
  4379 *** ML ***
  4380 
  4381 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4382 
  4383     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4384     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4385 
  4386     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4387     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4388     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4389     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4390 
  4391     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4392     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4393     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4394 
  4395 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4396 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4397 
  4398 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4399 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4400 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4401 
  4402 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4403 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4404 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4405 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4406 
  4407 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4408 the context or even global references.
  4409 
  4410 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4411 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4412 
  4413 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4414 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4415 
  4416   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4417   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4418   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4419   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4420   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4421   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4422   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4423   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4424   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4425   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4426 
  4427 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4428 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4429 
  4430 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4431 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4432 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4433 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4434 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4435 
  4436 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4437 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4438 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4439 Theory_Data version.
  4440 
  4441 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4442 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4443 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4444 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4445 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4446 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4447 explicitly in rare situations.
  4448 
  4449 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4450 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4452 
  4453 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4454 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4455 
  4456 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4457 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4458 quite rare).
  4459 
  4460 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4461 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4462 
  4463 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4464 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4465 terms.
  4466 
  4467 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4468 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4469 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4470 
  4471 
  4472 *** System ***
  4473 
  4474 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4475 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4476 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4477 
  4478 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4479 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4480 respectively.
  4481 
  4482 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4483 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4484 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4485 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4486 
  4487   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4488 
  4489 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4490 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4491 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4492 component.
  4493 
  4494 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4495 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4496 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4497 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4498 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4499 the user for manual installation.
  4500 
  4501 
  4502 
  4503 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4504 -------------------------------------
  4505 
  4506 *** General ***
  4507 
  4508 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4509 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4510 
  4511 
  4512 *** Pure ***
  4513 
  4514 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4515 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4516 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4517 
  4518 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4519 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4520 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4521 
  4522 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4523 interpretation.
  4524 
  4525 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4526 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4527 
  4528 
  4529 *** Document preparation ***
  4530 
  4531 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4532 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4533 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4534 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4535 
  4536 
  4537 *** HOL ***
  4538 
  4539 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4540 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4541 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4542 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4543 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4544 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4545 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4546 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4547 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4548 
  4549 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4550 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4551 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4552 
  4553 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4554 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4555 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4556 
  4557 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4558 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4559 
  4560 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4561 
  4562 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4563 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4564 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4565 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4566 
  4567 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4568 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4569 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4570 "mirabelle" utility.
  4571 
  4572 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4573 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4574 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4575 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4576 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4577 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4578 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4579 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4580 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4581 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4582 
  4583 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4584 procedure only.
  4585 
  4586 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4587 
  4588 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4589 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4590 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4591 that fail later.
  4592 
  4593 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4594 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4595 
  4596 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4597 the same method as the approximation method.
  4598 
  4599 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4600 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4601 series expansion.
  4602 
  4603 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4604 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4605 
  4606 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4607 reals.
  4608 
  4609 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4610 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4611 
  4612 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4613 fixpoint theorem.
  4614 
  4615 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4616   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4617     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4618   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4619     accordingly
  4620   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4621     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4622   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4623     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4624 
  4625 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4626 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4627 lattice.
  4628 
  4629 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4630 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4631 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4632 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4633 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4634 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4636 
  4637 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4638   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4639     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4640   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4641     le_inf_iff
  4642   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4643     sup_aci)
  4644   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4645   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4646   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4647     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4648     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4649     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4650     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4651     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4652     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4653     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4654     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4655     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4656     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4657   - authentic syntax for
  4658     Set.Pow
  4659     Set.image
  4660   - mere abbreviations:
  4661     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4662     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4663     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4664     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4665     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4666     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4667     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4668     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4669   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4670 
  4671 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4672 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4673 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4674 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4675 
  4676 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4677 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4678 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4679 
  4680 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4681 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4682 
  4683 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4684 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4685 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4686 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4687 
  4688 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4689 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4690 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4691 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4692 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4693 
  4694 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4695 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4697 
  4698 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4699 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4700 
  4701 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4702 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4703 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4704 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4705 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4706 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4707 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4709 
  4710 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4711     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4712     code_post       replaces    code post
  4713     etc.
  4714   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4715 
  4716 * Renamed methods:
  4717     sizechange -> size_change
  4718     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4719   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4720 
  4721 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4722 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4723 
  4724 * Renamed theorems:
  4725     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4726     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4727     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4728     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4729     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4730   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4731 
  4732 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4733 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4734 
  4735 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4736 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4737 
  4738 
  4739 *** HOLCF ***
  4740 
  4741 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4742 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4743 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4744 
  4745 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4746 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4747 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4748 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4749 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4750 
  4751 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4752 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4753 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4754 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4755 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4756 
  4757 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4758 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4759 constructor are pre-configured.
  4760 
  4761 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4762 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4763 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4764 
  4765 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4766 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4767 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4768 as well.)
  4769 
  4770 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4771 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4772 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4773 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4774 examples.
  4775 
  4776 
  4777 *** ML ***
  4778 
  4779 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4780 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4781 
  4782 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4783 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4784 position, logical grouping etc.
  4785 
  4786 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4787 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4788 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4789 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4790 
  4791 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4792 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4793 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4794 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4795 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4796 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4797 
  4798 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4799 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4800 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4801 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4802 experiments with references.
  4803 
  4804 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4805 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4806 
  4807 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4808 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4809 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4810 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4811 
  4812 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4813 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4814 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4815 
  4816 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4817 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4818 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4819 
  4820 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4821 
  4822 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4823 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4824 
  4825 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4826 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4827 
  4828 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4829 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4830 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4831 
  4832 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4833 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4834 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4835 
  4836 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4837 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4838 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4840 
  4841 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4842 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4843 instead of global theory.
  4844 
  4845 
  4846 *** System ***
  4847 
  4848 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4849 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4850 usedir option -q.
  4851 
  4852 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4853 also the system manual.
  4854 
  4855 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4856 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4857 
  4858 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4859 this is always enabled.
  4860 
  4861 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4862 
  4863 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4864 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4865 currently supported on Linux only.
  4866 
  4867 
  4868 
  4869 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4870 --------------------------------
  4871 
  4872 *** General ***
  4873 
  4874 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4875 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4876 
  4877   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4878     "isatool."
  4879 
  4880   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4881     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4882 
  4883   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4884     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4885 
  4886 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4887 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4888 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4889 
  4890 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4891 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4892 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4893 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4894 via "isabelle emacs".
  4895 
  4896 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4897 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4898 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4899 
  4900 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4901 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4902 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4903 
  4904 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4905 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4906 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4907 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4908 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4909 
  4910 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4911 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4912 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4913 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4914 
  4915 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4916 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4917 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4918 
  4919 
  4920 *** Pure ***
  4921 
  4922 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4923 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4924 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4925 
  4926 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4927 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4928 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4929 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4930 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4931 
  4932 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4933 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4934 useful in locale declarations.
  4935 
  4936 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4937 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4938 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4939 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4940 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4941 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4942 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4943 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4944 no longer generated.
  4945 
  4946 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4947 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4948 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4949 
  4950 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4951 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4952 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4953 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4954 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4955 
  4956 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4957 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4958 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4959 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4960 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4961 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4962 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4963 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4964 
  4965 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4966 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4967 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4968 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4969 
  4970 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4971 
  4972 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4973 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4974 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4975 
  4976 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4977 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4978 
  4979 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4980 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4981 in HOL, write
  4982 
  4983     class foo = ...
  4984 
  4985 instead of
  4986 
  4987     class foo = type + ...
  4988 
  4989 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4990 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4991 
  4992 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4993 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4994 
  4995 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4996 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4997 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4998 
  4999 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5000 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5001 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5002 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5003 directly in regular applications.
  5004 
  5005 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5006 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5007 
  5008 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5009 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5010 
  5011 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5012 theory context.
  5013 
  5014 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5015 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5016 
  5017 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5018 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5019 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5020 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5021 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5022 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5023 
  5024   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5025 
  5026 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5027 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5028 normalization.
  5029 
  5030 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5031 addressing etc.
  5032 
  5033 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5034 
  5035   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5036   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5037 
  5038 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5039 
  5040   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5041      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5042      parts of the code generator framework).
  5043 
  5044   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5045      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5046      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5047 
  5048 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5049 
  5050 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5051 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5052 
  5053 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5054 patterns, e.g.
  5055 
  5056     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5057 
  5058 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5059 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5060 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5061 hyphen:
  5062 
  5063     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5064 
  5065 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5066 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5067 
  5068 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5069 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5070 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5071 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5072 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5073 higher-order unification.
  5074 
  5075 
  5076 *** Document preparation ***
  5077 
  5078 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5079 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5080 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5081 
  5082 
  5083 *** HOL ***
  5084 
  5085 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5086 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5087 
  5088 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5089 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5090 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5091 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5092 Main, as before.
  5093 
  5094 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5095 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5096 
  5097 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5098 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5099 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5100 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5101 
  5102 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5103 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5104 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5105 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5106 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5107 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5108 
  5109 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5110 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5111 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5112 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5113 
  5114 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5115 menu.
  5116 
  5117 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5118 (contains the empty clause).
  5119 
  5120 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5121 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5122 
  5123 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5124 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5125 
  5126 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5127 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5128 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5129 
  5130 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5131 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5132 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5133 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5134 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5135 
  5136 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5137 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5138 
  5139 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5140 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5141 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5142 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5143 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5144 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5145 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5146 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5147 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5148 
  5149 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5150 
  5151 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5152 
  5153 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5154 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5155 
  5156 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5157 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5158 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5159 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5160 
  5161 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5162 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5163 
  5164     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5165     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5166     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5167     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5168     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5169     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5170     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5171     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5172 
  5173 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5174 theory Set.
  5175 
  5176 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5177 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5178 
  5179 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5180 
  5181 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5182 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5183 
  5184 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5185 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5186 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5187 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5188 allowed. For examples see
  5189 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5190 
  5191 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5192 
  5193 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5195 
  5196 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5197 structure:
  5198 
  5199     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5200     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5201     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5202     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5203     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5204     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5205     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5206     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5207     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5208     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5209     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5210     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5211     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5212     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5213     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5214     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5215     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5216     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5217     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5218     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5219     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5220     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5221     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5222     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5223     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5224     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5225     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5226     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5227     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5228     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5229     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5230     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5231     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5232 
  5233     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5234     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5235     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5236     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5237     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5238     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5239     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5240     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5241     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5242     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5243 
  5244     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5245     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5246     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5247     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5248     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5249     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5250 
  5251 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5252 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5253 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5254 
  5255 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5256 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5257 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5258 
  5259 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5260 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5261 
  5262 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5263 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5264 
  5265 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5266 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5267 proofs, e.g.
  5268 
  5269   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5270 
  5271 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5272 
  5273 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5274 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5275 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5276 
  5277 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5278 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5280 
  5281 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5282 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5283 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5285 
  5286 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5287 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5288 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5289 preorder_class.*.
  5290 
  5291 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5292 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5293 
  5294 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5295 
  5296   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5297 
  5298 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5299 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5300 fold_image.
  5301 
  5302 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5303 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5304 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5305 the former will disappear at some point.
  5306 
  5307 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5308 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5309 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5310 
  5311 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5312 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5313 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5314 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5315 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5316 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5317 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5318 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5319 
  5320 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5321 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5322 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5323 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5324 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5325 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5326 
  5327     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5328     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5329     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5330     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5331     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5332     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5333     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5334 
  5335 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5336 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5337 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5338 
  5339 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5340 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5341 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5342 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5343 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5344 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5345 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5346 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5347 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5348 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5349 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5350 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5351 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5352 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5353 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5354 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5355 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5356 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5357 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5358 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5359 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5360 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5361 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5362 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5363 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5364 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5365 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5366 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5367 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5368 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5369 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5370 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5371 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5372 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5373 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5374 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5375 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5376 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5377 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5378 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5379 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5380 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5381 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5382 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5383 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5384 
  5385 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5386 
  5387 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5388 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5389 
  5390 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5391 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5392 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5393 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5394 
  5395 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5396 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5397 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5398 theory RealVector.
  5399 
  5400 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5401 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5402 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5403 and inner products are included.
  5404 
  5405 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5406 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5407 supported.
  5408 
  5409 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5410 first diagonalization argument.
  5411 
  5412 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5413 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5414 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5415 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5416 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5417 
  5418     hide (open) const gcd
  5419     abbreviation gcd where
  5420       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5421     notation (output)
  5422       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5423 
  5424 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5425 
  5426 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5427 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5428 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5429 
  5430 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5431 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5432 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5433 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5434 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5435 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5436 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5437 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5438 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5439 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5440 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5441 cases.
  5442 
  5443 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5444 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5445 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5446 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5447 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5448 
  5449     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5450     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5451     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5452     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5453     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5454 
  5455 
  5456 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5457 
  5458 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5459 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5460 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5461 
  5462 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5463 
  5464 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5465 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5466 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5467 
  5468 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5469 
  5470 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5471 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5472 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5473 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5474 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5475 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5476 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5477 
  5478 
  5479 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5480 
  5481 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5482 
  5483 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5484 theory targets.
  5485 
  5486 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5487 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5488 'inductive' etc.
  5489 
  5490 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5491 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5492 
  5493 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5494 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5495 
  5496 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5497 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5498 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5499 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5500 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5501 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5502 the algorithm W:
  5503 
  5504  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5505  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5506          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5507 
  5508 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5509 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5510 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5511 
  5512 
  5513 *** HOLCF ***
  5514 
  5515 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5516 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5517 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5518 
  5519 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5520 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5521 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5522 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5523 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5524 
  5525 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5526 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5527 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5528 
  5529 
  5530 *** ZF ***
  5531 
  5532 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5533 
  5534 
  5535 *** ML ***
  5536 
  5537 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5538 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5539 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5540 5.2.1!
  5541 
  5542 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5543 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5544 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5545 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5546 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5547 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5548 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5549 
  5550 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5551 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5552 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5553 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5554 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5555 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5556 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5557 
  5558 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5559 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5560 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5561 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5562 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5563 
  5564 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5565 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5566 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5567 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5568 Method.add_method.
  5569 
  5570 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5571 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5572 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5573 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5574 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5575 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5576 
  5577 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5578 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5579 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5580 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5581 examples.
  5582 
  5583 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5584 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5585 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5586 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5587 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5588 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5589 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5590 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5591 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5592 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5593 
  5594 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5595 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5596 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5597 
  5598 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5599 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5600 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5601 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5602 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5603 resort for legacy applications.
  5604 
  5605 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5606 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5607 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5608 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5609 explicit runtime argument.
  5610 
  5611 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5612 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5613 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5614 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5615 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5616 
  5617 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5618 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5619 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5620 theory state.
  5621 
  5622 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5623 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5624 
  5625   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5626   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5627   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5628   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5629   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5630   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5631   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5632   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5633   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5634   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5635 
  5636 
  5637 *** System ***
  5638 
  5639 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5640 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5641 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5642 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5643 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5644 
  5645 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5646 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5647 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5648 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5649 
  5650 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5651 
  5652 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5653 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5654 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5655 prover operations.
  5656 
  5657 
  5658 
  5659 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5660 -------------------------------
  5661 
  5662 *** General ***
  5663 
  5664 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5665 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5666 
  5667 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5668 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5669 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5670 provides a proper context already.
  5671 
  5672 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5673 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5674 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5675 
  5676 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5677 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5678 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5679 swap theory imports.
  5680 
  5681 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5682 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5683 
  5684 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5685 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5686 white space without escapes.
  5687 
  5688 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5689 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5690 "foo_bar".
  5691 
  5692 
  5693 *** Pure ***
  5694 
  5695 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5696 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5697 
  5698 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5699 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5700 
  5701 (1) unused_thms
  5702      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5703 
  5704 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5705      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5706      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5707 
  5708 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5709      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5710      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5711      their ancestors.
  5712 
  5713 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5714 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5715 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5716 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5717 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5718 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5719 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5720 
  5721 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5722 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5723 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5724 
  5725 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5726 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5727 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5728 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5729 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5730 
  5731 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5732 
  5733 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5734 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5735 update of theories within ML code.
  5736 
  5737 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5738 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5739 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5740 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5741 
  5742 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5743 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5744 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5746 
  5747 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5748 
  5749 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5750 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5751 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5752 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5753 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5754 
  5755 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5756 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5757 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5758 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5759 situations.
  5760 
  5761 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5762 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5763 proof text.
  5764 
  5765 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5766 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5767 
  5768 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5769 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5770 predicates.
  5771 
  5772 
  5773 *** Document preparation ***
  5774 
  5775 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5776 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5777 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5778 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5779 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5780 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5781 
  5782 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5783 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5784 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5785 
  5786 
  5787 *** HOL ***
  5788 
  5789 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5790 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5791 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5792 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5793 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5794 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5795 
  5796 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5797 with multithreading.
  5798 
  5799 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5800 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5801 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5802 
  5803 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5804 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5805 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5806 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5807 
  5808 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5809 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5810 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5811 and makes them available separately.  See
  5812 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5813 
  5814 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5815 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5816 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5817 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5818 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5819 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5820 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5821 the declared rules.
  5822 
  5823 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5824 
  5825   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5826 
  5827 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5828 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5829 
  5830 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5831 
  5832   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5833 
  5834   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5835     definitions on => and bool.
  5836 
  5837   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5838     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5839     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5840 
  5841       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5842       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5843       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5844       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5845       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5846       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5847       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5848       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5849 
  5850   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5851     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5852     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5853 
  5854   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5855     The proof pattern
  5856 
  5857       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5858       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5859 
  5860     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5861     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5862 
  5863       have "EX S. P S"
  5864       proof
  5865         show "P S" <...>
  5866       qed
  5867 
  5868   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5869     The proof pattern
  5870 
  5871       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5872       also have "S = T" <...>
  5873       finally have "P T" .
  5874 
  5875     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5876     must be replaced by something like
  5877 
  5878       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5879       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5880       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5881 
  5882   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5883     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5884 
  5885       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5886 
  5887     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5888     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5889     type of the form
  5890 
  5891       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5892 
  5893     rather than
  5894 
  5895       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5896 
  5897 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5898 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5899 
  5900 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5901 
  5902 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5903 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5904 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5905 
  5906 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5907 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5908 
  5909 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5910 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5911 
  5912 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5913 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5914 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5915 
  5916 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5917 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5918 
  5919   less_trans
  5920   less_linear
  5921   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5922   le_less_trans
  5923   less_le_trans
  5924   less_not_sym
  5925   less_asym
  5926 
  5927 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5928 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5929 and different variable names.
  5930 
  5931 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5932 
  5933 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5934 finite maps.
  5935 
  5936 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5937 
  5938 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5939 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5940 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5941 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5942 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5943 accordingly.
  5944 
  5945 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5946 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5947 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5948 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5949 
  5950 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5951 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5952 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5953 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5954 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5955 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5956 
  5957 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5958 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5959 
  5960 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5961 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5962 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5963 
  5964 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5965 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5966 
  5967 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5968 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5969 
  5970 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5971 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5972 
  5973 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5974 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5975 
  5976 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5977 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5979 
  5980 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5981 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5982 
  5983 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5984 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5985 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5986 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5987 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5988 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5989 
  5990 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5991 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5992 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5993 
  5994 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5995 
  5996 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5997 
  5998 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5999 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6000 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6001 
  6002 
  6003 *** ZF ***
  6004 
  6005 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6006 same session:
  6007 
  6008   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6009   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6010   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6011   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6012   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6013   List      -> List_ZF
  6014   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6015 
  6016 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6017 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6018 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6019 
  6020 
  6021 *** ML ***
  6022 
  6023 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6024 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6025 
  6026 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6027 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6028 
  6029 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6030 
  6031 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6032 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6033 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6034 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6035 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6036 
  6037 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6038 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6039 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6040 
  6041 
  6042 *** System ***
  6043 
  6044 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6045 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6046 
  6047 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6048 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6049 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6050 
  6051 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6052 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6053 
  6054 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6055 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6056 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6057 
  6058 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6059 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6060 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6061 
  6062 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6063 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6064 
  6065 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6066 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6067 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6068 script.
  6069 
  6070 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6071 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6072 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6073 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6074 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6075 
  6076 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6077 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6078 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6079 
  6080 
  6081 
  6082 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6083 -----------------------------------
  6084 
  6085 *** General ***
  6086 
  6087 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6088 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6089 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6090 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6091 
  6092 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6093 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6094 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6095 
  6096 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6097 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6098 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6099 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6100 
  6101 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6102 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6103 quotes.
  6104 
  6105 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6106 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6107 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6108 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6109 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6110 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6111 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6112 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6113 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6114 
  6115 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6116 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6117 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6118 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6119 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6120 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6121 
  6122 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6123 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6124 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6125 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6126 
  6127 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6128 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6129 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6130 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6131 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6132 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6133 
  6134 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6135 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6136 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6137 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6138 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6139 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6140 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6141 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6142 
  6143 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6144 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6145 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6146 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6147 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6148 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6149 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6150 
  6151 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6152 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6153 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6154 
  6155 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6156 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6157 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6158 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6159 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6160 limit is imposed.
  6161 
  6162 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6163 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6164 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6165 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6166 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6167 and scalability.
  6168 
  6169 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6170 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6171 
  6172 
  6173 *** Document preparation ***
  6174 
  6175 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6176 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6177 current context.
  6178 
  6179 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6180 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6181 
  6182 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6183 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6184 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6185 
  6186 
  6187 *** Pure ***
  6188 
  6189 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6190 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6191 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6192 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6193 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6194 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6195 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6196 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6197 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6198 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6199 
  6200 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6201 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6202 sketch:
  6203 
  6204     internal compilation:
  6205         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6206     writing SML code to a file:
  6207         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6208     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6209         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6210     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6211         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6212 
  6213     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6214         method ``eval''
  6215 
  6216 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6217 
  6218 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6219 
  6220     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6221     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6222     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6223     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6224 
  6225 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6226 
  6227     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6228       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6229 
  6230     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6231       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6232 
  6233     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6234       {(target)}+
  6235         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6236 
  6237     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6238       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6239         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6240 
  6241 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6242 
  6243 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6244 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6245 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6246 codegen".
  6247 
  6248 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6249 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6250 annotations).
  6251 
  6252 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6253 syntax.
  6254 
  6255 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6256 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6257 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6258 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6259 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6260 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6261 
  6262 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6263 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6264 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6265 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6266 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6267 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6268 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the