NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed Feb 13 11:46:48 2013 +0100 (2013-02-13)
changeset 51088 0a55ac5bdd92
parent 51082 55b82b1417d1
parent 51002 496013a6eb38
child 51115 7dbd6832a689
permissions -rw-r--r--
merged;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** HOL ***
     8 
     9 * Theory "RealVector" and "Limits": Introduce type class
    10 (lin)order_topology. Allows to generalize theorems about limits and
    11 order. Instances are reals and extended reals.
    12 
    13 
    14 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
    15 -----------------------------------
    16 
    17 *** General ***
    18 
    19 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    20 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    21 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    22 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    23 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    24 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    25 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    26 
    27 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    28 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    29 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    30 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    31 
    32 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    33 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    34 
    35 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    36 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    37 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    38 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    39 dependencies properly.
    40 
    41 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    42 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    43 
    44 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    45 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    46 
    47 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
    48 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    49 and "class ... context ...".
    50 
    51 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
    52 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
    53 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
    54 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
    55 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
    56 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
    57 
    58 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    59 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    60 
    61 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    62 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    63 
    64 
    65 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    66 
    67 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    68 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    69 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    70 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    71 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    72 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    73 
    74 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    75 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    76 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    77 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    78 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    79 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    80 
    81 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
    82 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
    83 browser on demand.
    84 
    85 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    86 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    87 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    88 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    89 
    90 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    91 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    92 
    93 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
    94 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
    95 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    96 potentially infinite message streams.
    97 
    98 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    99 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   100 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   101 schemes.
   102 
   103 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   104 symbols.
   105 
   106 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   107 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   108 
   109 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   110 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   111 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   112 
   113 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   114 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   115 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   116 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   117 
   118 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   119 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   120 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   121 
   122 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   123 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   124 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   125 Isabelle distribution.
   126 
   127 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   128 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   129 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   130 
   131 
   132 *** Pure ***
   133 
   134 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   135 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   136 
   137 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   138 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   139 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   140 
   141 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   142 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   143 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   144 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   145 with some care where this is really required.
   146 
   147 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   148 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   149 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   150 
   151   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   152 
   153 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   154 a Hasse diagram.
   155 
   156 
   157 *** HOL ***
   158 
   159 * Sledgehammer:
   160 
   161   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   162     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   163   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   164   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   165   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   166   - Renamed options:
   167       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   168       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   169       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   170       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   171 
   172 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   173 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   174 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   175 
   176 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   177 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * Lifting:
   180   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   181   - quot_del attribute
   182   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   183 
   184 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   185 expressions.
   186 
   187 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   188 pointfree expressions.
   189 
   190 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   191 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   192 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   193 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   195 
   196 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   197 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   198 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   199 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   200 accordingly.
   201 
   202 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   203 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   204 
   205 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   206 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   209 
   210 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   211 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   212 
   213 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   214 
   215 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   216 
   217   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   218   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   219 
   220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   221 
   222 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   223 
   224   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   225   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   226 
   227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   228 
   229 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   230 
   231   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   232     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   233     output f x converges to G.
   234 
   235   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   236     infinity (at_bot).
   237 
   238   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   239     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   240 
   241   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   242     at_top".
   243 
   244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   245 
   246 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   247 lattice type classes.
   248 
   249 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   250 
   251     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   252     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   253 
   254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   257 changes as follows.
   258 
   259   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   260 
   261       prefix ~> prefixeq
   262       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   263 
   264   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   265     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   266     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   267     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   268 
   269   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   270     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   271     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   272 
   273   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   274     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   275     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   276     Library/Prefix_Order.
   277 
   278   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   279     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   280 
   281       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   282       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   283       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   284       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   285       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   286       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   287       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   288       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   289       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   290       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   291       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   292       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   293       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   294       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   295       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   296       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   297 
   298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   299 
   300 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   301 
   302 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   303 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   304 
   305 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   306 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   307 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   308 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   309 
   310   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   311   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   312   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   313   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   314   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   315   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   316   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   317   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   318   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   319   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   320 
   321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322 
   323 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   324 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   325 Data").
   326 
   327 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   328 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   329 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   330 code.
   331 
   332 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   333 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   334 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   336 
   337 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   338 
   339 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   340 
   341 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   342 
   343   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   344   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   345 
   346 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   347 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   348 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   349 
   350   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   351 
   352     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   353     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   354     cart_base i  removed
   355     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   356 
   357   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   358 
   359   Renamed lemmas:
   360 
   361     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   362     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   363     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   364     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   365     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   366     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   367     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   368     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   369     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   370     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   371 
   372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   373 
   374 * HOL/Probability:
   375 
   376   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   377 
   378   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   379     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   380     (borel_measurable_induct).
   381 
   382   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   383     projective family).
   384 
   385 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   386 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   387 
   388 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   389 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   390 datatypes.
   391 
   392 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   393 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   394 
   395 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   396 trees for the code generator.
   397 
   398 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   399 Lifting/Transfer.
   400 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   401 
   402 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   404 
   405 
   406 *** Document preparation ***
   407 
   408 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   409 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   410 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   411 
   412 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   413 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   414 
   415 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   416 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   417 document/root.tex.
   418 
   419 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   420 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   421 
   422 
   423 *** ML ***
   424 
   425 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   426 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   427 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   428 
   429 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   430 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   431 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   432 
   433 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   434 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   435 necessarily printing visible text.
   436 
   437 
   438 *** System ***
   439 
   440 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   441 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   442 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   443 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   444 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   445 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   446 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   447 
   448 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   449 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   450 
   451   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   452 
   453 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   454 
   455 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   456 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   457 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   458 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   459 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   460 
   461 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   462 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   463 
   464 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   465 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   466 
   467 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   469 
   470 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   471 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   472 version of Isabelle.
   473 
   474 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   475 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   476 
   477 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   478 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   479 for home-made settings.
   480 
   481 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   482 
   483 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   484 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   485 configuration.
   486 
   487 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   488 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   489 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   490 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   491 bundled as Isabelle component.
   492 
   493 
   494 
   495 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   496 ------------------------------
   497 
   498 *** General ***
   499 
   500 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   501 
   502   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   503     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   504   - markup for bound variables
   505   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   506   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   507   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   508     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   509 
   510 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   511 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   512 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   513 
   514 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   515 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   516 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   517 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   518 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   519 
   520   context
   521     fixes x y z :: 'a
   522     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   523   begin
   524 
   525   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   526 
   527   end
   528 
   529   thm my_trans
   530 
   531 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   532 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   533 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   534 
   535 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   536 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   537 
   538 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   539 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   540 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   541 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   542 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   543 
   544 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   545 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   546 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   547 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   548 indices of schematic variables.
   549 
   550 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   551 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   552 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   553 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   554 etc. was exploited.
   555 
   556 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   557 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   558 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   559 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   560 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   561 of the material of that old tutorial.
   562 
   563 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   564 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   565 manual.
   566 
   567 
   568 *** Pure ***
   569 
   570 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   571 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   572 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   573 
   574 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   575 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   576 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   577 undocumented feature.)
   578 
   579 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   580 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   581 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   582 
   583   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   584 
   585   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   586     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   587 
   588 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   589 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   590 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   591 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   592 
   593 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   594 
   595     num ~> num_token
   596     xnum ~> xnum_token
   597     xstr ~> str_token
   598 
   599 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   600 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   601 position information via constraints).
   602 
   603 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   604 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   605 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   606 
   607 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   608 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   609 
   610 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   611 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   612 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   613 
   614 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   615 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   616 
   617 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   618 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   619 
   620   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   621 
   622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   623 
   624 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   625 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   626 
   627 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   628 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   629 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   630 
   631 
   632 *** HOL ***
   633 
   634 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   635 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   636 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   637 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   638 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   639 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   640 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   641 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   642 possible.
   643 
   644 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   645 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   646 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   647 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   648 
   649 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   650 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   651 
   652 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   653 
   654 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   655 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   656 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   657 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   658 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   659 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   660 
   661   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   662     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   663 
   664   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   665     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   666     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   667 
   668   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   669     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   670 
   671   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   672     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   673     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   674 
   675   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   676     Redefine using other integer operations.
   677 
   678 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   679 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   680 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   681 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   682 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   683 
   684   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   685     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   686     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   687     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   688     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   689 
   690     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   691     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   692 
   693   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   694     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   695     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   696     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   697     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   698     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   699     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   700     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   701 
   702   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   703     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   704     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   705     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   706 
   707   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   708     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   709     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   710     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   711 
   712   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   713     from type nat to type int.
   714 
   715 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   716 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   717 
   718   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   719     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   720     type.  Example syntax:
   721 
   722     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   723       is List.insert
   724 
   725     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   726     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   727     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   728     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   729     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   730     by the package.
   731 
   732   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   733     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   734     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   735     code generation for each constant.
   736 
   737   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   738     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   739     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   740     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   741     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   742 
   743   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   744     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   745     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   746 
   747 * Quotient package:
   748 
   749   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   750     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   751 
   752   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   753     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   754 
   755   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   756     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   757     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   758 
   759   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   760     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   761 
   762 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   763 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   764 
   765 * Quickcheck:
   766 
   767   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   768     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   769     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   770     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   771     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   772 
   773     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   774     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   775     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   776 
   777     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   778     continues searching for genuine ones.
   779 
   780     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   781     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   782     show genuine counterexamples.
   783 
   784   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   785     value generators for a given type and operations.
   786 
   787     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   788     constructors of that type.
   789 
   790   - Support for multisets.
   791 
   792   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   793 
   794   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   795     conjectures in a locale context.
   796 
   797 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   798 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   799 
   800 * Sledgehammer:
   801   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   802     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   803   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   804   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   805     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   806   - Sped up the minimizer.
   807   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   808   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   809   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   810 
   811 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   812 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   813 
   814 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   815 
   816 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   817 
   818 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   819 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   820 
   821   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   822 
   823 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   824 a list and a nat.
   825 
   826 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   827 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   828 
   829 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   830 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   831 default.
   832 
   833 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   834 
   835   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   836 
   837 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   838 
   839 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   840 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   841 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   842 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   843 one_case.
   844 
   845 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   846 the result of the fact expression.
   847 
   848 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   849 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   850 of some relation theorems:
   851 
   852   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   853   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   854   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   855   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   856   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   857   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   858 
   859 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   860 
   861 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   862 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   863 
   864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   865 
   866 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   867 to match the constant's name:
   868 
   869   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   870   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   871   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   872   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   873   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   874   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   875   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   876   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   877   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   878   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   879   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   880   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   881   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   882   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   883   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   884   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   885   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   886   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   887   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   888   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   889   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   890   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   891   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   892   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   893 
   894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   895 
   896 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   897 and corresponding theorem names:
   898 
   899   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   900 
   901   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   902 
   903   - Renamed theorems:
   904 
   905     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   906     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   907     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   908     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   909     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   910     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   911     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   912     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   913     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   914     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   915     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   916     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   917     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   918     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   919     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   920     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   921     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   922     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   923     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   924     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   925     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   926     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   927     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   928 
   929     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   930 
   931     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   932 
   933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   934 
   935 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   936 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   937 
   938   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   939   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   940   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   941   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   942   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   943   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   944   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   945   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   946   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   947   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   948   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   949   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   950   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   951   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   952   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   953   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   954   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   955   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   956   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   957   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   958   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   959 
   960 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   961 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   962 
   963 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   964 
   965 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   966 
   967   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   968   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   969   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   970   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   971   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   972   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   973   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   974   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   975   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   976   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   977   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   978   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   979   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   980   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   981   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   982   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   983   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   984   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   985 
   986 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   987 
   988 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   989 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   990 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   991 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   992 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   993 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   994 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   995 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   996 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   997 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   998 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   999 
  1000 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1001 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1002 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1003 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1004 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1005 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1006 
  1007 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1008 through option types.
  1009 
  1010 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1011 relations.
  1012 
  1013 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1014 
  1015 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1016 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1017 
  1018   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1019   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1020   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1021   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1022   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1023   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1024   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1025   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1026   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1027   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1028   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1029   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1030   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1031   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1032   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1033   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1034   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1035   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1036   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1037   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1038   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1039   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1040   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1041   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1042   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1043   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1044   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1045   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1046   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1047   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1048   zless_le ~> less_le
  1049   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1050   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1051   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1052 
  1053 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1054 
  1055   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1056 
  1057 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1058 
  1059 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1060 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1061 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1062 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1064 
  1065 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1066 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1067 
  1068 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1069 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1070 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1071 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1072 follows:
  1073 
  1074   Operations:
  1075   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1076   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1077   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1078   del -> rbt_del
  1079   delete -> rbt_delete
  1080   ins -> rbt_ins
  1081   insert -> rbt_insert
  1082   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1083   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1084   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1085   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1086   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1087   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1088   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1089   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1090   union -> rbt_union
  1091   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1092   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1093 
  1094   Lemmas:
  1095   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1096   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1097   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1098   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1099   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1100   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1101   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1102   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1103   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1104   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1105   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1106   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1107   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1108   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1109   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1110   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1111   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1112   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1113   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1114   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1115   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1116   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1117   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1118   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1119   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1120   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1121   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1122   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1123   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1124   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1125   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1126   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1127   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1128   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1129   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1130   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1131   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1132   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1133   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1134   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1135   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1136   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1137   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1138   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1139   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1140   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1141   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1142   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1143   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1144   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1145   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1146   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1147   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1148   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1149   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1150   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1151   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1152   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1153   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1154   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1155   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1156   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1157   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1158   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1159   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1160   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1161   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1162   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1163   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1164   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1165   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1166   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1167   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1168   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1169   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1170   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1171   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1172   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1173   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1174   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1175   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1176   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1177   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1178 
  1179 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1180 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1181 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1182 
  1183   Changed Operations:
  1184   float_abs -> abs
  1185   float_nprt -> nprt
  1186   float_pprt -> pprt
  1187   pow2 -> use powr
  1188   round_down -> float_round_down
  1189   round_up -> float_round_up
  1190   scale -> exponent
  1191 
  1192   Removed Operations:
  1193   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1194 
  1195   Renamed Lemmas:
  1196   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1197   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1198   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1199   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1200   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1201   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1202   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1203   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1204   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1205   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1206   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1207   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1208   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1209   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1210   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1211   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1212   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1213   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1214   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1215   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1216   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1217   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1218   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1219   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1220   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1221   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1222   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1223   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1224   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1225   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1226   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1227   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1228   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1229   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1230   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1231   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1232 
  1233   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1234   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1235   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1236   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1237   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1238   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1239   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1240   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1241   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1242   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1243 
  1244 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1245 association lists with distinct keys.
  1246 
  1247 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1248 annotated commands.
  1249 
  1250 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1251 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1252 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1253 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1254 
  1255 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1256 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1257 instead.
  1258 
  1259   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1260   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1261   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1262   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1263   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1264   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1265   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1266   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1267   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1268   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1269   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1270   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1271   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1272   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1273   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1274   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1275   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1276   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1277   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1278   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1279   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1280   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1281   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1282   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1283   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1284   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1285   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1286   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1287   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1288   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1289   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1290   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1291   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1292   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1293   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1294   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1295   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1296   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1297   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1298   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1299   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1300 
  1301 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1302 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1303 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1304 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1305 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1306 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1307 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1308 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1309 
  1310 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1311 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1312 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1313 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1314 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1315 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1316 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1317 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1318 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1319 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1320 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1321 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1322 
  1323   Renamed constants:
  1324   measure -> emeasure
  1325   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1326   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1327   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1328   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1329 
  1330   Removed locales:
  1331   completeable_measure_space
  1332   finite_measure_space
  1333   finite_prob_space
  1334   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1335   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1336   finite_sigma_algebra
  1337   measure_space
  1338   pair_finite_prob_space
  1339   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1340   pair_finite_space
  1341   pair_sigma_algebra
  1342   product_sigma_algebra
  1343 
  1344   Removed constants:
  1345   conditional_space
  1346   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1347   image_space
  1348   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1349   pair_measure_generator
  1350   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1351   subvimage
  1352 
  1353   Replacement theorems:
  1354   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1355   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1356   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1357   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1358   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1359   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1360   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1361   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1362   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1363   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1364   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1365   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1366   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1367   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1368   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1369   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1370   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1371   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1372   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1373   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1374   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1375   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1376   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1377   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1378   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1379   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1380   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1381   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1382   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1383   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1384   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1385   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1386   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1387   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1388   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1389   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1390   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1391   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1392   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1393   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1394   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1395   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1396   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1397   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1398   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1399   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1400   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1401   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1402   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1403   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1404   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1405   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1406   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1407   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1408   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1409   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1410   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1411   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1412   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1413   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1414   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1415   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1416   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1417   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1418   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1419   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1420   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1421   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1422   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1423   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1424   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1425   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1426   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1427   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1428   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1429   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1430   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1431   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1432   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1433   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1434   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1435   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1436   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1437   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1438   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1439   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1440   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1441   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1442   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1443   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1444   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1445   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1446   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1447   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1448   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1449   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1450   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1451   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1452   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1453   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1454   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1455   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1456   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1457   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1458   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1459   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1460   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1461   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1462   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1463   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1464   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1465   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1466   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1467   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1468   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1469   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1470   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1471   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1472   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1473   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1474   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1475   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1476   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1477   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1478   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1479   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1480   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1481   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1482 
  1483 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1484 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1485 
  1486 
  1487 *** FOL ***
  1488 
  1489 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1490 
  1491 
  1492 *** ZF ***
  1493 
  1494 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1495 analysis.
  1496 
  1497 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1498 
  1499 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1500 
  1501 
  1502 *** ML ***
  1503 
  1504 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1505 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1506 
  1507 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1508 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1509 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1510 
  1511 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1512 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1513 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1514 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1515 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1516 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1517 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1518 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1519 
  1520 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1521 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1522 
  1523 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1524 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1525 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1526 
  1527 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1528 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1529 
  1530 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1531 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1532 context as well.
  1533 
  1534 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1535 
  1536   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1537   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1538   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1539   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1540   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1541   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1542   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1543   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1544   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1545   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1546   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1547   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1548 
  1549 
  1550 *** System ***
  1551 
  1552 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1553 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1554 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1555 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1556 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1557 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1558 the generic user home was intended.
  1559 
  1560 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1561 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1562 
  1563 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1564 (not just JRE).
  1565 
  1566 
  1567 
  1568 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1569 ------------------------------------
  1570 
  1571 *** General ***
  1572 
  1573 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1574 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1575 
  1576   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1577     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1578     files for checking).
  1579 
  1580   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1581     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1582     positions.
  1583 
  1584   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1585     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1586     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1587 
  1588   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1589     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1590     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1591 
  1592   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1593     cores.
  1594 
  1595   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1596     versions (garbage collection).
  1597 
  1598 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1599 including some remaining limitations.
  1600 
  1601 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1602 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1603 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1604 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1605 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1609 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1610 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1611 
  1612 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1613 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1614 usedir option -Q.
  1615 
  1616 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1617 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1618 
  1619   long_names   ~> names_long
  1620   short_names  ~> names_short
  1621   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1622 
  1623 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1624 
  1625   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1626 
  1627 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1628 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1629 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1630 
  1631 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1632 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1633 
  1634 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1635   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1636   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1637   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1638     "Classical Reasoner".
  1639 
  1640 
  1641 *** HOL ***
  1642 
  1643 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1644 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1645 
  1646 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1647 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1648 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1649 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1650 class complete_linorder.
  1651 
  1652 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1653 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1654 
  1655 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1656 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1657 
  1658   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1659   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1660   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1661   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1662   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1663   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1664   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1665   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1666   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1667   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1668   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1669 
  1670 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1671 
  1672   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1673   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1674   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1675   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1676   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1677   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1678   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1679   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1680   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1681   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1682   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1683   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1684   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1685   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1686   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1687   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1688 
  1689 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1690 
  1691 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1693 
  1694 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1695 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1696 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1697 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1698 
  1699 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1700 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1701 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1703 
  1704 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1705 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1706 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1707 
  1708 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1709 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1710 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1711 
  1712 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1713 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1714 
  1715 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1716 
  1717     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1718     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1719 
  1720 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1721 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1722 
  1723 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1724 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1725 
  1726 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1727 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1728 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1729 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1730 
  1731   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1732   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1733   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1734   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1735   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1736   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1737   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1738 
  1739 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1740 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1741 
  1742   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1743   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1744   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1745   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1746   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1747   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1748   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1749   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1750   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1751   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1752   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1753   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1754   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1755   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1756   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1757   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1758   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1759   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1760   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1761   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1762   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1763   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1764   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1765   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1766   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1767   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1768   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1769   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1770   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1771   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1772   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1773   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1774   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1775   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1776   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1777   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1778   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1779   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1780   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1781   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1782   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1783   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1784   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1785   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1786   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1787   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1788   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1789   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1790   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1791   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1792   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1793   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1794   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1795   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1796   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1797   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1798   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1799   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1800   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1801   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1802   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1803   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1804   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1805   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1806   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1807   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1808   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1809   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1810   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1811   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1812   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1813   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1814   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1815   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1816   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1817   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1818   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1819   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1820   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1821   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1822   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1823   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1824 
  1825 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1826 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1827 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1828 
  1829 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1830 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1831 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1832 
  1833 * Code generation:
  1834 
  1835   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1836     characters in the target language.
  1837 
  1838   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1839     instead.
  1840 
  1841   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1842 
  1843   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1844     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1845 
  1846       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1847 
  1848 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1849 
  1850 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1851 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1852 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1853 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1854 syntax.
  1855 
  1856 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1857 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1858 
  1859 * Nitpick:
  1860   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1861   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1862   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1863     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1864 
  1865 * Sledgehammer:
  1866   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1867   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1868     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1869   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1870     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1871   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1872     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1873   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1874     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1875   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1876     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1877 
  1878 * Metis:
  1879   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1880   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1881     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1882 
  1883 * Command 'try':
  1884   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1885     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1886   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1887     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1888 
  1889 * Quickcheck:
  1890   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1891     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1892   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1893     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1894   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1895     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1896     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1897     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1898   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1899     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1900 
  1901 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1902 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1903 
  1904 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1905 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1906 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1907 
  1908 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1909 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1910 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1911 
  1912 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1913 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1914 
  1915 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1916 arithmetic.
  1917 
  1918 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1919 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1920 and lattice type classes.
  1921 
  1922 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1923 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1924 
  1925 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1926 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1927 
  1928 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1929 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1930 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1931 
  1932   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1933   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1934   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1935   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1936 
  1937 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1938 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1939 constants:
  1940 
  1941   type inat   ~> type enat
  1942   Fin         ~> enat
  1943   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1944   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1945   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1946 
  1947 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1948 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1949 
  1950 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1951 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1952 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1953 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1954 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1955 
  1956 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1957 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1958 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1959 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1960 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1961 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1962 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1963 
  1964   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1965   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1966   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1967   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1968 
  1969 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1970 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1971 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1972 
  1973   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1974   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1975   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1976   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1977   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1978   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1979   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1980   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1981   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1982   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1983   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1984   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1985   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1986   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1987   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1988   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1989   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1990   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1991   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1992   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1993   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1994   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1995   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1996   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1997   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1998   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1999   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2000   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2001   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2002   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2003   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2004   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2005   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2006   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2007   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2008   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2009   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2010   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2011   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2012   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2013   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2014   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2015   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2016   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2017   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2018   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2019   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2020   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2021   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2022   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2023   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2024 
  2025 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2026   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2027   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2028   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2029   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2030     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2031 
  2032 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2033 
  2034   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2035   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2036   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2037   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2038   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2039   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2040   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2041   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2042   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2043   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2044   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2045   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2046   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2047   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2048   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2049   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2050   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2051   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2052   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2053   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2054   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2055   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2056   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2057   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2058   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2059 
  2060 
  2061 *** Document preparation ***
  2062 
  2063 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2064 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2065 same.
  2066 
  2067 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2068 result.
  2069 
  2070 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2071 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2072 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2073 
  2074 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2075 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2076 
  2077 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2078 like this:
  2079 
  2080   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2081   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2082 
  2083 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2084 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2085 layouts.
  2086 
  2087 
  2088 *** ML ***
  2089 
  2090 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2091 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2092 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2093 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2094 under external program control.
  2095 
  2096 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2097 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2098 
  2099 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2100 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2101 (better known as Proof General).
  2102 
  2103 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2104 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2105 
  2106 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2107 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2108 
  2109 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2110 (including quotes etc.).
  2111 
  2112 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2113 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2114 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2115 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2116 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2117 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2118 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2119 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2120 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2121 
  2122 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2123 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2124 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2125 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2126 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2127 
  2128 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2129 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2130 
  2131 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2132 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2133 
  2134 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2135 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2136 
  2137 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2138 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2139 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2140 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2141 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2142 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2143 proper Proof.context.
  2144 
  2145 
  2146 *** System ***
  2147 
  2148 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2149 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2150 
  2151 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2152 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2153 
  2154 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2155 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2156 
  2157   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2158   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2159   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2160   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2161   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2162 
  2163 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2164 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2165 
  2166 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2167 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2168 example:
  2169 
  2170   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2171 
  2172 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2173 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2174 
  2175 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2176 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2177 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2178 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2179 
  2180 
  2181 
  2182 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2183 ----------------------------------
  2184 
  2185 *** General ***
  2186 
  2187 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2188 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2189 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2190 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2191 like this:
  2192 
  2193   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2194 
  2195 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2196 
  2197 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2198 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2199 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2200 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2201 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2202 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2203 
  2204 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2205 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2206 the following package declarations:
  2207 
  2208   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2209   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2210 
  2211 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2212 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2213 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2214 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2215 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2216 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2217 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2218 
  2219 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2220 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2221 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2222 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2223 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2224 
  2225 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2226 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2227 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2228 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2229 
  2230 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2231 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2232 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2233 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2234 
  2235   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2236 
  2237   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2238   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2239   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2240   show_types                    show_types
  2241   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2242   show_consts                   show_consts
  2243   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2244 
  2245   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2246   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2247   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2248 
  2249   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2250   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2251 
  2252   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2253 
  2254   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2255   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2256   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2257   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2258   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2259 
  2260 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2261 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2262 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2263 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2264 
  2265 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2267 
  2268   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2269   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2270 
  2271 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2272 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2273 float_token.
  2274 
  2275 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2276 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2277 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2278 
  2279 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2280 DejaVu Sans.
  2281 
  2282 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2283 
  2284 
  2285 *** Pure ***
  2286 
  2287 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2288 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2289 time.
  2290 
  2291 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2292 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2293 
  2294 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2295 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2296 
  2297 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2298 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2299 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2300 command already provided this functionality.
  2301 
  2302 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2303 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2304 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2305 without interpretations.
  2306 
  2307 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2308 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2309 
  2310 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2311 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2312 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2313 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2314 
  2315 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2316 'definition' instead.
  2317 
  2318 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2319 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2320 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2321 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2322 
  2323 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2324 constructors.
  2325 
  2326 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2327 the local file system.
  2328 
  2329 
  2330 *** HOL ***
  2331 
  2332 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2333 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2334 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2335 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2336 
  2337   declare [[coercion f]]
  2338 
  2339 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2340 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2341 
  2342   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2343 
  2344 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2345 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2346 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2347 other theories like this:
  2348 
  2349   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2350 
  2351 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2352 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2353 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2354 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2355 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2356 for examples.
  2357 
  2358 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2359 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2360 
  2361 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2362 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2363 
  2364 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2365 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2366 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2367 
  2368 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2369 functorial structure of types.
  2370 
  2371 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2372 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2373 
  2374 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2375 languages.
  2376 
  2377 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2378 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2379 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2380 
  2381 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2382 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2383 
  2384 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2385 combinators any longer.
  2386 
  2387 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2388 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2389 
  2390 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2391 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2392 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2393 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2394 
  2395   record 'a foo = ...
  2396   ...
  2397   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2398 
  2399 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2400 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2402 
  2403 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2404 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2405 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2406 
  2407 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2408 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2409 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2410 
  2411 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2412 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2413 
  2414 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2415 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2416 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2417 independently.
  2418 
  2419 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2420 counter example search.
  2421 
  2422 * Sledgehammer:
  2423   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2424     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2425     sledgehammer").
  2426   - Renamed commands:
  2427     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2428     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2429     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2430     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2431   - Renamed options:
  2432     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2433     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2434     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2435     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2436     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2437 
  2438 * Nitpick:
  2439   - Renamed options:
  2440     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2441     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2442     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2443   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2444   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2445   - Added "whack" option.
  2446   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2447   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2448   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2449   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2450     higher cardinalities.
  2451   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2452 
  2453 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2454 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2455 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2456 
  2457     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2458 
  2459 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2460 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2461 
  2462 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2463 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2464 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2465 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2466 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2467 "smt_solver".
  2468 
  2469 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2470 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2471 
  2472 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2473 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2474 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2475 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2476 
  2477 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2478   - Renamed:
  2479     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2480     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2481     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2482   - Added:
  2483     smt_verbose
  2484     smt_random_seed
  2485     smt_datatypes
  2486     smt_infer_triggers
  2487     smt_monomorph_limit
  2488     cvc3_options
  2489     remote_cvc3_options
  2490     remote_z3_options
  2491     yices_options
  2492 
  2493 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2494 header.
  2495 
  2496 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2497 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2498 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2499 
  2500   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2501 
  2502 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2503 
  2504 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2505 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2506 
  2507 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2508 
  2509 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2510 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2511 
  2512 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2513 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2514 
  2515 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2516 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2517 
  2518 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2519 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2520 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2521 
  2522 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2523 
  2524 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2526 
  2527 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2528 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2529 
  2530 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2531 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2532 for congruent(2)).
  2533 
  2534 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2535 
  2536   types
  2537     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2538     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2539 
  2540   constants
  2541     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2542     True ~> HOL.True
  2543     False ~> HOL.False
  2544     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2545     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2546     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2547     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2548     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2549     The ~> HOL.The
  2550     All ~> HOL.All
  2551     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2552     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2553     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2554     If ~> HOL.If
  2555     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2556     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2557     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2558     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2559     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2560     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2561     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2562     op : ~> Set.member
  2563     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2564 
  2565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2566 
  2567 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2568 
  2569     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2570     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2571     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2572     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2573     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2574     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2575     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2576     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2577 
  2578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2579 
  2580 * More stylized fact names:
  2581 
  2582   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2583   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2584   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2585   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2586 
  2587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2588 
  2589 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2590 
  2591   constants
  2592     null ~> List.null
  2593 
  2594   facts
  2595     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2596     null_empty ~> null_def
  2597 
  2598 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2599 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2600 generation.
  2601 
  2602 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2603 Haskell code.
  2604 
  2605 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2606 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2607 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2608 
  2609 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2610 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2611 
  2612 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2613 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2614 
  2615 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2616 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2617 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2618 
  2619 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2620 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2621 
  2622 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2624 
  2625 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2626 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2627 referred to by its qualified name.
  2628 
  2629   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2630   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2631   product ~>  Enum.product
  2632 
  2633 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2634 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2636 
  2637 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2638 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2639 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2641 
  2642 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2643 sort_key.
  2644 
  2645 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2647 
  2648 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2649 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2650 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2651 
  2652   types
  2653     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2654               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2655               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2656         (depends on your needs)
  2657 
  2658   constants
  2659      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2660      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2661      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2662 
  2663 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2664 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2665 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2666 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2667 
  2668 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2669 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2670 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2671 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2672 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2673 
  2674 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2675 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2676 
  2677 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2678 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2679 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2680 
  2681 
  2682 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2683 
  2684 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2685 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2686 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2687 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2688 compatibility.
  2689 
  2690 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2691 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2692 
  2693 
  2694 *** HOLCF ***
  2695 
  2696 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2697 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2698 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2700 
  2701 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2702 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2703 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2704 
  2705   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2706   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2707   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2708 
  2709 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2710 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2711 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2712 
  2713 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2714 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2715 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2716 domain definition now works:
  2717 
  2718   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2719 
  2720 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2721 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2722 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2723 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2724 
  2725   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2726     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2727 
  2728   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2729 
  2730 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2731 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2732 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2733 
  2734 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2735 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2736 
  2737 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2738 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2739 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2740 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2741 
  2742 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2743 
  2744 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2745 
  2746 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747 
  2748 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2752 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2753 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2754 
  2755 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2756 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2757 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2758 
  2759 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2760 still supported as an input translation.
  2761 
  2762 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2763 
  2764   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2765   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2766   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2767   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2768   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2769   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2770   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2771 
  2772 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2773 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2774 
  2775   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2776   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2777   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2778   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2779   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2780   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2781 
  2782 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2783 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2784 
  2785 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2786 
  2787   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2788   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2789   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2790   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2791 
  2792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2793 
  2794 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2795 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2796 
  2797 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2798 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2799 
  2800   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2801   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2802   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2803   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2804   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2805   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2806   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2807   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2808   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2809   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2810   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2811   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2812   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2813   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2814   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2815   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2816   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2817   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2818   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2819   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2820 
  2821 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2822 
  2823   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2824   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2825   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2826   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2827   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2828   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2829   box_less             ~> box_below
  2830   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2831   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2832   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2833   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2834   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2835   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2836   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2837   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2838   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2839   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2840   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2841   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2842   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2843   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2844   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2845   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2846   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2847   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2848   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2849   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2850   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2851   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2852   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2853   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2854   up_less              ~> up_below
  2855   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2856   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2857   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2858   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2859   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2860   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2861   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2862   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2863   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2864   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2865   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2866   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2867   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2868 
  2869 
  2870 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2871 
  2872 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2873 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2874 
  2875 
  2876 *** ML ***
  2877 
  2878 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2879 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2880 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2881 
  2882 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2883 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2884 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2885 
  2886 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2887 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2888 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2889 
  2890 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2891 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2892 
  2893 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2894 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2895 
  2896 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2897 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2898 
  2899 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2900 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2901 
  2902 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2903 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2904 almost all situations.
  2905 
  2906 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2907 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2908 Isabelle/ML.
  2909 
  2910 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2911 meaning.
  2912 
  2913 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2914 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2915 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2916 
  2917 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2918 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2919 
  2920 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2921 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2922 
  2923 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2924 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2925 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2926 
  2927 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2928 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2929 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2930 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2931 configuration options.
  2932 
  2933 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2934 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2935 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2936 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2937 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2938 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2939 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2940 
  2941 
  2942 
  2943 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2944 ---------------------------------
  2945 
  2946 *** General ***
  2947 
  2948 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2949 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2950 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2951 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2952 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2953 their full internal name.
  2954 
  2955 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2956 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2957 Some hints on upgrading:
  2958 
  2959   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2960     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2961     which are independent of this issue.
  2962 
  2963   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2964     provides the following special forms:
  2965 
  2966       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2967       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2968       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2969 
  2970     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2971     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2972     extra variables".
  2973 
  2974     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2975     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2976     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2977     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2978     "logic".
  2979 
  2980   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2981     antiquotations:
  2982 
  2983       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2984       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2985       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2986       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2987 
  2988   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2989     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2990     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2991     antiquotations.
  2992 
  2993 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2994 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2995 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2996 diagnose syntax problems.
  2997 
  2998 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2999 
  3000 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3001 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3002 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3003 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3004 
  3005 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3006 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3007 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3008 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3009 
  3010 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3011 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3012 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3013 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3014 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3015 
  3016 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3017 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3018 
  3019 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3020 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3021 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3022 
  3023   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3024 
  3025 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3026 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3027 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3028 
  3029 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3030 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3032 
  3033 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3034 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3035 
  3036 
  3037 *** Pure ***
  3038 
  3039 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3040 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3041 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3042 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3043 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3044 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3045 inspect proof terms.
  3046 
  3047 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3048 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3049 are added internally.  For example:
  3050 
  3051   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3052 
  3053 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3054 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3055 
  3056 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3057 
  3058 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3059 'class' instead.
  3060 
  3061 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3062 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3064 
  3065 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3066 invariants.
  3067 
  3068 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3069 user space functionality any longer.
  3070 
  3071 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3072 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3073 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3076 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3077 
  3078 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3079 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3080 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3081 
  3082 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3083 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3084 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3085 
  3086 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3087 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089 
  3090 *** HOL ***
  3091 
  3092 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3093 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3094 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3095 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3096 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3097 
  3098 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3099 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3100 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3101 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3102 
  3103   fun
  3104     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3105   where
  3106     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3107 
  3108   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3109     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3110 
  3111   quotient_definition
  3112     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3113 
  3114 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3115 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3116 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3117 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3118 
  3119 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3120 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3121 
  3122 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3123 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3124 
  3125 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3127 
  3128 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3129 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3130 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3131 
  3132 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3133 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3134 
  3135 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3137 
  3138 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3140 
  3141 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3142 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3143 
  3144 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3145 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3146 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3147 
  3148   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3149   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3150   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3151   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3152   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3153   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3154   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3155   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3156   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3157   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3158   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3159   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3160   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3161   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3162   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3163   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3164   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3165   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3166   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3167   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3168   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3169   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3170   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3171   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3172   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3173   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3174   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3175   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3176   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3177   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3178 
  3179 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3180 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3181 
  3182 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3183 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3184 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3185 
  3186 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3187 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3188 
  3189 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3190 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3191 
  3192 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3193 
  3194 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3195 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3196 
  3197 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3198 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3201 
  3202 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3203 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3204 
  3205 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3206 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3207 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3208 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3209 
  3210 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3211   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3212   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3213   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3215 
  3216 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3217 lattices):
  3218 
  3219     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3220     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3221 
  3222     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3223 
  3224     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3225     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3226     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3227     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3228     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3229     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3230     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3231     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3232     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3233     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3234     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3235     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3236     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3237 
  3238     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3239     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3240     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3241     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3242     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3243     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3244     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3245     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3246     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3247     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3248     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3249     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3250     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3251     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3252     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3253     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3254     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3255     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3256 
  3257   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3258   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3259 
  3260     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3261     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3262     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3263     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3264     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3265 
  3266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268 * Refined field classes:
  3269   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3270     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3271     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3272   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3274 
  3275 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3276   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3277   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3278   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3279     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3280   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3281     equal_neg_zero.
  3282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3283 
  3284 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3285 sets to lattices:
  3286 
  3287   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3288   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3289   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3290   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3291   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3292   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3293   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3294   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3295   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3296   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3297 
  3298 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3299 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3300 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3301 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3302 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3303 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3304 
  3305 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3306 multiset order:
  3307 
  3308   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3309     <= and <;
  3310   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3311     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3312     multiset_order;
  3313   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3314     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3315     generation;
  3316   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3317     if needed.
  3318 
  3319 Renamed:
  3320 
  3321   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3322   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3323   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3324 
  3325 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326 
  3327 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3328 
  3329 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3330 
  3331 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3332 
  3333 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3334 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3335 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3336 
  3337   Constants:
  3338   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3339   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3340   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3341   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3342   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3343   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3344   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3345   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3346   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3347   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3348   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3349   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3350   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3351 
  3352   Lemmas:
  3353   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3354   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3355   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3356   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3357   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3358   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3359   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3360   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3361   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3362   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3363   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3364   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3365   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3366 
  3367 * Sledgehammer:
  3368   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3369     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3370     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3371     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3372     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3373     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3374     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3375   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3376   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3377     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3378   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3379     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3380     is still experimental.)
  3381   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3382     full-typed mode.
  3383   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3384 
  3385 * Nitpick:
  3386   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3387   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3388   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3389     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3390   - Added support for quotient types.
  3391   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3392     constructs.
  3393   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3394     "termination" proofs).
  3395   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3396   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3397   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3398   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3399     record getters.
  3400   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3401   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3402   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3403   - Added "atoms" option.
  3404   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3405     problems.
  3406   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3407     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3408     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3409   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3410     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3411   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3412 
  3413 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3414   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3415   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3416   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3417   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3418   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3419   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3420   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3421   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3422   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3423 
  3424 
  3425 *** HOLCF ***
  3426 
  3427 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3428 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3429 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3432 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3433 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3434 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3435 
  3436 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3437 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3438 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3439 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3440 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441 
  3442 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3443 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3444 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3445 
  3446 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3447 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3448 
  3449   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3450   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3451 
  3452 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3453 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3454 
  3455   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3456   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3457   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3458   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3459   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3460 
  3461 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3462 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3463 
  3464   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3465   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3466   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3467 
  3468 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3469 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3470 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3471 
  3472 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3473 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3474 
  3475 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3476 
  3477 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3478 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3479 
  3480 
  3481 *** ML ***
  3482 
  3483 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3484 
  3485     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3486     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3487 
  3488     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3489     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3490     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3491     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3492 
  3493     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3494     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3495     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3496 
  3497 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3498 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3499 
  3500 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3501 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3502 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3503 
  3504 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3505 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3506 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3507 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3508 
  3509 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3510 the context or even global references.
  3511 
  3512 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3513 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3514 
  3515 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3516 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3517 
  3518   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3519   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3520   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3521   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3522   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3523   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3524   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3525   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3526   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3527   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3528 
  3529 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3530 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3531 
  3532 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3533 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3534 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3535 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3536 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3537 
  3538 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3539 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3540 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3541 Theory_Data version.
  3542 
  3543 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3544 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3545 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3546 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3547 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3548 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3549 explicitly in rare situations.
  3550 
  3551 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3552 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3554 
  3555 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3556 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3557 
  3558 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3559 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3560 quite rare).
  3561 
  3562 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3563 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3564 
  3565 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3566 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3567 terms.
  3568 
  3569 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3570 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3571 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3572 
  3573 
  3574 *** System ***
  3575 
  3576 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3577 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3578 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3579 
  3580 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3581 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3582 respectively.
  3583 
  3584 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3585 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3586 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3587 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3588 
  3589   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3590 
  3591 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3592 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3593 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3594 component.
  3595 
  3596 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3597 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3598 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3599 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3600 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3601 the user for manual installation.
  3602 
  3603 
  3604 
  3605 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3606 -------------------------------------
  3607 
  3608 *** General ***
  3609 
  3610 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3611 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3612 
  3613 
  3614 *** Pure ***
  3615 
  3616 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3617 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3618 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3619 
  3620 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3621 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3622 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3623 
  3624 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3625 interpretation.
  3626 
  3627 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3628 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3629 
  3630 
  3631 *** Document preparation ***
  3632 
  3633 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3634 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3635 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3636 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3637 
  3638 
  3639 *** HOL ***
  3640 
  3641 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3642 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3643 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3644 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3645 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3646 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3647 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3648 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3649 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3650 
  3651 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3652 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3653 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3654 
  3655 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3656 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3657 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3658 
  3659 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3660 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3661 
  3662 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3663 
  3664 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3665 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3666 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3667 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3668 
  3669 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3670 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3671 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3672 "mirabelle" utility.
  3673 
  3674 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3675 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3676 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3677 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3678 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3679 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3680 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3681 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3682 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3683 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3684 
  3685 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3686 procedure only.
  3687 
  3688 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3689 
  3690 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3691 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3692 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3693 that fail later.
  3694 
  3695 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3696 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3697 
  3698 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3699 the same method as the approximation method.
  3700 
  3701 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3702 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3703 series expansion.
  3704 
  3705 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3706 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3707 
  3708 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3709 reals.
  3710 
  3711 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3712 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3713 
  3714 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3715 fixpoint theorem.
  3716 
  3717 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3718   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3719     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3720   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3721     accordingly
  3722   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3723     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3724   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3725     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3726 
  3727 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3728 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3729 lattice.
  3730 
  3731 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3732 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3733 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3734 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3735 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3736 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3738 
  3739 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3740   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3741     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3742   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3743     le_inf_iff
  3744   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3745     sup_aci)
  3746   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3747   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3748   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3749     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3750     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3751     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3752     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3753     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3754     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3755     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3756     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3757     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3758     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3759   - authentic syntax for
  3760     Set.Pow
  3761     Set.image
  3762   - mere abbreviations:
  3763     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3764     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3765     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3766     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3767     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3768     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3769     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3770     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3771   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3772 
  3773 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3774 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3775 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3776 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3777 
  3778 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3779 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3780 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3781 
  3782 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3783 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3784 
  3785 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3786 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3787 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3788 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3789 
  3790 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3791 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3792 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3793 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3794 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3795 
  3796 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3797 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3799 
  3800 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3801 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3802 
  3803 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3804 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3805 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3806 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3807 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3808 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3809 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3810 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3811 
  3812 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3813     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3814     code_post       replaces    code post
  3815     etc.
  3816   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3817 
  3818 * Renamed methods:
  3819     sizechange -> size_change
  3820     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3821   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3822 
  3823 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3824 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3825 
  3826 * Renamed theorems:
  3827     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3828     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3829     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3830     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3831     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3832   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3833 
  3834 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3836 
  3837 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3838 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3839 
  3840 
  3841 *** HOLCF ***
  3842 
  3843 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3844 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3845 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3846 
  3847 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3848 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3849 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3850 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3851 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3852 
  3853 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3854 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3855 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3856 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3857 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3858 
  3859 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3860 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3861 constructor are pre-configured.
  3862 
  3863 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3864 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3865 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3866 
  3867 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3868 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3869 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3870 as well.)
  3871 
  3872 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3873 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3874 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3875 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3876 examples.
  3877 
  3878 
  3879 *** ML ***
  3880 
  3881 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3882 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3883 
  3884 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3885 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3886 position, logical grouping etc.
  3887 
  3888 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3889 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3890 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3891 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3892 
  3893 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3894 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3895 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3896 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3897 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3898 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3899 
  3900 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3901 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3902 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3903 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3904 experiments with references.
  3905 
  3906 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3907 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3908 
  3909 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3910 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3911 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3912 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3913 
  3914 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3915 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3916 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3917 
  3918 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3919 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3920 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3921 
  3922 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3923 
  3924 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3926 
  3927 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3928 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3929 
  3930 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3931 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3932 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3933 
  3934 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3935 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3936 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3937 
  3938 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3939 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3940 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3941 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942 
  3943 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3944 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3945 instead of global theory.
  3946 
  3947 
  3948 *** System ***
  3949 
  3950 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3951 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3952 usedir option -q.
  3953 
  3954 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3955 also the system manual.
  3956 
  3957 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3958 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3959 
  3960 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3961 this is always enabled.
  3962 
  3963 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3964 
  3965 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3966 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3967 currently supported on Linux only.
  3968 
  3969 
  3970 
  3971 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3972 --------------------------------
  3973 
  3974 *** General ***
  3975 
  3976 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3977 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3978 
  3979   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3980     "isatool."
  3981 
  3982   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3983     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3984 
  3985   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3986     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3987 
  3988 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3989 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3990 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3991 
  3992 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3993 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3994 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3995 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3996 via "isabelle emacs".
  3997 
  3998 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3999 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4000 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4001 
  4002 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4003 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4004 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4005 
  4006 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4007 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4008 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4009 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4010 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4011 
  4012 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4013 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4014 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4015 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4016 
  4017 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4018 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4019 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4020 
  4021 
  4022 *** Pure ***
  4023 
  4024 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4025 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4026 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4027 
  4028 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4029 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4030 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4031 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4032 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4033 
  4034 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4035 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4036 useful in locale declarations.
  4037 
  4038 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4039 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4040 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4041 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4042 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4043 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4044 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4045 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4046 no longer generated.
  4047 
  4048 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4049 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4050 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4051 
  4052 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4053 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4054 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4055 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4056 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4057 
  4058 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4059 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4060 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4061 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4062 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4063 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4064 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4065 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4066 
  4067 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4068 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4069 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4070 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4071 
  4072 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4073 
  4074 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4075 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4076 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4077 
  4078 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4079 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4080 
  4081 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4082 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4083 in HOL, write
  4084 
  4085     class foo = ...
  4086 
  4087 instead of
  4088 
  4089     class foo = type + ...
  4090 
  4091 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4092 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4093 
  4094 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4095 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4096 
  4097 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4098 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4099 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4100 
  4101 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4102 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4103 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4104 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4105 directly in regular applications.
  4106 
  4107 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4108 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4109 
  4110 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4111 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4112 
  4113 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4114 theory context.
  4115 
  4116 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4117 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4118 
  4119 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4120 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4121 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4122 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4123 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4124 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4125 
  4126   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4127 
  4128 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4129 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4130 normalization.
  4131 
  4132 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4133 addressing etc.
  4134 
  4135 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4136 
  4137   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4138   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4139 
  4140 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4141 
  4142   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4143      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4144      parts of the code generator framework).
  4145 
  4146   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4147      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4148      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4149 
  4150 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4151 
  4152 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4153 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4154 
  4155 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4156 patterns, e.g.
  4157 
  4158     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4159 
  4160 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4161 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4162 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4163 hyphen:
  4164 
  4165     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4166 
  4167 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4168 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4169 
  4170 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4171 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4172 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4173 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4174 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4175 higher-order unification.
  4176 
  4177 
  4178 *** Document preparation ***
  4179 
  4180 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4181 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4182 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4183 
  4184 
  4185 *** HOL ***
  4186 
  4187 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4188 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4189 
  4190 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4191 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4192 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4193 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4194 Main, as before.
  4195 
  4196 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4197 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4198 
  4199 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4200 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4201 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4202 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4203 
  4204 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4205 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4206 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4207 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4208 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4209 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4210 
  4211 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4212 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4213 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4214 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4215 
  4216 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4217 menu.
  4218 
  4219 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4220 (contains the empty clause).
  4221 
  4222 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4223 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4224 
  4225 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4226 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4227 
  4228 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4229 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4230 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4231 
  4232 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4233 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4234 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4235 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4236 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4237 
  4238 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4239 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4240 
  4241 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4242 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4243 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4244 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4245 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4246 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4247 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4248 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4249 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4250 
  4251 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4252 
  4253 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4254 
  4255 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4256 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4257 
  4258 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4259 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4260 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4261 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4262 
  4263 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4264 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4265 
  4266     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4267     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4268     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4269     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4270     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4271     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4272     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4273     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4274 
  4275 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4276 theory Set.
  4277 
  4278 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4279 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4280 
  4281 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4282 
  4283 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4284 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4285 
  4286 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4287 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4288 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4289 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4290 allowed. For examples see
  4291 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4292 
  4293 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4294 
  4295 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4297 
  4298 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4299 structure:
  4300 
  4301     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4302     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4303     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4304     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4305     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4306     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4307     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4308     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4309     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4310     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4311     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4312     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4313     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4314     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4315     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4316     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4317     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4318     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4319     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4320     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4321     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4322     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4323     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4324     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4325     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4326     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4327     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4328     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4329     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4330     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4331     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4332     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4333     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4334 
  4335     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4336     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4337     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4338     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4339     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4340     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4341     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4342     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4343     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4344     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4345 
  4346     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4347     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4348     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4349     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4350     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4351     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4352 
  4353 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4354 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4355 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4356 
  4357 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4358 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4359 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4360 
  4361 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4362 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4363 
  4364 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4365 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4366 
  4367 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4368 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4369 proofs, e.g.
  4370 
  4371   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4372 
  4373 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4374 
  4375 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4376 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4377 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4378 
  4379 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4380 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4382 
  4383 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4384 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4385 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4386 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4387 
  4388 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4389 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4390 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4391 preorder_class.*.
  4392 
  4393 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4394 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4395 
  4396 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4397 
  4398   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4399 
  4400 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4401 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4402 fold_image.
  4403 
  4404 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4405 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4406 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4407 the former will disappear at some point.
  4408 
  4409 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4410 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4411 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4412 
  4413 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4414 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4415 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4416 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4417 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4418 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4419 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4420 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4421 
  4422 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4423 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4424 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4425 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4426 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4427 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4428 
  4429     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4430     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4431     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4432     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4433     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4434     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4435     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4436 
  4437 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4438 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4439 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4440 
  4441 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4442 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4443 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4444 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4445 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4446 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4447 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4448 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4449 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4450 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4451 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4452 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4453 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4454 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4455 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4456 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4457 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4458 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4459 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4460 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4461 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4462 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4463 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4464 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4465 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4466 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4467 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4468 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4469 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4470 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4471 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4472 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4473 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4474 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4475 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4476 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4477 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4478 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4479 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4480 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4481 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4482 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4483 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4484 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4485 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4486 
  4487 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4488 
  4489 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4490 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4491 
  4492 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4493 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4494 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4495 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4496 
  4497 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4498 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4499 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4500 theory RealVector.
  4501 
  4502 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4503 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4504 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4505 and inner products are included.
  4506 
  4507 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4508 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4509 supported.
  4510 
  4511 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4512 first diagonalization argument.
  4513 
  4514 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4515 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4516 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4517 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4518 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4519 
  4520     hide (open) const gcd
  4521     abbreviation gcd where
  4522       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4523     notation (output)
  4524       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4525 
  4526 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4527 
  4528 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4529 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4530 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4531 
  4532 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4533 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4534 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4535 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4536 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4537 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4538 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4539 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4540 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4541 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4542 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4543 cases.
  4544 
  4545 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4546 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4547 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4548 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4549 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4550 
  4551     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4552     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4553     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4554     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4555     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4556 
  4557 
  4558 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4559 
  4560 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4561 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4562 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4563 
  4564 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4565 
  4566 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4567 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4568 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4569 
  4570 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4571 
  4572 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4573 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4574 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4575 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4576 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4577 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4578 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4579 
  4580 
  4581 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4582 
  4583 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4584 
  4585 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4586 theory targets.
  4587 
  4588 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4589 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4590 'inductive' etc.
  4591 
  4592 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4593 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4594 
  4595 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4596 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4597 
  4598 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4599 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4600 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4601 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4602 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4603 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4604 the algorithm W:
  4605 
  4606  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4607  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4608          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4609 
  4610 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4611 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4612 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4613 
  4614 
  4615 *** HOLCF ***
  4616 
  4617 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4618 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4619 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4620 
  4621 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4622 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4623 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4624 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4625 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4626 
  4627 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4628 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4629 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4630 
  4631 
  4632 *** ZF ***
  4633 
  4634 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4635 
  4636 
  4637 *** ML ***
  4638 
  4639 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4640 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4641 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4642 5.2.1!
  4643 
  4644 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4645 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4646 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4647 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4648 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4649 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4650 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4651 
  4652 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4653 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4654 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4655 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4656 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4657 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4658 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4659 
  4660 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4661 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4662 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4663 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4664 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4665 
  4666 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4667 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4668 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4669 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4670 Method.add_method.
  4671 
  4672 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4673 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4674 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4675 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4676 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4677 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4678 
  4679 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4680 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4681 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4682 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4683 examples.
  4684 
  4685 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4686 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4687 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4688 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4689 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4690 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4691 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4692 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4693 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4694 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4695 
  4696 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4697 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4698 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4699 
  4700 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4701 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4702 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4703 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4704 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4705 resort for legacy applications.
  4706 
  4707 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4708 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4709 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4710 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4711 explicit runtime argument.
  4712 
  4713 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4714 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4715 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4716 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4717 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4718 
  4719 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4720 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4721 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4722 theory state.
  4723 
  4724 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4725 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4726 
  4727   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4728   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4729   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4730   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4731   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4732   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4733   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4734   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4735   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4736   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4737 
  4738 
  4739 *** System ***
  4740 
  4741 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4742 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4743 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4744 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4745 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4746 
  4747 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4748 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4749 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4750 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4751 
  4752 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4753 
  4754 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4755 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4756 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4757 prover operations.
  4758 
  4759 
  4760 
  4761 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4762 -------------------------------
  4763 
  4764 *** General ***
  4765 
  4766 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4767 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4768 
  4769 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4770 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4771 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4772 provides a proper context already.
  4773 
  4774 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4775 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4776 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4777 
  4778 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4779 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4780 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4781 swap theory imports.
  4782 
  4783 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4784 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4785 
  4786 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4787 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4788 white space without escapes.
  4789 
  4790 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4791 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4792 "foo_bar".
  4793 
  4794 
  4795 *** Pure ***
  4796 
  4797 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4798 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4799 
  4800 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4801 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4802 
  4803 (1) unused_thms
  4804      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4805 
  4806 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4807      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4808      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4809 
  4810 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4811      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4812      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4813      their ancestors.
  4814 
  4815 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4816 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4817 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4818 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4819 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4820 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4821 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4822 
  4823 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4824 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4825 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4826 
  4827 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4828 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4829 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4830 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4831 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4832 
  4833 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4834 
  4835 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4836 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4837 update of theories within ML code.
  4838 
  4839 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4840 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4841 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4842 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4843 
  4844 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4845 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4846 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4848 
  4849 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4850 
  4851 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4852 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4853 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4854 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4855 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4856 
  4857 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4858 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4859 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4860 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4861 situations.
  4862 
  4863 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4864 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4865 proof text.
  4866 
  4867 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4868 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4869 
  4870 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4871 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4872 predicates.
  4873 
  4874 
  4875 *** Document preparation ***
  4876 
  4877 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4878 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4879 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4880 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4881 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4882 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4883 
  4884 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4885 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4886 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4887 
  4888 
  4889 *** HOL ***
  4890 
  4891 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4892 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4893 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4894 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4895 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4896 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4897 
  4898 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4899 with multithreading.
  4900 
  4901 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4902 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4903 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4904 
  4905 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4906 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4907 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4908 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4909 
  4910 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4911 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4912 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4913 and makes them available separately.  See
  4914 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4915 
  4916 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4917 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4918 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4919 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4920 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4921 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4922 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4923 the declared rules.
  4924 
  4925 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4926 
  4927   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4928 
  4929 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4930 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4931 
  4932 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4933 
  4934   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4935 
  4936   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4937     definitions on => and bool.
  4938 
  4939   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4940     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4941     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4942 
  4943       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4944       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4945       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4946       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4947       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4948       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4949       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4950       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4951 
  4952   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4953     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4954     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4955 
  4956   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4957     The proof pattern
  4958 
  4959       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4960       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4961 
  4962     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4963     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4964 
  4965       have "EX S. P S"
  4966       proof
  4967         show "P S" <...>
  4968       qed
  4969 
  4970   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4971     The proof pattern
  4972 
  4973       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4974       also have "S = T" <...>
  4975       finally have "P T" .
  4976 
  4977     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4978     must be replaced by something like
  4979 
  4980       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4981       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4982       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4983 
  4984   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4985     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4986 
  4987       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4988 
  4989     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4990     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4991     type of the form
  4992 
  4993       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4994 
  4995     rather than
  4996 
  4997       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4998 
  4999 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5000 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5001 
  5002 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5003 
  5004 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5005 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5006 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5007 
  5008 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5009 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5010 
  5011 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5012 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5013 
  5014 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5015 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5016 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5017 
  5018 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5019 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5020 
  5021   less_trans
  5022   less_linear
  5023   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5024   le_less_trans
  5025   less_le_trans
  5026   less_not_sym
  5027   less_asym
  5028 
  5029 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5030 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5031 and different variable names.
  5032 
  5033 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5034 
  5035 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5036 finite maps.
  5037 
  5038 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5039 
  5040 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5041 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5042 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5043 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5044 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5045 accordingly.
  5046 
  5047 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5048 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5049 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5050 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5051 
  5052 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5053 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5054 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5055 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5056 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5058 
  5059 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5060 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5061 
  5062 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5063 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5064 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5065 
  5066 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5067 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5068 
  5069 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5070 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5071 
  5072 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5073 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5074 
  5075 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5076 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5077 
  5078 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5079 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5081 
  5082 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5083 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5084 
  5085 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5086 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5087 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5088 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5089 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5090 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5091 
  5092 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5093 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5094 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5095 
  5096 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5097 
  5098 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5099 
  5100 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5101 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5102 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5103 
  5104 
  5105 *** ZF ***
  5106 
  5107 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5108 same session:
  5109 
  5110   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5111   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5112   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5113   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5114   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5115   List      -> List_ZF
  5116   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5117 
  5118 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5119 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5120 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5121 
  5122 
  5123 *** ML ***
  5124 
  5125 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5126 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5127 
  5128 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5129 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5130 
  5131 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5132 
  5133 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5134 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5135 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5136 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5137 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5138 
  5139 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5140 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5141 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5142 
  5143 
  5144 *** System ***
  5145 
  5146 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5147 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5148 
  5149 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5150 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5151 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5152 
  5153 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5154 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5155 
  5156 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5157 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5158 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5159 
  5160 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5161 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5162 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5163 
  5164 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5165 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5166 
  5167 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5168 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5169 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5170 script.
  5171 
  5172 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5173 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5174 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5175 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5176 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5177 
  5178 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5179 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5180 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5181 
  5182 
  5183 
  5184 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5185 -----------------------------------
  5186 
  5187 *** General ***
  5188 
  5189 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5190 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5191 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5192 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5193 
  5194 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5195 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5196 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5197 
  5198 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5199 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5200 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5201 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5202 
  5203 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5204 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5205 quotes.
  5206 
  5207 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5208 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5209 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5210 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5211 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5212 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5213 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5214 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5215 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5216 
  5217 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5218 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5219 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5220 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5221 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5222 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5223 
  5224 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5225 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5226 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5227 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5228 
  5229 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5230 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5231 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5232 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5233 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5234 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5235 
  5236 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5237 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5238 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5239 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5240 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5241 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5242 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5243 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5244 
  5245 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5246 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5247 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5248 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5249 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5250 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5251 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5252 
  5253 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5254 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5255 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5256 
  5257 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5258 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5259 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5260 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5261 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5262 limit is imposed.
  5263 
  5264 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5265 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5266 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5267 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5268 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5269 and scalability.
  5270 
  5271 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5272 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5273 
  5274 
  5275 *** Document preparation ***
  5276 
  5277 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5278 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5279 current context.
  5280 
  5281 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5282 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5283 
  5284 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5285 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5286 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5287 
  5288 
  5289 *** Pure ***
  5290 
  5291 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5292 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5293 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5294 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5295 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5296 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5297 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5298 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5299 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5300 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5301 
  5302 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5303 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5304 sketch:
  5305 
  5306     internal compilation:
  5307         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5308     writing SML code to a file:
  5309         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5310     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5311         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5312     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5313         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5314 
  5315     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5316         method ``eval''
  5317 
  5318 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5319 
  5320 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5321 
  5322     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5323     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5324     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5325     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5326 
  5327 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5328 
  5329     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5330       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5331 
  5332     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5333       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5334 
  5335     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5336       {(target)}+
  5337         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5338 
  5339     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5340       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5341         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5342 
  5343 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5344 
  5345 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5346 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5347 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5348 codegen".
  5349 
  5350 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5351 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5352 annotations).
  5353 
  5354 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5355 syntax.
  5356 
  5357 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5358 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5359 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5360 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5361 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5362 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5363 
  5364 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5365 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5366 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5367 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5368 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5369 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5370 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5371 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5372 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5373 equations, see section "definitions".
  5374 
  5375 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5376 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5377 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5378 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5379 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5380 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5381 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5382 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5383 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5384 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5385 
  5386 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5387 configuration options:
  5388 
  5389   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5390   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5391   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5392   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5393   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5394   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5395   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5396   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5397   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5398 
  5399 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5400 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5401 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5402 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5403 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5404 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5405 order.
  5406 
  5407 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5408 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5409 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5410 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5411 context encountered later on.
  5412 
  5413 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5414 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5415 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5416 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5417 
  5418 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5419 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5420 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5421 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5422 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5423 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5424 
  5425 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5426 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5427 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5428 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5429 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5430 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5431 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5432 more permissive.
  5433 
  5434 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5435 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5436 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5437 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5438 maintainability of proof texts.
  5439 
  5440 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5441 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5442 
  5443   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5444   then guess x and y by clarify
  5445 
  5446 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5447 proof tools being involved here.
  5448 
  5449 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5450 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5451 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5452 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5453 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5454 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5455 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5456 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5457 
  5458 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5459 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5460 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5461 
  5462   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5463   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5464   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5465   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5466 
  5467 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5468 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5469 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5470 
  5471 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5472 both named and unnamed ones.
  5473 
  5474 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5475 
  5476   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5477 
  5478 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5479 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5480 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5481 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5482 
  5483 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5484 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5485 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5486 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5487 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5488 
  5489 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5490 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5491 
  5492 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5493 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5494 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5495 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5496 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5497 originally first one.
  5498 
  5499 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5500 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5501 expected.
  5502 
  5503 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5504 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5505 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5506 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5507 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5508 
  5509   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5510     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5511     obtains x where "P x"
  5512 
  5513   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5514     assumes "A & B"
  5515     obtains A and B
  5516 
  5517   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5518     assumes "A | B"
  5519     obtains
  5520       A
  5521     | B
  5522 
  5523 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5524 explicitly:
  5525 
  5526   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5527     obtains "~ thesis"
  5528 
  5529   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5530     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5531 
  5532 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5533 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5534 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5535 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5536 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5537 case_names).
  5538 
  5539 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5540 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5541 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5542 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5543 
  5544 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5545 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5546 top-level lemma.
  5547 
  5548 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5549 introduction rule (default "that").
  5550 
  5551 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5552 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5553 to occur.
  5554 
  5555 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5556 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5557 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5558 representations independently of name spaces.
  5559 
  5560 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5561 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5562 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5563 
  5564 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5565 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5566 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5567 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5568 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5569 current context.
  5570 
  5571 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5572 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5573 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5574 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5575 
  5576   axiomatization
  5577     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5578     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5579 
  5580   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5581   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5582 
  5583   abbreviation
  5584     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5585     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5586 
  5587 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5588 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5589 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5590 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5591 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5592 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5593 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5594 
  5595 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5596 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5597 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5598 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5599 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5600 
  5601 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5602 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5603 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5604 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5605 
  5606 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5607 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5608 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5609 
  5610   definition "K x _ = x"
  5611 
  5612   inductive conj for A B
  5613   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5614 
  5615 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5616 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5617 abbreviations on output.
  5618 
  5619 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5620 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5621 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5622 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5623 
  5624 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5625 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5626 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5627 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5628 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5629 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5630 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5631 
  5632 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5633 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5634 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5635 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5636 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5637 
  5638 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5639 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5640 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5641 
  5642 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5643 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5644 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5645 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5646 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5647 
  5648   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5649     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5650 
  5651 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5652 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5653 partial_order.
  5654 
  5655 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5656 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5657 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5658 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5659 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5660 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5661 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5662 examples.
  5663 
  5664 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5665 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5666 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5667 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5668 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5669 
  5670 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5671 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5672 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5673 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5674 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5675 
  5676   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5677   (induct set: foo bar)
  5678   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5679   (induct type: foo bar)
  5680 
  5681 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5682 new format.
  5683 
  5684 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5685 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5686 
  5687 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5688 considered a legacy feature.
  5689 
  5690 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5691 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5692 
  5693 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5694 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5695 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5696 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5697   
  5698 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5699 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5700 manipulating the claset.
  5701 
  5702 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5703 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5704 least one premise.
  5705 
  5706 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5707 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5708 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5709 rule steps.
  5710 
  5711 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5712 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5713 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5714 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5715 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5716 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5717 
  5718 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5719 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5720 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5721 
  5722 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5723 the graph browser tool.
  5724 
  5725 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5726 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5727 
  5728 
  5729 *** HOL ***
  5730 
  5731 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5732 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5733 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5734 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5735 multi-threading.
  5736   
  5737 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5738 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5739 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5740 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5741 work with multi-threading.
  5742 
  5743 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5744 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5745 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5746 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5747 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5748 
  5749 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5750 
  5751 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5752 equality.
  5753 
  5754 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5755 the new 'class' package:
  5756 
  5757     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5758     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5759     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5760     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5761     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5762     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5763     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5764     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5765     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5766     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5767     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5768     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5769     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5770     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5771     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5772     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5773     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5774     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5775     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5776     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5777 
  5778 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5779 
  5780 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5781 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5782 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5783 names.
  5784 
  5785 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5786 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5787 
  5788 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5789 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5790 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5791 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5792 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5793 
  5794 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5795 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5796 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5797 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5798 
  5799 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5800 
  5801 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5802 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5803 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5804 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5806 
  5807 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5808 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5809 
  5810 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5811 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5812 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5813 
  5814 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5815 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5816 
  5817 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5818 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5819 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5820 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5821 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5822 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5823 in the current context.
  5824 
  5825 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5826 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5827 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5828 
  5829 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5830 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5831 
  5832 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5833 
  5834     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5835     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5836 
  5837     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5838       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5839     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5840     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5841 
  5842     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5843     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5844 
  5845   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5846 
  5847     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5848     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5849     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5850     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5851     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5852     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5853     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5854     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5855     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5856     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5857     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5858     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5859     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5860     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5861     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5862     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5863     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5864     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5865     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5866     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5867     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5868     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5869     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5870     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5871     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5872     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5873     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5874     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5875     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5876     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5877     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5878     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5879     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5880     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5881     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5882 
  5883     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5884     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5885     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5886     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5887     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5888     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5889     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5890     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5891     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5892     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5893     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5894     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5895     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5896     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5897     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5898     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5899     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5900 
  5901     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5902     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5903     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5904     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5905     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5906     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5907     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5908     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5909     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5910     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5911     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5912     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5913     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5914     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5915     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5916     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5917     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5918     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5919     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5920     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5921     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5922     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5923     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5924     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5925     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5926     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5927     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5928     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5929 
  5930     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5931     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5932     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5933     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5934     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5935     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5936 
  5937     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5938     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5939     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5940     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5941 
  5942     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5943     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5944 
  5945     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5946     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5947 
  5948 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5949 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5950 
  5951 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5952 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5953 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5954 "*.size".
  5955 
  5956 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5957 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5958 
  5959 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5960 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5961 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5962 
  5963 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5964 
  5965 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5966 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5967 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5968 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5969 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5970 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5971 numerals on all operations.
  5972 
  5973 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5974 
  5975 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5976 
  5977 * Code generator library theories:
  5978   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5979     languages.
  5980   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5981     languages.
  5982   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5983     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5984   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5985   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5986     denominator).
  5987   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5988     representable by rational numbers.
  5989   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5990     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5991     includes Code_Integer.
  5992   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5993     target-language built-in integers.
  5994   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5995     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5996 
  5997 * New package for inductive predicates
  5998 
  5999   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  6000 
  6001     inductive
  6002       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6003       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6004     where
  6005       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6006     | ...
  6007 
  6008   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  6009 
  6010     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6011 
  6012     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6013     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6014 
  6015     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  6016     intros
  6017       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6018       ...
  6019 
  6020   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  6021   sets to be defined with the new package via
  6022 
  6023     inductive_set
  6024       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6025       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6026     where
  6027       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6028     | ...
  6029 
  6030   or
  6031 
  6032     inductive_set
  6033       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6034       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6035       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6036     where
  6037       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6038     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6039     | ...
  6040 
  6041   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  6042 
  6043   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  6044   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  6045 
  6046   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6047 
  6048   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6049     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6050     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6051     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6052     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6053 
  6054   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6055     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6056     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6057     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6058     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6059     statements of the form
  6060 
  6061       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6062 
  6063     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6064     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6065 
  6066       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6067 
  6068   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6069 
  6070       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6071         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6072         ==> ... ==> P
  6073 
  6074     for predicates and
  6075 
  6076       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6077         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6078         ==> ... ==> P
  6079 
  6080     for sets rather than
  6081 
  6082       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6083         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6084         ==> ... ==> P
  6085 
  6086     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6087     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6088     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6089 
  6090   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6091     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6092     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6093 
  6094 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6095 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6096 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6097 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6098 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6099 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6100 
  6101 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6102 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6103 
  6104 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6105 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6106 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6107 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6108 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6109 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6110 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6111 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6112 variable.
  6113 
  6114 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6115 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6116 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6117 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6118   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6119   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6120 
  6121 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6122 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6123 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6124 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6125 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6126 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6127 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6128 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6129 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6130 
  6131 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6132 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6133 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6134 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6135 rat, etc.
  6136 
  6137 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6138 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6139 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6140 
  6141 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6142 
  6143 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6144 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6145 
  6146 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6147 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6148 
  6149 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6150 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6151 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6152 
  6153 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6154 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6156 
  6157 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6158 
  6159 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6160 
  6161 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6162 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6163 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6164 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6165 
  6166 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6167 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6168 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6169 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6170 
  6171 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6172 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6173 algebraic operations.
  6174 
  6175 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6177 
  6178 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6179 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6180 
  6181 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6182 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6183 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6184 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6185 adapted.
  6186  
  6187 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6188 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6189 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6190 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6191 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6192 
  6193 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6194 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6195 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6196 
  6197 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6198 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6199 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6200 
  6201 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6202 
  6203 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6204 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6205 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6206   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6207       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6208   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6209   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6210   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6211 
  6212 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6213 
  6214 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6215 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6216 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6217 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6218 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6219 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6220 
  6221 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6222 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6223 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6224 
  6225 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6226 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6227 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6229 
  6230 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6231 
  6232 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6233 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6234 
  6235 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6236 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6237 
  6238 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6239 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6240 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6241 
  6242 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to