NEWS
author wenzelm
Mon Jan 13 20:20:44 2014 +0100 (2014-01-13)
changeset 55007 0c07990363a3
parent 55006 ea9fc64327cb
child 55015 e33c5bd729ff
permissions -rw-r--r--
activation of Z3 via "z3_non_commercial" system option (without requiring restart);
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 
    20 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    21 
    22 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    23 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    24 
    25 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    26 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    27 
    28 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    29 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    30 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    31 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    32 
    33 
    34 *** Pure ***
    35 
    36 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    37 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    38 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    39 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    40 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    41 
    42 
    43 *** HOL ***
    44 
    45 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
    46 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
    47 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
    48 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
    49 
    50 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
    51 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    52 
    53 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
    54 with the given constants.
    55 
    56 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
    57 
    58 Fact consolidations:
    59     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
    60     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
    61     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
    62     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
    63     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
    64     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
    65     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
    66     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
    67     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
    68     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
    69     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
    70     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
    71     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
    72     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
    73     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
    74     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
    75     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
    76     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
    77     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
    78     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
    79     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
    80     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
    81     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
    82     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
    83     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
    84     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
    85     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
    86     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
    87     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
    88     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
    89     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
    90     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
    91     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
    92     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
    93     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
    94     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
    95     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
    96     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
    97     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
    98     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
    99 
   100 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   101 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   102 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   103 
   104 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   105 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   106 
   107 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   108 
   109 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   110 
   111 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   113 
   114 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   116 
   117 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   118 operations on records.
   119 
   120 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   124     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   126 
   127 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   128     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   129     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   131 
   132 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   133   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   134   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   135   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   136     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   137   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   138     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   139   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   140 INCOMPATBILITY.
   141 
   142 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   143     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   144     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   145     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   146     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   148 
   149 * Fact name consolidation:
   150     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   151     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   152     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   153     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   154     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   156 
   157 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   158 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   159 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   160 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   161 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   162 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   163 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   164 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   165 
   166 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   167 
   168 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   169 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   170 
   171 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   172 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   173 
   174 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   175 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   176 or the brute way with
   177 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   178 
   179 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   180 
   181 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   182 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   183 
   184 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   185 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   186 
   187 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   188 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   189 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   190 INCOMPATIBILITY
   191 
   192 * Nitpick:
   193   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   194     infinite values.
   195 
   196 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   197   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   198   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   199     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   200     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   201     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   202     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   203     intervals.
   204 
   205 
   206 *** ML ***
   207 
   208 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   209 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   210 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   211 formal context.
   212 
   213 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   214 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   215 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   216 actually belongs to it).
   217 
   218 
   219 *** System ***
   220 
   221 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   222 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   223 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   224 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   225 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   226 
   227 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   228 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   229 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   230 
   231 
   232 
   233 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   234 -------------------------------------
   235 
   236 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   237 
   238 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   239 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   240 
   241 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   242 after edits surrounding the command location.
   243 
   244 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   245 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   246 e.g. out-of-memory).
   247 
   248 
   249 *** System ***
   250 
   251 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   252 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   253 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   254 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   255 
   256 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   257 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   258 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   259 
   260 
   261 
   262 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   263 -------------------------------------
   264 
   265 *** General ***
   266 
   267 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   268 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   269 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   270 
   271 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   272 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   273 
   274 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   275 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   276 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   277 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   278 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   279 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   280 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   281 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   282 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   283 syntax.
   284 
   285 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   286 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   287 
   288 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   289 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   290 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   291 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   292 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   293 
   294 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   296 
   297 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   298 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   299 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   300 
   301 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   302 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   303 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   304 
   305 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   306 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   307 
   308 
   309 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   310 
   311 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   312 Documentation panel.
   313 
   314 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   315 documentation.
   316 
   317 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   318 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   319 
   320 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   321 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   322 normal editing and checking process.
   323 
   324 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   325 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   326 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   327 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   328 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   329 
   330 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   331 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   332 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   333 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   334 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   335 
   336 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   337 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   338 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   339 
   340 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   341 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   342 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   343 to resolve conflict.
   344 
   345 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   346 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   347 
   348 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   349 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   350 such command executions while editing.
   351 
   352 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   353 document content.
   354 
   355 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   356 toplevel theorem statements.
   357 
   358 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   359 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   360 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   361 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   362 
   363 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   364 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   365 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   366 
   367 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   368 / Global Options / Appearance".
   369 
   370 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   371 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   372 
   373 
   374 *** Pure ***
   375 
   376 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   377 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   378 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   379 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   380 details.
   381 
   382 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   383 
   384 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   385 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   386 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   387 
   388 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   390 
   391 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   392 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   393 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   394 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   395 
   396 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   397 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   398 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   399 
   400 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   401 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   402 
   403 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   404 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   405 situations.
   406 
   407 
   408 *** HOL ***
   409 
   410 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   411 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   413 
   414 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   415 
   416 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   417 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   418 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   419 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   420 
   421   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   422 
   423 * Code generator:
   424   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   425     'code_instance'.
   426   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   427     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   428 
   429 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   430 examples.
   431 
   432 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   433 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   434 to distinguish both when desired.
   435 
   436 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   437 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   438 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   439 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   440 
   441 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   442 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   443 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   444 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   445 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   446 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   447 
   448 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   449 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   450 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   451 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   452 
   453 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   454 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   455 
   456 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   457 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   458 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   459 
   460 * Lifting:
   461   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   462     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   463       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   464       transfer rules
   465     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   466       correspondence relation can be generated
   467     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   468       parametricity
   469     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   470   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   471   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   472     copies
   473   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   474     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   475     anonymous context)
   476   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   477     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   478   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   479     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   480   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   481     INCOMPATIBILITY
   482 
   483 * Transfer:
   484   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   485     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   486   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   487   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   488     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   489   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   490 
   491 * Reification and reflection:
   492   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   493     "Reification".
   494   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   495   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   497 
   498 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   499   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   500     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   501     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   502   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   503     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   504   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   505     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   506     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   507     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   508     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   509     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   510     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   511     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   512   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   513     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   514   - Fact renames:
   515       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   516       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   518 
   519 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   520 
   521 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   522 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   523 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   525 
   526 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   527 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   528 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   529 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   530 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   531 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   532 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   533 lemmas.
   534 
   535 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   536 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   537 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   538 
   539 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   540 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   541 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   542 
   543 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   544 top and bottom elements.
   545 
   546 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   547 
   548 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   549 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   550 
   551  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   552    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   553    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   554 
   555  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   556    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   557    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   558 
   559    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   560    arbitrary filter.
   561 
   562  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   563    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   564    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   565    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   566    on a compact set.
   567 
   568  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   569    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   570    linear_continuum_topology).
   571 
   572  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   573    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   574    on all sequences converging to x.
   575 
   576  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   577    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   578    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   579    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   580    left or right.
   581 
   582  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   583 
   584      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   585 
   586  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   587    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   588 
   589  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   590    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   591    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   592    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   593    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   594    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   595 
   596  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   597 
   598    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   599 
   600    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   601      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   602 
   603    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   604 
   605    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   606      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   607 
   608    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   609 
   610    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   611 
   612  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   613 
   614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   615 
   616 * Nitpick:
   617   - Added option "spy"
   618   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   619 
   620 * Sledgehammer:
   621   - Renamed option:
   622       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   623     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   624   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   625   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   626   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   627 
   628 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   629 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   630 
   631 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   632   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   633   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   634     generated code.
   635   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   636   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   637   - Fact renames:
   638     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   639     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   640     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   641 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   642 
   643 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   644 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   645 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   646 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   647 
   648 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   649 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   650 
   651 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   652 
   653 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   654 
   655     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   656     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   657 
   658 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   659 
   660 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   661 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   662 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   663 
   664 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   665 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   666 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   667 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   668 
   669 * HOL-BNF:
   670   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   671     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   672     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   673     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   674   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   675     coinduct).
   676   - Renamed keywords:
   677     data ~> datatype_new
   678     codata ~> codatatype
   679     bnf_def ~> bnf
   680   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   681     discs ~> disc
   682     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   683     map_id' ~> map_id
   684     sels ~> sel
   685     set_map' ~> set_map
   686     sets ~> set
   687 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   688 
   689 
   690 *** ML ***
   691 
   692 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   693 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   694 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   695 Examples.thy in particular.
   696 
   697 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   698 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   699 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   700 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   701 
   702 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   703 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   704 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   705 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   707 
   708 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   709 
   710     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   711     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   712 
   713 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   714 
   715 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   716 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   717 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   718 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   719 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   720 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   721 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   722 
   723 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   724 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   725 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   726 clasets separately from the context.
   727 
   728 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   729 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   730 
   731 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   732 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   733 
   734 
   735 *** System ***
   736 
   737 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   738 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   739 
   740 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   741 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   742 
   743 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   744 settings variable.
   745 
   746 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   747 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   748 always pdf.
   749 
   750 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   751 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   752 
   753 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   754 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   755 
   756 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   757 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   758 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   759 
   760 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   761 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   762 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   763 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   764 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   765 for HTML presentation of theories.
   766 
   767 
   768 
   769 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   770 -----------------------------------
   771 
   772 *** General ***
   773 
   774 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   775 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   776 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   777 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   778 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   779 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   780 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   781 
   782 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   783 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   784 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   785 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   786 
   787 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   788 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   789 
   790 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   791 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   792 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   793 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   794 dependencies properly.
   795 
   796 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   797 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   798 
   799 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   800 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   801 
   802 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   803 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   804 and "class ... context ...".
   805 
   806 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   807 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   808 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   809 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   810 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   811 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   812 
   813 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   814 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   815 
   816 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   817 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   818 
   819 
   820 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   821 
   822 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   823 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   824 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   825 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   826 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   827 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   828 
   829 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   830 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   831 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   832 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   833 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   834 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   835 
   836 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   837 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   838 browser on demand.
   839 
   840 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   841 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   842 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   843 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   844 
   845 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   846 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   847 
   848 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   849 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   850 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   851 potentially infinite message streams.
   852 
   853 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   854 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   855 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   856 schemes.
   857 
   858 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   859 symbols.
   860 
   861 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   862 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   863 
   864 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   865 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   866 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   867 
   868 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   869 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   870 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   871 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   872 
   873 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   874 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   875 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   876 
   877 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   878 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   879 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   880 Isabelle distribution.
   881 
   882 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   883 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   884 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   885 
   886 
   887 *** Pure ***
   888 
   889 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   890 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   891 
   892 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   893 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   894 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   895 
   896 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   897 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   898 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   899 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   900 with some care where this is really required.
   901 
   902 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   903 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   904 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   905 
   906   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   907 
   908 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   909 a Hasse diagram.
   910 
   911 
   912 *** HOL ***
   913 
   914 * Sledgehammer:
   915 
   916   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   917     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   918   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   919   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   920   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   921   - Renamed options:
   922       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   923       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   924       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   925       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   926 
   927 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   928 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   929 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   930 
   931 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   932 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   933 
   934 * Lifting:
   935   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   936   - quot_del attribute
   937   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   938 
   939 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   940 expressions.
   941 
   942 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   943 pointfree expressions.
   944 
   945 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   946 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   947 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   948 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   949 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   950 
   951 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   952 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   953 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   954 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   955 accordingly.
   956 
   957 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   958 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   959 
   960 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   961 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   962 
   963 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   964 
   965 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   966 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   967 
   968 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   969 
   970 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   971 
   972   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   973   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   974 
   975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   976 
   977 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   978 
   979   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   980   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   981 
   982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   983 
   984 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   985 
   986   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   987     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   988     output f x converges to G.
   989 
   990   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   991     infinity (at_bot).
   992 
   993   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   994     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   995 
   996   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   997     at_top".
   998 
   999 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1000 
  1001 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1002 lattice type classes.
  1003 
  1004 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1005 
  1006     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1007     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1008 
  1009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1010 
  1011 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1012 changes as follows.
  1013 
  1014   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1015 
  1016       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1017       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1018 
  1019   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1020     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1021     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1022     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1023 
  1024   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1025     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1026     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1027 
  1028   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1029     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1030     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1031     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1032 
  1033   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1034     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1035 
  1036       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1037       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1038       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1039       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1040       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1041       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1042       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1043       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1044       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1045       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1046       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1047       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1048       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1049       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1050       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1051       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1052 
  1053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1054 
  1055 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1056 
  1057 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1058 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1059 
  1060 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1061 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1062 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1063 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1064 
  1065   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1066   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1067   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1068   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1069   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1070   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1071   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1072   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1073   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1074   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1075 
  1076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1077 
  1078 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1079 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1080 Data").
  1081 
  1082 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1083 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1084 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1085 code.
  1086 
  1087 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1088 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1089 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1091 
  1092 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1093 
  1094 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1095 
  1096 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1097 
  1098   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1099   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1100 
  1101 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1102 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1103 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1104 
  1105   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1106 
  1107     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1108     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1109     cart_base i  removed
  1110     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1111 
  1112   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1113 
  1114   Renamed lemmas:
  1115 
  1116     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1117     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1118     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1119     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1120     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1121     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1122     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1123     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1124     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1125     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1126 
  1127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1128 
  1129 * HOL/Probability:
  1130 
  1131   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1132 
  1133   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1134     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1135     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1136 
  1137   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1138     projective family).
  1139 
  1140 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1141 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1142 
  1143 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1144 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1145 datatypes.
  1146 
  1147 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1148 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1149 
  1150 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1151 trees for the code generator.
  1152 
  1153 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1154 Lifting/Transfer.
  1155 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1156 
  1157 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1159 
  1160 
  1161 *** Document preparation ***
  1162 
  1163 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1164 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1165 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1166 
  1167 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1168 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1169 
  1170 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1171 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1172 document/root.tex.
  1173 
  1174 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1175 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1176 
  1177 
  1178 *** ML ***
  1179 
  1180 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1181 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1182 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1183 
  1184 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1185 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1186 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1187 
  1188 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1189 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1190 necessarily printing visible text.
  1191 
  1192 
  1193 *** System ***
  1194 
  1195 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1196 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1197 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1198 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1199 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1200 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1201 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1202 
  1203 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1204 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1205 
  1206   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1207 
  1208 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1209 
  1210 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1211 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1212 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1213 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1214 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1215 
  1216 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1217 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1218 
  1219 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1220 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1221 
  1222 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1224 
  1225 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1226 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1227 version of Isabelle.
  1228 
  1229 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1230 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1231 
  1232 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1233 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1234 for home-made settings.
  1235 
  1236 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1237 
  1238 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1239 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1240 configuration.
  1241 
  1242 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1243 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1244 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1245 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1246 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1247 
  1248 
  1249 
  1250 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1251 ------------------------------
  1252 
  1253 *** General ***
  1254 
  1255 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1256 
  1257   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1258     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1259   - markup for bound variables
  1260   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1261   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1262   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1263     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1264 
  1265 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1266 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1267 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1268 
  1269 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1270 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1271 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1272 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1273 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1274 
  1275   context
  1276     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1277     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1278   begin
  1279 
  1280   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1281 
  1282   end
  1283 
  1284   thm my_trans
  1285 
  1286 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1287 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1288 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1289 
  1290 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1291 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1292 
  1293 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1294 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1295 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1296 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1297 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1298 
  1299 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1300 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1301 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1302 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1303 indices of schematic variables.
  1304 
  1305 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1306 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1307 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1308 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1309 etc. was exploited.
  1310 
  1311 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1312 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1313 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1314 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1315 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1316 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1317 
  1318 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1319 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1320 manual.
  1321 
  1322 
  1323 *** Pure ***
  1324 
  1325 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1326 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1327 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1328 
  1329 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1330 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1331 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1332 undocumented feature.)
  1333 
  1334 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1335 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1336 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1337 
  1338   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1339 
  1340   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1341     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1342 
  1343 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1344 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1345 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1346 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1347 
  1348 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1349 
  1350     num ~> num_token
  1351     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1352     xstr ~> str_token
  1353 
  1354 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1355 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1356 position information via constraints).
  1357 
  1358 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1359 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1360 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1361 
  1362 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1363 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1364 
  1365 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1366 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1367 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1368 
  1369 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1370 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1371 
  1372 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1373 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1374 
  1375   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1376 
  1377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1378 
  1379 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1380 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1381 
  1382 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1383 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1384 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1385 
  1386 
  1387 *** HOL ***
  1388 
  1389 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1390 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1391 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1392 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1393 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1394 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1395 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1396 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1397 possible.
  1398 
  1399 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1400 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1401 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1402 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1403 
  1404 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1405 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1406 
  1407 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1408 
  1409 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1410 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1411 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1412 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1413 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1414 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1415 
  1416   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1417     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1418 
  1419   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1420     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1421     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1422 
  1423   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1424     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1425 
  1426   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1427     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1428     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1429 
  1430   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1431     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1432 
  1433 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1434 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1435 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1436 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1437 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1438 
  1439   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1440     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1441     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1442     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1443     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1444 
  1445     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1446     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1447 
  1448   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1449     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1450     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1451     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1452     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1453     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1454     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1455     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1456 
  1457   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1458     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1459     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1460     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1461 
  1462   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1463     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1464     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1465     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1466 
  1467   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1468     from type nat to type int.
  1469 
  1470 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1471 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1472 
  1473   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1474     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1475     type.  Example syntax:
  1476 
  1477     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1478       is List.insert
  1479 
  1480     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1481     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1482     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1483     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1484     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1485     by the package.
  1486 
  1487   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1488     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1489     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1490     code generation for each constant.
  1491 
  1492   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1493     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1494     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1495     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1496     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1497 
  1498   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1499     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1500     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1501 
  1502 * Quotient package:
  1503 
  1504   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1505     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1506 
  1507   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1508     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1509 
  1510   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1511     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1512     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1513 
  1514   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1515     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1516 
  1517 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1518 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1519 
  1520 * Quickcheck:
  1521 
  1522   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1523     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1524     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1525     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1526     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1527 
  1528     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1529     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1530     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1531 
  1532     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1533     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1534 
  1535     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1536     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1537     show genuine counterexamples.
  1538 
  1539   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1540     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1541 
  1542     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1543     constructors of that type.
  1544 
  1545   - Support for multisets.
  1546 
  1547   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1548 
  1549   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1550     conjectures in a locale context.
  1551 
  1552 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1553 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1554 
  1555 * Sledgehammer:
  1556   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1557     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1558   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1559   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1560     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1561   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1562   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1563   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1564   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1565 
  1566 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1567 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1568 
  1569 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1570 
  1571 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1572 
  1573 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1574 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1575 
  1576   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1577 
  1578 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1579 a list and a nat.
  1580 
  1581 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1582 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1583 
  1584 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1585 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1586 default.
  1587 
  1588 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1589 
  1590   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1591 
  1592 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1593 
  1594 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1595 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1596 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1597 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1598 one_case.
  1599 
  1600 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1601 the result of the fact expression.
  1602 
  1603 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1604 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1605 of some relation theorems:
  1606 
  1607   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1608   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1609   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1610   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1611   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1612   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1613 
  1614 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1615 
  1616 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1617 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1618 
  1619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1620 
  1621 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1622 to match the constant's name:
  1623 
  1624   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1625   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1626   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1627   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1628   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1629   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1630   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1631   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1632   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1633   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1634   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1635   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1636   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1637   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1638   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1639   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1640   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1641   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1642   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1643   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1644   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1645   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1646   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1647   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1648 
  1649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1650 
  1651 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1652 and corresponding theorem names:
  1653 
  1654   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1655 
  1656   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1657 
  1658   - Renamed theorems:
  1659 
  1660     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1661     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1662     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1663     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1664     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1665     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1666     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1667     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1668     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1669     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1670     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1671     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1672     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1673     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1674     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1675     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1676     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1677     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1678     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1679     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1680     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1681     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1682     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1683 
  1684     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1685 
  1686     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1687 
  1688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1689 
  1690 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1691 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1692 
  1693   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1694   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1695   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1696   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1697   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1698   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1699   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1700   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1701   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1702   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1703   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1704   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1705   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1706   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1707   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1708   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1709   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1710   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1711   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1712   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1713   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1714 
  1715 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1716 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1717 
  1718 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1719 
  1720 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1721 
  1722   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1723   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1724   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1725   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1726   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1727   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1728   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1729   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1730   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1731   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1732   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1733   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1734   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1735   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1736   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1737   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1738   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1739   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1740 
  1741 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1742 
  1743 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1744 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1745 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1746 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1747 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1748 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1749 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1750 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1751 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1752 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1753 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1754 
  1755 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1756 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1757 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1758 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1759 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1760 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1761 
  1762 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1763 through option types.
  1764 
  1765 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1766 relations.
  1767 
  1768 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1769 
  1770 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1771 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1772 
  1773   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1774   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1775   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1776   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1777   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1778   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1779   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1780   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1781   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1782   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1783   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1784   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1785   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1786   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1787   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1788   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1789   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1790   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1791   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1792   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1793   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1794   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1795   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1796   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1797   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1798   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1799   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1800   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1801   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1802   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1803   zless_le ~> less_le
  1804   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1805   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1806   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1807 
  1808 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1809 
  1810   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1811 
  1812 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1813 
  1814 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1815 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1816 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1817 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1818 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1819 
  1820 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1821 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1822 
  1823 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1824 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1825 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1826 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1827 follows:
  1828 
  1829   Operations:
  1830   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1831   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1832   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1833   del -> rbt_del
  1834   delete -> rbt_delete
  1835   ins -> rbt_ins
  1836   insert -> rbt_insert
  1837   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1838   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1839   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1840   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1841   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1842   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1843   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1844   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1845   union -> rbt_union
  1846   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1847   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1848 
  1849   Lemmas:
  1850   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1851   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1852   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1853   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1854   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1855   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1856   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1857   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1858   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1859   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1860   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1861   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1862   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1863   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1864   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1865   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1866   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1867   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1868   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1869   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1870   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1871   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1872   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1873   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1874   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1875   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1876   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1877   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1878   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1879   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1880   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1881   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1882   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1883   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1884   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1885   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1886   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1887   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1888   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1889   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1890   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1891   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1892   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1893   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1894   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1895   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1896   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1897   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1898   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1899   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1900   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1901   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1902   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1903   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1904   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1905   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1906   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1907   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1908   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1909   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1910   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1911   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1912   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1913   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1914   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1915   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1916   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1917   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1918   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1919   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1920   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1921   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1922   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1923   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1924   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1925   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1926   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1927   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1928   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1929   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1930   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1931   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1932   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1933 
  1934 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1935 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1936 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1937 
  1938   Changed Operations:
  1939   float_abs -> abs
  1940   float_nprt -> nprt
  1941   float_pprt -> pprt
  1942   pow2 -> use powr
  1943   round_down -> float_round_down
  1944   round_up -> float_round_up
  1945   scale -> exponent
  1946 
  1947   Removed Operations:
  1948   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1949 
  1950   Renamed Lemmas:
  1951   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1952   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1953   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1954   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1955   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1956   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1957   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1958   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1959   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1960   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1961   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1962   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1963   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1964   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1965   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1966   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1967   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1968   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1969   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1970   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1971   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1972   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1973   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1974   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1975   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1976   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1977   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1978   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1979   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1980   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1981   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1982   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1983   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1984   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1985   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1986   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1987 
  1988   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1989   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1990   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1991   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1992   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1993   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1994   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1995   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1996   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1997   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1998 
  1999 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2000 association lists with distinct keys.
  2001 
  2002 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2003 annotated commands.
  2004 
  2005 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2006 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2007 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2008 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2009 
  2010 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2011 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2012 instead.
  2013 
  2014   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2015   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2016   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2017   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2018   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2019   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2020   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2021   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2022   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2023   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2024   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2025   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2026   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2027   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2028   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2029   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2030   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2031   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2032   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2033   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2034   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2035   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2036   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2037   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2038   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2039   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2040   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2041   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2042   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2043   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2044   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2045   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2046   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2047   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2048   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2049   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2050   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2051   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2052   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2053   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2054   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2055 
  2056 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2057 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2058 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2059 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2060 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2061 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2062 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2063 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2064 
  2065 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2066 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2067 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2068 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2069 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2070 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2071 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2072 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2073 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2074 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2075 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2076 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2077 
  2078   Renamed constants:
  2079   measure -> emeasure
  2080   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2081   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2082   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2083   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2084 
  2085   Removed locales:
  2086   completeable_measure_space
  2087   finite_measure_space
  2088   finite_prob_space
  2089   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2090   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2091   finite_sigma_algebra
  2092   measure_space
  2093   pair_finite_prob_space
  2094   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2095   pair_finite_space
  2096   pair_sigma_algebra
  2097   product_sigma_algebra
  2098 
  2099   Removed constants:
  2100   conditional_space
  2101   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2102   image_space
  2103   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2104   pair_measure_generator
  2105   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2106   subvimage
  2107 
  2108   Replacement theorems:
  2109   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2110   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2111   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2112   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2113   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2114   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2115   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2116   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2117   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2118   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2119   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2120   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2121   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2122   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2123   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2124   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2125   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2126   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2127   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2128   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2129   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2130   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2131   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2132   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2133   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2134   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2135   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2136   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2137   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2138   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2139   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2140   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2141   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2142   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2143   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2144   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2145   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2146   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2147   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2148   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2149   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2150   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2151   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2152   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2153   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2154   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2155   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2156   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2157   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2158   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2159   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2160   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2161   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2162   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2163   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2164   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2165   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2166   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2167   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2168   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2169   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2170   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2171   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2172   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2173   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2174   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2175   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2176   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2177   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2178   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2179   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2180   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2181   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2182   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2183   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2184   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2185   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2186   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2187   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2188   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2189   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2190   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2191   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2192   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2193   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2194   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2195   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2196   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2197   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2198   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2199   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2200   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2201   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2202   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2203   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2204   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2205   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2206   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2207   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2208   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2209   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2210   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2211   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2212   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2213   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2214   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2215   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2216   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2217   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2218   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2219   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2220   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2221   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2222   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2223   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2224   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2225   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2226   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2227   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2228   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2229   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2230   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2231   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2232   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2233   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2234   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2235   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2236   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2237 
  2238 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2239 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2240 
  2241 
  2242 *** FOL ***
  2243 
  2244 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2245 
  2246 
  2247 *** ZF ***
  2248 
  2249 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2250 analysis.
  2251 
  2252 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2253 
  2254 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2255 
  2256 
  2257 *** ML ***
  2258 
  2259 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2260 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2261 
  2262 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2263 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2264 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2265 
  2266 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2267 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2268 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2269 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2270 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2271 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2272 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2273 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2274 
  2275 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2276 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2277 
  2278 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2279 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2280 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2281 
  2282 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2283 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2284 
  2285 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2286 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2287 context as well.
  2288 
  2289 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2290 
  2291   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2292   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2293   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2294   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2295   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2296   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2297   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2298   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2299   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2300   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2301   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2302   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2303 
  2304 
  2305 *** System ***
  2306 
  2307 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2308 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2309 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2310 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2311 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2312 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2313 the generic user home was intended.
  2314 
  2315 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2316 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2317 
  2318 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2319 (not just JRE).
  2320 
  2321 
  2322 
  2323 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2324 ------------------------------------
  2325 
  2326 *** General ***
  2327 
  2328 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2329 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2330 
  2331   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2332     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2333     files for checking).
  2334 
  2335   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2336     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2337     positions.
  2338 
  2339   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2340     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2341     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2342 
  2343   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2344     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2345     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2346 
  2347   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2348     cores.
  2349 
  2350   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2351     versions (garbage collection).
  2352 
  2353 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2354 including some remaining limitations.
  2355 
  2356 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2357 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2358 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2359 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2360 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2362 
  2363 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2364 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2365 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2366 
  2367 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2368 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2369 usedir option -Q.
  2370 
  2371 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2372 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2373 
  2374   long_names   ~> names_long
  2375   short_names  ~> names_short
  2376   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2377 
  2378 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2379 
  2380   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2381 
  2382 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2383 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2384 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2385 
  2386 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2387 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2388 
  2389 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2390   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2391   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2392   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2393     "Classical Reasoner".
  2394 
  2395 
  2396 *** HOL ***
  2397 
  2398 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2399 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2400 
  2401 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2402 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2403 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2404 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2405 class complete_linorder.
  2406 
  2407 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2408 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2409 
  2410 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2411 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2412 
  2413   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2414   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2415   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2416   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2417   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2418   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2419   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2420   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2421   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2422   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2423   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2424 
  2425 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2426 
  2427   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2428   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2429   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2430   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2431   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2432   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2433   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2434   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2435   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2436   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2437   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2438   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2439   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2440   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2441   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2442   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2443 
  2444 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2445 
  2446 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2448 
  2449 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2450 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2451 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2452 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2453 
  2454 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2455 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2456 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2457 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2458 
  2459 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2460 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2461 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2462 
  2463 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2464 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2465 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2466 
  2467 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2468 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2469 
  2470 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2471 
  2472     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2473     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2474 
  2475 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2476 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2477 
  2478 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2479 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2480 
  2481 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2482 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2483 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2484 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2485 
  2486   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2487   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2488   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2489   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2490   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2491   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2492   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2493 
  2494 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2495 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2496 
  2497   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2498   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2499   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2500   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2501   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2502   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2503   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2504   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2505   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2506   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2507   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2508   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2509   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2510   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2511   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2512   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2513   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2514   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2515   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2516   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2517   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2518   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2519   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2520   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2521   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2522   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2523   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2524   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2525   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2526   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2527   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2528   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2529   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2530   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2531   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2532   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2533   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2534   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2535   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2536   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2537   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2538   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2539   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2540   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2541   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2542   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2543   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2544   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2545   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2546   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2547   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2548   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2549   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2550   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2551   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2552   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2553   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2554   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2555   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2556   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2557   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2558   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2559   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2560   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2561   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2562   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2563   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2564   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2565   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2566   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2567   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2568   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2569   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2570   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2571   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2572   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2573   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2574   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2575   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2576   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2577   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2578   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2579 
  2580 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2581 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2582 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2583 
  2584 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2585 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2586 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2587 
  2588 * Code generation:
  2589 
  2590   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2591     characters in the target language.
  2592 
  2593   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2594     instead.
  2595 
  2596   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2597 
  2598   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2599     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2600 
  2601       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2602 
  2603 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2604 
  2605 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2606 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2607 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2608 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2609 syntax.
  2610 
  2611 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2612 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2613 
  2614 * Nitpick:
  2615   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2616   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2617   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2618     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2619 
  2620 * Sledgehammer:
  2621   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2622   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2623     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2624   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2625     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2626   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2627     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2628   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2629     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2630   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2631     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2632 
  2633 * Metis:
  2634   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2635   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2636     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2637 
  2638 * Command 'try':
  2639   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2640     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2641   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2642     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2643 
  2644 * Quickcheck:
  2645   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2646     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2647   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2648     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2649   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2650     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2651     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2652     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2653   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2654     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2655 
  2656 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2657 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2658 
  2659 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2660 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2661 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2662 
  2663 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2664 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2666 
  2667 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2668 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2669 
  2670 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2671 arithmetic.
  2672 
  2673 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2674 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2675 and lattice type classes.
  2676 
  2677 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2678 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2679 
  2680 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2681 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2682 
  2683 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2684 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2685 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2686 
  2687   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2688   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2689   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2690   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2691 
  2692 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2693 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2694 constants:
  2695 
  2696   type inat   ~> type enat
  2697   Fin         ~> enat
  2698   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2699   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2700   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2701 
  2702 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2703 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2704 
  2705 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2706 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2707 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2708 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2709 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2710 
  2711 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2712 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2713 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2714 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2715 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2716 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2717 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2718 
  2719   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2720   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2721   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2722   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2723 
  2724 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2725 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2726 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2727 
  2728   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2729   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2730   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2731   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2732   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2733   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2734   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2735   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2736   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2737   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2738   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2739   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2740   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2741   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2742   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2743   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2744   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2745   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2746   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2747   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2748   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2749   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2750   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2751   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2752   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2753   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2754   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2755   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2756   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2757   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2758   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2759   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2760   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2761   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2762   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2763   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2764   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2765   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2766   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2767   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2768   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2769   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2770   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2771   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2772   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2773   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2774   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2775   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2776   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2777   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2778   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2779 
  2780 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2781   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2782   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2783   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2784   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2785     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2786 
  2787 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788 
  2789   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2790   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2791   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2792   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2793   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2794   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2795   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2796   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2797   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2798   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2799   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2800   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2801   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2802   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2803   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2804   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2805   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2806   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2807   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2808   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2809   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2810   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2811   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2812   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2813   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2814 
  2815 
  2816 *** Document preparation ***
  2817 
  2818 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2819 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2820 same.
  2821 
  2822 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2823 result.
  2824 
  2825 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2826 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2827 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2828 
  2829 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2830 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2831 
  2832 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2833 like this:
  2834 
  2835   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2836   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2837 
  2838 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2839 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2840 layouts.
  2841 
  2842 
  2843 *** ML ***
  2844 
  2845 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2846 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2847 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2848 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2849 under external program control.
  2850 
  2851 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2852 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2853 
  2854 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2855 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2856 (better known as Proof General).
  2857 
  2858 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2859 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2860 
  2861 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2862 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2863 
  2864 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2865 (including quotes etc.).
  2866 
  2867 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2868 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2869 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2870 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2871 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2872 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2873 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2874 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2875 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2876 
  2877 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2878 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2879 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2880 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2881 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2882 
  2883 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2884 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2885 
  2886 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2887 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2888 
  2889 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2890 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2891 
  2892 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2893 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2894 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2895 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2896 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2897 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2898 proper Proof.context.
  2899 
  2900 
  2901 *** System ***
  2902 
  2903 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2904 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2905 
  2906 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2907 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2908 
  2909 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2910 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2911 
  2912   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2913   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2914   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2915   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2916   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2917 
  2918 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2919 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2920 
  2921 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2922 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2923 example:
  2924 
  2925   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2926 
  2927 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2928 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2929 
  2930 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2931 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2932 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2933 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2934 
  2935 
  2936 
  2937 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2938 ----------------------------------
  2939 
  2940 *** General ***
  2941 
  2942 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2943 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2944 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2945 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2946 like this:
  2947 
  2948   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2949 
  2950 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2951 
  2952 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2953 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2954 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2955 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2956 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2957 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2958 
  2959 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2960 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2961 the following package declarations:
  2962 
  2963   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2964   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2965 
  2966 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2967 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2968 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2969 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2970 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2971 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2972 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2973 
  2974 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2975 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2976 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2977 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2978 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2979 
  2980 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2981 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2982 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2983 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2984 
  2985 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2986 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2987 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2988 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2989 
  2990   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2991 
  2992   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2993   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2994   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2995   show_types                    show_types
  2996   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2997   show_consts                   show_consts
  2998   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2999 
  3000   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3001   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3002   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3003 
  3004   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3005   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3006 
  3007   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3008 
  3009   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3010   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3011   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3012   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3013   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3014 
  3015 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3016 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3017 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3018 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3019 
  3020 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3022 
  3023   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3024   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3025 
  3026 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3027 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3028 float_token.
  3029 
  3030 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3031 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3033 
  3034 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3035 DejaVu Sans.
  3036 
  3037 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3038 
  3039 
  3040 *** Pure ***
  3041 
  3042 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3043 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3044 time.
  3045 
  3046 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3047 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3048 
  3049 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3050 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3051 
  3052 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3053 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3054 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3055 command already provided this functionality.
  3056 
  3057 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3058 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3059 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3060 without interpretations.
  3061 
  3062 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3063 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3064 
  3065 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3066 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3067 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3068 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3069 
  3070 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3071 'definition' instead.
  3072 
  3073 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3074 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3075 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3076 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3077 
  3078 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3079 constructors.
  3080 
  3081 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3082 the local file system.
  3083 
  3084 
  3085 *** HOL ***
  3086 
  3087 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3088 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3089 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3090 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3091 
  3092   declare [[coercion f]]
  3093 
  3094 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3095 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3096 
  3097   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3098 
  3099 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3100 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3101 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3102 other theories like this:
  3103 
  3104   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3105 
  3106 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3107 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3108 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3109 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3110 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3111 for examples.
  3112 
  3113 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3114 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3115 
  3116 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3117 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3118 
  3119 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3120 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3121 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3122 
  3123 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3124 functorial structure of types.
  3125 
  3126 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3127 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3128 
  3129 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3130 languages.
  3131 
  3132 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3133 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3135 
  3136 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3137 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3138 
  3139 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3140 combinators any longer.
  3141 
  3142 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3143 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3144 
  3145 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3146 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3147 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3148 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3149 
  3150   record 'a foo = ...
  3151   ...
  3152   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3153 
  3154 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3155 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3156 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3157 
  3158 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3159 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3160 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3161 
  3162 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3163 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3164 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3165 
  3166 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3167 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3168 
  3169 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3170 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3171 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3172 independently.
  3173 
  3174 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3175 counter example search.
  3176 
  3177 * Sledgehammer:
  3178   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3179     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3180     sledgehammer").
  3181   - Renamed commands:
  3182     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3183     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3184     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3185     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186   - Renamed options:
  3187     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3188     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3189     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3190     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3191     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3192 
  3193 * Nitpick:
  3194   - Renamed options:
  3195     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3196     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3197     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3198   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3199   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3200   - Added "whack" option.
  3201   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3202   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3203   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3204   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3205     higher cardinalities.
  3206   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3207 
  3208 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3209 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3210 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3211 
  3212     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3213 
  3214 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3215 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3216 
  3217 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3218 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3219 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3220 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3221 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3222 "smt_solver".
  3223 
  3224 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3225 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3226 
  3227 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3228 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3229 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3230 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3231 
  3232 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3233   - Renamed:
  3234     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3235     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3236     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3237   - Added:
  3238     smt_verbose
  3239     smt_random_seed
  3240     smt_datatypes
  3241     smt_infer_triggers
  3242     smt_monomorph_limit
  3243     cvc3_options
  3244     remote_cvc3_options
  3245     remote_z3_options
  3246     yices_options
  3247 
  3248 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3249 header.
  3250 
  3251 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3252 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3253 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3254 
  3255   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3256 
  3257 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258 
  3259 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3260 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261 
  3262 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3263 
  3264 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3265 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3268 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3269 
  3270 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3271 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272 
  3273 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3274 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3275 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3276 
  3277 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3278 
  3279 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3280 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3281 
  3282 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3283 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3286 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3287 for congruent(2)).
  3288 
  3289 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3290 
  3291   types
  3292     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3293     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3294 
  3295   constants
  3296     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3297     True ~> HOL.True
  3298     False ~> HOL.False
  3299     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3300     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3301     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3302     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3303     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3304     The ~> HOL.The
  3305     All ~> HOL.All
  3306     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3307     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3308     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3309     If ~> HOL.If
  3310     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3311     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3312     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3313     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3314     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3315     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3316     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3317     op : ~> Set.member
  3318     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3319 
  3320 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3321 
  3322 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3323 
  3324     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3325     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3326     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3327     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3328     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3329     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3330     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3331     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3332 
  3333 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3334 
  3335 * More stylized fact names:
  3336 
  3337   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3338   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3339   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3340   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3341 
  3342 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3343 
  3344 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3345 
  3346   constants
  3347     null ~> List.null
  3348 
  3349   facts
  3350     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3351     null_empty ~> null_def
  3352 
  3353 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3354 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3355 generation.
  3356 
  3357 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3358 Haskell code.
  3359 
  3360 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3361 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3362 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3363 
  3364 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3365 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3366 
  3367 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3368 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3369 
  3370 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3371 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3372 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3373 
  3374 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3375 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3376 
  3377 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3379 
  3380 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3381 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3382 referred to by its qualified name.
  3383 
  3384   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3385   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3386   product ~>  Enum.product
  3387 
  3388 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3389 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3390 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3391 
  3392 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3393 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3394 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3395 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396 
  3397 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3398 sort_key.
  3399 
  3400 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3402 
  3403 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3404 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3405 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3406 
  3407   types
  3408     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3409               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3410               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3411         (depends on your needs)
  3412 
  3413   constants
  3414      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3415      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3416      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3417 
  3418 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3419 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3420 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3421 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422 
  3423 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3424 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3425 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3426 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3427 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3428 
  3429 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3430 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3431 
  3432 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3433 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3434 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3435 
  3436 
  3437 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3438 
  3439 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3440 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3441 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3442 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3443 compatibility.
  3444 
  3445 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3446 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3447 
  3448 
  3449 *** HOLCF ***
  3450 
  3451 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3452 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3453 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3455 
  3456 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3457 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3458 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3459 
  3460   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3461   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3462   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3463 
  3464 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3465 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3466 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3467 
  3468 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3469 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3470 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3471 domain definition now works:
  3472 
  3473   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3474 
  3475 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3476 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3477 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3478 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3479 
  3480   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3481     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3482 
  3483   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3484 
  3485 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3486 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3487 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3488 
  3489 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3490 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3491 
  3492 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3493 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3494 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3495 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3496 
  3497 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3498 
  3499 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3500 
  3501 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3502 
  3503 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3505 
  3506 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3507 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3508 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3509 
  3510 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3511 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3512 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3513 
  3514 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3515 still supported as an input translation.
  3516 
  3517 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3518 
  3519   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3520   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3521   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3522   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3523   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3524   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3525   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3526 
  3527 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3528 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3529 
  3530   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3531   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3532   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3533   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3534   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3535   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3536 
  3537 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3538 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3539 
  3540 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3541 
  3542   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3543   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3544   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3545   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3546 
  3547 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3550 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3553 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3554 
  3555   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3556   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3557   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3558   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3559   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3560   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3561   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3562   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3563   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3564   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3565   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3566   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3567   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3568   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3569   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3570   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3571   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3572   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3573   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3574   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3575 
  3576 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3577 
  3578   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3579   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3580   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3581   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3582   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3583   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3584   box_less             ~> box_below
  3585   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3586   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3587   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3588   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3589   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3590   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3591   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3592   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3593   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3594   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3595   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3596   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3597   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3598   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3599   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3600   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3601   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3602   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3603   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3604   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3605   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3606   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3607   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3608   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3609   up_less              ~> up_below
  3610   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3611   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3612   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3613   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3614   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3615   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3616   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3617   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3618   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3619   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3620   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3621   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3622   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3623 
  3624 
  3625 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3626 
  3627 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3628 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3629 
  3630 
  3631 *** ML ***
  3632 
  3633 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3634 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3635 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3636 
  3637 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3638 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3639 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3640 
  3641 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3642 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3643 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3644 
  3645 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3646 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3647 
  3648 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3649 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3650 
  3651 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3652 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3653 
  3654 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3655 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3656 
  3657 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3658 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3659 almost all situations.
  3660 
  3661 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3662 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3663 Isabelle/ML.
  3664 
  3665 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3666 meaning.
  3667 
  3668 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3669 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3670 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3671 
  3672 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3673 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3674 
  3675 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3676 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3677 
  3678 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3679 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3680 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3681 
  3682 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3683 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3684 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3685 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3686 configuration options.
  3687 
  3688 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3689 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3690 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3691 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3692 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3693 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3694 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3695 
  3696 
  3697 
  3698 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3699 ---------------------------------
  3700 
  3701 *** General ***
  3702 
  3703 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3704 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3705 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3706 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3707 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3708 their full internal name.
  3709 
  3710 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3711 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3712 Some hints on upgrading:
  3713 
  3714   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3715     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3716     which are independent of this issue.
  3717 
  3718   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3719     provides the following special forms:
  3720 
  3721       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3722       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3723       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3724 
  3725     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3726     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3727     extra variables".
  3728 
  3729     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3730     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3731     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3732     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3733     "logic".
  3734 
  3735   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3736     antiquotations:
  3737 
  3738       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3739       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3740       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3741       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3742 
  3743   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3744     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3745     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3746     antiquotations.
  3747 
  3748 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3749 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3750 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3751 diagnose syntax problems.
  3752 
  3753 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3754 
  3755 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3756 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3757 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3758 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3759 
  3760 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3761 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3762 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3763 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3764 
  3765 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3766 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3767 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3768 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3769 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3770 
  3771 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3772 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3773 
  3774 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3775 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3776 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3777 
  3778   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3779 
  3780 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3781 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3782 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3783 
  3784 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3785 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3787 
  3788 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3789 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3790 
  3791 
  3792 *** Pure ***
  3793 
  3794 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3795 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3796 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3797 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3798 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3799 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3800 inspect proof terms.
  3801 
  3802 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3803 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3804 are added internally.  For example:
  3805 
  3806   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3807 
  3808 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3809 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3810 
  3811 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3814 'class' instead.
  3815 
  3816 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3817 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3818 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819 
  3820 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3821 invariants.
  3822 
  3823 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3824 user space functionality any longer.
  3825 
  3826 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3827 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3829 
  3830 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3831 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3832 
  3833 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3834 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3835 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3836 
  3837 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3838 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3839 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3840 
  3841 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3842 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3843 
  3844 
  3845 *** HOL ***
  3846 
  3847 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3848 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3849 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3850 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3851 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3852 
  3853 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3854 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3855 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3856 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3857 
  3858   fun
  3859     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3860   where
  3861     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3862 
  3863   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3864     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3865 
  3866   quotient_definition
  3867     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3868 
  3869 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3870 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3871 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3872 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3873 
  3874 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3875 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3876 
  3877 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3878 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3879 
  3880 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3881 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3882 
  3883 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3884 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3885 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3886 
  3887 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3888 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3891 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3892 
  3893 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3895 
  3896 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3897 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3900 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3901 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3902 
  3903   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3904   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3905   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3906   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3907   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3908   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3909   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3910   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3911   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3912   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3913   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3914   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3915   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3916   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3917   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3918   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3919   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3920   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3921   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3922   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3923   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3924   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3925   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3926   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3927   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3928   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3929   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3930   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3931   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3932   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3933 
  3934 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3935 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3936 
  3937 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3938 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3939 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3940 
  3941 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3942 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3943 
  3944 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3945 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946 
  3947 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3948 
  3949 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3950 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3951 
  3952 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3953 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954 
  3955 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956 
  3957 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3958 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3959 
  3960 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3961 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3962 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3963 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3964 
  3965 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3966   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3967   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3968   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3972 lattices):
  3973 
  3974     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3975     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3976 
  3977     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3978 
  3979     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3980     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3981     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3982     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3983     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3984     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3985     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3986     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3987     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3988     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3989     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3990     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3991     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3992 
  3993     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3994     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3995     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3996     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3997     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3998     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3999     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4000     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4001     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4002     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4003     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4004     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4005     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4006     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4007     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4008     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4009     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4010     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4011 
  4012   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4013   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4014 
  4015     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4016     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4017     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4018     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4019     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4020 
  4021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022 
  4023 * Refined field classes:
  4024   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4025     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4026     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4027   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4031   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4032   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4033   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4034     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4035   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4036     equal_neg_zero.
  4037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4040 sets to lattices:
  4041 
  4042   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4043   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4044   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4045   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4046   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4047   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4048   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4049   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4050   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4051   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4052 
  4053 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4054 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4055 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4056 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4057 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4058 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4059 
  4060 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4061 multiset order:
  4062 
  4063   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4064     <= and <;
  4065   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4066     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4067     multiset_order;
  4068   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4069     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4070     generation;
  4071   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4072     if needed.
  4073 
  4074 Renamed:
  4075 
  4076   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4077   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4078   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4079 
  4080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4081 
  4082 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4083 
  4084 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4085 
  4086 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4087 
  4088 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4089 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4090 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4091 
  4092   Constants:
  4093   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4094   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4095   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4096   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4097   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4098   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4099   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4100   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4101   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4102   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4103   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4104   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4105   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4106 
  4107   Lemmas:
  4108   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4109   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4110   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4111   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4112   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4113   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4114   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4115   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4116   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4117   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4118   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4119   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4120   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4121 
  4122 * Sledgehammer:
  4123   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4124     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4125     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4126     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4127     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4128     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4129     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4130   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4131   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4132     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4133   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4134     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4135     is still experimental.)
  4136   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4137     full-typed mode.
  4138   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4139 
  4140 * Nitpick:
  4141   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4142   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4143   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4144     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4145   - Added support for quotient types.
  4146   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4147     constructs.
  4148   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4149     "termination" proofs).
  4150   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4151   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4152   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4153   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4154     record getters.
  4155   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4156   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4157   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4158   - Added "atoms" option.
  4159   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4160     problems.
  4161   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4162     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4163     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4164   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4165     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4166   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4167 
  4168 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4169   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4170   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4171   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4172   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4173   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4174   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4175   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4176   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4177   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4178 
  4179 
  4180 *** HOLCF ***
  4181 
  4182 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4183 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4184 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4185 
  4186 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4187 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4188 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4189 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4190 
  4191 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4192 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4193 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4194 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4195 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4196 
  4197 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4198 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4199 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4200 
  4201 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4202 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4203 
  4204   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4205   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4206 
  4207 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4208 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4209 
  4210   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4211   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4212   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4213   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4214   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4215 
  4216 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4217 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4218 
  4219   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4220   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4221   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4222 
  4223 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4224 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4226 
  4227 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4228 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4229 
  4230 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4231 
  4232 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4233 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4234 
  4235 
  4236 *** ML ***
  4237 
  4238 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4239 
  4240     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4241     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4242 
  4243     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4244     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4245     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4246     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4247 
  4248     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4249     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4250     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4251 
  4252 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4253 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4254 
  4255 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4256 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4257 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4258 
  4259 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4260 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4261 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4262 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4263 
  4264 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4265 the context or even global references.
  4266 
  4267 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4268 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4269 
  4270 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4271 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4272 
  4273   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4274   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4275   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4276   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4277   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4278   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4279   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4280   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4281   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4282   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4283 
  4284 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4285 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4286 
  4287 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4288 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4289 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4290 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4291 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4292 
  4293 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4294 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4295 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4296 Theory_Data version.
  4297 
  4298 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4299 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4300 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4301 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4302 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4303 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4304 explicitly in rare situations.
  4305 
  4306 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4307 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4309 
  4310 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4311 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4312 
  4313 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4314 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4315 quite rare).
  4316 
  4317 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4318 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4319 
  4320 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4321 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4322 terms.
  4323 
  4324 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4325 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4326 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4327 
  4328 
  4329 *** System ***
  4330 
  4331 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4332 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4333 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4334 
  4335 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4336 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4337 respectively.
  4338 
  4339 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4340 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4341 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4342 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4343 
  4344   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4345 
  4346 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4347 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4348 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4349 component.
  4350 
  4351 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4352 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4353 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4354 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4355 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4356 the user for manual installation.
  4357 
  4358 
  4359 
  4360 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4361 -------------------------------------
  4362 
  4363 *** General ***
  4364 
  4365 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4366 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4367 
  4368 
  4369 *** Pure ***
  4370 
  4371 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4372 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4373 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4374 
  4375 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4376 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4377 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4378 
  4379 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4380 interpretation.
  4381 
  4382 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4383 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4384 
  4385 
  4386 *** Document preparation ***
  4387 
  4388 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4389 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4390 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4391 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4392 
  4393 
  4394 *** HOL ***
  4395 
  4396 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4397 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4398 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4399 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4400 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4401 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4402 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4403 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4404 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4405 
  4406 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4407 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4408 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4409 
  4410 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4411 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4412 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4413 
  4414 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4415 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4416 
  4417 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4418 
  4419 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4420 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4421 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4422 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4423 
  4424 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4425 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4426 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4427 "mirabelle" utility.
  4428 
  4429 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4430 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4431 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4432 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4433 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4434 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4435 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4436 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4437 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4438 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4439 
  4440 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4441 procedure only.
  4442 
  4443 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4444 
  4445 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4446 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4447 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4448 that fail later.
  4449 
  4450 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4451 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4452 
  4453 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4454 the same method as the approximation method.
  4455 
  4456 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4457 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4458 series expansion.
  4459 
  4460 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4461 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4462 
  4463 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4464 reals.
  4465 
  4466 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4467 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4468 
  4469 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4470 fixpoint theorem.
  4471 
  4472 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4473   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4474     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4475   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4476     accordingly
  4477   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4478     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4479   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4480     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4481 
  4482 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4483 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4484 lattice.
  4485 
  4486 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4487 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4488 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4489 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4490 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4491 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4493 
  4494 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4495   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4496     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4497   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4498     le_inf_iff
  4499   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4500     sup_aci)
  4501   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4502   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4503   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4504     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4505     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4506     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4507     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4508     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4509     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4510     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4511     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4512     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4513     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4514   - authentic syntax for
  4515     Set.Pow
  4516     Set.image
  4517   - mere abbreviations:
  4518     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4519     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4520     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4521     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4522     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4523     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4524     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4525     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4526   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4527 
  4528 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4529 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4530 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4531 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4532 
  4533 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4534 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4535 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4536 
  4537 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4538 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4539 
  4540 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4541 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4542 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4543 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4544 
  4545 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4546 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4547 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4548 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4549 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4550 
  4551 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4552 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4554 
  4555 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4556 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4557 
  4558 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4559 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4560 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4561 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4562 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4563 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4564 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 
  4567 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4568     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4569     code_post       replaces    code post
  4570     etc.
  4571   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4572 
  4573 * Renamed methods:
  4574     sizechange -> size_change
  4575     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4576   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4577 
  4578 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4579 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4580 
  4581 * Renamed theorems:
  4582     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4583     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4584     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4585     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4586     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4587   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4588 
  4589 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4591 
  4592 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4593 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4594 
  4595 
  4596 *** HOLCF ***
  4597 
  4598 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4599 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4600 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4601 
  4602 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4603 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4604 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4605 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4606 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4607 
  4608 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4609 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4610 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4611 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4612 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4613 
  4614 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4615 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4616 constructor are pre-configured.
  4617 
  4618 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4619 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4620 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4621 
  4622 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4623 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4624 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4625 as well.)
  4626 
  4627 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4628 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4629 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4630 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4631 examples.
  4632 
  4633 
  4634 *** ML ***
  4635 
  4636 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4637 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4638 
  4639 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4640 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4641 position, logical grouping etc.
  4642 
  4643 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4644 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4645 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4646 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4647 
  4648 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4649 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4650 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4651 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4652 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4653 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4654 
  4655 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4656 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4657 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4658 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4659 experiments with references.
  4660 
  4661 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4662 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4663 
  4664 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4665 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4666 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4667 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4668 
  4669 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4670 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4671 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4672 
  4673 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4674 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4675 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4676 
  4677 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4678 
  4679 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4681 
  4682 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4683 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4684 
  4685 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4686 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4687 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4688 
  4689 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4690 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4691 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4692 
  4693 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4694 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4695 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4697 
  4698 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4699 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4700 instead of global theory.
  4701 
  4702 
  4703 *** System ***
  4704 
  4705 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4706 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4707 usedir option -q.
  4708 
  4709 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4710 also the system manual.
  4711 
  4712 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4713 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4714 
  4715 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4716 this is always enabled.
  4717 
  4718 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4719 
  4720 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4721 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4722 currently supported on Linux only.
  4723 
  4724 
  4725 
  4726 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4727 --------------------------------
  4728 
  4729 *** General ***
  4730 
  4731 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4732 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4733 
  4734   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4735     "isatool."
  4736 
  4737   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4738     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4739 
  4740   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4741     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4742 
  4743 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4744 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4745 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4746 
  4747 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4748 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4749 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4750 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4751 via "isabelle emacs".
  4752 
  4753 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4754 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4755 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4756 
  4757 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4758 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4759 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4760 
  4761 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4762 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4763 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4764 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4765 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4766 
  4767 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4768 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4769 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4770 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4771 
  4772 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4773 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4774 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4775 
  4776 
  4777 *** Pure ***
  4778 
  4779 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4780 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4781 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4782 
  4783 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4784 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4785 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4786 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4787 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4788 
  4789 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4790 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4791 useful in locale declarations.
  4792 
  4793 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4794 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4795 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4796 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4797 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4798 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4799 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4800 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4801 no longer generated.
  4802 
  4803 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4804 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4805 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4806 
  4807 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4808 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4809 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4810 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4811 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4812 
  4813 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4814 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4815 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4816 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4817 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4818 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4819 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4820 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4821 
  4822 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4823 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4824 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4825 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4826 
  4827 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4828 
  4829 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4830 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4831 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4832 
  4833 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4834 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4835 
  4836 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4837 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4838 in HOL, write
  4839 
  4840     class foo = ...
  4841 
  4842 instead of
  4843 
  4844     class foo = type + ...
  4845 
  4846 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4847 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4848 
  4849 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4850 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4851 
  4852 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4853 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4854 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4855 
  4856 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4857 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4858 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4859 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4860 directly in regular applications.
  4861 
  4862 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4863 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4864 
  4865 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4866 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4867 
  4868 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4869 theory context.
  4870 
  4871 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4872 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4873 
  4874 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4875 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4876 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4877 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4878 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4879 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4880 
  4881   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4882 
  4883 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4884 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4885 normalization.
  4886 
  4887 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4888 addressing etc.
  4889 
  4890 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4891 
  4892   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4893   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4894 
  4895 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4896 
  4897   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4898      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4899      parts of the code generator framework).
  4900 
  4901   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4902      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4903      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4904 
  4905 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4906 
  4907 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4908 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4909 
  4910 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4911 patterns, e.g.
  4912 
  4913     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4914 
  4915 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4916 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4917 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4918 hyphen:
  4919 
  4920     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4921 
  4922 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4923 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4924 
  4925 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4926 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4927 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4928 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4929 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4930 higher-order unification.
  4931 
  4932 
  4933 *** Document preparation ***
  4934 
  4935 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4936 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4937 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4938 
  4939 
  4940 *** HOL ***
  4941 
  4942 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4943 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4944 
  4945 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4946 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4947 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4948 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4949 Main, as before.
  4950 
  4951 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4952 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4953 
  4954 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4955 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4956 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4957 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4958 
  4959 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4960 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4961 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4962 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4963 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4964 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4965 
  4966 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4967 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4968 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4969 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4970 
  4971 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4972 menu.
  4973 
  4974 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4975 (contains the empty clause).
  4976 
  4977 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4978 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4979 
  4980 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4981 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4982 
  4983 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4984 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4985 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4986 
  4987 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4988 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4989 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4990 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4991 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4992 
  4993 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4994 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4995 
  4996 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4997 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4998 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4999 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5000 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5001 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5002 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5003 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5004 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5005 
  5006 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5007 
  5008 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5009 
  5010 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5011 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5012 
  5013 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5014 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5015 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5016 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5017 
  5018 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5019 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5020 
  5021     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5022     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5023     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5024     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5025     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5026     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5027     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5028     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5029 
  5030 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5031 theory Set.
  5032 
  5033 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5034 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5035 
  5036 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5037 
  5038 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5039 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5040 
  5041 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5042 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5043 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5044 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5045 allowed. For examples see
  5046 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5047 
  5048 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5049 
  5050 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5052 
  5053 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5054 structure:
  5055 
  5056     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5057     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5058     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5059     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5060     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5061     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5062     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5063     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5064     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5065     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5066     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5067     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5068     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5069     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5070     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5071     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5072     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5073     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5074     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5075     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5076     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5077     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5078     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5079     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5080     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5081     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5082     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5083     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5084     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5085     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5086     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5087     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5088     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5089 
  5090     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5091     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5092     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5093     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5094     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5095     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5096     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5097     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5098     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5099     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5100 
  5101     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5102     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5103     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5104     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5105     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5106     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5107 
  5108 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5109 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5110 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5111 
  5112 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5113 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5114 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5115 
  5116 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5117 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5118 
  5119 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5120 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5121 
  5122 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5123 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5124 proofs, e.g.
  5125 
  5126   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5127 
  5128 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5129 
  5130 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5131 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5132 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5133 
  5134 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5135 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5137 
  5138 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5139 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5140 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5142 
  5143 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5144 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5145 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5146 preorder_class.*.
  5147 
  5148 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5149 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5150 
  5151 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5152 
  5153   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5154 
  5155 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5156 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5157 fold_image.
  5158 
  5159 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5160 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5161 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5162 the former will disappear at some point.
  5163 
  5164 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5165 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5166 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5167 
  5168 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5169 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5170 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5171 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5172 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5173 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5174 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5175 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5176 
  5177 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5178 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5179 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5180 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5181 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5182 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5183 
  5184     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5185     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5186     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5187     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5188     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5189     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5190     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5191 
  5192 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5193 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5194 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5195 
  5196 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5197 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5198 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5199 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5200 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5201 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5202 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5203 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5204 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5205 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5206 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5207 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5208 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5209 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5210 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5211 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5212 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5213 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5214 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5215 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5216 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5217 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5218 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5219 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5220 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5221 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5222 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5223 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5224 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5225 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5226 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5227 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5228 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5229 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5230 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5231 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5232 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5233 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5234 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5235 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5236 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5237 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5238 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5239 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5240 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5241 
  5242 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5243 
  5244 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5245 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5246 
  5247 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5248 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5249 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5250 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5251 
  5252 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5253 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5254 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5255 theory RealVector.
  5256 
  5257 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5258 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5259 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5260 and inner products are included.
  5261 
  5262 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5263 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5264 supported.
  5265 
  5266 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5267 first diagonalization argument.
  5268 
  5269 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5270 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5271 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5272 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5273 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5274 
  5275     hide (open) const gcd
  5276     abbreviation gcd where
  5277       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5278     notation (output)
  5279       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5280 
  5281 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5282 
  5283 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5284 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5285 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5286 
  5287 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5288 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5289 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5290 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5291 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5292 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5293 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5294 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5295 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5296 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5297 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5298 cases.
  5299 
  5300 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5301 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5302 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5303 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5304 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5305 
  5306     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5307     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5308     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5309     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5310     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5311 
  5312 
  5313 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5314 
  5315 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5316 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5317 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5318 
  5319 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5320 
  5321 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5322 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5323 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5324 
  5325 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5326 
  5327 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5328 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5329 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5330 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5331 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5332 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5333 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5334 
  5335 
  5336 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5337 
  5338 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5339 
  5340 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5341 theory targets.
  5342 
  5343 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5344 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5345 'inductive' etc.
  5346 
  5347 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5348 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5349 
  5350 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5351 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5352 
  5353 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5354 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5355 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5356 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5357 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5358 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5359 the algorithm W:
  5360 
  5361  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5362  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5363          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5364 
  5365 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5366 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5367 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5368 
  5369 
  5370 *** HOLCF ***
  5371 
  5372 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5373 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5374 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5375 
  5376 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5377 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5378 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5379 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5380 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5381 
  5382 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5383 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5384 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5385 
  5386 
  5387 *** ZF ***
  5388 
  5389 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5390 
  5391 
  5392 *** ML ***
  5393 
  5394 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5395 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5396 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5397 5.2.1!
  5398 
  5399 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5400 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5401 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5402 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5403 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5404 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5405 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5406 
  5407 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5408 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5409 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5410 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5411 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5412 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5413 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5414 
  5415 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5416 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5417 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5418 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5419 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5420 
  5421 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5422 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5423 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5424 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5425 Method.add_method.
  5426 
  5427 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5428 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5429 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5430 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5431 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5432 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5433 
  5434 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5435 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5436 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5437 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5438 examples.
  5439 
  5440 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5441 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5442 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5443 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5444 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5445 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5446 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5447 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5448 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5449 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5450 
  5451 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5452 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5453 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5454 
  5455 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5456 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5457 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5458 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5459 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5460 resort for legacy applications.
  5461 
  5462 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5463 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5464 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5465 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5466 explicit runtime argument.
  5467 
  5468 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5469 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5470 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5471 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5472 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5473 
  5474 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5475 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5476 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5477 theory state.
  5478 
  5479 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5480 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5481 
  5482   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5483   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5484   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5485   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5486   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5487   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5488   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5489   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5490   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5491   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5492 
  5493 
  5494 *** System ***
  5495 
  5496 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5497 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5498 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5499 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5500 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5501 
  5502 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5503 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5504 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5505 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5506 
  5507 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5508 
  5509 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5510 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5511 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5512 prover operations.
  5513 
  5514 
  5515 
  5516 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5517 -------------------------------
  5518 
  5519 *** General ***
  5520 
  5521 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5522 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5523 
  5524 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5525 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5526 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5527 provides a proper context already.
  5528 
  5529 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5530 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5531 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5532 
  5533 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5534 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5535 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5536 swap theory imports.
  5537 
  5538 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5539 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5540 
  5541 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5542 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5543 white space without escapes.
  5544 
  5545 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5546 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5547 "foo_bar".
  5548 
  5549 
  5550 *** Pure ***
  5551 
  5552 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5553 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5554 
  5555 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5556 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5557 
  5558 (1) unused_thms
  5559      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5560 
  5561 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5562      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5563      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5564 
  5565 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5566      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5567      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5568      their ancestors.
  5569 
  5570 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5571 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5572 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5573 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5574 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5575 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5576 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5577 
  5578 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5579 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5580 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5581 
  5582 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5583 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5584 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5585 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5586 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5587 
  5588 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5589 
  5590 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5591 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5592 update of theories within ML code.
  5593 
  5594 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5595 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5596 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5597 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5598 
  5599 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5600 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5601 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5602 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5603 
  5604 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5605 
  5606 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5607 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5608 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5609 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5610 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5611 
  5612 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5613 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5614 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5615 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5616 situations.
  5617 
  5618 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5619 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5620 proof text.
  5621 
  5622 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5623 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5624 
  5625 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5626 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5627 predicates.
  5628 
  5629 
  5630 *** Document preparation ***
  5631 
  5632 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5633 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5634 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5635 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5636 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5637 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5638 
  5639 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5640 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5641 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5642 
  5643 
  5644 *** HOL ***
  5645 
  5646 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5647 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5648 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5649 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5650 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5651 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5652 
  5653 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5654 with multithreading.
  5655 
  5656 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5657 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5658 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5659 
  5660 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5661 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5662 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5663 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5664 
  5665 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5666 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5667 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5668 and makes them available separately.  See
  5669 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5670 
  5671 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5672 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5673 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5674 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5675 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5676 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5677 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5678 the declared rules.
  5679 
  5680 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5681 
  5682   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5683 
  5684 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5685 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5686 
  5687 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5688 
  5689   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5690 
  5691   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5692     definitions on => and bool.
  5693 
  5694   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5695     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5696     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5697 
  5698       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5699       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5700       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5701       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5702       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5703       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5704       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5705       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5706 
  5707   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5708     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5709     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5710 
  5711   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5712     The proof pattern
  5713 
  5714       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5715       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5716 
  5717     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5718     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5719 
  5720       have "EX S. P S"
  5721       proof
  5722         show "P S" <...>
  5723       qed
  5724 
  5725   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5726     The proof pattern
  5727 
  5728       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5729       also have "S = T" <...>
  5730       finally have "P T" .
  5731 
  5732     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5733     must be replaced by something like
  5734 
  5735       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5736       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5737       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5738 
  5739   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5740     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5741 
  5742       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5743 
  5744     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5745     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5746     type of the form
  5747 
  5748       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5749 
  5750     rather than
  5751 
  5752       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5753 
  5754 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5755 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5756 
  5757 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5758 
  5759 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5760 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5762 
  5763 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5764 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5765 
  5766 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5767 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5768 
  5769 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5770 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5771 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5772 
  5773 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5774 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5775 
  5776   less_trans
  5777   less_linear
  5778   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5779   le_less_trans
  5780   less_le_trans
  5781   less_not_sym
  5782   less_asym
  5783 
  5784 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5785 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5786 and different variable names.
  5787 
  5788 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5789 
  5790 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5791 finite maps.
  5792 
  5793 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5794 
  5795 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5796 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5797 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5798 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5799 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5800 accordingly.
  5801 
  5802 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5803 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5804 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5805 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5806 
  5807 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5808 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5809 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5810 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5811 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5812 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5813 
  5814 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5815 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5816 
  5817 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5818 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5819 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5820 
  5821 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5823 
  5824 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5825 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5826 
  5827 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5828 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5829 
  5830 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5831 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5832 
  5833 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5834 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5836 
  5837 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5838 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5839 
  5840 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5841 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5842 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5843 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5844 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5845 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5846 
  5847 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5848 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5849 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5850 
  5851 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5852 
  5853 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5854 
  5855 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5856 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5857 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5858 
  5859 
  5860 *** ZF ***
  5861 
  5862 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5863 same session:
  5864 
  5865   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5866   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5867   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5868   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5869   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5870   List      -> List_ZF
  5871   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5872 
  5873 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5874 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5875 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5876 
  5877 
  5878 *** ML ***
  5879 
  5880 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5881 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5882 
  5883 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5884 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5885 
  5886 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5887 
  5888 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5889 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5890 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5891 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5892 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5893 
  5894 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5895 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5896 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5897 
  5898 
  5899 *** System ***
  5900 
  5901 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5902 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5903 
  5904 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5905 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5906 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5907 
  5908 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5909 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5910 
  5911 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5912 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5913 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5914 
  5915 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5916 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5917 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5918 
  5919 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5920 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5921 
  5922 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5923 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5924 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5925 script.
  5926 
  5927 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5928 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5929 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5930 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5931 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5932 
  5933 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5934 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5935 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5936 
  5937 
  5938 
  5939 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5940 -----------------------------------
  5941 
  5942 *** General ***
  5943 
  5944 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5945 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5946 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5947 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5948 
  5949 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5950 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5951 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5952 
  5953 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5954 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5955 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5956 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5957 
  5958 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5959 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5960 quotes.
  5961 
  5962 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5963 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5964 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5965 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5966 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5967 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5968 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5969 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5970 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5971 
  5972 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5973 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5974 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5975 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5976 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5977 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5978 
  5979 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5980 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5981 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5982 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5983 
  5984 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5985 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5986 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5987 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5988 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5989 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5990 
  5991 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5992 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5993 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5994 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5995 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5996 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5997 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5998 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5999 
  6000 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6001 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6002 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6003 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6004 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6005 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6006 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6007 
  6008 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6009 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6010 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6011 
  6012 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6013 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6014 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6015 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6016 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6017 limit is imposed.
  6018 
  6019 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6020 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6021 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6022 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6023 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6024 and scalability.
  6025 
  6026 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6027 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6028 
  6029 
  6030 *** Document preparation ***
  6031 
  6032 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6033 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6034 current context.
  6035 
  6036 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6037 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6038 
  6039 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6040 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6041 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6042 
  6043 
  6044 *** Pure ***
  6045 
  6046 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6047 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6048 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6049 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6050 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6051 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6052 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6053 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6054 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6055 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6056 
  6057 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6058 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6059 sketch:
  6060 
  6061     internal compilation:
  6062         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6063     writing SML code to a file:
  6064         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6065     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6066         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6067     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6068         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6069 
  6070     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6071         method ``eval''
  6072 
  6073 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6074 
  6075 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6076 
  6077     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6078     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6079     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6080     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6081 
  6082 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6083 
  6084     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6085       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6086 
  6087     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6088       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6089 
  6090     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6091       {(target)}+
  6092         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6093 
  6094     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6095       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6096         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6097 
  6098 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6099 
  6100 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6101 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6102 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6103 codegen".
  6104 
  6105 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6106 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6107 annotations).
  6108 
  6109 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6110 syntax.
  6111 
  6112 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6113 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6114 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6115 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6116 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6117 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6118 
  6119 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6120 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6121 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6122 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6123 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6124 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6125 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6126 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6127 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6128 equations, see section "definitions".
  6129 
  6130 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6131 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6132 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6133 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6134 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6135 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6136 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6137 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6138 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6139 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6140 
  6141 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6142 configuration options:
  6143 
  6144   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6145   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6146   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6147   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6148   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6149   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6150   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6151   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6152   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6153 
  6154 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6155 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6156 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6157 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6158 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6159 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6160 order.
  6161 
  6162 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6163 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6164 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6165 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6166 context encountered later on.
  6167 
  6168 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6169 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6170 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6171 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6172 
  6173 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6174 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6175 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6176 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6177 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6178 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6179 
  6180 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6181 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6182 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6183 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6184 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6185 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6186 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6187 more permissive.
  6188 
  6189 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6190 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6191 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6192 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6193 maintainability of proof texts.
  6194 
  6195 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6196 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6197 
  6198   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6199   then guess x and y by clarify
  6200 
  6201 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6202 proof tools being involved here.
  6203 
  6204 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6205 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6206 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6207 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6208 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6209 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6210 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6211 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6212 
  6213 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6214 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6215 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6216 
  6217   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6218   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6219   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6220   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6221 
  6222 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6223 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6224 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6225 
  6226 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6227 both named and unnamed ones.
  6228 
  6229 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6230 
  6231   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6232 
  6233 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6234 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6235 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6236 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6237 
  6238 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6239 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6240 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6241 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6242 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6243 
  6244 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6245 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6246 
  6247 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6248 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6249 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6250 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6251 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6252 originally first one.
  6253 
  6254 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6255 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6256 expected.
  6257 
  6258 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6259 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6260 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6261 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6262 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like t