NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Nov 25 17:15:21 2012 +0100 (2012-11-25)
changeset 50198 0c7b351a6871
parent 50184 5a16f42a9b44
child 50213 7b73c0509835
child 50219 f6b95f0bba78
permissions -rw-r--r--
added convenience actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    42 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    43 
    44 
    45 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    46 
    47 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    48 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    49 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    50 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    51 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    52 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    53 
    54 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    55 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    56 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    57 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    58 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    59 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    60 
    61 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    62 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    63 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    64 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    65 
    66 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    67 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    68 
    69 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: output window informs about
    70 accumulated messages; prover transactions are limited to emit maximum
    71 amount of output, before being canceled (cf. system option
    72 "editor_tracing_limit").  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    73 potentially infinite message streams.
    74 
    75 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    76 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    77 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    78 schemes.
    79 
    80 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    81 symbols.
    82 
    83 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
    84 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
    85 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
    86 
    87 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
    88 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
    89 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS.
    90 
    91 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
    92 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
    93 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
    94 
    95 
    96 *** Pure ***
    97 
    98 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    99 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   100 
   101 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
   102 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
   103 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
   104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   105 
   106 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   107 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   108 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   109 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   110 with some care where this is really required.
   111 
   112 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   113 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   114 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   115 
   116   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   117 
   118 
   119 *** HOL ***
   120 
   121 * Removed constant "chars".  Prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   122 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   123 
   124 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from Enum.thy
   125 to List.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   126 
   127 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   128 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   129 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   130 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   131 accordingly.
   132 
   133 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
   134 
   135   - Renamed constants
   136       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
   137 
   138   - Renamed facts
   139       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
   140 
   141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   142 
   143 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   144 
   145 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   146 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   147 
   148 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
   149 to lattice type classes.
   150 
   151 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   152 
   153 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   154 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   155 
   156   - Renamed constants:
   157 
   158       prefix ~> prefixeq
   159       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   160 
   161     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   162 
   163   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   164     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   165     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   166     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   167 
   168   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   169     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
   170 
   171   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   172     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   173     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   174     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   175 
   176   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   177     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
   178 
   179       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
   180       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
   181       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
   182       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
   183       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
   184       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
   185       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
   186       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
   187       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
   188       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
   189       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
   190       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
   191       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
   192       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   193       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   194       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   195 
   196     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   197 
   198 * HOL/Rings: renamed lemmas
   199 
   200 left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   201 right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   202 
   203 in class semiring.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   204 
   205 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   206 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   207 non-free datatypes.
   208 
   209 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   210 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   211 
   212 * HOL/Probability:
   213   - Add simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability
   214 
   215   - Add induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint)
   216     and for Borel-measurable functions (borel_measurable_induct).
   217 
   218   - The Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a projective family)
   219 
   220 * Library/Countable_Set.thy: Theory of countable sets.
   221 
   222 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   223 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   224 
   225 * Library/FuncSet.thy: Extended support for Pi and extensional and introduce the
   226 extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaces extensional_funcset by an
   227 abbreviation, rename a couple of lemmas from extensional_funcset to PiE:
   228 
   229       extensional_empty ~> PiE_empty
   230       extensional_funcset_empty_domain ~> PiE_empty_domain
   231       extensional_funcset_empty_range ~> PiE_empty_range
   232       extensional_funcset_arb ~> PiE_arb
   233       extensional_funcset_mem > PiE_mem
   234       extensional_funcset_extend_domainI ~> PiE_fun_upd
   235       extensional_funcset_restrict_domain ~> fun_upd_in_PiE
   236       extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq ~> PiE_insert_eq
   237       card_extensional_funcset ~> card_PiE
   238       finite_extensional_funcset ~> finite_PiE
   239 
   240   INCOMPATIBUILITY.
   241 
   242 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   243 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   244 
   245 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   246 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   247 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   248 
   249 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   250 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   251 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Library/IArray.thy: immutable arrays with code generation.
   254 
   255 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   256 expressions.
   257 
   258 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   259 pointfree expressions.
   260 
   261 * Quickcheck:
   262 
   263   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   264     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   265     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   266 
   267 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   268 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   269 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   270 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   271 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   272 
   273 * Sledgehammer:
   274 
   275   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   276     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   277   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   278   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   279   - Renamed options:
   280       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   281       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   282       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   283       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   284 
   285 
   286 *** Document preparation ***
   287 
   288 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   289 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   290 
   291 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   292 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   293 document/root.tex.
   294 
   295 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   296 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   297 
   298 
   299 *** ML ***
   300 
   301 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   302 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   303 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   304 
   305 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   306 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   307 necessarily printing visible text.
   308 
   309 
   310 *** System ***
   311 
   312 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   313 instead of 4.
   314 
   315 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   316 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   317 for home-made configurations.
   318 
   319 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   320 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   321 
   322 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   323 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   324 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   325 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   326 
   327 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   328 
   329 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   330 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   331 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   332 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   333 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   334 
   335 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   336 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   337 
   338   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   339 
   340 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   341 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   342 
   343 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   344 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   345 "isabelle usedir".
   346 
   347 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   348 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   349 version of Isabelle.
   350 
   351 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   352 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   353 
   354 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   355 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   356 configuration.
   357 
   358 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   359 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   360 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   361 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   362 bundled as Isabelle component.
   363 
   364 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   365 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   366 
   367 
   368 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   369 ------------------------------
   370 
   371 *** General ***
   372 
   373 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   374 
   375   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   376     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   377   - markup for bound variables
   378   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   379   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   380   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   381     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   382 
   383 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   384 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   385 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   386 
   387 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   388 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   389 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   390 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   391 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   392 
   393   context
   394     fixes x y z :: 'a
   395     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   396   begin
   397 
   398   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   399 
   400   end
   401 
   402   thm my_trans
   403 
   404 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   405 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   406 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   407 
   408 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   409 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   410 
   411 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   412 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   413 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   414 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   415 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   416 
   417 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   418 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   419 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   420 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   421 indices of schematic variables.
   422 
   423 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   424 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   425 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   426 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   427 etc. was exploited.
   428 
   429 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   430 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   431 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   432 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   433 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   434 of the material of that old tutorial.
   435 
   436 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   437 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   438 manual.
   439 
   440 
   441 *** Pure ***
   442 
   443 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   444 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   445 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   446 
   447 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   448 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   449 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   450 undocumented feature.)
   451 
   452 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   453 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   454 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   455 
   456   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   457 
   458   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   459     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   460 
   461 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   462 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   463 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   464 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   465 
   466 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   467 
   468     num ~> num_token
   469     xnum ~> xnum_token
   470     xstr ~> str_token
   471 
   472 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   473 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   474 position information via constraints).
   475 
   476 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   477 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   478 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   479 
   480 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   481 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   482 
   483 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   484 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   485 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   486 
   487 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   488 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   489 
   490 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   491 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   492 
   493   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   494 
   495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   496 
   497 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   498 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   499 
   500 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   501 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   502 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   503 
   504 
   505 *** HOL ***
   506 
   507 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   508 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   509 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   510 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   511 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   512 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   513 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   514 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   515 possible.
   516 
   517 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   518 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   519 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   520 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   521 
   522 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   523 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   524 
   525 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   526 
   527 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   528 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   529 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   530 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   531 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   532 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   533 
   534   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   535     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   536 
   537   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   538     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   539     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   540 
   541   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   542     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   543 
   544   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   545     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   546     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   547 
   548   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   549     Redefine using other integer operations.
   550 
   551 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   552 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   553 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   554 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   555 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   556 
   557   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   558     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   559     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   560     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   561     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   562 
   563     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   564     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   565 
   566   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   567     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   568     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   569     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   570     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   571     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   572     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   573     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   574 
   575   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   576     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   577     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   578     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   579 
   580   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   581     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   582     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   583     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   584 
   585   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   586     from type nat to type int.
   587 
   588 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   589 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   590 
   591   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   592     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   593     type.  Example syntax:
   594 
   595     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   596       is List.insert
   597 
   598     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   599     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   600     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   601     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   602     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   603     by the package.
   604 
   605   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   606     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   607     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   608     code generation for each constant.
   609 
   610   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   611     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   612     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   613     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   614     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   615 
   616   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   617     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   618     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   619 
   620 * Quotient package:
   621 
   622   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   623     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   624 
   625   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   626     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   627 
   628   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   629     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   630     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631 
   632   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   633     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   634 
   635 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   636 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   637 
   638 * Quickcheck:
   639 
   640   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   641     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   642     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   643     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   644     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   645 
   646     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   647     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   648     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   649 
   650     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   651     continues searching for genuine ones.
   652 
   653     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   654     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   655     show genuine counterexamples.
   656 
   657   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   658     value generators for a given type and operations.
   659 
   660     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   661     constructors of that type.
   662 
   663   - Support for multisets.
   664 
   665   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   666 
   667   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   668     conjectures in a locale context.
   669 
   670 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   671 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   672 
   673 * Sledgehammer:
   674   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   675     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   676   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   677   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   678     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   679   - Sped up the minimizer.
   680   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   681   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   682   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   683 
   684 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   685 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   686 
   687 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   688 
   689 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   690 
   691 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   692 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   693 
   694   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   695 
   696 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   697 a list and a nat.
   698 
   699 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   700 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   701 
   702 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   703 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   704 default.
   705 
   706 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   707 
   708   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   709 
   710 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   711 
   712 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   713 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   714 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   715 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   716 one_case.
   717 
   718 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   719 the result of the fact expression.
   720 
   721 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   722 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   723 of some relation theorems:
   724 
   725   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   726   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   727   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   728   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   729   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   730   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   731 
   732 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   733 
   734 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   735 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   736 
   737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   738 
   739 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   740 to match the constant's name:
   741 
   742   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   743   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   744   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   745   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   746   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   747   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   748   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   749   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   750   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   751   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   752   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   753   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   754   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   755   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   756   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   757   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   758   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   759   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   760   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   761   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   762   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   763   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   764   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   765   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   766 
   767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   768 
   769 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   770 and corresponding theorem names:
   771 
   772   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   773 
   774   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   775 
   776   - Renamed theorems:
   777 
   778     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   779     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   780     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   781     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   782     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   783     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   784     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   785     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   786     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   787     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   788     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   789     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   790     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   791     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   792     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   793     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   794     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   795     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   796     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   797     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   798     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   799     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   800     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   801 
   802     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   803 
   804     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   805 
   806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   807 
   808 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   809 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   810 
   811   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   812   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   813   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   814   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   815   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   816   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   817   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   818   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   819   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   820   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   821   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   822   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   823   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   824   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   825   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   826   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   827   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   828   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   829   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   830   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   831   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   832 
   833 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   834 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   835 
   836 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   837 
   838 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   839 
   840   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   841   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   842   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   843   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   844   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   845   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   846   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   847   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   848   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   849   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   850   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   851   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   852   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   853   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   854   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   855   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   856   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   857   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   858 
   859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   860 
   861 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   862 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   863 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   864 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   865 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   866 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   867 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   868 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   869 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   870 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   871 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   872 
   873 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   874 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   875 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   876 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   877 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   878 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   879 
   880 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   881 through option types.
   882 
   883 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   884 relations.
   885 
   886 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   887 
   888 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   889 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   890 
   891   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   892   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   893   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   894   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   895   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   896   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   897   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   898   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   899   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   900   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   901   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   902   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   903   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   904   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   905   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   906   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   907   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   908   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   909   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   910   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   911   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   912   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   913   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   914   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   915   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   916   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   917   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   918   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   919   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   920   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   921   zless_le ~> less_le
   922   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   923   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   924   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   925 
   926 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   927 
   928   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   929 
   930 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   931 
   932 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   933 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   934 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   935 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   937 
   938 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   939 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   940 
   941 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   942 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   943 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   944 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   945 follows:
   946 
   947   Operations:
   948   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   949   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   950   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   951   del -> rbt_del
   952   delete -> rbt_delete
   953   ins -> rbt_ins
   954   insert -> rbt_insert
   955   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   956   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   957   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   958   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   959   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   960   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   961   tree_less -> rbt_less
   962   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   963   union -> rbt_union
   964   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   965   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   966 
   967   Lemmas:
   968   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   969   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   970   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   971   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   972   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   973   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   974   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   975   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   976   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   977   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   978   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   979   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   980   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   981   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   982   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   983   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   984   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   985   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   986   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   987   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   988   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   989   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   990   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   991   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   992   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   993   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   994   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   995   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   996   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   997   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   998   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   999   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1000   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1001   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1002   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1003   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1004   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1005   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1006   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1007   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1008   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1009   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1010   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1011   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1012   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1013   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1014   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1015   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1016   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1017   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1018   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1019   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1020   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1021   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1022   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1023   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1024   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1025   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1026   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1027   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1028   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1029   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1030   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1031   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1032   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1033   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1034   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1035   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1036   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1037   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1038   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1039   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1040   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1041   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1042   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1043   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1044   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1045   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1046   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1047   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1048   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1049   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1050   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1051 
  1052 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1053 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1054 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1055 
  1056   Changed Operations:
  1057   float_abs -> abs
  1058   float_nprt -> nprt
  1059   float_pprt -> pprt
  1060   pow2 -> use powr
  1061   round_down -> float_round_down
  1062   round_up -> float_round_up
  1063   scale -> exponent
  1064 
  1065   Removed Operations:
  1066   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1067 
  1068   Renamed Lemmas:
  1069   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1070   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1071   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1072   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1073   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1074   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1075   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1076   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1077   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1078   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1079   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1080   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1081   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1082   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1083   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1084   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1085   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1086   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1087   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1088   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1089   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1090   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1091   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1092   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1093   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1094   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1095   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1096   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1097   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1098   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1099   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1100   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1101   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1102   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1103   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1104   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1105 
  1106   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1107   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1108   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1109   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1110   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1111   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1112   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1113   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1114   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1115   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1116 
  1117 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1118 association lists with distinct keys.
  1119 
  1120 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1121 annotated commands.
  1122 
  1123 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1124 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1125 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1126 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1127 
  1128 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1129 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1130 instead.
  1131 
  1132   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1133   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1134   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1135   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1136   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1137   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1138   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1139   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1140   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1141   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1142   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1143   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1144   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1145   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1146   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1147   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1148   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1149   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1150   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1151   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1152   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1153   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1154   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1155   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1156   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1157   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1158   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1159   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1160   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1161   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1162   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1163   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1164   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1165   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1166   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1167   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1168   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1169   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1170   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1171   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1172   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1173 
  1174 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1175 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1176 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1177 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1178 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1179 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1180 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1181 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1182 
  1183 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1184 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1185 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1186 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1187 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1188 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1189 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1190 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1191 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1192 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1193 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1194 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1195 
  1196   Renamed constants:
  1197   measure -> emeasure
  1198   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1199   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1200   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1201   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1202 
  1203   Removed locales:
  1204   completeable_measure_space
  1205   finite_measure_space
  1206   finite_prob_space
  1207   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1208   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1209   finite_sigma_algebra
  1210   measure_space
  1211   pair_finite_prob_space
  1212   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1213   pair_finite_space
  1214   pair_sigma_algebra
  1215   product_sigma_algebra
  1216 
  1217   Removed constants:
  1218   conditional_space
  1219   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1220   image_space
  1221   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1222   pair_measure_generator
  1223   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1224   subvimage
  1225 
  1226   Replacement theorems:
  1227   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1228   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1229   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1230   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1231   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1232   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1233   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1234   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1235   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1236   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1237   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1238   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1239   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1240   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1241   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1242   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1243   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1244   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1245   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1246   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1247   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1248   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1249   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1250   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1251   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1252   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1253   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1254   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1255   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1256   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1257   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1258   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1259   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1260   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1261   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1262   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1263   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1264   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1265   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1266   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1267   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1268   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1269   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1270   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1271   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1272   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1273   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1274   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1275   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1276   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1277   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1278   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1279   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1280   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1281   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1282   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1283   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1284   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1285   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1286   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1287   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1288   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1289   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1290   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1291   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1292   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1293   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1294   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1295   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1296   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1297   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1298   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1299   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1300   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1301   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1302   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1303   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1304   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1305   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1306   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1307   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1308   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1309   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1310   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1311   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1312   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1313   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1314   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1315   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1316   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1317   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1318   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1319   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1320   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1321   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1322   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1323   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1324   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1325   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1326   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1327   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1328   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1329   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1330   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1331   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1332   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1333   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1334   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1335   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1336   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1337   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1338   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1339   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1340   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1341   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1342   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1343   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1344   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1345   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1346   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1347   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1348   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1349   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1350   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1351   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1352   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1353   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1354   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1355 
  1356 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1357 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1358 
  1359 
  1360 *** FOL ***
  1361 
  1362 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1363 
  1364 
  1365 *** ZF ***
  1366 
  1367 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1368 analysis.
  1369 
  1370 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1371 
  1372 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1373 
  1374 
  1375 *** ML ***
  1376 
  1377 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1378 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1379 
  1380 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1381 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1382 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1383 
  1384 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1385 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1386 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1387 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1388 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1389 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1390 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1391 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1392 
  1393 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1394 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1395 
  1396 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1397 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1398 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1399 
  1400 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1401 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1402 
  1403 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1404 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1405 context as well.
  1406 
  1407 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1408 
  1409   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1410   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1411   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1412   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1413   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1414   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1415   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1416   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1417   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1418   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1419   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1420   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1421 
  1422 
  1423 *** System ***
  1424 
  1425 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1426 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1427 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1428 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1429 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1430 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1431 the generic user home was intended.
  1432 
  1433 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1434 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1435 
  1436 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1437 (not just JRE).
  1438 
  1439 
  1440 
  1441 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1442 ------------------------------------
  1443 
  1444 *** General ***
  1445 
  1446 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1447 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1448 
  1449   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1450     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1451     files for checking).
  1452 
  1453   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1454     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1455     positions.
  1456 
  1457   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1458     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1459     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1460 
  1461   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1462     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1463     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1464 
  1465   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1466     cores.
  1467 
  1468   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1469     versions (garbage collection).
  1470 
  1471 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1472 including some remaining limitations.
  1473 
  1474 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1475 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1476 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1477 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1478 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1480 
  1481 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1482 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1483 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1484 
  1485 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1486 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1487 usedir option -Q.
  1488 
  1489 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1490 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1491 
  1492   long_names   ~> names_long
  1493   short_names  ~> names_short
  1494   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1495 
  1496 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1497 
  1498   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1499 
  1500 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1501 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1502 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1503 
  1504 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1505 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1506 
  1507 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1508   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1509   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1510   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1511     "Classical Reasoner".
  1512 
  1513 
  1514 *** HOL ***
  1515 
  1516 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1517 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1518 
  1519 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1520 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1521 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1522 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1523 class complete_linorder.
  1524 
  1525 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1526 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1527 
  1528 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1529 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1530 
  1531   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1532   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1533   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1534   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1535   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1536   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1537   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1538   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1539   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1540   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1541   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1542 
  1543 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1544 
  1545   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1546   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1547   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1548   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1549   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1550   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1551   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1552   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1553   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1554   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1555   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1556   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1557   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1558   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1559   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1560   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1561 
  1562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1563 
  1564 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1566 
  1567 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1568 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1569 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1570 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1571 
  1572 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1573 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1574 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1576 
  1577 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1578 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1579 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1580 
  1581 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1582 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1583 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1586 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1587 
  1588 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1589 
  1590     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1591     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1592 
  1593 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1594 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1595 
  1596 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1597 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1598 
  1599 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1600 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1601 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1602 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1603 
  1604   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1605   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1606   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1607   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1608   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1609   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1610   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1611 
  1612 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1613 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1614 
  1615   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1616   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1617   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1618   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1619   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1620   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1621   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1622   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1623   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1624   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1625   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1626   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1627   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1628   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1629   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1630   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1631   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1632   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1633   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1634   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1635   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1636   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1637   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1638   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1639   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1640   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1641   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1642   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1643   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1644   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1645   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1646   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1647   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1648   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1649   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1650   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1651   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1652   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1653   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1654   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1655   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1656   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1657   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1658   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1659   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1660   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1661   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1662   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1663   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1664   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1665   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1666   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1667   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1668   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1669   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1670   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1671   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1672   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1673   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1674   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1675   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1676   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1677   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1678   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1679   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1680   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1681   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1682   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1683   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1684   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1685   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1686   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1687   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1688   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1689   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1690   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1691   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1692   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1693   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1694   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1695   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1696   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1697 
  1698 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1699 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1700 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1701 
  1702 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1703 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1704 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1705 
  1706 * Code generation:
  1707 
  1708   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1709     characters in the target language.
  1710 
  1711   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1712     instead.
  1713 
  1714   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1715 
  1716   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1717     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1718 
  1719       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1720 
  1721 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1722 
  1723 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1724 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1725 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1726 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1727 syntax.
  1728 
  1729 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1730 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1731 
  1732 * Nitpick:
  1733   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1734   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1735   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1736     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1737 
  1738 * Sledgehammer:
  1739   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1740   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1741     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1742   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1743     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1744   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1745     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1746   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1747     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1748   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1749     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1750 
  1751 * Metis:
  1752   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1753   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1754     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1755 
  1756 * Command 'try':
  1757   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1758     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1759   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1760     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1761 
  1762 * Quickcheck:
  1763   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1764     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1765   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1766     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1767   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1768     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1769     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1770     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1771   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1772     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1773 
  1774 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1775 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1776 
  1777 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1778 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1779 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1780 
  1781 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1782 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1783 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1784 
  1785 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1786 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1787 
  1788 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1789 arithmetic.
  1790 
  1791 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1792 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1793 and lattice type classes.
  1794 
  1795 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1796 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1797 
  1798 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1799 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1800 
  1801 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1802 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1803 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1804 
  1805   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1806   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1807   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1808   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1809 
  1810 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1811 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1812 constants:
  1813 
  1814   type inat   ~> type enat
  1815   Fin         ~> enat
  1816   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1817   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1818   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1819 
  1820 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1821 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1822 
  1823 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1824 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1825 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1826 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1827 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1828 
  1829 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1830 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1831 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1832 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1833 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1834 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1835 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1836 
  1837   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1838   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1839   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1840   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1841 
  1842 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1843 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1844 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1845 
  1846   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1847   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1848   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1849   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1850   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1851   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1852   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1853   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1854   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1855   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1856   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1857   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1858   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1859   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1860   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1861   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1862   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1863   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1864   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1865   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1866   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1867   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1868   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1869   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1870   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1871   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1872   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1873   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1874   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1875   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1876   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1877   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1878   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1879   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1880   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1881   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1882   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1883   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1884   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1885   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1886   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1887   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1888   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1889   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1890   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1891   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1892   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1893   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1894   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1895   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1896   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1897 
  1898 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1899   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1900   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1901   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1902   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1903     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1904 
  1905 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1906 
  1907   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1908   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1909   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1910   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1911   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1912   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1913   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1914   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1915   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1916   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1917   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1918   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1919   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1920   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1921   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1922   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1923   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1924   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1925   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1926   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1927   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1928   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1929   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1930   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1931   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1932 
  1933 
  1934 *** Document preparation ***
  1935 
  1936 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1937 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1938 same.
  1939 
  1940 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1941 result.
  1942 
  1943 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1944 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1945 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1946 
  1947 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1948 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1949 
  1950 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1951 like this:
  1952 
  1953   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1954   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1955 
  1956 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1957 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1958 layouts.
  1959 
  1960 
  1961 *** ML ***
  1962 
  1963 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1964 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1965 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1966 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1967 under external program control.
  1968 
  1969 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1970 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1971 
  1972 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1973 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1974 (better known as Proof General).
  1975 
  1976 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1977 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1978 
  1979 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1980 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1981 
  1982 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1983 (including quotes etc.).
  1984 
  1985 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1986 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1987 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1988 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1989 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1990 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1991 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1992 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1993 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1994 
  1995 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1996 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1997 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1998 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1999 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2000 
  2001 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2002 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2003 
  2004 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2005 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2006 
  2007 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2008 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2009 
  2010 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2011 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2012 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2013 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2014 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2015 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2016 proper Proof.context.
  2017 
  2018 
  2019 *** System ***
  2020 
  2021 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2022 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2023 
  2024 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2025 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2026 
  2027 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2028 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2029 
  2030   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2031   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2032   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2033   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2034   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2035 
  2036 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2037 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2038 
  2039 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2040 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2041 example:
  2042 
  2043   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2044 
  2045 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2046 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2047 
  2048 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2049 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2050 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2051 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2052 
  2053 
  2054 
  2055 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2056 ----------------------------------
  2057 
  2058 *** General ***
  2059 
  2060 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2061 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2062 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2063 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2064 like this:
  2065 
  2066   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2067 
  2068 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2069 
  2070 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2071 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2072 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2073 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2074 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2075 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2076 
  2077 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2078 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2079 the following package declarations:
  2080 
  2081   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2082   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2083 
  2084 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2085 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2086 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2087 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2088 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2089 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2090 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2091 
  2092 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2093 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2094 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2095 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2096 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2097 
  2098 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2099 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2100 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2101 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2102 
  2103 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2104 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2105 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2106 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2107 
  2108   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2109 
  2110   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2111   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2112   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2113   show_types                    show_types
  2114   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2115   show_consts                   show_consts
  2116   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2117 
  2118   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2119   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2120   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2121 
  2122   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2123   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2124 
  2125   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2126 
  2127   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2128   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2129   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2130   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2131   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2132 
  2133 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2134 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2135 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2136 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2137 
  2138 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2140 
  2141   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2142   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2143 
  2144 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2145 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2146 float_token.
  2147 
  2148 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2149 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2151 
  2152 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2153 DejaVu Sans.
  2154 
  2155 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2156 
  2157 
  2158 *** Pure ***
  2159 
  2160 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2161 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2162 time.
  2163 
  2164 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2165 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2166 
  2167 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2168 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2169 
  2170 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2171 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2172 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2173 command already provided this functionality.
  2174 
  2175 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2176 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2177 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2178 without interpretations.
  2179 
  2180 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2181 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2182 
  2183 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2184 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2185 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2186 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2187 
  2188 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2189 'definition' instead.
  2190 
  2191 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2192 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2193 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2194 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2195 
  2196 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2197 constructors.
  2198 
  2199 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2200 the local file system.
  2201 
  2202 
  2203 *** HOL ***
  2204 
  2205 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2206 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2207 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2208 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2209 
  2210   declare [[coercion f]]
  2211 
  2212 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2213 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2214 
  2215   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2216 
  2217 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2218 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2219 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2220 other theories like this:
  2221 
  2222   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2223 
  2224 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2225 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2226 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2227 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2228 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2229 for examples.
  2230 
  2231 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2232 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2233 
  2234 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2235 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2236 
  2237 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2238 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2239 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2240 
  2241 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2242 functorial structure of types.
  2243 
  2244 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2245 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2246 
  2247 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2248 languages.
  2249 
  2250 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2251 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2252 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2253 
  2254 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2255 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2256 
  2257 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2258 combinators any longer.
  2259 
  2260 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2261 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2262 
  2263 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2264 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2265 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2266 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2267 
  2268   record 'a foo = ...
  2269   ...
  2270   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2271 
  2272 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2273 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2275 
  2276 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2277 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2278 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2279 
  2280 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2281 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2282 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2283 
  2284 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2285 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2286 
  2287 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2288 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2289 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2290 independently.
  2291 
  2292 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2293 counter example search.
  2294 
  2295 * Sledgehammer:
  2296   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2297     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2298     sledgehammer").
  2299   - Renamed commands:
  2300     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2301     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2302     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2303     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2304   - Renamed options:
  2305     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2306     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2307     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2308     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2309     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2310 
  2311 * Nitpick:
  2312   - Renamed options:
  2313     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2314     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2315     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2316   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2317   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2318   - Added "whack" option.
  2319   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2320   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2321   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2322   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2323     higher cardinalities.
  2324   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2325 
  2326 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2327 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2328 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2329 
  2330     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2331 
  2332 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2333 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2334 
  2335 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2336 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2337 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2338 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2339 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2340 "smt_solver".
  2341 
  2342 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2343 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2344 
  2345 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2346 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2347 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2348 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2349 
  2350 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2351   - Renamed:
  2352     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2353     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2354     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2355   - Added:
  2356     smt_verbose
  2357     smt_random_seed
  2358     smt_datatypes
  2359     smt_infer_triggers
  2360     smt_monomorph_limit
  2361     cvc3_options
  2362     remote_cvc3_options
  2363     remote_z3_options
  2364     yices_options
  2365 
  2366 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2367 header.
  2368 
  2369 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2370 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2371 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2372 
  2373   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2374 
  2375 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2376 
  2377 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2378 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2379 
  2380 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2381 
  2382 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2383 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2384 
  2385 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2386 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2387 
  2388 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2389 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2390 
  2391 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2392 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2393 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2394 
  2395 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2396 
  2397 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2399 
  2400 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2401 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2402 
  2403 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2404 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2405 for congruent(2)).
  2406 
  2407 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2408 
  2409   types
  2410     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2411     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2412 
  2413   constants
  2414     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2415     True ~> HOL.True
  2416     False ~> HOL.False
  2417     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2418     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2419     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2420     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2421     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2422     The ~> HOL.The
  2423     All ~> HOL.All
  2424     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2425     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2426     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2427     If ~> HOL.If
  2428     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2429     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2430     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2431     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2432     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2433     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2434     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2435     op : ~> Set.member
  2436     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2437 
  2438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2439 
  2440 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2441 
  2442     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2443     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2444     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2445     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2446     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2447     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2448     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2449     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2450 
  2451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2452 
  2453 * More stylized fact names:
  2454 
  2455   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2456   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2457   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2458   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2459 
  2460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2461 
  2462 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2463 
  2464   constants
  2465     null ~> List.null
  2466 
  2467   facts
  2468     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2469     null_empty ~> null_def
  2470 
  2471 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2472 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2473 generation.
  2474 
  2475 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2476 Haskell code.
  2477 
  2478 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2479 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2480 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2481 
  2482 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2483 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2484 
  2485 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2486 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2487 
  2488 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2489 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2490 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2491 
  2492 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2493 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2494 
  2495 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2497 
  2498 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2499 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2500 referred to by its qualified name.
  2501 
  2502   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2503   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2504   product ~>  Enum.product
  2505 
  2506 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2507 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2509 
  2510 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2511 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2512 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2514 
  2515 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2516 sort_key.
  2517 
  2518 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2520 
  2521 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2522 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2523 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2524 
  2525   types
  2526     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2527               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2528               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2529         (depends on your needs)
  2530 
  2531   constants
  2532      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2533      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2534      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2535 
  2536 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2537 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2538 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2539 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540 
  2541 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2542 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2543 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2544 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2545 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2546 
  2547 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2549 
  2550 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2551 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2552 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2553 
  2554 
  2555 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2556 
  2557 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2558 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2559 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2560 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2561 compatibility.
  2562 
  2563 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2564 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2565 
  2566 
  2567 *** HOLCF ***
  2568 
  2569 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2570 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2571 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2573 
  2574 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2575 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2576 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2577 
  2578   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2579   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2580   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2581 
  2582 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2583 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2584 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2585 
  2586 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2587 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2588 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2589 domain definition now works:
  2590 
  2591   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2592 
  2593 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2594 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2595 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2596 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2597 
  2598   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2599     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2600 
  2601   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2602 
  2603 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2604 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2605 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2606 
  2607 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2608 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2609 
  2610 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2611 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2612 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2613 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2614 
  2615 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2616 
  2617 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2618 
  2619 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2620 
  2621 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2623 
  2624 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2625 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2626 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2627 
  2628 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2629 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2630 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2631 
  2632 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2633 still supported as an input translation.
  2634 
  2635 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2636 
  2637   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2638   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2639   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2640   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2641   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2642   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2643   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2644 
  2645 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2646 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2647 
  2648   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2649   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2650   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2651   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2652   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2653   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2654 
  2655 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2656 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2657 
  2658 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2659 
  2660   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2661   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2662   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2663   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2664 
  2665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2666 
  2667 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2668 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2669 
  2670 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2671 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2672 
  2673   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2674   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2675   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2676   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2677   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2678   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2679   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2680   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2681   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2682   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2683   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2684   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2685   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2686   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2687   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2688   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2689   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2690   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2691   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2692   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2693 
  2694 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2695 
  2696   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2697   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2698   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2699   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2700   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2701   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2702   box_less             ~> box_below
  2703   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2704   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2705   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2706   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2707   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2708   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2709   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2710   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2711   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2712   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2713   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2714   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2715   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2716   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2717   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2718   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2719   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2720   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2721   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2722   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2723   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2724   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2725   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2726   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2727   up_less              ~> up_below
  2728   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2729   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2730   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2731   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2732   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2733   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2734   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2735   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2736   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2737   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2738   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2739   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2740   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2741 
  2742 
  2743 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2744 
  2745 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2746 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747 
  2748 
  2749 *** ML ***
  2750 
  2751 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2752 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2753 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2754 
  2755 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2756 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2757 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2758 
  2759 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2760 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2761 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2762 
  2763 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2764 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2765 
  2766 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2767 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2768 
  2769 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2770 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2771 
  2772 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2773 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2774 
  2775 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2776 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2777 almost all situations.
  2778 
  2779 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2780 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2781 Isabelle/ML.
  2782 
  2783 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2784 meaning.
  2785 
  2786 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2787 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2788 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2789 
  2790 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2791 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2792 
  2793 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2794 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2795 
  2796 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2797 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2798 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2799 
  2800 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2801 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2802 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2803 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2804 configuration options.
  2805 
  2806 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2807 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2808 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2809 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2810 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2811 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2812 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2813 
  2814 
  2815 
  2816 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2817 ---------------------------------
  2818 
  2819 *** General ***
  2820 
  2821 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2822 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2823 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2824 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2825 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2826 their full internal name.
  2827 
  2828 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2829 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2830 Some hints on upgrading:
  2831 
  2832   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2833     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2834     which are independent of this issue.
  2835 
  2836   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2837     provides the following special forms:
  2838 
  2839       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2840       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2841       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2842 
  2843     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2844     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2845     extra variables".
  2846 
  2847     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2848     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2849     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2850     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2851     "logic".
  2852 
  2853   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2854     antiquotations:
  2855 
  2856       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2857       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2858       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2859       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2860 
  2861   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2862     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2863     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2864     antiquotations.
  2865 
  2866 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2867 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2868 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2869 diagnose syntax problems.
  2870 
  2871 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2872 
  2873 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2874 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2875 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2876 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2877 
  2878 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2879 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2880 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2881 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2882 
  2883 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2884 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2885 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2886 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2887 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2888 
  2889 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2890 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2891 
  2892 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2893 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2894 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2895 
  2896   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2897 
  2898 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2899 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2900 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2901 
  2902 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2903 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2904 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2905 
  2906 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2907 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2908 
  2909 
  2910 *** Pure ***
  2911 
  2912 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2913 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2914 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2915 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2916 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2917 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2918 inspect proof terms.
  2919 
  2920 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2921 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2922 are added internally.  For example:
  2923 
  2924   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2925 
  2926 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2927 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2928 
  2929 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2930 
  2931 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2932 'class' instead.
  2933 
  2934 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2935 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2937 
  2938 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2939 invariants.
  2940 
  2941 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2942 user space functionality any longer.
  2943 
  2944 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2945 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2947 
  2948 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2949 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2950 
  2951 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2952 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2953 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2954 
  2955 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2956 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2957 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2958 
  2959 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2960 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2961 
  2962 
  2963 *** HOL ***
  2964 
  2965 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2966 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2967 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2968 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2969 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2970 
  2971 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2972 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2973 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2974 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2975 
  2976   fun
  2977     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2978   where
  2979     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2980 
  2981   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2982     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2983 
  2984   quotient_definition
  2985     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2986 
  2987 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2988 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2989 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2990 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2991 
  2992 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2993 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2994 
  2995 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2996 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2997 
  2998 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2999 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3000 
  3001 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3002 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3003 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3004 
  3005 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3006 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3007 
  3008 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3010 
  3011 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3013 
  3014 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3015 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3016 
  3017 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3018 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3019 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3020 
  3021   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3022   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3023   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3024   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3025   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3026   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3027   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3028   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3029   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3030   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3031   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3032   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3033   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3034   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3035   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3036   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3037   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3038   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3039   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3040   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3041   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3042   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3043   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3044   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3045   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3046   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3047   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3048   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3049   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3050   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3051 
  3052 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3053 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3054 
  3055 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3056 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3057 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3058 
  3059 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3060 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3061 
  3062 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3063 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3064 
  3065 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3066 
  3067 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3068 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3069 
  3070 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3071 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3072 
  3073 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3076 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3077 
  3078 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3079 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3080 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3081 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3082 
  3083 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3084   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3085   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3086   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3090 lattices):
  3091 
  3092     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3093     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3094 
  3095     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3096 
  3097     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3098     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3099     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3100     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3101     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3102     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3103     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3104     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3105     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3106     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3107     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3108     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3109     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3110 
  3111     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3112     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3113     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3114     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3115     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3116     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3117     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3118     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3119     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3120     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3121     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3122     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3123     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3124     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3125     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3126     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3127     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3128     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3129 
  3130   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3131   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3132 
  3133     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3134     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3135     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3136     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3137     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3138 
  3139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3140 
  3141 * Refined field classes:
  3142   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3143     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3144     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3145   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3146 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3147 
  3148 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3149   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3150   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3151   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3152     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3153   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3154     equal_neg_zero.
  3155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3156 
  3157 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3158 sets to lattices:
  3159 
  3160   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3161   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3162   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3163   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3164   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3165   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3166   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3167   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3168   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3169   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3170 
  3171 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3172 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3173 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3174 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3175 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3176 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3177 
  3178 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3179 multiset order:
  3180 
  3181   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3182     <= and <;
  3183   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3184     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3185     multiset_order;
  3186   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3187     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3188     generation;
  3189   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3190     if needed.
  3191 
  3192 Renamed:
  3193 
  3194   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3195   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3196   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3197 
  3198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3201 
  3202 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3203 
  3204 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3205 
  3206 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3207 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3208 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3209 
  3210   Constants:
  3211   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3212   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3213   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3214   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3215   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3216   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3217   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3218   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3219   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3220   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3221   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3222   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3223   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3224 
  3225   Lemmas:
  3226   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3227   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3228   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3229   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3230   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3231   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3232   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3233   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3234   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3235   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3236   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3237   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3238   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3239 
  3240 * Sledgehammer:
  3241   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3242     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3243     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3244     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3245     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3246     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3247     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3248   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3249   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3250     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3251   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3252     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3253     is still experimental.)
  3254   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3255     full-typed mode.
  3256   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3257 
  3258 * Nitpick:
  3259   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3260   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3261   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3262     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3263   - Added support for quotient types.
  3264   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3265     constructs.
  3266   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3267     "termination" proofs).
  3268   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3269   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3270   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3271   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3272     record getters.
  3273   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3274   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3275   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3276   - Added "atoms" option.
  3277   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3278     problems.
  3279   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3280     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3281     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3282   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3283     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3285 
  3286 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3287   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3288   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3289   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3290   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3291   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3292   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3293   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3294   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3295   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3296 
  3297 
  3298 *** HOLCF ***
  3299 
  3300 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3301 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3302 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303 
  3304 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3305 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3306 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3307 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3308 
  3309 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3310 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3311 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3312 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3313 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3314 
  3315 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3316 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3317 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3318 
  3319 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3320 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3321 
  3322   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3323   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3324 
  3325 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3326 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3327 
  3328   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3329   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3330   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3331   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3332   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3333 
  3334 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3335 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3336 
  3337   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3338   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3339   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3340 
  3341 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3342 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3344 
  3345 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3346 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3347 
  3348 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3349 
  3350 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3351 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3352 
  3353 
  3354 *** ML ***
  3355 
  3356 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3357 
  3358     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3359     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3360 
  3361     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3362     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3363     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3364     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3365 
  3366     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3367     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3368     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3369 
  3370 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3371 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3372 
  3373 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3374 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3375 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3376 
  3377 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3378 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3379 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3380 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3381 
  3382 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3383 the context or even global references.
  3384 
  3385 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3386 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3387 
  3388 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3389 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3390 
  3391   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3392   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3393   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3394   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3395   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3396   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3397   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3398   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3399   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3400   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3401 
  3402 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3403 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3404 
  3405 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3406 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3407 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3408 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3409 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3410 
  3411 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3412 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3413 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3414 Theory_Data version.
  3415 
  3416 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3417 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3418 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3419 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3420 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3421 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3422 explicitly in rare situations.
  3423 
  3424 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3425 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3427 
  3428 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3429 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3432 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3433 quite rare).
  3434 
  3435 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3436 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3439 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3440 terms.
  3441 
  3442 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3443 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3444 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3445 
  3446 
  3447 *** System ***
  3448 
  3449 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3450 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3451 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3452 
  3453 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3454 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3455 respectively.
  3456 
  3457 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3458 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3459 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3460 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3461 
  3462   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3463 
  3464 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3465 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3466 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3467 component.
  3468 
  3469 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3470 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3471 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3472 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3473 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3474 the user for manual installation.
  3475 
  3476 
  3477 
  3478 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3479 -------------------------------------
  3480 
  3481 *** General ***
  3482 
  3483 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3484 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3485 
  3486 
  3487 *** Pure ***
  3488 
  3489 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3490 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3491 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3492 
  3493 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3494 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3495 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3496 
  3497 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3498 interpretation.
  3499 
  3500 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3501 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3502 
  3503 
  3504 *** Document preparation ***
  3505 
  3506 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3507 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3508 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3509 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3510 
  3511 
  3512 *** HOL ***
  3513 
  3514 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3515 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3516 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3517 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3518 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3519 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3520 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3521 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3522 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3523 
  3524 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3525 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3526 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3527 
  3528 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3529 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3530 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3531 
  3532 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3533 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3534 
  3535 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3536 
  3537 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3538 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3539 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3540 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3541 
  3542 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3543 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3544 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3545 "mirabelle" utility.
  3546 
  3547 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3548 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3549 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3550 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3551 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3552 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3553 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3554 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3555 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3556 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3557 
  3558 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3559 procedure only.
  3560 
  3561 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3562 
  3563 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3564 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3565 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3566 that fail later.
  3567 
  3568 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3569 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3570 
  3571 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3572 the same method as the approximation method.
  3573 
  3574 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3575 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3576 series expansion.
  3577 
  3578 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3579 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3580 
  3581 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3582 reals.
  3583 
  3584 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3585 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3586 
  3587 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3588 fixpoint theorem.
  3589 
  3590 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3591   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3592     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3593   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3594     accordingly
  3595   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3596     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3597   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3598     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3599 
  3600 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3601 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3602 lattice.
  3603 
  3604 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3605 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3606 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3607 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3608 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3609 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3610 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3611 
  3612 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3613   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3614     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3615   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3616     le_inf_iff
  3617   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3618     sup_aci)
  3619   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3620   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3621   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3622     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3623     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3624     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3625     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3626     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3627     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3628     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3629     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3630     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3631     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3632   - authentic syntax for
  3633     Set.Pow
  3634     Set.image
  3635   - mere abbreviations:
  3636     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3637     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3638     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3639     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3640     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3641     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3642     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3643     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3644   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3645 
  3646 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3647 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3648 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3649 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3650 
  3651 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3652 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3653 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3654 
  3655 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3656 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3657 
  3658 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3659 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3660 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3661 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3664 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3665 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3666 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3667 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3668 
  3669 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3670 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3671 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3672 
  3673 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3674 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3675 
  3676 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3677 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3678 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3679 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3680 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3681 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3682 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3684 
  3685 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3686     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3687     code_post       replaces    code post
  3688     etc.
  3689   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3690 
  3691 * Renamed methods:
  3692     sizechange -> size_change
  3693     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3694   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3695 
  3696 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3697 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3698 
  3699 * Renamed theorems:
  3700     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3701     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3702     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3703     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3704     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3705   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3706 
  3707 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3709 
  3710 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712 
  3713 
  3714 *** HOLCF ***
  3715 
  3716 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3717 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3718 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3719 
  3720 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3721 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3722 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3723 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3724 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3725 
  3726 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3727 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3728 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3729 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3730 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3731 
  3732 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3733 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3734 constructor are pre-configured.
  3735 
  3736 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3737 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3738 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3739 
  3740 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3741 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3742 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3743 as well.)
  3744 
  3745 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3746 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3747 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3748 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3749 examples.
  3750 
  3751 
  3752 *** ML ***
  3753 
  3754 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3755 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3756 
  3757 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3758 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3759 position, logical grouping etc.
  3760 
  3761 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3762 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3763 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3764 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3765 
  3766 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3767 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3768 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3769 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3770 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3771 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3772 
  3773 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3774 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3775 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3776 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3777 experiments with references.
  3778 
  3779 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3780 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3781 
  3782 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3783 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3784 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3785 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3786 
  3787 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3788 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3789 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3790 
  3791 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3792 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3793 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794 
  3795 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3796 
  3797 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3799 
  3800 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3801 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3802 
  3803 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3804 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3805 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3806 
  3807 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3808 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3809 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3810 
  3811 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3812 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3813 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3814 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815 
  3816 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3817 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3818 instead of global theory.
  3819 
  3820 
  3821 *** System ***
  3822 
  3823 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3824 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3825 usedir option -q.
  3826 
  3827 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3828 also the system manual.
  3829 
  3830 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3831 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3832 
  3833 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3834 this is always enabled.
  3835 
  3836 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3837 
  3838 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3839 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3840 currently supported on Linux only.
  3841 
  3842 
  3843 
  3844 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3845 --------------------------------
  3846 
  3847 *** General ***
  3848 
  3849 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3850 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3851 
  3852   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3853     "isatool."
  3854 
  3855   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3856     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3857 
  3858   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3859     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3860 
  3861 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3862 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3863 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3864 
  3865 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3866 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3867 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3868 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3869 via "isabelle emacs".
  3870 
  3871 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3872 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3873 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3874 
  3875 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3876 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3877 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3878 
  3879 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3880 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3881 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3882 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3883 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3884 
  3885 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3886 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3887 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3888 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3889 
  3890 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3891 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3892 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3893 
  3894 
  3895 *** Pure ***
  3896 
  3897 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3898 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3899 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3900 
  3901 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3902 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3903 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3904 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3905 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3906 
  3907 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3908 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3909 useful in locale declarations.
  3910 
  3911 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3912 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3913 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3914 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3915 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3916 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3917 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3918 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3919 no longer generated.
  3920 
  3921 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3922 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3923 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3924 
  3925 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3926 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3927 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3928 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3929 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3930 
  3931 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3932 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3933 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3934 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3935 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3936 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3937 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3938 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3939 
  3940 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3941 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3942 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3943 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3944 
  3945 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946 
  3947 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3948 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3949 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3950 
  3951 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3952 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3953 
  3954 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3955 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3956 in HOL, write
  3957 
  3958     class foo = ...
  3959 
  3960 instead of
  3961 
  3962     class foo = type + ...
  3963 
  3964 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3965 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3966 
  3967 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3968 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3969 
  3970 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3971 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3972 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3973 
  3974 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3975 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3976 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3977 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3978 directly in regular applications.
  3979 
  3980 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3981 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3982 
  3983 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3984 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3985 
  3986 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3987 theory context.
  3988 
  3989 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3990 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3991 
  3992 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3993 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3994 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3995 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3996 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3997 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3998 
  3999   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4000 
  4001 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4002 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4003 normalization.
  4004 
  4005 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4006 addressing etc.
  4007 
  4008 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4009 
  4010   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4011   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4012 
  4013 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4014 
  4015   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4016      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4017      parts of the code generator framework).
  4018 
  4019   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4020      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4021      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4022 
  4023 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4024 
  4025 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4026 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4027 
  4028 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4029 patterns, e.g.
  4030 
  4031     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4032 
  4033 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4034 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4035 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4036 hyphen:
  4037 
  4038     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4039 
  4040 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4041 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4042 
  4043 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4044 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4045 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4046 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4047 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4048 higher-order unification.
  4049 
  4050 
  4051 *** Document preparation ***
  4052 
  4053 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4054 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4055 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4056 
  4057 
  4058 *** HOL ***
  4059 
  4060 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4061 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4062 
  4063 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4064 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4065 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4066 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4067 Main, as before.
  4068 
  4069 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4070 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4071 
  4072 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4073 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4074 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4075 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4076 
  4077 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4078 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4079 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4080 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4081 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4082 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4083 
  4084 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4085 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4086 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4087 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4088 
  4089 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4090 menu.
  4091 
  4092 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4093 (contains the empty clause).
  4094 
  4095 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4096 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4097 
  4098 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4099 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4100 
  4101 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4102 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4103 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4104 
  4105 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4106 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4107 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4108 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4109 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4110 
  4111 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4112 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4113 
  4114 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4115 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4116 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4117 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4118 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4119 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4120 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4121 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4122 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4123 
  4124 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4125 
  4126 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4127 
  4128 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4129 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4130 
  4131 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4132 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4133 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4134 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4135 
  4136 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4137 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4138 
  4139     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4140     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4141     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4142     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4143     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4144     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4145     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4146     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4147 
  4148 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4149 theory Set.
  4150 
  4151 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4152 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4153 
  4154 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4155 
  4156 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4157 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4158 
  4159 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4160 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4161 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4162 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4163 allowed. For examples see
  4164 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4165 
  4166 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4167 
  4168 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4169 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4170 
  4171 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4172 structure:
  4173 
  4174     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4175     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4176     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4177     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4178     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4179     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4180     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4181     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4182     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4183     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4184     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4185     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4186     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4187     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4188     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4189     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4190     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4191     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4192     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4193     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4194     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4195     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4196     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4197     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4198     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4199     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4200     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4201     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4202     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4203     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4204     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4205     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4206     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4207 
  4208     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4209     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4210     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4211     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4212     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4213     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4214     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4215     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4216     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4217     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4218 
  4219     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4220     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4221     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4222     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4223     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4224     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4225 
  4226 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4227 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4228 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4229 
  4230 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4231 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4232 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4233 
  4234 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4235 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4236 
  4237 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4238 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4239 
  4240 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4241 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4242 proofs, e.g.
  4243 
  4244   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4245 
  4246 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4247 
  4248 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4249 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4250 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4251 
  4252 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4253 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4255 
  4256 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4257 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4258 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4260 
  4261 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4262 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4263 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4264 preorder_class.*.
  4265 
  4266 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4267 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4268 
  4269 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4270 
  4271   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4272 
  4273 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4274 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4275 fold_image.
  4276 
  4277 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4278 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4279 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4280 the former will disappear at some point.
  4281 
  4282 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4283 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4284 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4285 
  4286 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4287 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4288 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4289 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4290 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4291 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4292 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4293 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4294 
  4295 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4296 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4297 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4298 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4299 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4300 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4301 
  4302     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4303     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4304     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4305     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4306     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4307     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4308     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4309 
  4310 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4311 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4312 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4313 
  4314 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4315 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4316 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4317 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4318 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4319 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4320 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4321 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4322 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4323 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4324 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4325 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4326 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4327 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4328 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4329 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4330 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4331 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4332 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4333 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4334 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4335 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4336 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4337 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4338 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4339 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4340 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4341 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4342 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4343 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4344 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4345 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4346 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4347 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4348 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4349 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4350 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4351 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4352 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4353 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4354 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4355 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4356 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4357 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4358 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4359 
  4360 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4361 
  4362 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4363 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4364 
  4365 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4366 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4367 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4368 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4369 
  4370 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4371 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4372 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4373 theory RealVector.
  4374 
  4375 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4376 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4377 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4378 and inner products are included.
  4379 
  4380 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4381 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4382 supported.
  4383 
  4384 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4385 first diagonalization argument.
  4386 
  4387 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4388 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4389 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4390 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4391 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4392 
  4393     hide (open) const gcd
  4394     abbreviation gcd where
  4395       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4396     notation (output)
  4397       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4398 
  4399 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4400 
  4401 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4402 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4403 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4404 
  4405 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4406 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4407 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4408 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4409 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4410 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4411 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4412 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4413 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4414 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4415 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4416 cases.
  4417 
  4418 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4419 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4420 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4421 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4422 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4423 
  4424     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4425     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4426     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4427     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4428     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4429 
  4430 
  4431 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4432 
  4433 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4434 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4435 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4436 
  4437 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4438 
  4439 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4440 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4441 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4442 
  4443 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4444 
  4445 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4446 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4447 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4448 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4449 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4450 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4451 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4452 
  4453 
  4454 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4455 
  4456 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4457 
  4458 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4459 theory targets.
  4460 
  4461 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4462 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4463 'inductive' etc.
  4464 
  4465 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4466 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4467 
  4468 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4469 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4470 
  4471 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4472 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4473 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4474 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4475 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4476 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4477 the algorithm W:
  4478 
  4479  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4480  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4481          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4482 
  4483 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4484 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4485 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4486 
  4487 
  4488 *** HOLCF ***
  4489 
  4490 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4491 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4492 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4493 
  4494 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4495 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4496 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4497 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4498 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4499 
  4500 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4501 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4502 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4503 
  4504 
  4505 *** ZF ***
  4506 
  4507 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4508 
  4509 
  4510 *** ML ***
  4511 
  4512 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4513 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4514 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4515 5.2.1!
  4516 
  4517 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4518 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4519 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4520 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4521 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4522 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4523 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4524 
  4525 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4526 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4527 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4528 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4529 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4530 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4531 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4532 
  4533 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4534 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4535 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4536 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4537 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4538 
  4539 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4540 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4541 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4542 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4543 Method.add_method.
  4544 
  4545 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4546 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4547 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4548 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4549 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4550 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4551 
  4552 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4553 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4554 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4555 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4556 examples.
  4557 
  4558 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4559 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4560 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4561 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4562 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4563 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4564 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4565 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4566 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4567 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4568 
  4569 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4570 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4571 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4572 
  4573 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4574 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4575 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4576 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4577 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4578 resort for legacy applications.
  4579 
  4580 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4581 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4582 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4583 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4584 explicit runtime argument.
  4585 
  4586 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4587 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4588 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4589 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4590 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4591 
  4592 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4593 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4594 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4595 theory state.
  4596 
  4597 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4598 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4599 
  4600   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4601   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4602   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4603   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4604   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4605   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4606   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4607   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4608   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4609   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4610 
  4611 
  4612 *** System ***
  4613 
  4614 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4615 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4616 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4617 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4618 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4619 
  4620 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4621 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4622 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4623 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4624 
  4625 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4626 
  4627 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4628 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4629 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4630 prover operations.
  4631 
  4632 
  4633 
  4634 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4635 -------------------------------
  4636 
  4637 *** General ***
  4638 
  4639 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4640 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4641 
  4642 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4643 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4644 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4645 provides a proper context already.
  4646 
  4647 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4648 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4649 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4650 
  4651 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4652 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4653 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4654 swap theory imports.
  4655 
  4656 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4657 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4658 
  4659 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4660 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4661 white space without escapes.
  4662 
  4663 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4664 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4665 "foo_bar".
  4666 
  4667 
  4668 *** Pure ***
  4669 
  4670 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4671 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4672 
  4673 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4674 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4675 
  4676 (1) unused_thms
  4677      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4678 
  4679 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4680      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4681      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4682 
  4683 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4684      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4685      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4686      their ancestors.
  4687 
  4688 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4689 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4690 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4691 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4692 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4693 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4694 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4695 
  4696 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4697 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4698 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4699 
  4700 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4701 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4702 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4703 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4704 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4705 
  4706 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4707 
  4708 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4709 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4710 update of theories within ML code.
  4711 
  4712 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4713 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4714 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4715 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4716 
  4717 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4718 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4719 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4721 
  4722 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4723 
  4724 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4725 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4726 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4727 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4728 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4729 
  4730 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4731 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4732 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4733 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4734 situations.
  4735 
  4736 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4737 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4738 proof text.
  4739 
  4740 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4741 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4742 
  4743 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4744 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4745 predicates.
  4746 
  4747 
  4748 *** Document preparation ***
  4749 
  4750 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4751 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4752 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4753 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4754 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4755 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4756 
  4757 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4758 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4759 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4760 
  4761 
  4762 *** HOL ***
  4763 
  4764 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4765 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4766 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4767 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4768 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4769 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4770 
  4771 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4772 with multithreading.
  4773 
  4774 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4775 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4776 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4777 
  4778 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4779 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4780 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4781 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4782 
  4783 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4784 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4785 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4786 and makes them available separately.  See
  4787 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4788 
  4789 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4790 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4791 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4792 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4793 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4794 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4795 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4796 the declared rules.
  4797 
  4798 This setup also deals with rules like
  4799 
  4800   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4801 
  4802 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4803 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4804 
  4805 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4806 
  4807   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4808 
  4809   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4810     definitions on => and bool.
  4811 
  4812   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4813     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4814     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4815 
  4816       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4817       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4818       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4819       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4820       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4821       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4822       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4823       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4824 
  4825   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4826     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4827     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4828 
  4829   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4830     The proof pattern
  4831 
  4832       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4833       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4834 
  4835     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4836     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4837 
  4838       have "EX S. P S"
  4839       proof
  4840         show "P S" <...>
  4841       qed
  4842 
  4843   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4844     The proof pattern
  4845 
  4846       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4847       also have "S = T" <...>
  4848       finally have "P T" .
  4849 
  4850     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4851     must be replaced by something like
  4852 
  4853       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4854       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4855       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4856 
  4857   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4858     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4859 
  4860       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4861 
  4862     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4863     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4864     type of the form
  4865 
  4866       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4867 
  4868     rather than
  4869 
  4870       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4871 
  4872 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4873 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4874 
  4875 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4876 
  4877 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4878 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4880 
  4881 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4882 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4883 
  4884 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4885 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4886 
  4887 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4888 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4889 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4890 
  4891 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4892 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4893 
  4894   less_trans
  4895   less_linear
  4896   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4897   le_less_trans
  4898   less_le_trans
  4899   less_not_sym
  4900   less_asym
  4901 
  4902 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4903 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4904 and different variable names.
  4905 
  4906 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4907 
  4908 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4909 finite maps.
  4910 
  4911 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4912 
  4913 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4914 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4915 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4916 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4917 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4918 accordingly.
  4919 
  4920 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4921 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4922 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4923 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4924 
  4925 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4926 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4927 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4928 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4929 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4931 
  4932 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4933 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4934 
  4935 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4936 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4937 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4938 
  4939 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4940 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4941 
  4942 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4943 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4944 
  4945 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4946 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4947 
  4948 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4949 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4950 
  4951 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4952 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4954 
  4955 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4956 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4957 
  4958 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4959 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4960 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4961 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4962 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4963 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4964 
  4965 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4966 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4967 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4968 
  4969 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4970 
  4971 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4972 
  4973 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4974 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4975 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4976 
  4977 
  4978 *** ZF ***
  4979 
  4980 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4981 same session:
  4982 
  4983   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4984   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4985   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4986   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4987   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4988   List      -> List_ZF
  4989   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4990 
  4991 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4992 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4993 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4994 
  4995 
  4996 *** ML ***
  4997 
  4998 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4999 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5000 
  5001 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5002 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5003 
  5004 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5005 
  5006 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5007 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5008 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5009 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5010 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5011 
  5012 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5013 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5014 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5015 
  5016 
  5017 *** System ***
  5018 
  5019 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5020 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5021 
  5022 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5023 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5024 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5025 
  5026 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5027 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5028 
  5029 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5030 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5031 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5032 
  5033 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5034 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5035 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5036 
  5037 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5038 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5039 
  5040 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5041 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5042 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5043 script.
  5044 
  5045 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5046 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5047 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5048 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5049 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5050 
  5051 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5052 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5053 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5054 
  5055 
  5056 
  5057 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5058 -----------------------------------
  5059 
  5060 *** General ***
  5061 
  5062 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5063 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5064 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5065 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5066 
  5067 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5068 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5069 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5070 
  5071 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5072 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5073 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5074 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5075 
  5076 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5077 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5078 quotes.
  5079 
  5080 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5081 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5082 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5083 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5084 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5085 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5086 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5087 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5088 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5089 
  5090 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5091 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5092 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5093 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5094 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5095 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5096 
  5097 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5098 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5099 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5100 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5101 
  5102 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5103 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5104 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5105 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5106 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5107 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5108 
  5109 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5110 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5111 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5112 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5113 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5114 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5115 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5116 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5117 
  5118 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5119 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5120 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5121 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5122 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5123 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5124 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5125 
  5126 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5127 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5128 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5129 
  5130 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5131 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5132 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5133 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5134 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5135 limit is imposed.
  5136 
  5137 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5138 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5139 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5140 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5141 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5142 and scalability.
  5143 
  5144 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5145 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5146 
  5147 
  5148 *** Document preparation ***
  5149 
  5150 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5151 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5152 current context.
  5153 
  5154 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5155 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5156 
  5157 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5158 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5159 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5160 
  5161 
  5162 *** Pure ***
  5163 
  5164 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5165 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5166 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5167 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5168 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5169 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5170 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5171 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5172 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5173 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5174 
  5175 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5176 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5177 sketch:
  5178 
  5179     internal compilation:
  5180         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5181     writing SML code to a file:
  5182         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5183     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5184         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5185     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5186         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5187 
  5188     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5189         method ``eval''
  5190 
  5191 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5192 
  5193 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5194 
  5195     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5196     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5197     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5198     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5199 
  5200 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5201 
  5202     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5203       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5204 
  5205     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5206       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5207 
  5208     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5209       {(target)}+
  5210         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5211 
  5212     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5213       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5214         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5215 
  5216 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5217 
  5218 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5219 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5220 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5221 codegen".
  5222 
  5223 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5224 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5225 annotations).
  5226 
  5227 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5228 syntax.
  5229 
  5230 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5231 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5232 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5233 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5234 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5235 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5236 
  5237 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5238 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5239 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5240 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5241 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5242 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5243 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5244 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5245 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5246 equations, see section "definitions".
  5247 
  5248 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5249 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5250 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5251 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5252 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5253 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5254 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5255 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5256 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5257 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5258 
  5259 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5260 configuration options:
  5261 
  5262   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5263   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5264   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5265   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5266   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5267   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5268   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5269   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5270   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5271 
  5272 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5273 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5274 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5275 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5276 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5277 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5278 order.
  5279 
  5280 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5281 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5282 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5283 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5284 context encountered later on.
  5285 
  5286 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5287 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5288 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5289 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5290 
  5291 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5292 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5293 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5294 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5295 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5296 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5297 
  5298 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5299 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5300 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5301 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5302 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5303 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5304 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5305 more permissive.
  5306 
  5307 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5308 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5309 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5310 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5311 maintainability of proof texts.
  5312 
  5313 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5314 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5315 
  5316   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5317   then guess x and y by clarify
  5318 
  5319 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5320 proof tools being involved here.
  5321 
  5322 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5323 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5324 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5325 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5326 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5327 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5328 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5329 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5330 
  5331 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5332 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5333 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5334 
  5335   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5336   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5337   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5338   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5339 
  5340 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5341 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5342 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5343 
  5344 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5345 both named and unnamed ones.
  5346 
  5347 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5348 
  5349   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5350 
  5351 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5352 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5353 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5354 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5355 
  5356 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5357 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5358 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5359 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5360 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5361 
  5362 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5363 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5364 
  5365 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5366 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5367 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5368 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5369 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5370 originally first one.
  5371 
  5372 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5373 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5374 expected.
  5375 
  5376 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5377 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5378 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5379 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5380 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5381 
  5382   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5383     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5384     obtains x where "P x"
  5385 
  5386   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5387     assumes "A & B"
  5388     obtains A and B
  5389 
  5390   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5391     assumes "A | B"
  5392     obtains
  5393       A
  5394     | B
  5395 
  5396 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5397 explicitly:
  5398 
  5399   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5400     obtains "~ thesis"
  5401 
  5402   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5403     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5404 
  5405 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5406 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5407 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5408 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5409 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5410 case_names).
  5411 
  5412 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5413 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5414 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5415 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5416 
  5417 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5418 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5419 top-level lemma.
  5420 
  5421 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5422 introduction rule (default "that").
  5423 
  5424 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5425 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5426 to occur.
  5427 
  5428 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5429 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5430 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5431 representations independently of name spaces.
  5432 
  5433 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5434 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5435 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5436 
  5437 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5438 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5439 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5440 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5441 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5442 current context.
  5443 
  5444 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5445 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5446 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5447 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5448 
  5449   axiomatization
  5450     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5451     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5452 
  5453   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5454   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5455 
  5456   abbreviation
  5457     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5458     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5459 
  5460 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5461 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5462 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5463 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5464 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5465 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5466 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5467 
  5468 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5469 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5470 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5471 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5472 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5473 
  5474 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5475 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5476 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5477 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5478 
  5479 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5480 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5481 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5482 
  5483   definition "K x _ = x"
  5484 
  5485   inductive conj for A B
  5486   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5487 
  5488 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5489 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5490 abbreviations on output.
  5491 
  5492 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5493 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5494 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5495 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5496 
  5497 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5498 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5499 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5500 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5501 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5502 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5503 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5504 
  5505 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5506 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5507 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5508 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5509 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5510 
  5511 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5512 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5513 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5514 
  5515 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5516 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5517 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5518 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5519 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5520 
  5521   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5522     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5523 
  5524 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5525 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5526 partial_order.
  5527 
  5528 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5529 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5530 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5531 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5532 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5533 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5534 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5535 examples.
  5536 
  5537 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5538 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5539 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5540 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5541 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5542 
  5543 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5544 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5545 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5546 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5547 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5548 
  5549   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5550   (induct set: foo bar)
  5551   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5552   (induct type: foo bar)
  5553 
  5554 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5555 new format.
  5556 
  5557 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5558 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5559 
  5560 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5561 considered a legacy feature.
  5562 
  5563 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5564 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5565 
  5566 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5567 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5568 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5569 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5570 
  5571 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5572 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5573 manipulating the claset.
  5574 
  5575 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5576 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5577 least one premise.
  5578 
  5579 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5580 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5581 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5582 rule steps.
  5583 
  5584 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5585 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5586 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5587 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5588 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5589 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5590 
  5591 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5592 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5593 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5594 
  5595 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5596 the graph browser tool.
  5597 
  5598 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5599 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5600 
  5601 
  5602 *** HOL ***
  5603 
  5604 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5605 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5606 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5607 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5608 multi-threading.
  5609 
  5610 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5611 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5612 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5613 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5614 work with multi-threading.
  5615 
  5616 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5617 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5618 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5619 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5620 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5621 
  5622 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5623 
  5624 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5625 equality.
  5626 
  5627 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5628 the new 'class' package:
  5629 
  5630     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5631     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5632     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5633     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5634     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5635     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5636     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5637     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5638     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5639     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5640     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5641     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5642     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5643     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5644     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5645     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5646     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5647     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5648     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5649     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5650 
  5651 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5652 
  5653 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5654 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5655 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5656 names.
  5657 
  5658 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5659 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5660 
  5661 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5662 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5663 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5664 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5665 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5666 
  5667 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5668 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5669 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5670 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5671 
  5672 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5673 
  5674 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5675 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5676 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5677 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5678 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5679 
  5680 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5681 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5682 
  5683 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5684 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5685 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5686 
  5687 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5688 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5689 
  5690 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5691 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5692 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5693 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5694 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5695 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5696 in the current context.
  5697 
  5698 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5699 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5701 
  5702 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5703 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5704 
  5705 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5706 
  5707     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5708     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5709 
  5710     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5711       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5712     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5713     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5714 
  5715     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5716     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5717 
  5718   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5719 
  5720     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5721     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5722     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5723     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5724     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5725     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5726     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5727     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5728     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5729     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5730     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5731     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5732     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5733     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5734     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5735     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5736     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5737     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5738     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5739     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5740     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5741     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5742     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5743     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5744     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5745     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5746     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5747     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5748     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5749     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5750     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5751     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5752     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5753     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5754     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5755 
  5756     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5757     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5758     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5759     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5760     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5761     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5762     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5763     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5764     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5765     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5766     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5767     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5768     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5769     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5770     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5771     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5772     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5773 
  5774     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5775     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5776     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5777     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5778     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5779     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5780     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5781     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5782     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5783     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5784     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5785     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5786     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5787     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5788     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5789     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5790     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5791     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5792     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5793     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5794     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5795     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5796     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5797     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5798     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5799     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5800     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5801     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5802 
  5803     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5804     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5805     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5806     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5807     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5808     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5809 
  5810     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5811     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5812     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5813     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5814 
  5815     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5816     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5817 
  5818     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5819     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5820 
  5821 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5822 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5823 
  5824 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5825 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5826 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5827 "*.size".
  5828 
  5829 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5830 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5831 
  5832 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5833 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5834 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5835 
  5836 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5837 
  5838 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5839 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5840 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5841 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5842 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5843 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5844 numerals on all operations.
  5845 
  5846 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5847 
  5848 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5849 
  5850 * Code generator library theories:
  5851   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5852     languages.
  5853   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5854     languages.
  5855   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5856     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5857   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5858   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5859     denominator).
  5860   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5861     representable by rational numbers.
  5862   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5863     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5864     includes Code_Integer.
  5865   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5866     target-language built-in integers.
  5867   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5868     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5869 
  5870 * New package for inductive predicates
  5871 
  5872   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5873 
  5874     inductive
  5875       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5876       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5877     where
  5878       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5879     | ...
  5880 
  5881   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5882 
  5883     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5884 
  5885     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5886     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5887 
  5888     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5889     intros
  5890       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5891       ...
  5892 
  5893   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5894   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5895 
  5896     inductive_set
  5897       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5898       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5899     where
  5900       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5901     | ...
  5902 
  5903   or
  5904 
  5905     inductive_set
  5906       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5907       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5908       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5909     where
  5910       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5911     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5912     | ...
  5913 
  5914   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5915 
  5916   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5917   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5918 
  5919   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5920 
  5921   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5922     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5923     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5924     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5925     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5926 
  5927   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5928     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5929     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5930     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5931     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5932     statements of the form
  5933 
  5934       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5935 
  5936     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5937     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5938 
  5939       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5940 
  5941   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5942 
  5943       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5944         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5945         ==> ... ==> P
  5946 
  5947     for predicates and
  5948 
  5949       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5950         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5951         ==> ... ==> P
  5952 
  5953     for sets rather than
  5954 
  5955       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5956         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5957         ==> ... ==> P
  5958 
  5959     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5960     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5961     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5962 
  5963   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5964     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5965     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5966 
  5967 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5968 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5969 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5970 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5971 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5972 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5973 
  5974 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5975 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5976 
  5977 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5978 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5979 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5980 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5981 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5982 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5983 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5984 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5985 variable.
  5986 
  5987 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5988 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5989 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5990 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5991   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5992   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5993 
  5994 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5995 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5996 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5997 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5998 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5999 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6000 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6001 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6002 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6003 
  6004 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6005 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6006 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6007 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6008 rat, etc.
  6009 
  6010 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6011 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6012 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6013 
  6014 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6015 
  6016 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6017 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6018 
  6019 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6020 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6021 
  6022 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6023 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6024 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6025 
  6026 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6027 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6029 
  6030 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6031 
  6032 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6033 
  6034 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6035 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6036 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6037 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6038 
  6039 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6040 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6041 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6042 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6043 
  6044 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6045 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6046 algebraic operations.
  6047 
  6048 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6050 
  6051 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6053 
  6054 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6055 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6056 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6057 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6058 adapted.
  6059 
  6060 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6061 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6062 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6063 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6064 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6065 
  6066 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6067 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6068 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6069 
  6070 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6071 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6072 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6073 
  6074 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6075 
  6076 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6077 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6078 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6079   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6080       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6081   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6082   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6083   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6084 
  6085 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6086 
  6087 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6088 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6089 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6090 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6091 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6092 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6093 
  6094 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6095 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6096 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6097 
  6098 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6099 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6100 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6102 
  6103 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6104 
  6105 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6106 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6107 
  6108 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6109 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6110 
  6111 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6112 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6113 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6114 
  6115 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6116 True/False.
  6117 
  6118 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6119 
  6120 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6121 
  6122 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6123 ``rule'' method.
  6124 
  6125 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6126 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6127 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6128 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6129 
  6130 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6131 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6132 
  6133 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6134 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6135 
  6136 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6137 Library.
  6138 
  6139 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6140 
  6141 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6142 as greatest fixed-point.
  6143 
  6144 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6145 association lists.
  6146 
  6147 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6148 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6149 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6150 
  6151 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6152 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6153 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6154 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6155 behavior.
  6156 
  6157 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6158 
  6159 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6160 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6161 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6162 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6163 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6164 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6165 
  6166 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6167 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6168 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6169 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6170 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6171 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6172 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6173 
  6174 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6175 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6176 
  6177 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6178 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6179 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6180 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6181 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6182 
  6183 
  6184 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6185 
  6186 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6187 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6188 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6189 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6191 
  6192 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6193 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6194 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6195 
  6196 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6197 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6198 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6199 
  6200 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6201 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6202 
  6203 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6204 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6205 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6207 
  6208   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6209   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6210   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6211   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6212   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6213   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6214   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6215   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6216   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6217   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6218   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6219   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6220   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6221   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6222   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6223 
  6224 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6225 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6226 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6227 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6228 
  6229   approx        <-- capprox
  6230   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6231   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6232   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6233   monad         <-- cmonad
  6234   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6235   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM