NEWS
author haftmann
Thu Oct 11 11:56:42 2012 +0200 (2012-10-11)
changeset 49822 0cfc1651be25
parent 49770 cf6a78acf445
child 49836 c13b39542972
permissions -rw-r--r--
simplified construction of fold combinator on multisets;
more coherent name for fold combinator on multisets
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10     . parallel terminal proofs ('by');
    11     . improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc.;
    12     . more efficient painting, improved reactivity;
    13     . more robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial
    14       comments, malformed symbols);
    15     . smarter handling of tracing messages (via tracing_limit);
    16     . more plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala;
    17     . uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows;
    18 
    19 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    20 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    21 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    22 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    23 
    24 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    25 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    26 
    27 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    28 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    29 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    30 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    31 dependencies properly.
    32 
    33 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    34 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    35 
    36 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    37 in old "ref" manual.
    38 
    39 
    40 *** Pure ***
    41 
    42 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    43 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    44 
    45 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    46 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    47 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    48 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    49 
    50 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    51 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    52 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    53 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    54 with some care where this is really required.
    55 
    56 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
    57 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
    58 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
    59 
    60   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
    61 
    62 
    63 *** HOL ***
    64 
    65 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
    66 
    67   - Renamed constants
    68       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
    69 
    70   - Renamed facts
    71       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
    72 
    73 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    74 
    75 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    76 
    77 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
    78 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
    79 
    80 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
    81 to lattice type classes.
    82 
    83 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
    84 
    85 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
    86 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
    87 
    88   - Renamed constants:
    89 
    90       prefix ~> prefixeq
    91       strict_prefix ~> prefix
    92 
    93     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
    94 
    95   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
    96     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
    97     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
    98     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    99 
   100   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   101     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
   102 
   103   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   104     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   105     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   106     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   107 
   108   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   109     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
   110 
   111       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
   112       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
   113       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
   114       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
   115       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
   116       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
   117       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
   118       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
   119       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
   120       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
   121       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
   122       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
   123       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
   124       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   125       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   126       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   127 
   128     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   129 
   130 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   131 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   132 non-free datatypes.
   133 
   134 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   135 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   136 
   137 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   138 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   139 
   140 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   141 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   142 
   143 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   144 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   145 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   146 
   147 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   148 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   149 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   150 
   151 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   152 expressions.
   153 
   154 * Quickcheck:
   155 
   156   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   157     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   158     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   159 
   160 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   161 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   162 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   163 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   164 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   165 
   166 * Sledgehammer:
   167 
   168   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   169     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   170   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   171   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   172   - Renamed options:
   173       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   174       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   175 
   176 
   177 *** Document preparation ***
   178 
   179 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   180 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   181 
   182 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   183 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   184 document/root.tex.
   185 
   186 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   187 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188 
   189 
   190 *** ML ***
   191 
   192 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   193 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   194 necessarily printing visible text.
   195 
   196 
   197 *** System ***
   198 
   199 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   200 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   201 for home-made configurations.
   202 
   203 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   204 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   205 
   206 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   207 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   208 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   209 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   210 
   211 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   212 
   213 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   214 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   215 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   216 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   217 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   218 
   219 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   220 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   221 
   222   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   223 
   224 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   225 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   226 
   227 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   228 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   229 "isabelle usedir".
   230 
   231 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   232 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   233 version of Isabelle.
   234 
   235 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   236 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   237 configuration.
   238 
   239 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   240 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   241 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   242 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   243 bundled as Isabelle component.
   244 
   245 
   246 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   247 ------------------------------
   248 
   249 *** General ***
   250 
   251 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   252 
   253   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   254     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   255   - markup for bound variables
   256   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   257   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   258   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   259     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   260 
   261 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   262 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   263 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   264 
   265 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   266 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   267 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   268 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   269 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   270 
   271   context
   272     fixes x y z :: 'a
   273     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   274   begin
   275 
   276   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   277 
   278   end
   279 
   280   thm my_trans
   281 
   282 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   283 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   284 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   285 
   286 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   287 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   288 
   289 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   290 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   291 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   292 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   293 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   294 
   295 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   296 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   297 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   298 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   299 indices of schematic variables.
   300 
   301 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   302 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   303 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   304 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   305 etc. was exploited.
   306 
   307 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   308 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   309 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   310 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   311 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   312 of the material of that old tutorial.
   313 
   314 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   315 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   316 manual.
   317 
   318 
   319 *** Pure ***
   320 
   321 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   322 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   323 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   324 
   325 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   326 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   327 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   328 undocumented feature.)
   329 
   330 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   331 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   332 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   333 
   334   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   335 
   336   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   337     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   338 
   339 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   340 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   341 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   342 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   343 
   344 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   345 
   346     num ~> num_token
   347     xnum ~> xnum_token
   348     xstr ~> str_token
   349 
   350 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   351 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   352 position information via constraints).
   353 
   354 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   355 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   356 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   357 
   358 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   359 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   360 
   361 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   362 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   363 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   364 
   365 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   366 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   367 
   368 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   369 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   370 
   371   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   372 
   373 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   374 
   375 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   376 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   377 
   378 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   379 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   380 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   381 
   382 
   383 *** HOL ***
   384 
   385 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   386 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   387 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   388 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   389 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   390 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   391 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   392 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   393 possible.
   394 
   395 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   396 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   397 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   398 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   399 
   400 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   401 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   402 
   403 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   404 
   405 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   406 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   407 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   408 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   409 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   410 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   411 
   412   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   413     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   414 
   415   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   416     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   417     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   418 
   419   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   420     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   421 
   422   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   423     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   424     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   425 
   426   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   427     Redefine using other integer operations.
   428 
   429 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   430 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   431 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   432 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   433 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   434 
   435   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   436     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   437     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   438     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   439     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   440 
   441     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   442     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   443 
   444   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   445     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   446     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   447     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   448     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   449     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   450     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   451     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   452 
   453   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   454     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   455     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   456     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   457 
   458   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   459     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   460     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   461     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   462 
   463   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   464     from type nat to type int.
   465 
   466 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   467 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   468 
   469   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   470     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   471     type.  Example syntax:
   472 
   473     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   474       is List.insert
   475 
   476     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   477     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   478     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   479     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   480     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   481     by the package.
   482 
   483   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   484     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   485     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   486     code generation for each constant.
   487 
   488   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   489     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   490     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   491     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   492     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   493 
   494   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   495     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   496     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   497 
   498 * Quotient package:
   499 
   500   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   501     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   502 
   503   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   504     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   505 
   506   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   507     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   508     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   509 
   510   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   511     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   512 
   513 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   514 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   515 
   516 * Quickcheck:
   517 
   518   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   519     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   520     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   521     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   522     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   523 
   524     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   525     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   526     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   527 
   528     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   529     continues searching for genuine ones.
   530 
   531     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   532     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   533     show genuine counterexamples.
   534 
   535   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   536     value generators for a given type and operations.
   537 
   538     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   539     constructors of that type.
   540 
   541   - Support for multisets.
   542 
   543   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   544 
   545   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   546     conjectures in a locale context.
   547 
   548 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   549 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   550 
   551 * Sledgehammer:
   552   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   553     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   554   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   555   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   556     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   557   - Sped up the minimizer.
   558   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   559   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   560   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   561 
   562 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   563 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   564 
   565 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   566 
   567 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   568 
   569 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   570 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   571 
   572   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   573 
   574 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   575 a list and a nat.
   576 
   577 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   578 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   579 
   580 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   581 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   582 default.
   583 
   584 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   585 
   586   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   587 
   588 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   589 
   590 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   591 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   592 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   593 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   594 one_case.
   595 
   596 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   597 the result of the fact expression.
   598 
   599 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   600 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   601 of some relation theorems:
   602 
   603   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   604   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   605   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   606   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   607   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   608   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   609 
   610 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   611 
   612 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   613 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   614 
   615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   616 
   617 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   618 to match the constant's name:
   619 
   620   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   621   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   622   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   623   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   624   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   625   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   626   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   627   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   628   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   629   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   630   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   631   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   632   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   633   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   634   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   635   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   636   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   637   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   638   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   639   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   640   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   641   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   642   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   643   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   644 
   645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   646 
   647 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   648 and corresponding theorem names:
   649 
   650   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   651 
   652   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   653 
   654   - Renamed theorems:
   655 
   656     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   657     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   658     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   659     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   660     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   661     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   662     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   663     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   664     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   665     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   666     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   667     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   668     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   669     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   670     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   671     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   672     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   673     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   674     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   675     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   676     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   677     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   678     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   679 
   680     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   681 
   682     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   683 
   684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   685 
   686 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   687 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   688 
   689   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   690   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   691   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   692   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   693   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   694   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   695   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   696   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   697   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   698   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   699   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   700   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   701   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   702   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   703   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   704   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   705   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   706   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   707   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   708   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   709   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   710 
   711 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   712 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   713 
   714 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   715 
   716 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   717 
   718   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   719   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   720   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   721   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   722   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   723   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   724   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   725   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   726   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   727   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   728   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   729   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   730   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   731   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   732   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   733   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   734   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   735   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   736 
   737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   738 
   739 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   740 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   741 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   742 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   743 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   744 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   745 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   746 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   747 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   748 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   749 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   750 
   751 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   752 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   753 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   754 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   755 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   756 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   757 
   758 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   759 through option types.
   760 
   761 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   762 relations.
   763 
   764 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   765 
   766 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   767 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   768 
   769   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   770   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   771   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   772   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   773   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   774   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   775   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   776   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   777   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   778   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   779   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   780   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   781   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   782   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   783   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   784   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   785   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   786   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   787   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   788   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   789   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   790   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   791   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   792   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   793   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   794   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   795   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   796   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   797   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   798   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   799   zless_le ~> less_le
   800   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   801   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   802   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   803 
   804 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   805 
   806   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   807 
   808 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   809 
   810 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   811 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   812 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   813 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   814 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   815 
   816 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   817 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   818 
   819 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   820 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   821 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   822 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   823 follows:
   824 
   825   Operations:
   826   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   827   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   828   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   829   del -> rbt_del
   830   delete -> rbt_delete
   831   ins -> rbt_ins
   832   insert -> rbt_insert
   833   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   834   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   835   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   836   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   837   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   838   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   839   tree_less -> rbt_less
   840   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   841   union -> rbt_union
   842   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   843   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   844 
   845   Lemmas:
   846   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   847   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   848   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   849   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   850   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   851   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   852   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   853   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   854   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   855   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   856   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   857   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   858   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   859   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   860   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   861   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   862   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   863   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   864   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   865   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   866   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   867   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   868   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   869   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   870   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   871   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   872   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   873   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   874   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   875   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   876   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   877   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   878   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   879   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   880   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   881   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   882   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   883   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   884   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   885   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   886   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   887   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   888   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   889   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   890   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   891   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   892   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   893   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   894   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   895   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   896   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   897   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   898   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   899   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   900   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   901   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   902   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   903   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   904   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   905   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   906   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   907   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   908   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   909   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   910   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   911   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   912   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   913   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   914   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   915   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   916   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   917   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   918   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   919   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   920   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   921   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   922   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   923   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   924   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   925   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   926   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   927   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   928   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   929 
   930 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   931 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   932 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   933 
   934   Changed Operations:
   935   float_abs -> abs
   936   float_nprt -> nprt
   937   float_pprt -> pprt
   938   pow2 -> use powr
   939   round_down -> float_round_down
   940   round_up -> float_round_up
   941   scale -> exponent
   942 
   943   Removed Operations:
   944   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   945 
   946   Renamed Lemmas:
   947   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   948   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   949   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   950   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   951   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   952   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   953   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   954   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   955   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   956   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   957   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   958   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   959   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   960   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   961   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   962   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   963   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   964   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   965   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   966   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   967   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   968   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   969   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   970   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   971   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   972   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   973   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   974   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   975   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   976   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   977   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   978   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   979   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   980   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   981   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   982   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   983 
   984   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   985   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   986   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   987   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   988   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   989   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   990   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   991   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   992   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   993   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   994 
   995 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   996 association lists with distinct keys.
   997 
   998 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   999 annotated commands.
  1000 
  1001 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1002 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1003 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1004 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1005 
  1006 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1007 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1008 instead.
  1009 
  1010   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1011   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1012   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1013   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1014   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1015   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1016   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1017   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1018   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1019   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1020   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1021   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1022   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1023   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1024   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1025   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1026   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1027   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1028   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1029   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1030   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1031   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1032   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1033   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1034   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1035   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1036   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1037   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1038   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1039   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1040   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1041   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1042   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1043   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1044   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1045   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1046   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1047   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1048   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1049   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1050   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1051 
  1052 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1053 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1054 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1055 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1056 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1057 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1058 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1059 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1060 
  1061 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1062 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1063 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1064 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1065 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1066 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1067 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1068 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1069 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1070 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1071 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1072 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1073 
  1074   Renamed constants:
  1075   measure -> emeasure
  1076   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1077   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1078   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1079   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1080 
  1081   Removed locales:
  1082   completeable_measure_space
  1083   finite_measure_space
  1084   finite_prob_space
  1085   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1086   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1087   finite_sigma_algebra
  1088   measure_space
  1089   pair_finite_prob_space
  1090   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1091   pair_finite_space
  1092   pair_sigma_algebra
  1093   product_sigma_algebra
  1094 
  1095   Removed constants:
  1096   conditional_space
  1097   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1098   image_space
  1099   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1100   pair_measure_generator
  1101   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1102   subvimage
  1103 
  1104   Replacement theorems:
  1105   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1106   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1107   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1108   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1109   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1110   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1111   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1112   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1113   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1114   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1115   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1116   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1117   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1118   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1119   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1120   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1121   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1122   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1123   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1124   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1125   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1126   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1127   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1128   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1129   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1130   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1131   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1132   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1133   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1134   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1135   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1136   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1137   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1138   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1139   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1140   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1141   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1142   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1143   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1144   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1145   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1146   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1147   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1148   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1149   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1150   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1151   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1152   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1153   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1154   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1155   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1156   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1157   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1158   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1159   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1160   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1161   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1162   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1163   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1164   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1165   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1166   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1167   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1168   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1169   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1170   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1171   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1172   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1173   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1174   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1175   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1176   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1177   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1178   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1179   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1180   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1181   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1182   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1183   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1184   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1185   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1186   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1187   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1188   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1189   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1190   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1191   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1192   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1193   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1194   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1195   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1196   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1197   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1198   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1199   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1200   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1201   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1202   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1203   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1204   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1205   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1206   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1207   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1208   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1209   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1210   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1211   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1212   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1213   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1214   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1215   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1216   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1217   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1218   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1219   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1220   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1221   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1222   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1223   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1224   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1225   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1226   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1227   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1228   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1229   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1230   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1231   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1232   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1233 
  1234 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1235 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1236 
  1237 
  1238 *** FOL ***
  1239 
  1240 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1241 
  1242 
  1243 *** ZF ***
  1244 
  1245 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1246 analysis.
  1247 
  1248 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1249 
  1250 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1251 
  1252 
  1253 *** ML ***
  1254 
  1255 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1256 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1257 
  1258 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1259 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1260 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1261 
  1262 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1263 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1264 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1265 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1266 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1267 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1268 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1269 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1270 
  1271 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1272 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1273 
  1274 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1275 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1276 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1277 
  1278 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1279 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1280 
  1281 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1282 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1283 context as well.
  1284 
  1285 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1286 
  1287   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1288   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1289   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1290   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1291   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1292   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1293   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1294   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1295   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1296   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1297   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1298   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1299 
  1300 
  1301 *** System ***
  1302 
  1303 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1304 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1305 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1306 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1307 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1308 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1309 the generic user home was intended.
  1310 
  1311 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1312 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1313 
  1314 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1315 (not just JRE).
  1316 
  1317 
  1318 
  1319 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1320 ------------------------------------
  1321 
  1322 *** General ***
  1323 
  1324 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1325 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1326 
  1327   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1328     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1329     files for checking).
  1330 
  1331   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1332     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1333     positions.
  1334 
  1335   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1336     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1337     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1338 
  1339   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1340     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1341     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1342 
  1343   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1344     cores.
  1345 
  1346   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1347     versions (garbage collection).
  1348 
  1349 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1350 including some remaining limitations.
  1351 
  1352 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1353 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1354 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1355 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1356 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1357 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1358 
  1359 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1360 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1361 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1362 
  1363 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1364 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1365 usedir option -Q.
  1366 
  1367 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1368 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1369 
  1370   long_names   ~> names_long
  1371   short_names  ~> names_short
  1372   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1373 
  1374 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1375 
  1376   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1377 
  1378 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1379 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1380 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1381 
  1382 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1383 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1384 
  1385 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1386   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1387   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1388   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1389     "Classical Reasoner".
  1390 
  1391 
  1392 *** HOL ***
  1393 
  1394 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1395 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1396 
  1397 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1398 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1399 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1400 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1401 class complete_linorder.
  1402 
  1403 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1404 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1405 
  1406 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1407 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1408 
  1409   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1410   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1411   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1412   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1413   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1414   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1415   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1416   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1417   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1418   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1419   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1420 
  1421 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1422 
  1423   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1424   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1425   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1426   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1427   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1428   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1429   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1430   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1431   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1432   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1433   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1434   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1435   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1436   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1437   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1438   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1439 
  1440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1441 
  1442 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1443 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1444 
  1445 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1446 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1447 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1448 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1449 
  1450 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1451 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1452 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1454 
  1455 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1456 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1457 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1458 
  1459 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1460 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1461 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1462 
  1463 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1464 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1465 
  1466 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1467 
  1468     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1469     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1470 
  1471 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1472 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1473 
  1474 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1475 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1476 
  1477 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1478 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1479 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1480 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1481 
  1482   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1483   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1484   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1485   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1486   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1487   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1488   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1489 
  1490 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1491 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1492 
  1493   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1494   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1495   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1496   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1497   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1498   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1499   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1500   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1501   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1502   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1503   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1504   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1505   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1506   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1507   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1508   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1509   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1510   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1511   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1512   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1513   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1514   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1515   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1516   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1517   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1518   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1519   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1520   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1521   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1522   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1523   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1524   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1525   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1526   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1527   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1528   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1529   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1530   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1531   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1532   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1533   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1534   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1535   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1536   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1537   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1538   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1539   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1540   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1541   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1542   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1543   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1544   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1545   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1546   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1547   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1548   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1549   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1550   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1551   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1552   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1553   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1554   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1555   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1556   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1557   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1558   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1559   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1560   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1561   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1562   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1563   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1564   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1565   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1566   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1567   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1568   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1569   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1570   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1571   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1572   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1573   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1574   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1575 
  1576 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1577 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1578 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1579 
  1580 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1581 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1582 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1583 
  1584 * Code generation:
  1585 
  1586   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1587     characters in the target language.
  1588 
  1589   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1590     instead.
  1591 
  1592   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1593 
  1594   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1595     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1596 
  1597       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1598 
  1599 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1600 
  1601 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1602 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1603 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1604 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1605 syntax.
  1606 
  1607 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1608 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1609 
  1610 * Nitpick:
  1611   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1612   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1613   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1614     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1615 
  1616 * Sledgehammer:
  1617   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1618   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1619     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1620   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1621     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1622   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1623     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1624   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1625     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1626   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1627     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1628 
  1629 * Metis:
  1630   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1631   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1632     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1633 
  1634 * Command 'try':
  1635   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1636     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1637   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1638     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1639 
  1640 * Quickcheck:
  1641   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1642     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1643   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1644     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1645   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1646     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1647     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1648     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1649   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1650     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1651 
  1652 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1653 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1654 
  1655 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1656 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1657 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1658 
  1659 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1660 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1662 
  1663 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1664 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1665 
  1666 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1667 arithmetic.
  1668 
  1669 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1670 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1671 and lattice type classes.
  1672 
  1673 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1674 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1675 
  1676 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1677 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1678 
  1679 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1680 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1681 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1682 
  1683   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1684   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1685   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1686   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1687 
  1688 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1689 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1690 constants:
  1691 
  1692   type inat   ~> type enat
  1693   Fin         ~> enat
  1694   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1695   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1696   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1697 
  1698 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1699 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1700 
  1701 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1702 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1703 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1704 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1705 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1706 
  1707 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1708 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1709 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1710 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1711 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1712 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1713 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1714 
  1715   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1716   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1717   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1718   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1719 
  1720 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1721 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1722 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1723 
  1724   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1725   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1726   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1727   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1728   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1729   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1730   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1731   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1732   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1733   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1734   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1735   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1736   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1737   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1738   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1739   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1740   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1741   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1742   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1743   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1744   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1745   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1746   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1747   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1748   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1749   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1750   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1751   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1752   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1753   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1754   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1755   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1756   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1757   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1758   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1759   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1760   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1761   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1762   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1763   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1764   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1765   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1766   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1767   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1768   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1769   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1770   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1771   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1772   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1773   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1774   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1775 
  1776 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1777   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1778   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1779   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1780   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1781     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1782 
  1783 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1784 
  1785   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1786   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1787   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1788   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1789   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1790   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1791   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1792   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1793   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1794   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1795   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1796   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1797   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1798   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1799   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1800   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1801   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1802   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1803   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1804   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1805   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1806   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1807   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1808   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1809   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1810 
  1811 
  1812 *** Document preparation ***
  1813 
  1814 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1815 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1816 same.
  1817 
  1818 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1819 result.
  1820 
  1821 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1822 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1823 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1824 
  1825 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1826 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1827 
  1828 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1829 like this:
  1830 
  1831   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1832   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1833 
  1834 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1835 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1836 layouts.
  1837 
  1838 
  1839 *** ML ***
  1840 
  1841 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1842 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1843 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1844 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1845 under external program control.
  1846 
  1847 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1848 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1849 
  1850 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1851 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1852 (better known as Proof General).
  1853 
  1854 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1855 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1856 
  1857 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1858 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1859 
  1860 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1861 (including quotes etc.).
  1862 
  1863 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1864 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1865 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1866 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1867 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1868 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1869 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1870 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1871 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1872 
  1873 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1874 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1875 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1876 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1877 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1878 
  1879 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1880 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1881 
  1882 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1883 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1884 
  1885 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1886 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1887 
  1888 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1889 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1890 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1891 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1892 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1893 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1894 proper Proof.context.
  1895 
  1896 
  1897 *** System ***
  1898 
  1899 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1900 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1901 
  1902 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1903 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1904 
  1905 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1906 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1907 
  1908   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1909   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1910   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1911   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1912   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1913 
  1914 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1915 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1916 
  1917 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1918 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1919 example:
  1920 
  1921   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1922 
  1923 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1924 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1925 
  1926 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1927 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1928 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1929 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1930 
  1931 
  1932 
  1933 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1934 ----------------------------------
  1935 
  1936 *** General ***
  1937 
  1938 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1939 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1940 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1941 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1942 like this:
  1943 
  1944   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1945 
  1946 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1947 
  1948 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1949 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1950 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1951 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1952 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1953 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1954 
  1955 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1956 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1957 the following package declarations:
  1958 
  1959   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1960   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1961 
  1962 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1963 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1964 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1965 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1966 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1967 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1968 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1969 
  1970 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1971 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1972 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1973 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1974 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1975 
  1976 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1977 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1978 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1979 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1980 
  1981 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1982 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1983 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1984 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1985 
  1986   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1987 
  1988   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1989   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1990   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1991   show_types                    show_types
  1992   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1993   show_consts                   show_consts
  1994   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1995 
  1996   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1997   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1998   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1999 
  2000   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2001   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2002 
  2003   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2004 
  2005   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2006   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2007   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2008   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2009   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2010 
  2011 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2012 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2013 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2014 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2015 
  2016 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2018 
  2019   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2020   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2021 
  2022 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2023 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2024 float_token.
  2025 
  2026 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2027 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2029 
  2030 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2031 DejaVu Sans.
  2032 
  2033 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2034 
  2035 
  2036 *** Pure ***
  2037 
  2038 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2039 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2040 time.
  2041 
  2042 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2043 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2044 
  2045 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2046 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2047 
  2048 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2049 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2050 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2051 command already provided this functionality.
  2052 
  2053 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2054 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2055 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2056 without interpretations.
  2057 
  2058 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2059 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2060 
  2061 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2062 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2063 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2064 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2065 
  2066 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2067 'definition' instead.
  2068 
  2069 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2070 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2071 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2072 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2073 
  2074 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2075 constructors.
  2076 
  2077 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2078 the local file system.
  2079 
  2080 
  2081 *** HOL ***
  2082 
  2083 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2084 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2085 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2086 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2087 
  2088   declare [[coercion f]]
  2089 
  2090 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2091 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2092 
  2093   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2094 
  2095 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2096 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2097 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2098 other theories like this:
  2099 
  2100   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2101 
  2102 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2103 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2104 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2105 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2106 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2107 for examples.
  2108 
  2109 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2110 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2111 
  2112 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2113 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2114 
  2115 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2116 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2117 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2118 
  2119 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2120 functorial structure of types.
  2121 
  2122 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2123 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2124 
  2125 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2126 languages.
  2127 
  2128 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2129 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2131 
  2132 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2133 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2134 
  2135 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2136 combinators any longer.
  2137 
  2138 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2139 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2140 
  2141 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2142 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2143 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2144 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2145 
  2146   record 'a foo = ...
  2147   ...
  2148   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2149 
  2150 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2151 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2153 
  2154 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2155 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2156 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2157 
  2158 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2159 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2160 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2161 
  2162 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2163 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2164 
  2165 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2166 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2167 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2168 independently.
  2169 
  2170 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2171 counter example search.
  2172 
  2173 * Sledgehammer:
  2174   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2175     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2176     sledgehammer").
  2177   - Renamed commands:
  2178     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2179     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2180     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2181     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2182   - Renamed options:
  2183     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2184     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2185     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2186     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2187     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2188 
  2189 * Nitpick:
  2190   - Renamed options:
  2191     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2192     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2193     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2194   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2195   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2196   - Added "whack" option.
  2197   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2198   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2199   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2200   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2201     higher cardinalities.
  2202   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2203 
  2204 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2205 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2206 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2207 
  2208     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2209 
  2210 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2211 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2212 
  2213 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2214 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2215 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2216 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2217 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2218 "smt_solver".
  2219 
  2220 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2221 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2222 
  2223 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2224 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2225 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2226 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2227 
  2228 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2229   - Renamed:
  2230     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2231     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2232     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2233   - Added:
  2234     smt_verbose
  2235     smt_random_seed
  2236     smt_datatypes
  2237     smt_infer_triggers
  2238     smt_monomorph_limit
  2239     cvc3_options
  2240     remote_cvc3_options
  2241     remote_z3_options
  2242     yices_options
  2243 
  2244 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2245 header.
  2246 
  2247 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2248 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2249 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2250 
  2251   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2252 
  2253 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2254 
  2255 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2256 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2257 
  2258 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2259 
  2260 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2261 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2262 
  2263 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2264 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2265 
  2266 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2267 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2268 
  2269 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2270 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2271 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2272 
  2273 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2274 
  2275 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2277 
  2278 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2279 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2280 
  2281 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2282 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2283 for congruent(2)).
  2284 
  2285 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2286 
  2287   types
  2288     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2289     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2290 
  2291   constants
  2292     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2293     True ~> HOL.True
  2294     False ~> HOL.False
  2295     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2296     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2297     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2298     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2299     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2300     The ~> HOL.The
  2301     All ~> HOL.All
  2302     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2303     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2304     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2305     If ~> HOL.If
  2306     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2307     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2308     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2309     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2310     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2311     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2312     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2313     op : ~> Set.member
  2314     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2315 
  2316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2317 
  2318 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2319 
  2320     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2321     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2322     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2323     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2324     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2325     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2326     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2327     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2328 
  2329 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2330 
  2331 * More stylized fact names:
  2332 
  2333   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2334   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2335   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2336   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2337 
  2338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2339 
  2340 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2341 
  2342   constants
  2343     null ~> List.null
  2344 
  2345   facts
  2346     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2347     null_empty ~> null_def
  2348 
  2349 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2350 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2351 generation.
  2352 
  2353 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2354 Haskell code.
  2355 
  2356 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2357 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2358 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2359 
  2360 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2361 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2362 
  2363 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2364 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2365 
  2366 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2367 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2368 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2369 
  2370 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2371 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2372 
  2373 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2377 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2378 referred to by its qualified name.
  2379 
  2380   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2381   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2382   product ~>  Enum.product
  2383 
  2384 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2385 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2386 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2387 
  2388 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2389 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2390 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2392 
  2393 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2394 sort_key.
  2395 
  2396 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2398 
  2399 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2400 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2401 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2402 
  2403   types
  2404     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2405               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2406               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2407         (depends on your needs)
  2408 
  2409   constants
  2410      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2411      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2412      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2413 
  2414 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2415 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2416 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2417 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2418 
  2419 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2420 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2421 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2422 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2423 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2424 
  2425 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2427 
  2428 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2429 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2430 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2431 
  2432 
  2433 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2434 
  2435 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2436 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2437 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2438 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2439 compatibility.
  2440 
  2441 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2442 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2443 
  2444 
  2445 *** HOLCF ***
  2446 
  2447 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2448 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2449 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2450 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2451 
  2452 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2453 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2454 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2455 
  2456   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2457   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2458   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2459 
  2460 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2461 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2462 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2463 
  2464 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2465 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2466 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2467 domain definition now works:
  2468 
  2469   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2470 
  2471 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2472 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2473 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2474 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2475 
  2476   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2477     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2478 
  2479   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2480 
  2481 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2482 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2483 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2484 
  2485 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2486 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2487 
  2488 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2489 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2490 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2491 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2492 
  2493 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2494 
  2495 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2496 
  2497 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2498 
  2499 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2501 
  2502 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2503 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2504 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2505 
  2506 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2507 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2508 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2509 
  2510 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2511 still supported as an input translation.
  2512 
  2513 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2514 
  2515   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2516   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2517   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2518   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2519   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2520   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2521   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2522 
  2523 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2524 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2525 
  2526   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2527   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2528   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2529   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2530   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2531   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2532 
  2533 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2534 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2535 
  2536 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2537 
  2538   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2539   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2540   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2541   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2542 
  2543 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2544 
  2545 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2546 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2547 
  2548 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2549 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2550 
  2551   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2552   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2553   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2554   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2555   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2556   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2557   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2558   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2559   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2560   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2561   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2562   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2563   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2564   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2565   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2566   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2567   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2568   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2569   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2570   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2571 
  2572 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2573 
  2574   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2575   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2576   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2577   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2578   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2579   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2580   box_less             ~> box_below
  2581   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2582   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2583   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2584   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2585   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2586   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2587   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2588   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2589   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2590   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2591   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2592   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2593   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2594   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2595   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2596   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2597   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2598   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2599   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2600   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2601   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2602   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2603   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2604   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2605   up_less              ~> up_below
  2606   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2607   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2608   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2609   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2610   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2611   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2612   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2613   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2614   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2615   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2616   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2617   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2618   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2619 
  2620 
  2621 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2622 
  2623 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2624 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2625 
  2626 
  2627 *** ML ***
  2628 
  2629 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2630 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2631 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2632 
  2633 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2634 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2635 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2636 
  2637 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2638 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2639 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2640 
  2641 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2642 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2643 
  2644 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2645 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2646 
  2647 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2648 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2649 
  2650 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2651 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2652 
  2653 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2654 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2655 almost all situations.
  2656 
  2657 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2658 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2659 Isabelle/ML.
  2660 
  2661 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2662 meaning.
  2663 
  2664 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2665 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2666 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2667 
  2668 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2669 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2670 
  2671 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2672 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2673 
  2674 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2675 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2676 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2677 
  2678 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2679 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2680 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2681 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2682 configuration options.
  2683 
  2684 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2685 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2686 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2687 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2688 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2689 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2690 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2691 
  2692 
  2693 
  2694 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2695 ---------------------------------
  2696 
  2697 *** General ***
  2698 
  2699 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2700 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2701 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2702 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2703 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2704 their full internal name.
  2705 
  2706 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2707 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2708 Some hints on upgrading:
  2709 
  2710   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2711     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2712     which are independent of this issue.
  2713 
  2714   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2715     provides the following special forms:
  2716 
  2717       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2718       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2719       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2720 
  2721     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2722     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2723     extra variables".
  2724 
  2725     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2726     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2727     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2728     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2729     "logic".
  2730 
  2731   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2732     antiquotations:
  2733 
  2734       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2735       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2736       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2737       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2738 
  2739   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2740     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2741     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2742     antiquotations.
  2743 
  2744 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2745 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2746 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2747 diagnose syntax problems.
  2748 
  2749 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2750 
  2751 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2752 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2753 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2754 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2755 
  2756 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2757 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2758 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2759 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2760 
  2761 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2762 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2763 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2764 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2765 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2766 
  2767 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2768 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2769 
  2770 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2771 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2772 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2773 
  2774   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2775 
  2776 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2777 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2778 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2779 
  2780 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2781 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2783 
  2784 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2785 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2786 
  2787 
  2788 *** Pure ***
  2789 
  2790 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2791 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2792 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2793 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2794 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2795 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2796 inspect proof terms.
  2797 
  2798 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2799 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2800 are added internally.  For example:
  2801 
  2802   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2803 
  2804 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2805 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2806 
  2807 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2808 
  2809 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2810 'class' instead.
  2811 
  2812 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2813 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2814 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2815 
  2816 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2817 invariants.
  2818 
  2819 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2820 user space functionality any longer.
  2821 
  2822 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2823 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2824 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2825 
  2826 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2827 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2828 
  2829 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2830 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2831 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2832 
  2833 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2834 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2835 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2836 
  2837 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2838 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2839 
  2840 
  2841 *** HOL ***
  2842 
  2843 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2844 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2845 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2846 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2847 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2848 
  2849 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2850 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2851 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2852 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2853 
  2854   fun
  2855     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2856   where
  2857     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2858 
  2859   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2860     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2861 
  2862   quotient_definition
  2863     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2864 
  2865 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2866 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2867 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2868 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2869 
  2870 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2871 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2872 
  2873 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2874 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2875 
  2876 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2878 
  2879 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2880 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2881 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2882 
  2883 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2884 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2885 
  2886 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2887 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2888 
  2889 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2890 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2891 
  2892 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2893 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2894 
  2895 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2896 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2897 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2898 
  2899   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2900   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2901   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2902   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2903   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2904   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2905   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2906   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2907   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2908   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2909   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2910   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2911   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2912   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2913   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2914   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2915   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2916   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2917   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2918   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2919   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2920   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2921   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2922   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2923   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2924   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2925   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2926   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2927   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2928   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2929 
  2930 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2931 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2932 
  2933 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2934 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2935 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2936 
  2937 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2938 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2939 
  2940 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2941 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2942 
  2943 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2944 
  2945 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2946 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2947 
  2948 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2949 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2950 
  2951 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2952 
  2953 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2954 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2955 
  2956 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2957 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2958 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2959 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2960 
  2961 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2962   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2963   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2964   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2965 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2966 
  2967 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2968 lattices):
  2969 
  2970     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2971     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2972 
  2973     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2974 
  2975     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2976     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2977     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2978     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2979     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2980     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2981     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2982     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2983     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2984     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2985     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2986     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2987     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2988 
  2989     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2990     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2991     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2992     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2993     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2994     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2995     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2996     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2997     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2998     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2999     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3000     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3001     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3002     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3003     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3004     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3005     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3006     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3007 
  3008   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3009   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3010 
  3011     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3012     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3013     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3014     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3015     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3016 
  3017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018 
  3019 * Refined field classes:
  3020   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3021     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3022     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3023   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3025 
  3026 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3027   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3028   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3029   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3030     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3031   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3032     equal_neg_zero.
  3033 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3034 
  3035 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3036 sets to lattices:
  3037 
  3038   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3039   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3040   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3041   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3042   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3043   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3044   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3045   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3046   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3047   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3048 
  3049 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3050 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3051 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3052 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3053 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3054 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3055 
  3056 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3057 multiset order:
  3058 
  3059   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3060     <= and <;
  3061   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3062     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3063     multiset_order;
  3064   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3065     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3066     generation;
  3067   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3068     if needed.
  3069 
  3070 Renamed:
  3071 
  3072   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3073   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3074   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3075 
  3076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077 
  3078 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3079 
  3080 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3081 
  3082 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3083 
  3084 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3085 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3086 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3087 
  3088   Constants:
  3089   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3090   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3091   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3092   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3093   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3094   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3095   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3096   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3097   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3098   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3099   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3100   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3101   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3102 
  3103   Lemmas:
  3104   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3105   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3106   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3107   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3108   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3109   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3110   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3111   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3112   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3113   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3114   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3115   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3116   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3117 
  3118 * Sledgehammer:
  3119   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3120     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3121     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3122     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3123     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3124     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3125     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3126   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3127   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3128     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3129   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3130     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3131     is still experimental.)
  3132   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3133     full-typed mode.
  3134   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3135 
  3136 * Nitpick:
  3137   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3138   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3139   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3140     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3141   - Added support for quotient types.
  3142   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3143     constructs.
  3144   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3145     "termination" proofs).
  3146   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3147   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3148   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3149   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3150     record getters.
  3151   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3152   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3153   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3154   - Added "atoms" option.
  3155   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3156     problems.
  3157   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3158     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3159     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3161     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3162   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3163 
  3164 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3165   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3166   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3167   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3168   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3169   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3170   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3171   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3172   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3173   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3174 
  3175 
  3176 *** HOLCF ***
  3177 
  3178 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3179 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3180 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3181 
  3182 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3183 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3184 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3185 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186 
  3187 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3188 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3189 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3190 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3191 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3192 
  3193 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3194 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3195 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3196 
  3197 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3198 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3201   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3202 
  3203 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3204 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3205 
  3206   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3207   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3208   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3209   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3210   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3211 
  3212 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3213 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3214 
  3215   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3216   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3217   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3218 
  3219 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3220 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3222 
  3223 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3224 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3225 
  3226 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3227 
  3228 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3229 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3230 
  3231 
  3232 *** ML ***
  3233 
  3234 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3235 
  3236     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3237     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3238 
  3239     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3240     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3241     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3242     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3243 
  3244     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3245     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3246     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3247 
  3248 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3249 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3250 
  3251 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3252 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3253 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3254 
  3255 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3256 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3257 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3258 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3259 
  3260 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3261 the context or even global references.
  3262 
  3263 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3264 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3265 
  3266 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3267 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3268 
  3269   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3270   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3271   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3272   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3273   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3274   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3275   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3276   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3277   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3278   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3279 
  3280 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3281 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3282 
  3283 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3284 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3285 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3286 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3287 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3288 
  3289 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3290 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3291 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3292 Theory_Data version.
  3293 
  3294 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3295 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3296 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3297 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3298 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3299 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3300 explicitly in rare situations.
  3301 
  3302 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3303 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3305 
  3306 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3307 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3308 
  3309 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3310 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3311 quite rare).
  3312 
  3313 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3314 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315 
  3316 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3317 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3318 terms.
  3319 
  3320 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3321 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3322 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3323 
  3324 
  3325 *** System ***
  3326 
  3327 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3328 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3329 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3330 
  3331 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3332 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3333 respectively.
  3334 
  3335 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3336 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3337 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3338 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3339 
  3340   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3341 
  3342 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3343 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3344 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3345 component.
  3346 
  3347 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3348 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3349 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3350 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3351 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3352 the user for manual installation.
  3353 
  3354 
  3355 
  3356 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3357 -------------------------------------
  3358 
  3359 *** General ***
  3360 
  3361 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3362 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3363 
  3364 
  3365 *** Pure ***
  3366 
  3367 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3368 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3369 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3370 
  3371 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3372 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3373 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3374 
  3375 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3376 interpretation.
  3377 
  3378 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3379 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3380 
  3381 
  3382 *** Document preparation ***
  3383 
  3384 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3385 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3386 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3387 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3388 
  3389 
  3390 *** HOL ***
  3391 
  3392 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3393 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3394 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3395 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3396 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3397 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3398 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3399 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3400 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3401 
  3402 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3403 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3404 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3405 
  3406 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3407 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3408 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3409 
  3410 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3411 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3412 
  3413 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3414 
  3415 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3416 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3417 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3418 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3419 
  3420 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3421 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3422 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3423 "mirabelle" utility.
  3424 
  3425 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3426 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3427 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3428 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3429 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3430 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3431 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3432 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3433 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3434 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3435 
  3436 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3437 procedure only.
  3438 
  3439 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3440 
  3441 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3442 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3443 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3444 that fail later.
  3445 
  3446 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3447 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3448 
  3449 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3450 the same method as the approximation method.
  3451 
  3452 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3453 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3454 series expansion.
  3455 
  3456 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3457 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3458 
  3459 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3460 reals.
  3461 
  3462 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3463 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3464 
  3465 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3466 fixpoint theorem.
  3467 
  3468 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3469   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3470     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3471   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3472     accordingly
  3473   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3474     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3475   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3476     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3477 
  3478 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3479 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3480 lattice.
  3481 
  3482 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3483 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3484 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3485 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3486 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3487 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3489 
  3490 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3491   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3492     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3493   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3494     le_inf_iff
  3495   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3496     sup_aci)
  3497   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3498   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3499   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3500     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3501     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3502     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3503     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3504     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3505     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3506     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3507     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3508     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3509     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3510   - authentic syntax for
  3511     Set.Pow
  3512     Set.image
  3513   - mere abbreviations:
  3514     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3515     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3516     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3517     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3518     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3519     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3520     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3521     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3522   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3523 
  3524 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3525 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3526 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3527 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3528 
  3529 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3530 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3531 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3532 
  3533 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3534 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3535 
  3536 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3537 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3538 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3539 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3542 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3543 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3544 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3545 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3546 
  3547 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3548 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3550 
  3551 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3552 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3553 
  3554 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3555 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3556 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3557 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3558 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3559 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3560 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3562 
  3563 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3564     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3565     code_post       replaces    code post
  3566     etc.
  3567   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3568 
  3569 * Renamed methods:
  3570     sizechange -> size_change
  3571     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3572   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3573 
  3574 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3575 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3576 
  3577 * Renamed theorems:
  3578     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3579     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3580     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3581     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3582     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3583   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3584 
  3585 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3587 
  3588 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3589 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3590 
  3591 
  3592 *** HOLCF ***
  3593 
  3594 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3595 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3596 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3597 
  3598 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3599 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3600 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3601 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3602 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3603 
  3604 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3605 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3606 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3607 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3608 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3609 
  3610 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3611 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3612 constructor are pre-configured.
  3613 
  3614 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3615 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3616 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3617 
  3618 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3619 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3620 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3621 as well.)
  3622 
  3623 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3624 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3625 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3626 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3627 examples.
  3628 
  3629 
  3630 *** ML ***
  3631 
  3632 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3633 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3634 
  3635 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3636 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3637 position, logical grouping etc.
  3638 
  3639 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3640 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3641 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3642 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3643 
  3644 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3645 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3646 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3647 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3648 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3649 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3650 
  3651 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3652 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3653 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3654 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3655 experiments with references.
  3656 
  3657 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3658 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3659 
  3660 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3661 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3662 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3663 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3664 
  3665 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3666 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3667 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3668 
  3669 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3670 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3671 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3672 
  3673 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3674 
  3675 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3677 
  3678 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3679 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3680 
  3681 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3682 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3683 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3684 
  3685 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3686 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3687 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3688 
  3689 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3690 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3691 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3693 
  3694 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3695 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3696 instead of global theory.
  3697 
  3698 
  3699 *** System ***
  3700 
  3701 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3702 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3703 usedir option -q.
  3704 
  3705 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3706 also the system manual.
  3707 
  3708 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3709 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3710 
  3711 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3712 this is always enabled.
  3713 
  3714 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3715 
  3716 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3717 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3718 currently supported on Linux only.
  3719 
  3720 
  3721 
  3722 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3723 --------------------------------
  3724 
  3725 *** General ***
  3726 
  3727 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3728 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3729 
  3730   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3731     "isatool."
  3732 
  3733   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3734     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3735 
  3736   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3737     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3738 
  3739 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3740 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3741 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3742 
  3743 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3744 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3745 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3746 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3747 via "isabelle emacs".
  3748 
  3749 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3750 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3751 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3752 
  3753 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3754 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3755 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3756 
  3757 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3758 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3759 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3760 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3761 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3762 
  3763 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3764 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3765 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3766 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3767 
  3768 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3769 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3770 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3771 
  3772 
  3773 *** Pure ***
  3774 
  3775 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3776 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3777 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3778 
  3779 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3780 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3781 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3782 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3783 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3784 
  3785 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3786 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3787 useful in locale declarations.
  3788 
  3789 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3790 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3791 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3792 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3793 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3794 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3795 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3796 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3797 no longer generated.
  3798 
  3799 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3800 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3801 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3802 
  3803 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3804 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3805 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3806 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3807 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3808 
  3809 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3810 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3811 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3812 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3813 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3814 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3815 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3816 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3817 
  3818 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3819 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3820 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3821 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3822 
  3823 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3824 
  3825 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3826 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3827 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3828 
  3829 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3830 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3831 
  3832 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3833 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3834 in HOL, write
  3835 
  3836     class foo = ...
  3837 
  3838 instead of
  3839 
  3840     class foo = type + ...
  3841 
  3842 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3843 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3844 
  3845 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3846 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3847 
  3848 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3849 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3850 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3851 
  3852 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3853 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3854 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3855 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3856 directly in regular applications.
  3857 
  3858 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3859 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3860 
  3861 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3862 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3863 
  3864 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3865 theory context.
  3866 
  3867 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3868 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3869 
  3870 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3871 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3872 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3873 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3874 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3875 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3876 
  3877   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3878 
  3879 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3880 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3881 normalization.
  3882 
  3883 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3884 addressing etc.
  3885 
  3886 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3887 
  3888   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3889   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3890 
  3891 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3892 
  3893   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3894      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3895      parts of the code generator framework).
  3896 
  3897   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3898      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3899      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3900 
  3901 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3902 
  3903 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3904 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3905 
  3906 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3907 patterns, e.g.
  3908 
  3909     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3910 
  3911 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3912 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3913 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3914 hyphen:
  3915 
  3916     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3917 
  3918 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3919 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3920 
  3921 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3922 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3923 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3924 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3925 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3926 higher-order unification.
  3927 
  3928 
  3929 *** Document preparation ***
  3930 
  3931 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3932 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3933 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3934 
  3935 
  3936 *** HOL ***
  3937 
  3938 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3939 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3940 
  3941 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3942 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3943 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3944 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3945 Main, as before.
  3946 
  3947 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3948 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3949 
  3950 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3951 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3952 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3953 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3954 
  3955 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3956 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3957 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3958 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3959 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3960 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3961 
  3962 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3963 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3964 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3965 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3966 
  3967 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3968 menu.
  3969 
  3970 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3971 (contains the empty clause).
  3972 
  3973 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3974 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3975 
  3976 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3977 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3978 
  3979 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3980 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3981 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3982 
  3983 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3984 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3985 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3986 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3987 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3988 
  3989 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3990 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3991 
  3992 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3993 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3994 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3995 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3996 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3997 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3998 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3999 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4000 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4001 
  4002 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4003 
  4004 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4005 
  4006 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4007 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4008 
  4009 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4010 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4011 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4012 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4013 
  4014 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4015 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4016 
  4017     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4018     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4019     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4020     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4021     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4022     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4023     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4024     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4025 
  4026 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4027 theory Set.
  4028 
  4029 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4030 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4031 
  4032 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4033 
  4034 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4035 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4036 
  4037 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4038 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4039 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4040 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4041 allowed. For examples see
  4042 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4043 
  4044 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4045 
  4046 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 
  4049 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4050 structure:
  4051 
  4052     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4053     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4054     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4055     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4056     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4057     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4058     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4059     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4060     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4061     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4062     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4063     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4064     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4065     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4066     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4067     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4068     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4069     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4070     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4071     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4072     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4073     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4074     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4075     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4076     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4077     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4078     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4079     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4080     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4081     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4082     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4083     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4084     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4085 
  4086     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4087     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4088     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4089     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4090     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4091     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4092     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4093     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4094     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4095     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4096 
  4097     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4098     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4099     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4100     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4101     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4102     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4103 
  4104 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4105 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4106 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4107 
  4108 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4109 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4110 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4111 
  4112 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4113 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4114 
  4115 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4116 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4117 
  4118 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4119 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4120 proofs, e.g.
  4121 
  4122   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4123 
  4124 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4125 
  4126 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4127 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4128 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4129 
  4130 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4131 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4133 
  4134 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4135 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4136 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4138 
  4139 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4140 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4141 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4142 preorder_class.*.
  4143 
  4144 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4145 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4146 
  4147 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4148 
  4149   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4150 
  4151 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4152 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4153 fold_image.
  4154 
  4155 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4156 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4157 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4158 the former will disappear at some point.
  4159 
  4160 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4161 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4162 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4163 
  4164 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4165 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4166 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4167 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4168 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4169 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4170 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4171 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4172 
  4173 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4174 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4175 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4176 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4177 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4178 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4179 
  4180     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4181     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4182     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4183     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4184     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4185     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4186     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4187 
  4188 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4189 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4190 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4191 
  4192 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4193 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4194 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4195 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4196 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4197 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4198 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4199 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4200 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4201 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4202 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4203 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4204 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4205 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4206 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4207 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4208 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4209 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4210 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4211 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4212 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4213 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4214 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4215 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4216 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4217 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4218 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4219 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4220 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4221 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4222 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4223 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4224 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4225 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4226 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4227 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4228 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4229 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4230 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4231 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4232 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4233 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4234 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4235 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4236 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4237 
  4238 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4239 
  4240 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4241 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4242 
  4243 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4244 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4245 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4246 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4247 
  4248 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4249 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4250 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4251 theory RealVector.
  4252 
  4253 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4254 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4255 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4256 and inner products are included.
  4257 
  4258 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4259 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4260 supported.
  4261 
  4262 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4263 first diagonalization argument.
  4264 
  4265 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4266 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4267 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4268 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4269 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4270 
  4271     hide (open) const gcd
  4272     abbreviation gcd where
  4273       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4274     notation (output)
  4275       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4276 
  4277 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4278 
  4279 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4280 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4281 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4282 
  4283 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4284 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4285 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4286 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4287 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4288 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4289 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4290 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4291 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4292 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4293 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4294 cases.
  4295 
  4296 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4297 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4298 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4299 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4300 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4301 
  4302     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4303     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4304     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4305     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4306     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4307 
  4308 
  4309 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4310 
  4311 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4312 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4313 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4314 
  4315 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4316 
  4317 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4318 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4319 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4320 
  4321 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4322 
  4323 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4324 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4325 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4326 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4327 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4328 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4329 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4330 
  4331 
  4332 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4333 
  4334 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4335 
  4336 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4337 theory targets.
  4338 
  4339 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4340 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4341 'inductive' etc.
  4342 
  4343 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4344 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4345 
  4346 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4347 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4348 
  4349 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4350 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4351 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4352 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4353 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4354 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4355 the algorithm W:
  4356 
  4357  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4358  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4359          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4360 
  4361 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4362 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4363 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4364 
  4365 
  4366 *** HOLCF ***
  4367 
  4368 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4369 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4370 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4371 
  4372 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4373 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4374 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4375 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4376 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4377 
  4378 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4379 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4380 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4381 
  4382 
  4383 *** ZF ***
  4384 
  4385 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4386 
  4387 
  4388 *** ML ***
  4389 
  4390 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4391 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4392 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4393 5.2.1!
  4394 
  4395 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4396 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4397 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4398 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4399 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4400 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4401 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4402 
  4403 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4404 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4405 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4406 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4407 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4408 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4409 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4410 
  4411 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4412 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4413 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4414 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4415 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4416 
  4417 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4418 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4419 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4420 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4421 Method.add_method.
  4422 
  4423 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4424 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4425 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4426 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4427 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4428 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4429 
  4430 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4431 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4432 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4433 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4434 examples.
  4435 
  4436 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4437 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4438 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4439 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4440 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4441 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4442 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4443 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4444 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4445 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4446 
  4447 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4448 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4449 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4450 
  4451 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4452 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4453 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4454 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4455 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4456 resort for legacy applications.
  4457 
  4458 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4459 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4460 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4461 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4462 explicit runtime argument.
  4463 
  4464 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4465 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4466 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4467 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4468 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4469 
  4470 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4471 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4472 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4473 theory state.
  4474 
  4475 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4476 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4477 
  4478   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4479   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4480   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4481   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4482   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4483   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4484   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4485   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4486   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4487   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4488 
  4489 
  4490 *** System ***
  4491 
  4492 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4493 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4494 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4495 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4496 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4497 
  4498 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4499 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4500 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4501 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4502 
  4503 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4504 
  4505 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4506 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4507 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4508 prover operations.
  4509 
  4510 
  4511 
  4512 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4513 -------------------------------
  4514 
  4515 *** General ***
  4516 
  4517 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4518 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4519 
  4520 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4521 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4522 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4523 provides a proper context already.
  4524 
  4525 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4526 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4527 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4528 
  4529 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4530 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4531 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4532 swap theory imports.
  4533 
  4534 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4535 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4536 
  4537 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4538 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4539 white space without escapes.
  4540 
  4541 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4542 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4543 "foo_bar".
  4544 
  4545 
  4546 *** Pure ***
  4547 
  4548 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4549 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4550 
  4551 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4552 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4553 
  4554 (1) unused_thms
  4555      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4556 
  4557 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4558      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4559      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4560 
  4561 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4562      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4563      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4564      their ancestors.
  4565 
  4566 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4567 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4568 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4569 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4570 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4571 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4572 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4573 
  4574 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4575 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4576 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4577 
  4578 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4579 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4580 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4581 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4582 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4583 
  4584 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4585 
  4586 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4587 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4588 update of theories within ML code.
  4589 
  4590 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4591 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4592 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4593 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4594 
  4595 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4596 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4597 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4598 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4599 
  4600 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4601 
  4602 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4603 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4604 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4605 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4606 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4607 
  4608 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4609 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4610 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4611 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4612 situations.
  4613 
  4614 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4615 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4616 proof text.
  4617 
  4618 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4619 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4620 
  4621 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4622 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4623 predicates.
  4624 
  4625 
  4626 *** Document preparation ***
  4627 
  4628 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4629 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4630 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4631 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4632 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4633 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4634 
  4635 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4636 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4637 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4638 
  4639 
  4640 *** HOL ***
  4641 
  4642 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4643 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4644 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4645 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4646 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4647 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4648 
  4649 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4650 with multithreading.
  4651 
  4652 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4653 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4654 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4655 
  4656 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4657 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4658 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4659 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4660 
  4661 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4662 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4663 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4664 and makes them available separately.  See
  4665 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4666 
  4667 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4668 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4669 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4670 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4671 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4672 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4673 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4674 the declared rules.
  4675 
  4676 This setup also deals with rules like
  4677 
  4678   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4679 
  4680 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4681 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4682 
  4683 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4684 
  4685   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4686 
  4687   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4688     definitions on => and bool.
  4689 
  4690   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4691     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4692     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4693 
  4694       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4695       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4696       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4697       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4698       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4699       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4700       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4701       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4702 
  4703   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4704     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4705     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4706 
  4707   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4708     The proof pattern
  4709 
  4710       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4711       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4712 
  4713     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4714     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4715 
  4716       have "EX S. P S"
  4717       proof
  4718         show "P S" <...>
  4719       qed
  4720 
  4721   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4722     The proof pattern
  4723 
  4724       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4725       also have "S = T" <...>
  4726       finally have "P T" .
  4727 
  4728     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4729     must be replaced by something like
  4730 
  4731       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4732       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4733       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4734 
  4735   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4736     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4737 
  4738       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4739 
  4740     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4741     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4742     type of the form
  4743 
  4744       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4745 
  4746     rather than
  4747 
  4748       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4749 
  4750 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4751 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4752 
  4753 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4754 
  4755 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4756 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4758 
  4759 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4760 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4761 
  4762 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4763 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4764 
  4765 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4766 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4767 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4768 
  4769 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4770 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4771 
  4772   less_trans
  4773   less_linear
  4774   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4775   le_less_trans
  4776   less_le_trans
  4777   less_not_sym
  4778   less_asym
  4779 
  4780 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4781 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4782 and different variable names.
  4783 
  4784 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4785 
  4786 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4787 finite maps.
  4788 
  4789 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4790 
  4791 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4792 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4793 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4794 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4795 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4796 accordingly.
  4797 
  4798 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4799 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4800 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4801 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4802 
  4803 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4804 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4805 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4806 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4807 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4809 
  4810 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4811 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4812 
  4813 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4814 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4815 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4816 
  4817 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4818 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4819 
  4820 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4821 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4822 
  4823 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4824 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4825 
  4826 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4827 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4828 
  4829 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4830 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4832 
  4833 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4834 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4835 
  4836 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4837 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4838 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4839 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4840 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4841 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4842 
  4843 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4844 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4845 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4846 
  4847 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4848 
  4849 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4850 
  4851 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4852 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4853 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4854 
  4855 
  4856 *** ZF ***
  4857 
  4858 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4859 same session:
  4860 
  4861   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4862   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4863   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4864   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4865   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4866   List      -> List_ZF
  4867   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4868 
  4869 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4870 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4871 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4872 
  4873 
  4874 *** ML ***
  4875 
  4876 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4877 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4878 
  4879 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4880 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4881 
  4882 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4883 
  4884 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4885 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4886 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4887 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4888 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4889 
  4890 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4891 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4892 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4893 
  4894 
  4895 *** System ***
  4896 
  4897 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4898 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4899 
  4900 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4901 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4902 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4903 
  4904 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4905 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4906 
  4907 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4908 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4909 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4910 
  4911 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4912 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4913 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4914 
  4915 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4916 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4917 
  4918 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4919 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4920 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4921 script.
  4922 
  4923 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4924 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4925 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4926 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4927 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4928 
  4929 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4930 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4931 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4932 
  4933 
  4934 
  4935 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4936 -----------------------------------
  4937 
  4938 *** General ***
  4939 
  4940 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4941 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4942 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4943 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4944 
  4945 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4946 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4947 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4948 
  4949 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4950 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4951 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4952 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4953 
  4954 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4955 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4956 quotes.
  4957 
  4958 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4959 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4960 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4961 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4962 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4963 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4964 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4965 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4966 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4967 
  4968 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4969 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4970 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4971 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4972 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4973 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4974 
  4975 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4976 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4977 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4978 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4979 
  4980 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4981 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4982 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4983 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4984 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4985 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4986 
  4987 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4988 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4989 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4990 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4991 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4992 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4993 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4994 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4995 
  4996 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4997 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4998 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4999 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5000 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5001 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5002 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5003 
  5004 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5005 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5006 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5007 
  5008 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5009 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5010 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5011 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5012 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5013 limit is imposed.
  5014 
  5015 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5016 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5017 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5018 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5019 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5020 and scalability.
  5021 
  5022 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5023 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5024 
  5025 
  5026 *** Document preparation ***
  5027 
  5028 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5029 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5030 current context.
  5031 
  5032 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5033 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5034 
  5035 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5036 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5037 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5038 
  5039 
  5040 *** Pure ***
  5041 
  5042 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5043 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5044 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5045 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5046 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5047 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5048 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5049 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5050 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5051 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5052 
  5053 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5054 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5055 sketch:
  5056 
  5057     internal compilation:
  5058         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5059     writing SML code to a file:
  5060         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5061     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5062         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5063     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5064         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5065 
  5066     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5067         method ``eval''
  5068 
  5069 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5070 
  5071 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5072 
  5073     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5074     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5075     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5076     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5077 
  5078 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5079 
  5080     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5081       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5082 
  5083     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5084       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5085 
  5086     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5087       {(target)}+
  5088         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5089 
  5090     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5091       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5092         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5093 
  5094 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5095 
  5096 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5097 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5098 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5099 codegen".
  5100 
  5101 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5102 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5103 annotations).
  5104 
  5105 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5106 syntax.
  5107 
  5108 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5109 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5110 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5111 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5112 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5113 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5114 
  5115 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5116 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5117 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5118 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5119 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5120 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5121 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5122 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5123 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5124 equations, see section "definitions".
  5125 
  5126 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5127 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5128 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5129 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5130 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5131 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5132 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5133 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5134 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5135 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5136 
  5137 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5138 configuration options:
  5139 
  5140   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5141   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5142   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5143   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5144   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5145   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5146   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5147   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5148   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5149 
  5150 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5151 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5152 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5153 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5154 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5155 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5156 order.
  5157 
  5158 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5159 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5160 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5161 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5162 context encountered later on.
  5163 
  5164 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5165 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5166 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5167 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5168 
  5169 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5170 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5171 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5172 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5173 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5174 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5175 
  5176 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5177 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5178 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5179 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5180 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5181 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5182 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5183 more permissive.
  5184 
  5185 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5186 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5187 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5188 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5189 maintainability of proof texts.
  5190 
  5191 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5192 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5193 
  5194   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5195   then guess x and y by clarify
  5196 
  5197 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5198 proof tools being involved here.
  5199 
  5200 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5201 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5202 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5203 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5204 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5205 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5206 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5207 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5208 
  5209 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5210 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5211 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5212 
  5213   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5214   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5215   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5216   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5217 
  5218 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5219 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5220 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5221 
  5222 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5223 both named and unnamed ones.
  5224 
  5225 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5226 
  5227   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5228 
  5229 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5230 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5231 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5232 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5233 
  5234 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5235 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5236 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5237 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5238 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5239 
  5240 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5241 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5242 
  5243 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5244 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5245 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5246 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5247 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5248 originally first one.
  5249 
  5250 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5251 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5252 expected.
  5253 
  5254 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5255 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5256 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5257 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5258 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5259 
  5260   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5261     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5262     obtains x where "P x"
  5263 
  5264   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5265     assumes "A & B"
  5266     obtains A and B
  5267 
  5268   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5269     assumes "A | B"
  5270     obtains
  5271       A
  5272     | B
  5273 
  5274 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5275 explicitly:
  5276 
  5277   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5278     obtains "~ thesis"
  5279 
  5280   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5281     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5282 
  5283 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5284 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5285 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5286 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5287 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5288 case_names).
  5289 
  5290 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5291 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5292 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5293 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5294 
  5295 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5296 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5297 top-level lemma.
  5298 
  5299 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5300 introduction rule (default "that").
  5301 
  5302 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5303 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5304 to occur.
  5305 
  5306 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5307 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5308 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5309 representations independently of name spaces.
  5310 
  5311 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5312 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5313 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5314 
  5315 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5316 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5317 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5318 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5319 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5320 current context.
  5321 
  5322 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5323 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5324 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5325 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5326 
  5327   axiomatization
  5328     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5329     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5330 
  5331   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5332   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5333 
  5334   abbreviation
  5335     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5336     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5337 
  5338 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5339 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5340 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5341 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5342 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5343 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5344 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5345 
  5346 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5347 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5348 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5349 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5350 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5351 
  5352 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5353 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5354 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5355 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5356 
  5357 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5358 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5359 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5360 
  5361   definition "K x _ = x"
  5362 
  5363   inductive conj for A B
  5364   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5365 
  5366 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5367 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5368 abbreviations on output.
  5369 
  5370 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5371 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5372 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5373 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5374 
  5375 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5376 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5377 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5378 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5379 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5380 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5381 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5382 
  5383 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5384 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5385 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5386 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5387 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5388 
  5389 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5390 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5391 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5392 
  5393 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5394 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5395 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5396 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5397 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5398 
  5399   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5400     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5401 
  5402 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5403 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5404 partial_order.
  5405 
  5406 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5407 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5408 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5409 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5410 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5411 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5412 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5413 examples.
  5414 
  5415 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5416 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5417 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5418 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5419 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5420 
  5421 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5422 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5423 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5424 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5425 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5426 
  5427   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5428   (induct set: foo bar)
  5429   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5430   (induct type: foo bar)
  5431 
  5432 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5433 new format.
  5434 
  5435 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5436 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5437 
  5438 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5439 considered a legacy feature.
  5440 
  5441 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5442 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5443 
  5444 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5445 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5446 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5447 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5448 
  5449 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5450 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5451 manipulating the claset.
  5452 
  5453 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5454 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5455 least one premise.
  5456 
  5457 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5458 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5459 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5460 rule steps.
  5461 
  5462 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5463 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5464 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5465 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5466 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5467 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5468 
  5469 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5470 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5471 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5472 
  5473 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5474 the graph browser tool.
  5475 
  5476 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5477 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5478 
  5479 
  5480 *** HOL ***
  5481 
  5482 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5483 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5484 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5485 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5486 multi-threading.
  5487 
  5488 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5489 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5490 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5491 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5492 work with multi-threading.
  5493 
  5494 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5495 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5496 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5497 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5498 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5499 
  5500 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5501 
  5502 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5503 equality.
  5504 
  5505 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5506 the new 'class' package:
  5507 
  5508     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5509     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5510     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5511     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5512     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5513     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5514     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5515     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5516     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5517     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5518     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5519     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5520     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5521     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5522     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5523     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5524     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5525     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5526     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5527     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5528 
  5529 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5530 
  5531 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5532 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5533 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5534 names.
  5535 
  5536 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5537 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5538 
  5539 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5540 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5541 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5542 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5543 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5544 
  5545 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5546 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5547 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5548 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5549 
  5550 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5551 
  5552 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5553 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5554 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5555 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5557 
  5558 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5559 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5560 
  5561 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5562 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5563 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5564 
  5565 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5566 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5567 
  5568 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5569 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5570 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5571 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5572 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5573 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5574 in the current context.
  5575 
  5576 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5577 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5579 
  5580 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5581 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5582 
  5583 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5584 
  5585     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5586     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5587 
  5588     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5589       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5590     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5591     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5592 
  5593     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5594     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5595 
  5596   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5597 
  5598     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5599     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5600     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5601     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5602     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5603     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5604     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5605     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5606     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5607     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5608     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5609     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5610     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5611     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5612     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5613     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5614     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5615     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5616     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5617     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5618     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5619     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5620     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5621     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5622     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5623     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5624     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5625     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5626     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5627     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5628     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5629     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5630     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5631     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5632     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5633 
  5634     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5635     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5636     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5637     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5638     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5639     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5640     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5641     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5642     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5643     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5644     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5645     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5646     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5647     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5648     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5649     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5650     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5651 
  5652     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5653     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5654     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5655     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5656     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5657     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5658     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5659     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5660     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5661     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5662     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5663     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5664     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5665     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5666     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5667     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5668     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5669     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5670     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5671     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5672     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5673     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5674     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5675     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5676     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5677     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5678     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5679     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5680 
  5681     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5682     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5683     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5684     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5685     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5686     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5687 
  5688     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5689     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5690     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5691     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5692 
  5693     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5694     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5695 
  5696     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5697     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5698 
  5699 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5700 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5701 
  5702 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5703 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5704 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5705 "*.size".
  5706 
  5707 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5709 
  5710 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5711 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5712 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5713 
  5714 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5715 
  5716 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5717 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5718 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5719 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5720 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5721 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5722 numerals on all operations.
  5723 
  5724 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5725 
  5726 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5727 
  5728 * Code generator library theories:
  5729   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5730     languages.
  5731   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5732     languages.
  5733   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5734     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5735   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5736   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5737     denominator).
  5738   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5739     representable by rational numbers.
  5740   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5741     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5742     includes Code_Integer.
  5743   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5744     target-language built-in integers.
  5745   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5746     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5747 
  5748 * New package for inductive predicates
  5749 
  5750   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5751 
  5752     inductive
  5753       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5754       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5755     where
  5756       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5757     | ...
  5758 
  5759   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5760 
  5761     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5762 
  5763     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5764     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5765 
  5766     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5767     intros
  5768       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5769       ...
  5770 
  5771   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5772   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5773 
  5774     inductive_set
  5775       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5776       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5777     where
  5778       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5779     | ...
  5780 
  5781   or
  5782 
  5783     inductive_set
  5784       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5785       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5786       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5787     where
  5788       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5789     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5790     | ...
  5791 
  5792   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5793 
  5794   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5795   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5796 
  5797   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5798 
  5799   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5800     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5801     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5802     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5803     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5804 
  5805   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5806     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5807     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5808     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5809     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5810     statements of the form
  5811 
  5812       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5813 
  5814     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5815     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5816 
  5817       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5818 
  5819   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5820 
  5821       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5822         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5823         ==> ... ==> P
  5824 
  5825     for predicates and
  5826 
  5827       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5828         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5829         ==> ... ==> P
  5830 
  5831     for sets rather than
  5832 
  5833       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5834         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5835         ==> ... ==> P
  5836 
  5837     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5838     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5839     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5840 
  5841   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5842     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5843     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5844 
  5845 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5846 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5847 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5848 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5849 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5850 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5851 
  5852 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5853 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5854 
  5855 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5856 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5857 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5858 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5859 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5860 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5861 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5862 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5863 variable.
  5864 
  5865 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5866 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5867 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5868 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5869   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5870   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5871 
  5872 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5873 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5874 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5875 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5876 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5877 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5878 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5879 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5880 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5881 
  5882 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5883 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5884 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5885 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5886 rat, etc.
  5887 
  5888 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5889 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5890 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5891 
  5892 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5893 
  5894 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5895 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5896 
  5897 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5898 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5899 
  5900 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5901 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5902 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5903 
  5904 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5905 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5907 
  5908 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5909 
  5910 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5911 
  5912 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5913 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5914 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5915 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5916 
  5917 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5918 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5919 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5920 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5921 
  5922 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5923 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5924 algebraic operations.
  5925 
  5926 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5927 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5928 
  5929 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5931 
  5932 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5933 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5934 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5935 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5936 adapted.
  5937 
  5938 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5939 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5940 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5941 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5942 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5943 
  5944 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5945 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5946 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5947 
  5948 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5949 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5950 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5951 
  5952 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5953 
  5954 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5955 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5956 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5957   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5958       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5959   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5960   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5961   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5962 
  5963 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5964 
  5965 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5966 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5967 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5968 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5969 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5970 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5971 
  5972 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5973 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5974 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5975 
  5976 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5977 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5978 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5979 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5980 
  5981 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5982 
  5983 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5984 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5985 
  5986 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5987 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5988 
  5989 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5990 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5991 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5992 
  5993 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5994 True/False.
  5995 
  5996 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5997 
  5998 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5999 
  6000 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6001 ``rule'' method.
  6002 
  6003 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6004 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6005 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6006 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6007 
  6008 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6009 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6010 
  6011 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6012 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6013 
  6014 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6015 Library.
  6016 
  6017 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6018 
  6019 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6020 as greatest fixed-point.
  6021 
  6022 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6023 association lists.
  6024 
  6025 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6026 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6027 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6028 
  6029 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6030 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6031 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6032 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6033 behavior.
  6034 
  6035 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6036 
  6037 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6038 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6039 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6040 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6041 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6042 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6043 
  6044 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6045 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6046 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6047 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6048 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6049 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6050 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6051 
  6052 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6053 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6054 
  6055 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6056 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6057 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6058 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6059 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6060 
  6061 
  6062 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6063 
  6064 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6065 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6066 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6067 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6069 
  6070 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6071 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6072 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6073 
  6074 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6075 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6076 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6077 
  6078 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6079 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6080 
  6081 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6082 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6083 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6084 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6085 
  6086   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6087   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6088   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6089   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6090   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6091   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6092   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6093   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6094   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6095   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6096   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6097   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6098   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6099   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6100   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6101 
  6102 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6103 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6104 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6105 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6106 
  6107   approx        <-- capprox
  6108   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6109   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6110   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6111   monad         <-- cmonad
  6112   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6113   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6114   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6115   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6116 
  6117 
  6118 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6119 
  6120 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6121 
  6122 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6123 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6124 
  6125 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6126 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6127 
  6128 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6129 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6130 of algebraic structures.
  6131 
  6132 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6133 
  6134 
  6135 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6136 
  6137 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6138 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6139 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6140 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6141 
  6142 
  6143 *** ML ***
  6144 
  6145 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6146 (even on SML/NJ).
  6147 
  6148 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6149 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6150 compile-time.  For example:
  6151 
  6152 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6153 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6154 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6155 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6156 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6157 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6158 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6159 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6160 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6161 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6162 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6163 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6164 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6165 ML {* @{context} *}
  6166 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6167 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6168 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6169 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6170 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6171 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6172 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6173 
  6174 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6175 
  6176 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6177 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6178 
  6179 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6180 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6181 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6182 
  6183 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6184 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6185 
  6186 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6187 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6188 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6189 
  6190 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6191 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6192 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6193 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6194 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6195 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6196 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6197 declarations and definitions.
  6198 
  6199 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6200 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6201 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6202 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6203 
  6204 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6205 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6206 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6207 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6208 
  6209 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6210 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6211 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6212 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6213 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6214 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6215 
  6216 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6217 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6218 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6219 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6220 attributes, methods, etc.
  6221 
  6222 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6223 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6224 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6225 fold_map combinators.
  6226 
  6227 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6228 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6229 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6230 derivation.
  6231 
  6232 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6233 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6234 achieve the old behaviour.
  6235 
  6236 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6237 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6238 statements.
  6239 
  6240 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now