NEWS
author wenzelm
Mon Dec 09 20:16:12 2013 +0100 (2013-12-09)
changeset 54705 0dff3326d12a
parent 54702 3daeba5130f0
child 54708 8e71c6ed4d74
permissions -rw-r--r--
provide @{file_unchecked} in Isabelle/Pure;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 
    16 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    17 
    18 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    19 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    20 
    21 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    22 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    23 
    24 
    25 *** HOL ***
    26 
    27 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
    28 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    29 
    30 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
    31     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
    32 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    33 
    34 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
    35     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
    36     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
    37 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    38 
    39 * Abolished neg_numeral.
    40   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
    41   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
    42   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
    43     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
    44   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
    45     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- … - _".
    46   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
    47 INCOMPATBILITY.
    48 
    49 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
    50     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
    51     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
    52     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
    53     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
    54 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    55 
    56 * Fact name consolidation:
    57     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
    58     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
    59     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
    60     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
    61     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
    62 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    63 
    64 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
    65 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
    66 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
    67 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
    68 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
    69 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
    70 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
    71 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    72 
    73 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
    74 
    75 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
    76 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
    77 
    78 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
    79 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [… "- _" …]" by simp".
    80 
    81 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
    82 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
    83 or the brute way with
    84 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
    85 
    86 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
    87 
    88 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
    89 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    90 
    91 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
    92 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
    93 
    94 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
    95 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
    96 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
    97 INCOMPATIBILITY
    98 
    99 * Nitpick:
   100   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   101     infinite values.
   102 
   103 
   104 *** ML ***
   105 
   106 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   107 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   108 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   109 formal context.
   110 
   111 
   112 *** System ***
   113 
   114 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   115 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   116 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   117 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   118 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   119 
   120 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   121 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   122 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   123 
   124 
   125 
   126 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   127 -------------------------------------
   128 
   129 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   130 
   131 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   132 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   133 
   134 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   135 after edits surrounding the command location.
   136 
   137 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   138 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   139 e.g. out-of-memory).
   140 
   141 
   142 *** System ***
   143 
   144 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   145 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   146 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   147 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   148 
   149 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   150 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   151 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   152 
   153 
   154 
   155 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   156 -------------------------------------
   157 
   158 *** General ***
   159 
   160 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   161 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   162 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   163 
   164 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   165 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   166 
   167 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   168 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   169 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   170 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   171 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   172 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   173 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   174 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   175 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   176 syntax.
   177 
   178 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   179 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   182 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   183 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   184 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   185 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   186 
   187 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   189 
   190 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   191 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   192 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   193 
   194 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   195 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   196 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   197 
   198 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   199 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   200 
   201 
   202 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   203 
   204 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   205 Documentation panel.
   206 
   207 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   208 documentation.
   209 
   210 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   211 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   212 
   213 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   214 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   215 normal editing and checking process.
   216 
   217 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   218 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   219 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   220 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   221 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   222 
   223 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   224 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   225 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   226 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   227 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   228 
   229 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   230 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   231 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   232 
   233 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   234 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   235 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   236 to resolve conflict.
   237 
   238 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   239 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   240 
   241 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   242 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   243 such command executions while editing.
   244 
   245 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   246 document content.
   247 
   248 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   249 toplevel theorem statements.
   250 
   251 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   252 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   253 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   254 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   255 
   256 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   257 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   258 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   259 
   260 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   261 / Global Options / Appearance".
   262 
   263 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   264 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   265 
   266 
   267 *** Pure ***
   268 
   269 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   270 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   271 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   272 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   273 details.
   274 
   275 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   276 
   277 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   278 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   279 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   280 
   281 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   283 
   284 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   285 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   286 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   287 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   288 
   289 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   290 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   291 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   292 
   293 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   294 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   295 
   296 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   297 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   298 situations.
   299 
   300 
   301 *** HOL ***
   302 
   303 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   304 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   305 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306 
   307 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   308 
   309 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   310 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   311 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   312 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   313 
   314   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   315 
   316 * Code generator:
   317   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   318     'code_instance'.
   319   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   320     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   321 
   322 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   323 examples.
   324 
   325 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   326 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   327 to distinguish both when desired.
   328 
   329 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   330 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   331 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   332 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   333 
   334 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   335 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   336 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   337 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   338 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   339 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   340 
   341 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   342 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   343 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   344 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   345 
   346 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   347 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   348 
   349 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   350 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   351 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   352 
   353 * Lifting:
   354   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   355     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   356       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   357       transfer rules
   358     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   359       correspondence relation can be generated
   360     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   361       parametricity
   362     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   363   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   364   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   365     copies
   366   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   367     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   368     anonymous context)
   369   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   370     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   371   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   372     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   373   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   374     INCOMPATIBILITY
   375 
   376 * Transfer:
   377   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   378     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   379   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   380   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   381     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   382   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   383 
   384 * Reification and reflection:
   385   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   386     "Reification".
   387   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   388   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   390 
   391 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   392   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   393     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   394     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   395   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   396     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   397   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   398     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   399     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   400     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   401     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   402     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   403     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   404     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   405   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   406     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   407   - Fact renames:
   408       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   409       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   410 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   411 
   412 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   413 
   414 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   415 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   416 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   418 
   419 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   420 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   421 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   422 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   423 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   424 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   425 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   426 lemmas.
   427 
   428 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   429 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   430 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   431 
   432 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   433 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   434 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   435 
   436 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   437 top and bottom elements.
   438 
   439 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   440 
   441 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   442 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   443 
   444  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   445    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   446    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   447 
   448  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   449    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   450    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   451 
   452    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   453    arbitrary filter.
   454 
   455  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   456    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   457    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   458    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   459    on a compact set.
   460 
   461  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   462    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   463    linear_continuum_topology).
   464 
   465  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   466    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   467    on all sequences converging to x.
   468 
   469  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   470    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   471    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   472    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   473    left or right.
   474 
   475  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   476 
   477      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   478 
   479  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   480    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   481 
   482  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   483    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   484    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   485    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   486    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   487    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   488 
   489  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   490 
   491    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   492 
   493    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   494      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   495 
   496    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   497 
   498    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   499      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   500 
   501    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   502 
   503    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   504 
   505  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   506 
   507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   508 
   509 * Nitpick:
   510   - Added option "spy"
   511   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   512 
   513 * Sledgehammer:
   514   - Renamed option:
   515       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   516     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   517   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   518   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   519   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   520 
   521 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   522 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   523 
   524 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   525   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   526   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   527     generated code.
   528   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   529   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   530   - Fact renames:
   531     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   532     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   533     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   534 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   535 
   536 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   537 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   538 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   539 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   540 
   541 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   542 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   543 
   544 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   545 
   546 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   547 
   548     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   549     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   550 
   551 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   552 
   553 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   554 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   555 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   556 
   557 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   558 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   559 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   560 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   561 
   562 * HOL-BNF:
   563   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   564     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   565     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   566     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   567   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   568     coinduct).
   569   - Renamed keywords:
   570     data ~> datatype_new
   571     codata ~> codatatype
   572     bnf_def ~> bnf
   573   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   574     discs ~> disc
   575     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   576     map_id' ~> map_id
   577     sels ~> sel
   578     set_map' ~> set_map
   579     sets ~> set
   580 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   581 
   582 
   583 *** ML ***
   584 
   585 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   586 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   587 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   588 Examples.thy in particular.
   589 
   590 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   591 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   592 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   593 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   594 
   595 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   596 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   597 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   598 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   600 
   601 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   602 
   603     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   604     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   605 
   606 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   607 
   608 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   609 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   610 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   611 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   612 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   613 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   614 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   615 
   616 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   617 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   618 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   619 clasets separately from the context.
   620 
   621 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   622 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   623 
   624 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   625 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   626 
   627 
   628 *** System ***
   629 
   630 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   631 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   632 
   633 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   634 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   635 
   636 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   637 settings variable.
   638 
   639 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   640 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   641 always pdf.
   642 
   643 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   644 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   645 
   646 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   647 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   648 
   649 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   650 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   651 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   652 
   653 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   654 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   655 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   656 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   657 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   658 for HTML presentation of theories.
   659 
   660 
   661 
   662 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   663 -----------------------------------
   664 
   665 *** General ***
   666 
   667 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   668 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   669 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   670 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   671 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   672 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   673 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   674 
   675 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   676 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   677 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   678 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   679 
   680 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   681 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   682 
   683 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   684 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   685 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   686 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   687 dependencies properly.
   688 
   689 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   690 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   691 
   692 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   693 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   694 
   695 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   696 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   697 and "class ... context ...".
   698 
   699 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   700 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   701 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   702 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   703 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   704 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   705 
   706 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   707 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   708 
   709 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   710 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   711 
   712 
   713 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   714 
   715 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   716 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   717 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   718 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   719 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   720 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   721 
   722 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   723 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   724 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   725 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   726 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   727 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   728 
   729 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   730 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   731 browser on demand.
   732 
   733 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   734 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   735 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   736 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   737 
   738 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   739 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   740 
   741 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   742 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   743 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   744 potentially infinite message streams.
   745 
   746 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   747 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   748 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   749 schemes.
   750 
   751 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   752 symbols.
   753 
   754 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   755 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   756 
   757 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   758 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   759 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   760 
   761 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   762 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   763 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   764 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   765 
   766 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   767 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   768 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   769 
   770 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   771 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   772 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   773 Isabelle distribution.
   774 
   775 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   776 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   777 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   778 
   779 
   780 *** Pure ***
   781 
   782 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   783 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   784 
   785 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   786 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   787 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   788 
   789 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   790 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   791 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   792 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   793 with some care where this is really required.
   794 
   795 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   796 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   797 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   798 
   799   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   800 
   801 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   802 a Hasse diagram.
   803 
   804 
   805 *** HOL ***
   806 
   807 * Sledgehammer:
   808 
   809   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   810     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   811   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   812   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   813   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   814   - Renamed options:
   815       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   816       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   817       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   818       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   819 
   820 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   821 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   822 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   823 
   824 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   826 
   827 * Lifting:
   828   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   829   - quot_del attribute
   830   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   831 
   832 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   833 expressions.
   834 
   835 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   836 pointfree expressions.
   837 
   838 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   839 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   840 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   841 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   842 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   843 
   844 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   845 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   846 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   847 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   848 accordingly.
   849 
   850 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   851 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   852 
   853 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   854 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   855 
   856 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   857 
   858 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   859 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   860 
   861 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   862 
   863 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   864 
   865   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   866   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   867 
   868 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   869 
   870 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   871 
   872   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   873   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   874 
   875 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   876 
   877 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   878 
   879   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   880     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   881     output f x converges to G.
   882 
   883   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   884     infinity (at_bot).
   885 
   886   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   887     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   888 
   889   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   890     at_top".
   891 
   892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   893 
   894 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   895 lattice type classes.
   896 
   897 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   898 
   899     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   900     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   901 
   902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   903 
   904 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   905 changes as follows.
   906 
   907   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   908 
   909       prefix ~> prefixeq
   910       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   911 
   912   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   913     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   914     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   915     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   916 
   917   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   918     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   919     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   920 
   921   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   922     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   923     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   924     Library/Prefix_Order.
   925 
   926   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   927     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   928 
   929       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   930       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   931       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   932       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   933       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   934       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   935       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   936       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   937       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   938       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   939       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   940       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   941       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   942       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   943       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   944       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   945 
   946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   947 
   948 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   949 
   950 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   951 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   952 
   953 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   954 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   955 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   956 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   957 
   958   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   959   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   960   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   961   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   962   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   963   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   964   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   965   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   966   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   967   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   968 
   969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   970 
   971 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   972 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   973 Data").
   974 
   975 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   976 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   977 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   978 code.
   979 
   980 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   981 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   982 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   983 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   984 
   985 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   986 
   987 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   988 
   989 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   990 
   991   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   992   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   993 
   994 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   995 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   996 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   997 
   998   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   999 
  1000     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1001     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1002     cart_base i  removed
  1003     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1004 
  1005   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1006 
  1007   Renamed lemmas:
  1008 
  1009     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1010     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1011     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1012     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1013     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1014     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1015     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1016     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1017     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1018     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1019 
  1020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1021 
  1022 * HOL/Probability:
  1023 
  1024   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1025 
  1026   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1027     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1028     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1029 
  1030   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1031     projective family).
  1032 
  1033 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1034 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1035 
  1036 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1037 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1038 datatypes.
  1039 
  1040 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1041 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1042 
  1043 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1044 trees for the code generator.
  1045 
  1046 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1047 Lifting/Transfer.
  1048 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1049 
  1050 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1052 
  1053 
  1054 *** Document preparation ***
  1055 
  1056 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1057 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1058 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1059 
  1060 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1061 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1062 
  1063 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1064 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1065 document/root.tex.
  1066 
  1067 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1068 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1069 
  1070 
  1071 *** ML ***
  1072 
  1073 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1074 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1075 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1076 
  1077 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1078 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1079 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1080 
  1081 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1082 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1083 necessarily printing visible text.
  1084 
  1085 
  1086 *** System ***
  1087 
  1088 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1089 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1090 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1091 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1092 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1093 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1094 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1095 
  1096 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1097 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1098 
  1099   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1100 
  1101 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1102 
  1103 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1104 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1105 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1106 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1107 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1108 
  1109 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1110 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1111 
  1112 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1113 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1114 
  1115 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1117 
  1118 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1119 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1120 version of Isabelle.
  1121 
  1122 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1123 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1124 
  1125 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1126 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1127 for home-made settings.
  1128 
  1129 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1130 
  1131 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1132 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1133 configuration.
  1134 
  1135 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1136 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1137 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1138 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1139 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1140 
  1141 
  1142 
  1143 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1144 ------------------------------
  1145 
  1146 *** General ***
  1147 
  1148 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1149 
  1150   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1151     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1152   - markup for bound variables
  1153   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1154   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1155   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1156     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1157 
  1158 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1159 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1160 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1161 
  1162 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1163 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1164 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1165 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1166 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1167 
  1168   context
  1169     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1170     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1171   begin
  1172 
  1173   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1174 
  1175   end
  1176 
  1177   thm my_trans
  1178 
  1179 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1180 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1181 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1182 
  1183 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1184 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1185 
  1186 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1187 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1188 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1189 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1190 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1191 
  1192 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1193 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1194 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1195 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1196 indices of schematic variables.
  1197 
  1198 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1199 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1200 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1201 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1202 etc. was exploited.
  1203 
  1204 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1205 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1206 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1207 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1208 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1209 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1210 
  1211 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1212 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1213 manual.
  1214 
  1215 
  1216 *** Pure ***
  1217 
  1218 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1219 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1220 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1221 
  1222 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1223 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1224 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1225 undocumented feature.)
  1226 
  1227 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1228 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1229 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1230 
  1231   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1232 
  1233   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1234     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1235 
  1236 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1237 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1238 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1239 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1240 
  1241 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1242 
  1243     num ~> num_token
  1244     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1245     xstr ~> str_token
  1246 
  1247 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1248 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1249 position information via constraints).
  1250 
  1251 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1252 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1253 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1254 
  1255 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1256 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1257 
  1258 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1259 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1260 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1261 
  1262 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1263 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1264 
  1265 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1266 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1267 
  1268   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1269 
  1270 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1271 
  1272 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1273 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1274 
  1275 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1276 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1277 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1278 
  1279 
  1280 *** HOL ***
  1281 
  1282 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1283 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1284 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1285 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1286 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1287 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1288 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1289 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1290 possible.
  1291 
  1292 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1293 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1294 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1295 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1296 
  1297 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1298 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1299 
  1300 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1301 
  1302 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1303 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1304 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1305 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1306 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1307 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1308 
  1309   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1310     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1311 
  1312   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1313     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1314     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1315 
  1316   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1317     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1318 
  1319   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1320     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1321     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1322 
  1323   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1324     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1325 
  1326 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1327 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1328 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1329 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1330 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1331 
  1332   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1333     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1334     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1335     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1336     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1337 
  1338     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1339     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1340 
  1341   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1342     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1343     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1344     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1345     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1346     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1347     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1348     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1349 
  1350   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1351     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1352     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1353     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1354 
  1355   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1356     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1357     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1358     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1359 
  1360   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1361     from type nat to type int.
  1362 
  1363 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1364 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1365 
  1366   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1367     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1368     type.  Example syntax:
  1369 
  1370     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1371       is List.insert
  1372 
  1373     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1374     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1375     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1376     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1377     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1378     by the package.
  1379 
  1380   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1381     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1382     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1383     code generation for each constant.
  1384 
  1385   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1386     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1387     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1388     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1389     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1390 
  1391   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1392     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1393     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1394 
  1395 * Quotient package:
  1396 
  1397   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1398     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1399 
  1400   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1401     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1402 
  1403   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1404     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1405     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1406 
  1407   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1408     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1409 
  1410 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1411 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1412 
  1413 * Quickcheck:
  1414 
  1415   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1416     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1417     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1418     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1419     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1420 
  1421     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1422     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1423     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1424 
  1425     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1426     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1427 
  1428     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1429     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1430     show genuine counterexamples.
  1431 
  1432   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1433     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1434 
  1435     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1436     constructors of that type.
  1437 
  1438   - Support for multisets.
  1439 
  1440   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1441 
  1442   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1443     conjectures in a locale context.
  1444 
  1445 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1446 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1447 
  1448 * Sledgehammer:
  1449   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1450     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1451   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1452   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1453     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1454   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1455   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1456   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1457   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1458 
  1459 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1460 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1461 
  1462 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1463 
  1464 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1465 
  1466 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1467 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1468 
  1469   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1470 
  1471 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1472 a list and a nat.
  1473 
  1474 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1475 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1476 
  1477 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1478 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1479 default.
  1480 
  1481 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1482 
  1483   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1484 
  1485 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1486 
  1487 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1488 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1489 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1490 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1491 one_case.
  1492 
  1493 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1494 the result of the fact expression.
  1495 
  1496 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1497 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1498 of some relation theorems:
  1499 
  1500   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1501   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1502   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1503   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1504   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1505   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1506 
  1507 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1508 
  1509 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1510 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1511 
  1512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1513 
  1514 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1515 to match the constant's name:
  1516 
  1517   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1518   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1519   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1520   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1521   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1522   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1523   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1524   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1525   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1526   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1527   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1528   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1529   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1530   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1531   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1532   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1533   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1534   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1535   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1536   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1537   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1538   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1539   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1540   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1541 
  1542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1543 
  1544 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1545 and corresponding theorem names:
  1546 
  1547   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1548 
  1549   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1550 
  1551   - Renamed theorems:
  1552 
  1553     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1554     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1555     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1556     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1557     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1558     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1559     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1560     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1561     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1562     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1563     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1564     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1565     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1566     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1567     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1568     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1569     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1570     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1571     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1572     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1573     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1574     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1575     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1576 
  1577     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1578 
  1579     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1580 
  1581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1582 
  1583 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1584 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1585 
  1586   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1587   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1588   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1589   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1590   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1591   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1592   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1593   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1594   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1595   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1596   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1597   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1598   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1599   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1600   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1601   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1602   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1603   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1604   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1605   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1606   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1607 
  1608 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1609 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1610 
  1611 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1612 
  1613 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1614 
  1615   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1616   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1617   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1618   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1619   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1620   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1621   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1622   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1623   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1624   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1625   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1626   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1627   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1628   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1629   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1630   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1631   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1632   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1633 
  1634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1635 
  1636 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1637 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1638 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1639 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1640 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1641 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1642 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1643 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1644 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1645 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1646 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1647 
  1648 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1649 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1650 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1651 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1652 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1653 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1654 
  1655 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1656 through option types.
  1657 
  1658 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1659 relations.
  1660 
  1661 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1662 
  1663 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1664 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1665 
  1666   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1667   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1668   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1669   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1670   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1671   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1672   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1673   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1674   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1675   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1676   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1677   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1678   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1679   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1680   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1681   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1682   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1683   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1684   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1685   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1686   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1687   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1688   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1689   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1690   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1691   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1692   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1693   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1694   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1695   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1696   zless_le ~> less_le
  1697   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1698   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1699   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1700 
  1701 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1702 
  1703   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1704 
  1705 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1706 
  1707 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1708 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1709 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1710 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1712 
  1713 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1714 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1715 
  1716 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1717 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1718 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1719 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1720 follows:
  1721 
  1722   Operations:
  1723   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1724   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1725   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1726   del -> rbt_del
  1727   delete -> rbt_delete
  1728   ins -> rbt_ins
  1729   insert -> rbt_insert
  1730   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1731   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1732   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1733   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1734   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1735   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1736   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1737   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1738   union -> rbt_union
  1739   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1740   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1741 
  1742   Lemmas:
  1743   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1744   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1745   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1746   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1747   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1748   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1749   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1750   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1751   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1752   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1753   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1754   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1755   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1756   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1757   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1758   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1759   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1760   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1761   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1762   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1763   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1764   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1765   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1766   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1767   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1768   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1769   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1770   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1771   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1772   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1773   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1774   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1775   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1776   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1777   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1778   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1779   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1780   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1781   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1782   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1783   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1784   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1785   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1786   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1787   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1788   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1789   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1790   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1791   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1792   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1793   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1794   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1795   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1796   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1797   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1798   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1799   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1800   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1801   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1802   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1803   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1804   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1805   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1806   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1807   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1808   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1809   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1810   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1811   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1812   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1813   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1814   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1815   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1816   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1817   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1818   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1819   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1820   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1821   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1822   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1823   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1824   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1825   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1826 
  1827 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1828 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1829 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1830 
  1831   Changed Operations:
  1832   float_abs -> abs
  1833   float_nprt -> nprt
  1834   float_pprt -> pprt
  1835   pow2 -> use powr
  1836   round_down -> float_round_down
  1837   round_up -> float_round_up
  1838   scale -> exponent
  1839 
  1840   Removed Operations:
  1841   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1842 
  1843   Renamed Lemmas:
  1844   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1845   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1846   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1847   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1848   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1849   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1850   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1851   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1852   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1853   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1854   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1855   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1856   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1857   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1858   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1859   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1860   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1861   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1862   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1863   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1864   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1865   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1866   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1867   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1868   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1869   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1870   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1871   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1872   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1873   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1874   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1875   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1876   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1877   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1878   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1879   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1880 
  1881   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1882   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1883   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1884   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1885   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1886   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1887   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1888   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1889   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1890   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1891 
  1892 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1893 association lists with distinct keys.
  1894 
  1895 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1896 annotated commands.
  1897 
  1898 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1899 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1900 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1901 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1902 
  1903 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1904 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1905 instead.
  1906 
  1907   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1908   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1909   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1910   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1911   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1912   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1913   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1914   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1915   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1916   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1917   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1918   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1919   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1920   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1921   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1922   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1923   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1924   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1925   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1926   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1927   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1928   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1929   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1930   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1931   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1932   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1933   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1934   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1935   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1936   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1937   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1938   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1939   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1940   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1941   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1942   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1943   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1944   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1945   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1946   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1947   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1948 
  1949 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1950 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1951 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1952 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1953 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1954 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1955 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1956 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1957 
  1958 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1959 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1960 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1961 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1962 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1963 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1964 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1965 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1966 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1967 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1968 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1969 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1970 
  1971   Renamed constants:
  1972   measure -> emeasure
  1973   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1974   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1975   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1976   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1977 
  1978   Removed locales:
  1979   completeable_measure_space
  1980   finite_measure_space
  1981   finite_prob_space
  1982   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1983   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1984   finite_sigma_algebra
  1985   measure_space
  1986   pair_finite_prob_space
  1987   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1988   pair_finite_space
  1989   pair_sigma_algebra
  1990   product_sigma_algebra
  1991 
  1992   Removed constants:
  1993   conditional_space
  1994   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1995   image_space
  1996   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1997   pair_measure_generator
  1998   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1999   subvimage
  2000 
  2001   Replacement theorems:
  2002   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2003   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2004   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2005   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2006   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2007   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2008   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2009   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2010   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2011   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2012   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2013   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2014   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2015   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2016   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2017   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2018   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2019   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2020   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2021   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2022   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2023   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2024   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2025   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2026   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2027   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2028   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2029   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2030   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2031   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2032   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2033   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2034   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2035   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2036   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2037   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2038   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2039   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2040   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2041   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2042   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2043   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2044   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2045   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2046   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2047   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2048   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2049   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2050   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2051   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2052   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2053   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2054   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2055   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2056   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2057   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2058   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2059   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2060   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2061   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2062   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2063   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2064   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2065   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2066   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2067   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2068   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2069   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2070   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2071   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2072   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2073   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2074   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2075   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2076   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2077   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2078   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2079   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2080   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2081   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2082   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2083   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2084   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2085   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2086   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2087   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2088   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2089   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2090   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2091   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2092   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2093   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2094   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2095   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2096   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2097   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2098   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2099   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2100   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2101   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2102   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2103   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2104   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2105   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2106   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2107   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2108   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2109   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2110   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2111   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2112   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2113   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2114   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2115   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2116   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2117   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2118   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2119   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2120   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2121   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2122   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2123   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2124   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2125   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2126   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2127   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2128   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2129   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2130 
  2131 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2132 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2133 
  2134 
  2135 *** FOL ***
  2136 
  2137 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2138 
  2139 
  2140 *** ZF ***
  2141 
  2142 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2143 analysis.
  2144 
  2145 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2146 
  2147 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2148 
  2149 
  2150 *** ML ***
  2151 
  2152 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2153 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2154 
  2155 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2156 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2157 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2158 
  2159 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2160 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2161 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2162 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2163 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2164 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2165 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2166 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2167 
  2168 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2169 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2170 
  2171 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2172 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2173 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2174 
  2175 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2176 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2177 
  2178 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2179 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2180 context as well.
  2181 
  2182 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2183 
  2184   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2185   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2186   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2187   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2188   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2189   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2190   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2191   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2192   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2193   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2194   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2195   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2196 
  2197 
  2198 *** System ***
  2199 
  2200 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2201 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2202 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2203 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2204 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2205 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2206 the generic user home was intended.
  2207 
  2208 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2209 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2210 
  2211 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2212 (not just JRE).
  2213 
  2214 
  2215 
  2216 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2217 ------------------------------------
  2218 
  2219 *** General ***
  2220 
  2221 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2222 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2223 
  2224   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2225     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2226     files for checking).
  2227 
  2228   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2229     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2230     positions.
  2231 
  2232   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2233     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2234     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2235 
  2236   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2237     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2238     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2239 
  2240   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2241     cores.
  2242 
  2243   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2244     versions (garbage collection).
  2245 
  2246 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2247 including some remaining limitations.
  2248 
  2249 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2250 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2251 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2252 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2253 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2255 
  2256 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2257 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2258 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2259 
  2260 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2261 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2262 usedir option -Q.
  2263 
  2264 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2265 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2266 
  2267   long_names   ~> names_long
  2268   short_names  ~> names_short
  2269   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2270 
  2271 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2272 
  2273   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2274 
  2275 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2276 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2277 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2278 
  2279 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2280 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2281 
  2282 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2283   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2284   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2285   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2286     "Classical Reasoner".
  2287 
  2288 
  2289 *** HOL ***
  2290 
  2291 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2292 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2293 
  2294 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2295 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2296 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2297 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2298 class complete_linorder.
  2299 
  2300 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2301 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2302 
  2303 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2304 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2305 
  2306   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2307   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2308   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2309   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2310   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2311   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2312   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2313   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2314   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2315   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2316   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2317 
  2318 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2319 
  2320   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2321   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2322   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2323   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2324   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2325   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2326   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2327   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2328   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2329   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2330   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2331   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2332   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2333   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2334   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2335   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2336 
  2337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2338 
  2339 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2341 
  2342 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2343 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2344 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2345 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2346 
  2347 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2348 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2349 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2351 
  2352 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2353 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2354 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2355 
  2356 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2357 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2358 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2359 
  2360 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2361 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2362 
  2363 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2364 
  2365     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2366     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2367 
  2368 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2369 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2370 
  2371 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2372 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2373 
  2374 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2375 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2376 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2377 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2378 
  2379   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2380   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2381   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2382   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2383   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2384   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2385   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2386 
  2387 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2388 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2389 
  2390   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2391   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2392   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2393   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2394   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2395   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2396   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2397   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2398   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2399   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2400   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2401   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2402   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2403   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2404   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2405   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2406   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2407   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2408   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2409   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2410   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2411   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2412   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2413   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2414   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2415   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2416   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2417   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2418   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2419   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2420   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2421   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2422   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2423   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2424   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2425   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2426   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2427   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2428   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2429   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2430   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2431   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2432   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2433   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2434   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2435   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2436   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2437   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2438   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2439   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2440   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2441   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2442   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2443   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2444   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2445   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2446   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2447   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2448   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2449   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2450   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2451   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2452   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2453   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2454   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2455   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2456   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2457   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2458   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2459   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2460   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2461   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2462   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2463   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2464   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2465   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2466   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2467   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2468   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2469   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2470   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2471   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2472 
  2473 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2474 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2475 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2476 
  2477 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2478 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2479 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2480 
  2481 * Code generation:
  2482 
  2483   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2484     characters in the target language.
  2485 
  2486   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2487     instead.
  2488 
  2489   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2490 
  2491   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2492     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2493 
  2494       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2495 
  2496 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2497 
  2498 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2499 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2500 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2501 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2502 syntax.
  2503 
  2504 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2505 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2506 
  2507 * Nitpick:
  2508   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2509   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2510   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2511     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2512 
  2513 * Sledgehammer:
  2514   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2515   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2516     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2517   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2518     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2519   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2520     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2521   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2522     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2523   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2524     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2525 
  2526 * Metis:
  2527   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2528   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2529     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2530 
  2531 * Command 'try':
  2532   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2533     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2534   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2535     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2536 
  2537 * Quickcheck:
  2538   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2539     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2540   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2541     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2542   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2543     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2544     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2545     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2546   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2547     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2548 
  2549 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2550 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2551 
  2552 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2553 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2554 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2555 
  2556 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2557 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2559 
  2560 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2561 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2562 
  2563 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2564 arithmetic.
  2565 
  2566 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2567 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2568 and lattice type classes.
  2569 
  2570 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2571 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2572 
  2573 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2574 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2575 
  2576 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2577 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2578 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2579 
  2580   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2581   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2582   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2583   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2584 
  2585 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2586 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2587 constants:
  2588 
  2589   type inat   ~> type enat
  2590   Fin         ~> enat
  2591   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2592   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2593   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2594 
  2595 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2596 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2597 
  2598 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2599 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2600 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2601 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2602 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2603 
  2604 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2605 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2606 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2607 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2608 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2609 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2610 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2611 
  2612   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2613   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2614   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2615   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2616 
  2617 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2618 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2619 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2620 
  2621   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2622   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2623   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2624   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2625   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2626   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2627   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2628   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2629   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2630   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2631   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2632   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2633   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2634   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2635   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2636   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2637   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2638   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2639   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2640   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2641   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2642   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2643   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2644   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2645   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2646   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2647   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2648   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2649   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2650   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2651   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2652   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2653   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2654   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2655   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2656   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2657   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2658   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2659   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2660   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2661   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2662   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2663   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2664   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2665   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2666   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2667   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2668   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2669   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2670   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2671   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2672 
  2673 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2674   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2675   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2676   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2677   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2678     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2679 
  2680 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2681 
  2682   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2683   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2684   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2685   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2686   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2687   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2688   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2689   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2690   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2691   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2692   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2693   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2694   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2695   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2696   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2697   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2698   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2699   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2700   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2701   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2702   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2703   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2704   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2705   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2706   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2707 
  2708 
  2709 *** Document preparation ***
  2710 
  2711 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2712 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2713 same.
  2714 
  2715 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2716 result.
  2717 
  2718 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2719 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2720 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2721 
  2722 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2723 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2724 
  2725 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2726 like this:
  2727 
  2728   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2729   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2730 
  2731 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2732 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2733 layouts.
  2734 
  2735 
  2736 *** ML ***
  2737 
  2738 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2739 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2740 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2741 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2742 under external program control.
  2743 
  2744 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2745 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2746 
  2747 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2748 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2749 (better known as Proof General).
  2750 
  2751 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2752 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2753 
  2754 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2755 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2756 
  2757 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2758 (including quotes etc.).
  2759 
  2760 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2761 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2762 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2763 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2764 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2765 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2766 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2767 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2768 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2769 
  2770 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2771 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2772 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2773 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2774 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2775 
  2776 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2777 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2778 
  2779 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2780 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2781 
  2782 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2783 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2784 
  2785 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2786 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2787 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2788 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2789 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2790 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2791 proper Proof.context.
  2792 
  2793 
  2794 *** System ***
  2795 
  2796 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2797 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2798 
  2799 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2800 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2801 
  2802 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2803 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2804 
  2805   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2806   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2807   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2808   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2809   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2810 
  2811 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2812 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2813 
  2814 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2815 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2816 example:
  2817 
  2818   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2819 
  2820 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2821 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2822 
  2823 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2824 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2825 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2826 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2827 
  2828 
  2829 
  2830 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2831 ----------------------------------
  2832 
  2833 *** General ***
  2834 
  2835 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2836 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2837 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2838 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2839 like this:
  2840 
  2841   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2842 
  2843 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2844 
  2845 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2846 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2847 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2848 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2849 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2850 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2851 
  2852 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2853 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2854 the following package declarations:
  2855 
  2856   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2857   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2858 
  2859 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2860 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2861 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2862 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2863 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2864 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2865 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2866 
  2867 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2868 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2869 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2870 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2871 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2872 
  2873 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2874 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2875 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2876 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2877 
  2878 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2879 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2880 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2881 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2882 
  2883   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2884 
  2885   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2886   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2887   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2888   show_types                    show_types
  2889   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2890   show_consts                   show_consts
  2891   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2892 
  2893   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2894   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2895   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2896 
  2897   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2898   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2899 
  2900   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2901 
  2902   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2903   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2904   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2905   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2906   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2907 
  2908 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2909 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2910 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2911 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2912 
  2913 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2915 
  2916   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2917   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2918 
  2919 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2920 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2921 float_token.
  2922 
  2923 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2924 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2926 
  2927 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2928 DejaVu Sans.
  2929 
  2930 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2931 
  2932 
  2933 *** Pure ***
  2934 
  2935 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2936 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2937 time.
  2938 
  2939 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2940 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2941 
  2942 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2943 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2944 
  2945 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2946 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2947 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2948 command already provided this functionality.
  2949 
  2950 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2951 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2952 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2953 without interpretations.
  2954 
  2955 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2956 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2957 
  2958 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2959 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2960 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2961 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2962 
  2963 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2964 'definition' instead.
  2965 
  2966 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2967 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2968 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2969 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2970 
  2971 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2972 constructors.
  2973 
  2974 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2975 the local file system.
  2976 
  2977 
  2978 *** HOL ***
  2979 
  2980 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2981 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2982 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2983 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2984 
  2985   declare [[coercion f]]
  2986 
  2987 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2988 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2989 
  2990   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2991 
  2992 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2993 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2994 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2995 other theories like this:
  2996 
  2997   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2998 
  2999 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3000 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3001 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3002 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3003 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3004 for examples.
  3005 
  3006 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3007 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3008 
  3009 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3010 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3011 
  3012 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3013 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3014 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3015 
  3016 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3017 functorial structure of types.
  3018 
  3019 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3020 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3021 
  3022 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3023 languages.
  3024 
  3025 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3026 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028 
  3029 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3030 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3031 
  3032 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3033 combinators any longer.
  3034 
  3035 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3036 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3037 
  3038 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3039 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3040 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3041 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3042 
  3043   record 'a foo = ...
  3044   ...
  3045   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3046 
  3047 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3048 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3050 
  3051 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3052 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3053 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3054 
  3055 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3056 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3057 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3058 
  3059 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3060 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3061 
  3062 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3063 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3064 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3065 independently.
  3066 
  3067 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3068 counter example search.
  3069 
  3070 * Sledgehammer:
  3071   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3072     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3073     sledgehammer").
  3074   - Renamed commands:
  3075     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3076     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3077     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3078     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3079   - Renamed options:
  3080     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3081     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3082     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3083     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3084     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3085 
  3086 * Nitpick:
  3087   - Renamed options:
  3088     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3089     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3090     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3091   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3092   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3093   - Added "whack" option.
  3094   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3095   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3096   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3097   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3098     higher cardinalities.
  3099   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3100 
  3101 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3102 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3103 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3104 
  3105     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3106 
  3107 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3108 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3109 
  3110 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3111 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3112 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3113 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3114 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3115 "smt_solver".
  3116 
  3117 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3118 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3119 
  3120 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3121 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3122 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3123 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3124 
  3125 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3126   - Renamed:
  3127     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3128     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3129     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3130   - Added:
  3131     smt_verbose
  3132     smt_random_seed
  3133     smt_datatypes
  3134     smt_infer_triggers
  3135     smt_monomorph_limit
  3136     cvc3_options
  3137     remote_cvc3_options
  3138     remote_z3_options
  3139     yices_options
  3140 
  3141 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3142 header.
  3143 
  3144 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3145 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3146 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3147 
  3148   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3149 
  3150 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3151 
  3152 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3153 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3156 
  3157 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3158 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3159 
  3160 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3161 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3162 
  3163 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3164 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3167 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3168 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3169 
  3170 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3174 
  3175 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3176 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3177 
  3178 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3179 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3180 for congruent(2)).
  3181 
  3182 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3183 
  3184   types
  3185     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3186     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3187 
  3188   constants
  3189     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3190     True ~> HOL.True
  3191     False ~> HOL.False
  3192     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3193     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3194     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3195     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3196     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3197     The ~> HOL.The
  3198     All ~> HOL.All
  3199     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3200     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3201     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3202     If ~> HOL.If
  3203     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3204     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3205     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3206     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3207     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3208     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3209     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3210     op : ~> Set.member
  3211     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3212 
  3213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3214 
  3215 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3216 
  3217     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3218     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3219     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3220     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3221     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3222     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3223     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3224     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3225 
  3226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3227 
  3228 * More stylized fact names:
  3229 
  3230   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3231   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3232   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3233   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3234 
  3235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3236 
  3237 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3238 
  3239   constants
  3240     null ~> List.null
  3241 
  3242   facts
  3243     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3244     null_empty ~> null_def
  3245 
  3246 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3247 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3248 generation.
  3249 
  3250 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3251 Haskell code.
  3252 
  3253 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3254 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3255 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256 
  3257 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3258 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3259 
  3260 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3261 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3262 
  3263 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3264 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3265 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3268 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269 
  3270 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3271 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272 
  3273 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3274 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3275 referred to by its qualified name.
  3276 
  3277   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3278   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3279   product ~>  Enum.product
  3280 
  3281 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3282 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3286 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3287 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3289 
  3290 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3291 sort_key.
  3292 
  3293 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3295 
  3296 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3297 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3298 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3299 
  3300   types
  3301     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3302               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3303               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3304         (depends on your needs)
  3305 
  3306   constants
  3307      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3308      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3309      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3310 
  3311 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3312 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3313 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3314 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315 
  3316 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3317 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3318 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3319 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3320 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3321 
  3322 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3323 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3324 
  3325 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3326 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3327 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3328 
  3329 
  3330 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3331 
  3332 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3333 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3334 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3335 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3336 compatibility.
  3337 
  3338 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3339 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3340 
  3341 
  3342 *** HOLCF ***
  3343 
  3344 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3345 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3346 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3347 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3348 
  3349 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3350 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3351 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3352 
  3353   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3354   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3355   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3356 
  3357 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3358 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3359 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360 
  3361 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3362 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3363 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3364 domain definition now works:
  3365 
  3366   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3367 
  3368 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3369 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3370 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3371 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3372 
  3373   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3374     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3375 
  3376   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3377 
  3378 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3379 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3380 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3381 
  3382 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3383 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3384 
  3385 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3386 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3387 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3388 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3389 
  3390 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3391 
  3392 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3393 
  3394 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3395 
  3396 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3398 
  3399 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3400 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3401 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3402 
  3403 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3404 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3405 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3406 
  3407 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3408 still supported as an input translation.
  3409 
  3410 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3411 
  3412   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3413   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3414   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3415   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3416   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3417   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3418   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3419 
  3420 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3421 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422 
  3423   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3424   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3425   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3426   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3427   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3428   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3429 
  3430 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3431 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3434 
  3435   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3436   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3437   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3438   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3439 
  3440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441 
  3442 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3443 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444 
  3445 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3446 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3447 
  3448   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3449   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3450   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3451   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3452   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3453   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3454   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3455   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3456   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3457   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3458   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3459   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3460   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3461   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3462   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3463   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3464   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3465   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3466   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3467   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3468 
  3469 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3470 
  3471   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3472   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3473   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3474   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3475   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3476   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3477   box_less             ~> box_below
  3478   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3479   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3480   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3481   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3482   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3483   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3484   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3485   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3486   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3487   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3488   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3489   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3490   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3491   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3492   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3493   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3494   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3495   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3496   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3497   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3498   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3499   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3500   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3501   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3502   up_less              ~> up_below
  3503   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3504   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3505   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3506   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3507   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3508   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3509   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3510   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3511   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3512   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3513   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3514   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3515   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3516 
  3517 
  3518 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3519 
  3520 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3521 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3522 
  3523 
  3524 *** ML ***
  3525 
  3526 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3527 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3528 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3529 
  3530 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3531 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3532 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3533 
  3534 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3535 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3536 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3537 
  3538 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3539 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3540 
  3541 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3542 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3543 
  3544 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3545 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3546 
  3547 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3548 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3549 
  3550 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3551 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3552 almost all situations.
  3553 
  3554 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3555 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3556 Isabelle/ML.
  3557 
  3558 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3559 meaning.
  3560 
  3561 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3562 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3563 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3564 
  3565 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3566 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3567 
  3568 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3569 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3570 
  3571 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3572 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3573 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3574 
  3575 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3576 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3577 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3578 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3579 configuration options.
  3580 
  3581 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3582 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3583 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3584 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3585 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3586 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3587 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3588 
  3589 
  3590 
  3591 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3592 ---------------------------------
  3593 
  3594 *** General ***
  3595 
  3596 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3597 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3598 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3599 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3600 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3601 their full internal name.
  3602 
  3603 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3604 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3605 Some hints on upgrading:
  3606 
  3607   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3608     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3609     which are independent of this issue.
  3610 
  3611   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3612     provides the following special forms:
  3613 
  3614       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3615       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3616       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3617 
  3618     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3619     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3620     extra variables".
  3621 
  3622     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3623     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3624     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3625     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3626     "logic".
  3627 
  3628   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3629     antiquotations:
  3630 
  3631       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3632       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3633       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3634       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3635 
  3636   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3637     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3638     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3639     antiquotations.
  3640 
  3641 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3642 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3643 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3644 diagnose syntax problems.
  3645 
  3646 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3647 
  3648 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3649 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3650 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3651 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3652 
  3653 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3654 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3655 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3656 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3657 
  3658 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3659 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3660 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3661 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3662 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3663 
  3664 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3665 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3666 
  3667 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3668 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3669 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3670 
  3671   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3672 
  3673 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3674 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3675 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3676 
  3677 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3678 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3679 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3680 
  3681 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3682 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3683 
  3684 
  3685 *** Pure ***
  3686 
  3687 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3688 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3689 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3690 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3691 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3692 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3693 inspect proof terms.
  3694 
  3695 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3696 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3697 are added internally.  For example:
  3698 
  3699   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3700 
  3701 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3702 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3703 
  3704 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3705 
  3706 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3707 'class' instead.
  3708 
  3709 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3710 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712 
  3713 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3714 invariants.
  3715 
  3716 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3717 user space functionality any longer.
  3718 
  3719 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3720 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3722 
  3723 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3724 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3725 
  3726 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3727 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3728 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3729 
  3730 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3731 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3732 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3733 
  3734 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3735 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3736 
  3737 
  3738 *** HOL ***
  3739 
  3740 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3741 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3742 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3743 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3744 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3745 
  3746 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3747 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3748 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3749 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3750 
  3751   fun
  3752     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3753   where
  3754     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3755 
  3756   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3757     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3758 
  3759   quotient_definition
  3760     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3761 
  3762 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3763 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3764 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3765 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3766 
  3767 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3768 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3769 
  3770 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3771 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3772 
  3773 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3775 
  3776 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3777 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3778 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3779 
  3780 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3781 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3782 
  3783 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3785 
  3786 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3790 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3791 
  3792 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3793 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3794 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3795 
  3796   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3797   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3798   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3799   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3800   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3801   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3802   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3803   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3804   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3805   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3806   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3807   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3808   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3809   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3810   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3811   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3812   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3813   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3814   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3815   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3816   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3817   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3818   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3819   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3820   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3821   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3822   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3823   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3824   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3825   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3826 
  3827 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3828 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3829 
  3830 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3831 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3832 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3833 
  3834 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3835 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3836 
  3837 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3838 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3839 
  3840 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3841 
  3842 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3843 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3844 
  3845 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3846 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3847 
  3848 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3849 
  3850 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3851 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3852 
  3853 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3854 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3855 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3856 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3857 
  3858 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3859   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3860   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3861   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3862 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3863 
  3864 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3865 lattices):
  3866 
  3867     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3868     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3869 
  3870     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3871 
  3872     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3873     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3874     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3875     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3876     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3877     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3878     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3879     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3880     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3881     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3882     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3883     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3884     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3885 
  3886     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3887     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3888     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3889     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3890     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3891     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3892     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3893     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3894     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3895     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3896     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3897     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3898     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3899     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3900     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3901     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3902     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3903     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3904 
  3905   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3906   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3907 
  3908     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3909     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3910     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3911     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3912     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3913 
  3914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3915 
  3916 * Refined field classes:
  3917   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3918     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3919     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3920   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3921 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3922 
  3923 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3924   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3925   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3926   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3927     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3928   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3929     equal_neg_zero.
  3930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3931 
  3932 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3933 sets to lattices:
  3934 
  3935   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3936   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3937   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3938   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3939   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3940   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3941   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3942   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3943   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3944   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3945 
  3946 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3947 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3948 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3949 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3950 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3951 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3952 
  3953 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3954 multiset order:
  3955 
  3956   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3957     <= and <;
  3958   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3959     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3960     multiset_order;
  3961   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3962     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3963     generation;
  3964   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3965     if needed.
  3966 
  3967 Renamed:
  3968 
  3969   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3970   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3971   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3972 
  3973 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3974 
  3975 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3976 
  3977 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3978 
  3979 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3980 
  3981 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3982 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3983 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3984 
  3985   Constants:
  3986   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3987   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3988   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3989   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3990   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3991   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3992   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3993   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3994   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3995   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3996   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3997   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3998   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3999 
  4000   Lemmas:
  4001   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4002   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4003   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4004   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4005   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4006   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4007   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4008   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4009   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4010   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4011   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4012   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4013   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4014 
  4015 * Sledgehammer:
  4016   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4017     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4018     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4019     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4020     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4021     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4022     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4023   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4024   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4025     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4026   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4027     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4028     is still experimental.)
  4029   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4030     full-typed mode.
  4031   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4032 
  4033 * Nitpick:
  4034   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4035   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4036   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4037     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4038   - Added support for quotient types.
  4039   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4040     constructs.
  4041   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4042     "termination" proofs).
  4043   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4044   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4045   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4046   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4047     record getters.
  4048   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4049   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4050   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4051   - Added "atoms" option.
  4052   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4053     problems.
  4054   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4055     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4056     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4057   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4058     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4059   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4060 
  4061 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4062   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4063   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4064   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4065   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4066   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4067   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4068   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4069   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4070   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4071 
  4072 
  4073 *** HOLCF ***
  4074 
  4075 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4076 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4077 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4078 
  4079 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4080 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4081 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4082 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4083 
  4084 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4085 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4086 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4087 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4088 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4089 
  4090 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4091 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4092 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4093 
  4094 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4095 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4096 
  4097   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4098   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4099 
  4100 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4101 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4102 
  4103   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4104   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4105   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4106   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4107   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4108 
  4109 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4110 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4111 
  4112   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4113   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4114   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4115 
  4116 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4117 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4119 
  4120 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4121 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4122 
  4123 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4124 
  4125 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4126 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4127 
  4128 
  4129 *** ML ***
  4130 
  4131 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4132 
  4133     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4134     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4135 
  4136     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4137     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4138     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4139     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4140 
  4141     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4142     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4143     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4144 
  4145 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4146 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4147 
  4148 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4149 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4150 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4151 
  4152 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4153 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4154 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4155 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4156 
  4157 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4158 the context or even global references.
  4159 
  4160 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4161 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4162 
  4163 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4164 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4165 
  4166   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4167   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4168   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4169   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4170   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4171   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4172   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4173   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4174   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4175   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4176 
  4177 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4178 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4179 
  4180 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4181 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4182 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4183 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4184 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4185 
  4186 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4187 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4188 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4189 Theory_Data version.
  4190 
  4191 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4192 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4193 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4194 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4195 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4196 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4197 explicitly in rare situations.
  4198 
  4199 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4200 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4202 
  4203 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4204 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4205 
  4206 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4207 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4208 quite rare).
  4209 
  4210 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4211 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4212 
  4213 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4214 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4215 terms.
  4216 
  4217 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4218 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4219 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4220 
  4221 
  4222 *** System ***
  4223 
  4224 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4225 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4226 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4227 
  4228 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4229 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4230 respectively.
  4231 
  4232 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4233 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4234 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4235 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4236 
  4237   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4238 
  4239 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4240 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4241 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4242 component.
  4243 
  4244 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4245 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4246 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4247 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4248 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4249 the user for manual installation.
  4250 
  4251 
  4252 
  4253 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4254 -------------------------------------
  4255 
  4256 *** General ***
  4257 
  4258 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4259 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4260 
  4261 
  4262 *** Pure ***
  4263 
  4264 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4265 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4266 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4267 
  4268 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4269 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4270 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4271 
  4272 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4273 interpretation.
  4274 
  4275 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4276 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4277 
  4278 
  4279 *** Document preparation ***
  4280 
  4281 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4282 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4283 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4284 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4285 
  4286 
  4287 *** HOL ***
  4288 
  4289 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4290 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4291 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4292 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4293 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4294 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4295 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4296 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4297 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4298 
  4299 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4300 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4301 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4302 
  4303 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4304 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4305 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4306 
  4307 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4308 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4309 
  4310 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4311 
  4312 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4313 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4314 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4315 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4316 
  4317 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4318 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4319 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4320 "mirabelle" utility.
  4321 
  4322 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4323 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4324 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4325 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4326 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4327 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4328 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4329 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4330 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4331 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4332 
  4333 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4334 procedure only.
  4335 
  4336 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4337 
  4338 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4339 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4340 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4341 that fail later.
  4342 
  4343 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4344 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4345 
  4346 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4347 the same method as the approximation method.
  4348 
  4349 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4350 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4351 series expansion.
  4352 
  4353 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4354 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4355 
  4356 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4357 reals.
  4358 
  4359 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4360 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4361 
  4362 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4363 fixpoint theorem.
  4364 
  4365 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4366   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4367     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4368   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4369     accordingly
  4370   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4371     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4372   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4373     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4374 
  4375 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4376 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4377 lattice.
  4378 
  4379 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4380 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4381 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4382 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4383 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4384 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4385 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4386 
  4387 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4388   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4389     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4390   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4391     le_inf_iff
  4392   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4393     sup_aci)
  4394   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4395   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4396   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4397     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4398     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4399     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4400     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4401     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4402     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4403     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4404     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4405     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4406     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4407   - authentic syntax for
  4408     Set.Pow
  4409     Set.image
  4410   - mere abbreviations:
  4411     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4412     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4413     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4414     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4415     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4416     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4417     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4418     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4419   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4420 
  4421 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4422 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4423 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4424 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4425 
  4426 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4427 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4428 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4429 
  4430 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4431 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4432 
  4433 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4434 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4435 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4436 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4437 
  4438 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4439 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4440 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4441 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4442 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4443 
  4444 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4445 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4447 
  4448 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4449 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4450 
  4451 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4452 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4453 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4454 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4455 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4456 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4457 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4459 
  4460 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4461     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4462     code_post       replaces    code post
  4463     etc.
  4464   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4465 
  4466 * Renamed methods:
  4467     sizechange -> size_change
  4468     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4469   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4470 
  4471 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4472 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4473 
  4474 * Renamed theorems:
  4475     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4476     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4477     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4478     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4479     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4480   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4481 
  4482 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4484 
  4485 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4487 
  4488 
  4489 *** HOLCF ***
  4490 
  4491 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4492 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4493 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4494 
  4495 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4496 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4497 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4498 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4499 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4500 
  4501 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4502 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4503 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4504 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4505 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4506 
  4507 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4508 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4509 constructor are pre-configured.
  4510 
  4511 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4512 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4513 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4514 
  4515 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4516 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4517 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4518 as well.)
  4519 
  4520 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4521 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4522 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4523 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4524 examples.
  4525 
  4526 
  4527 *** ML ***
  4528 
  4529 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4530 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4531 
  4532 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4533 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4534 position, logical grouping etc.
  4535 
  4536 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4537 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4538 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4539 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4540 
  4541 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4542 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4543 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4544 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4545 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4546 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4547 
  4548 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4549 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4550 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4551 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4552 experiments with references.
  4553 
  4554 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4555 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4556 
  4557 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4558 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4559 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4560 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4561 
  4562 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4563 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4564 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4565 
  4566 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4567 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4568 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4569 
  4570 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4571 
  4572 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4574 
  4575 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4576 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4577 
  4578 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4579 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4580 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4581 
  4582 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4583 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4584 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4585 
  4586 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4587 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4588 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4589 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4590 
  4591 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4592 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4593 instead of global theory.
  4594 
  4595 
  4596 *** System ***
  4597 
  4598 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4599 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4600 usedir option -q.
  4601 
  4602 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4603 also the system manual.
  4604 
  4605 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4606 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4607 
  4608 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4609 this is always enabled.
  4610 
  4611 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4612 
  4613 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4614 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4615 currently supported on Linux only.
  4616 
  4617 
  4618 
  4619 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4620 --------------------------------
  4621 
  4622 *** General ***
  4623 
  4624 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4625 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4626 
  4627   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4628     "isatool."
  4629 
  4630   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4631     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4632 
  4633   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4634     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4635 
  4636 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4637 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4638 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4639 
  4640 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4641 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4642 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4643 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4644 via "isabelle emacs".
  4645 
  4646 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4647 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4648 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4649 
  4650 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4651 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4652 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4653 
  4654 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4655 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4656 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4657 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4658 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4659 
  4660 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4661 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4662 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4663 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4664 
  4665 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4666 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4667 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4668 
  4669 
  4670 *** Pure ***
  4671 
  4672 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4673 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4674 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4675 
  4676 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4677 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4678 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4679 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4680 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4681 
  4682 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4683 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4684 useful in locale declarations.
  4685 
  4686 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4687 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4688 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4689 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4690 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4691 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4692 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4693 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4694 no longer generated.
  4695 
  4696 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4697 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4698 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4699 
  4700 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4701 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4702 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4703 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4704 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4705 
  4706 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4707 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4708 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4709 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4710 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4711 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4712 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4713 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4714 
  4715 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4716 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4717 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4718 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4719 
  4720 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4721 
  4722 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4723 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4724 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4725 
  4726 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4727 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4728 
  4729 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4730 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4731 in HOL, write
  4732 
  4733     class foo = ...
  4734 
  4735 instead of
  4736 
  4737     class foo = type + ...
  4738 
  4739 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4740 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4741 
  4742 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4743 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4744 
  4745 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4746 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4747 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4748 
  4749 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4750 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4751 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4752 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4753 directly in regular applications.
  4754 
  4755 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4756 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4757 
  4758 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4759 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4760 
  4761 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4762 theory context.
  4763 
  4764 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4765 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4766 
  4767 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4768 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4769 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4770 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4771 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4772 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4773 
  4774   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4775 
  4776 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4777 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4778 normalization.
  4779 
  4780 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4781 addressing etc.
  4782 
  4783 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4784 
  4785   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4786   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4787 
  4788 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4789 
  4790   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4791      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4792      parts of the code generator framework).
  4793 
  4794   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4795      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4796      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4797 
  4798 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4799 
  4800 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4801 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4802 
  4803 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4804 patterns, e.g.
  4805 
  4806     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4807 
  4808 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4809 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4810 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4811 hyphen:
  4812 
  4813     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4814 
  4815 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4816 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4817 
  4818 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4819 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4820 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4821 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4822 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4823 higher-order unification.
  4824 
  4825 
  4826 *** Document preparation ***
  4827 
  4828 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4829 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4830 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4831 
  4832 
  4833 *** HOL ***
  4834 
  4835 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4836 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4837 
  4838 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4839 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4840 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4841 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4842 Main, as before.
  4843 
  4844 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4845 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4846 
  4847 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4848 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4849 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4850 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4851 
  4852 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4853 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4854 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4855 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4856 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4857 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4858 
  4859 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4860 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4861 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4862 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4863 
  4864 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4865 menu.
  4866 
  4867 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4868 (contains the empty clause).
  4869 
  4870 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4871 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4872 
  4873 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4874 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4875 
  4876 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4877 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4878 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4879 
  4880 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4881 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4882 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4883 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4884 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4885 
  4886 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4887 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4888 
  4889 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4890 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4891 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4892 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4893 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4894 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4895 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4896 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4897 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4898 
  4899 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4900 
  4901 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4902 
  4903 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4904 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4905 
  4906 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4907 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4908 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4909 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4910 
  4911 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4912 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4913 
  4914     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4915     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4916     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4917     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4918     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4919     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4920     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4921     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4922 
  4923 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4924 theory Set.
  4925 
  4926 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4927 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4928 
  4929 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4930 
  4931 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4932 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4933 
  4934 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4935 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4936 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4937 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4938 allowed. For examples see
  4939 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4940 
  4941 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4942 
  4943 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4945 
  4946 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4947 structure:
  4948 
  4949     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4950     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4951     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4952     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4953     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4954     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4955     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4956     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4957     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4958     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4959     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4960     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4961     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4962     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4963     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4964     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4965     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4966     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4967     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4968     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4969     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4970     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4971     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4972     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4973     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4974     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4975     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4976     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4977     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4978     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4979     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4980     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4981     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4982 
  4983     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4984     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4985     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4986     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4987     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4988     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4989     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4990     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4991     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4992     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4993 
  4994     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4995     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4996     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4997     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4998     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4999     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5000 
  5001 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5002 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5003 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5004 
  5005 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5006 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5007 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5008 
  5009 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5010 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5011 
  5012 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5013 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5014 
  5015 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5016 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5017 proofs, e.g.
  5018 
  5019   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5020 
  5021 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5022 
  5023 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5024 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5025 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5026 
  5027 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5028 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5029 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5030 
  5031 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5032 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5033 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5034 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5035 
  5036 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5037 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5038 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5039 preorder_class.*.
  5040 
  5041 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5042 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5043 
  5044 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5045 
  5046   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5047 
  5048 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5049 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5050 fold_image.
  5051 
  5052 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5053 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5054 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5055 the former will disappear at some point.
  5056 
  5057 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5058 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5059 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5060 
  5061 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5062 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5063 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5064 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5065 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5066 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5067 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5068 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5069 
  5070 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5071 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5072 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5073 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5074 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5075 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5076 
  5077     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5078     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5079     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5080     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5081     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5082     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5083     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5084 
  5085 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5086 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5087 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5088 
  5089 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5090 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5091 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5092 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5093 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5094 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5095 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5096 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5097 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5098 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5099 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5100 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5101 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5102 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5103 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5104 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5105 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5106 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5107 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5108 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5109 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5110 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5111 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5112 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5113 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5114 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5115 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5116 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5117 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5118 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5119 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5120 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5121 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5122 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5123 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5124 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5125 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5126 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5127 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5128 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5129 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5130 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5131 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5132 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5133 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5134 
  5135 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5136 
  5137 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5138 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5139 
  5140 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5141 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5142 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5143 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5144 
  5145 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5146 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5147 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5148 theory RealVector.
  5149 
  5150 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5151 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5152 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5153 and inner products are included.
  5154 
  5155 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5156 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5157 supported.
  5158 
  5159 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5160 first diagonalization argument.
  5161 
  5162 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5163 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5164 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5165 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5166 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5167 
  5168     hide (open) const gcd
  5169     abbreviation gcd where
  5170       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5171     notation (output)
  5172       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5173 
  5174 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5175 
  5176 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5177 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5178 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5179 
  5180 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5181 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5182 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5183 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5184 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5185 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5186 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5187 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5188 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5189 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5190 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5191 cases.
  5192 
  5193 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5194 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5195 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5196 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5197 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5198 
  5199     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5200     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5201     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5202     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5203     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5204 
  5205 
  5206 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5207 
  5208 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5209 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5210 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5211 
  5212 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5213 
  5214 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5215 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5216 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5217 
  5218 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5219 
  5220 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5221 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5222 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5223 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5224 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5225 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5226 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5227 
  5228 
  5229 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5230 
  5231 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5232 
  5233 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5234 theory targets.
  5235 
  5236 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5237 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5238 'inductive' etc.
  5239 
  5240 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5241 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5242 
  5243 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5244 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5245 
  5246 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5247 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5248 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5249 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5250 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5251 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5252 the algorithm W:
  5253 
  5254  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5255  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5256          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5257 
  5258 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5259 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5260 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5261 
  5262 
  5263 *** HOLCF ***
  5264 
  5265 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5266 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5267 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5268 
  5269 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5270 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5271 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5272 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5273 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5274 
  5275 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5276 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5277 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5278 
  5279 
  5280 *** ZF ***
  5281 
  5282 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5283 
  5284 
  5285 *** ML ***
  5286 
  5287 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5288 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5289 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5290 5.2.1!
  5291 
  5292 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5293 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5294 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5295 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5296 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5297 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5298 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5299 
  5300 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5301 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5302 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5303 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5304 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5305 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5306 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5307 
  5308 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5309 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5310 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5311 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5312 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5313 
  5314 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5315 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5316 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5317 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5318 Method.add_method.
  5319 
  5320 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5321 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5322 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5323 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5324 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5325 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5326 
  5327 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5328 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5329 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5330 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5331 examples.
  5332 
  5333 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5334 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5335 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5336 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5337 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5338 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5339 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5340 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5341 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5342 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5343 
  5344 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5345 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5346 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5347 
  5348 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5349 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5350 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5351 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5352 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5353 resort for legacy applications.
  5354 
  5355 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5356 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5357 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5358 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5359 explicit runtime argument.
  5360 
  5361 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5362 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5363 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5364 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5365 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5366 
  5367 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5368 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5369 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5370 theory state.
  5371 
  5372 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5373 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5374 
  5375   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5376   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5377   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5378   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5379   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5380   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5381   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5382   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5383   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5384   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5385 
  5386 
  5387 *** System ***
  5388 
  5389 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5390 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5391 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5392 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5393 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5394 
  5395 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5396 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5397 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5398 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5399 
  5400 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5401 
  5402 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5403 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5404 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5405 prover operations.
  5406 
  5407 
  5408 
  5409 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5410 -------------------------------
  5411 
  5412 *** General ***
  5413 
  5414 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5415 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5416 
  5417 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5418 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5419 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5420 provides a proper context already.
  5421 
  5422 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5423 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5424 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5425 
  5426 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5427 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5428 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5429 swap theory imports.
  5430 
  5431 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5432 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5433 
  5434 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5435 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5436 white space without escapes.
  5437 
  5438 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5439 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5440 "foo_bar".
  5441 
  5442 
  5443 *** Pure ***
  5444 
  5445 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5446 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5447 
  5448 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5449 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5450 
  5451 (1) unused_thms
  5452      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5453 
  5454 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5455      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5456      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5457 
  5458 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5459      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5460      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5461      their ancestors.
  5462 
  5463 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5464 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5465 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5466 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5467 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5468 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5469 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5470 
  5471 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5472 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5473 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5474 
  5475 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5476 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5477 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5478 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5479 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5480 
  5481 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5482 
  5483 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5484 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5485 update of theories within ML code.
  5486 
  5487 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5488 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5489 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5490 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5491 
  5492 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5493 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5494 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5496 
  5497 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5498 
  5499 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5500 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5501 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5502 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5503 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5504 
  5505 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5506 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5507 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5508 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5509 situations.
  5510 
  5511 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5512 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5513 proof text.
  5514 
  5515 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5516 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5517 
  5518 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5519 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5520 predicates.
  5521 
  5522 
  5523 *** Document preparation ***
  5524 
  5525 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5526 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5527 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5528 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5529 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5530 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5531 
  5532 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5533 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5534 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5535 
  5536 
  5537 *** HOL ***
  5538 
  5539 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5540 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5541 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5542 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5543 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5544 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5545 
  5546 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5547 with multithreading.
  5548 
  5549 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5550 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5551 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5552 
  5553 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5554 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5555 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5556 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5557 
  5558 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5559 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5560 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5561 and makes them available separately.  See
  5562 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5563 
  5564 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5565 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5566 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5567 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5568 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5569 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5570 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5571 the declared rules.
  5572 
  5573 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5574 
  5575   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5576 
  5577 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5578 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5579 
  5580 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5581 
  5582   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5583 
  5584   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5585     definitions on => and bool.
  5586 
  5587   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5588     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5589     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5590 
  5591       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5592       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5593       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5594       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5595       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5596       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5597       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5598       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5599 
  5600   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5601     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5602     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5603 
  5604   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5605     The proof pattern
  5606 
  5607       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5608       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5609 
  5610     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5611     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5612 
  5613       have "EX S. P S"
  5614       proof
  5615         show "P S" <...>
  5616       qed
  5617 
  5618   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5619     The proof pattern
  5620 
  5621       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5622       also have "S = T" <...>
  5623       finally have "P T" .
  5624 
  5625     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5626     must be replaced by something like
  5627 
  5628       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5629       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5630       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5631 
  5632   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5633     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5634 
  5635       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5636 
  5637     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5638     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5639     type of the form
  5640 
  5641       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5642 
  5643     rather than
  5644 
  5645       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5646 
  5647 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5648 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5649 
  5650 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5651 
  5652 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5653 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5655 
  5656 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5657 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5658 
  5659 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5660 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5661 
  5662 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5663 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5664 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5665 
  5666 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5667 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5668 
  5669   less_trans
  5670   less_linear
  5671   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5672   le_less_trans
  5673   less_le_trans
  5674   less_not_sym
  5675   less_asym
  5676 
  5677 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5678 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5679 and different variable names.
  5680 
  5681 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5682 
  5683 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5684 finite maps.
  5685 
  5686 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5687 
  5688 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5689 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5690 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5691 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5692 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5693 accordingly.
  5694 
  5695 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5696 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5697 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5698 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5699 
  5700 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5701 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5702 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5703 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5704 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5706 
  5707 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5708 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5709 
  5710 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5711 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5712 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5713 
  5714 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5715 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5716 
  5717 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5718 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5719 
  5720 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5721 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5722 
  5723 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5724 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5725 
  5726 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5727 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5728 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5729 
  5730 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5731 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5732 
  5733 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5734 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5735 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5736 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5737 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5738 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5739 
  5740 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5741 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5742 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5743 
  5744 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5745 
  5746 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5747 
  5748 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5749 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5750 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5751 
  5752 
  5753 *** ZF ***
  5754 
  5755 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5756 same session:
  5757 
  5758   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5759   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5760   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5761   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5762   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5763   List      -> List_ZF
  5764   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5765 
  5766 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5767 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5768 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5769 
  5770 
  5771 *** ML ***
  5772 
  5773 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5774 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5775 
  5776 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5777 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5778 
  5779 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5780 
  5781 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5782 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5783 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5784 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5785 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5786 
  5787 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5788 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5789 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5790 
  5791 
  5792 *** System ***
  5793 
  5794 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5795 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5796 
  5797 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5798 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5799 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5800 
  5801 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5802 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5803 
  5804 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5805 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5806 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5807 
  5808 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5809 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5810 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5811 
  5812 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5813 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5814 
  5815 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5816 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5817 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5818 script.
  5819 
  5820 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5821 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5822 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5823 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5824 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5825 
  5826 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5827 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5828 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5829 
  5830 
  5831 
  5832 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5833 -----------------------------------
  5834 
  5835 *** General ***
  5836 
  5837 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5838 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5839 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5840 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5841 
  5842 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5843 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5844 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5845 
  5846 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5847 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5848 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5849 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5850 
  5851 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5852 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5853 quotes.
  5854 
  5855 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5856 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5857 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5858 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5859 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5860 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5861 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5862 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5863 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5864 
  5865 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5866 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5867 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5868 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5869 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5870 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5871 
  5872 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5873 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5874 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5875 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5876 
  5877 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5878 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5879 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5880 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5881 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5882 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5883 
  5884 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5885 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5886 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5887 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5888 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5889 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5890 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5891 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5892 
  5893 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5894 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5895 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5896 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5897 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5898 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5899 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5900 
  5901 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5902 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5903 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5904 
  5905 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5906 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5907 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5908 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5909 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5910 limit is imposed.
  5911 
  5912 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5913 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5914 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5915 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5916 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5917 and scalability.
  5918 
  5919 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5920 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5921 
  5922 
  5923 *** Document preparation ***
  5924 
  5925 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5926 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5927 current context.
  5928 
  5929 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5930 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5931 
  5932 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5933 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5934 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5935 
  5936 
  5937 *** Pure ***
  5938 
  5939 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5940 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5941 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5942 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5943 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5944 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5945 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5946 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5947 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5948 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5949 
  5950 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5951 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5952 sketch:
  5953 
  5954     internal compilation:
  5955         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5956     writing SML code to a file:
  5957         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5958     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5959         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5960     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5961         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5962 
  5963     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5964         method ``eval''
  5965 
  5966 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5967 
  5968 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5969 
  5970     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5971     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5972     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5973     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5974 
  5975 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5976 
  5977     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5978       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5979 
  5980     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5981       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5982 
  5983     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5984       {(target)}+
  5985         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5986 
  5987     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5988       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5989         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5990 
  5991 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5992 
  5993 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5994 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5995 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5996 codegen".
  5997 
  5998 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5999 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6000 annotations).
  6001 
  6002 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6003 syntax.
  6004 
  6005 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6006 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6007 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6008 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6009 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6010 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6011 
  6012 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6013 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6014 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6015 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6016 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6017 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6018 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6019 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6020 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6021 equations, see section "definitions".
  6022 
  6023 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6024 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6025 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6026 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6027 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6028 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6029 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6030 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6031 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6032 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6033 
  6034 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6035 configuration options:
  6036 
  6037   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6038   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6039   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6040   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6041   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6042   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6043   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6044   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6045   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6046 
  6047 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6048 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6049 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6050 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6051 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6052 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6053 order.
  6054 
  6055 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6056 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6057 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6058 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6059 context encountered later on.
  6060 
  6061 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6062 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6063 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6064 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6065 
  6066 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6067 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6068 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6069 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6070 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6071 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6072 
  6073 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6074 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6075 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6076 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6077 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6078 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6079 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6080 more permissive.
  6081 
  6082 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6083 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6084 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6085 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6086 maintainability of proof texts.
  6087 
  6088 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6089 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6090 
  6091   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6092   then guess x and y by clarify
  6093 
  6094 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6095 proof tools being involved here.
  6096 
  6097 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6098 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6099 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6100 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6101 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6102 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6103 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6104 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6105 
  6106 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6107 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6108 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6109 
  6110   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6111   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6112   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6113   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6114 
  6115 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6116 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6117 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6118 
  6119 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6120 both named and unnamed ones.
  6121 
  6122 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6123 
  6124   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6125 
  6126 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6127 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6128 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6129 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6130 
  6131 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6132 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6133 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6134 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6135 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6136 
  6137 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6138 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6139 
  6140 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6141 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6142 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6143 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6144 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6145 originally first one.
  6146 
  6147 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6148 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6149 expected.
  6150 
  6151 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6152 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6153 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6154 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6155 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6156 
  6157   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6158     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6159     obtains x where "P x"
  6160 
  6161   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6162     assumes "A & B"
  6163     obtains A and B
  6164 
  6165   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6166     assumes "A | B"
  6167     obtains
  6168       A
  6169     | B
  6170 
  6171 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6172 explicitly:
  6173 
  6174   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6175     obtains "~ thesis"
  6176 
  6177   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6178     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6179 
  6180 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6181 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6182 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6183 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6184 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6185 case_names).
  6186 
  6187 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6188 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6189 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6190 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6191 
  6192 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6193 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6194 top-level lemma.
  6195 
  6196 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6197 introduction rule (default "that").
  6198 
  6199 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6200 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6201 to occur.
  6202 
  6203 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6204 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6205 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6206 representations independently of name spaces.
  6207 
  6208 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6209 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6210 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6211 
  6212 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6213 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6214 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6215 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6216 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6217 current context.
  6218 
  6219 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6220 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6221 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6222 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6223 
  6224   axiomatization
  6225     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6226     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6227 
  6228   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6229   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6230 
  6231   abbreviation
  6232     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6233     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6234 
  6235 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6236 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6237 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6238 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6239 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6240 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6241 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6242 
  6243 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6244 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6245 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6246 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6247 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6248 
  6249 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6250 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6251 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6252 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6253 
  6254 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6255 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6256 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6257 
  6258   definition "K x _ = x"
  6259 
  6260   inductive conj for A B
  6261   where "A