NEWS
author Christian Sternagel
Tue Sep 04 13:06:28 2012 +0900 (2012-09-04)
changeset 49145 0ee5983e3d59
parent 49072 747835eb2782
child 49189 3f85cd15a0cc
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS; CONTRIBUTORS
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    10 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    11 
    12 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    13 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    14 
    15 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    16 in old "ref" manual.
    17 
    18 
    19 *** Pure ***
    20 
    21 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    22 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    23 
    24 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    25 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    26 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    27 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    28 
    29 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    30 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    31 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    32 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    33 with some care where this is really required.
    34 
    35 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
    36 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
    37 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
    38 
    39   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
    40 
    41 
    42 *** HOL ***
    43 
    44 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
    45 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
    46 
    47   - Renamed constants:
    48 
    49       prefix ~> prefixeq
    50       strict_prefix ~> prefix
    51 
    52     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
    53 
    54   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
    55     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
    56     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
    57     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    58 
    59   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
    60     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
    61 
    62   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
    63     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
    64     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
    65     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
    66 
    67   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
    68     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
    69 
    70       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
    71       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
    72       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
    73       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
    74       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
    75       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
    76       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
    77       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
    78       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
    79       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
    80       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
    81       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
    82       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
    83       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
    84       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
    85       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
    86 
    87     INCOMPATIBILITY.
    88 
    89 * HOL/Codatatype: New (co)datatype package with support for mixed,
    90 nested recursion and interesting non-free datatypes.
    91 
    92 * HOL/Ordinals_and_Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
    93 (supersedes the AFP entry of the same name).
    94 
    95 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
    96 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
    97 
    98 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
    99 expressions.
   100 
   101 * Quickcheck:
   102 
   103   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   104     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   105     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   106 
   107 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   108 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   109 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   110 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   111 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Sledgehammer:
   114 
   115   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   116     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   117   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   118   - Renamed options:
   119       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   120       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   121 
   122 
   123 *** Document preparation ***
   124 
   125 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   126 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   127 
   128 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   129 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   130 document/root.tex.
   131 
   132 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   133 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 
   136 *** ML ***
   137 
   138 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   139 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   140 necessarily printing visible text.
   141 
   142 
   143 *** System ***
   144 
   145 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   146 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   147 for home-made configurations.
   148 
   149 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   150 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   151 
   152 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   153 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   154 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   155 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   156 
   157 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   158 
   159 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   160 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   161 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   162 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   163 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   164 
   165 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   166 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   167 
   168   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   169 
   170 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   171 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   172 
   173 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   174 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   175 "isabelle usedir".
   176 
   177 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   178 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   179 version of Isabelle.
   180 
   181 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   182 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   183 configuration.
   184 
   185 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   186 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   187 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   188 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   189 bundled as Isabelle component.
   190 
   191 
   192 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   193 ------------------------------
   194 
   195 *** General ***
   196 
   197 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   198 
   199   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   200     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   201   - markup for bound variables
   202   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   203   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   204   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   205     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   206 
   207 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   208 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   209 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   210 
   211 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   212 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   213 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   214 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   215 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   216 
   217   context
   218     fixes x y z :: 'a
   219     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   220   begin
   221 
   222   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   223 
   224   end
   225 
   226   thm my_trans
   227 
   228 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   229 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   230 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   231 
   232 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   233 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   234 
   235 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   236 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   237 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   238 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   239 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   240 
   241 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   242 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   243 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   244 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   245 indices of schematic variables.
   246 
   247 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   248 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   249 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   250 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   251 etc. was exploited.
   252 
   253 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   254 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   255 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   256 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   257 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   258 of the material of that old tutorial.
   259 
   260 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   261 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   262 manual.
   263 
   264 
   265 *** Pure ***
   266 
   267 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   268 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   269 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   270 
   271 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   272 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   273 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   274 undocumented feature.)
   275 
   276 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   277 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   278 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   279 
   280   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   281 
   282   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   283     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   284 
   285 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   286 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   287 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   288 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   289 
   290 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   291 
   292     num ~> num_token
   293     xnum ~> xnum_token
   294     xstr ~> str_token
   295 
   296 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   297 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   298 position information via constraints).
   299 
   300 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   301 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   302 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   303 
   304 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   305 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   306 
   307 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   308 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   309 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   310 
   311 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   312 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313 
   314 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   315 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   316 
   317   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   318 
   319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   320 
   321 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   322 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   323 
   324 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   325 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   326 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   327 
   328 
   329 *** HOL ***
   330 
   331 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   332 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   333 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   334 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   335 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   336 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   337 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   338 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   339 possible.
   340 
   341 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   342 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   343 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   344 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   345 
   346 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   347 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   348 
   349 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   350 
   351 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   352 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   353 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   354 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   355 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   356 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   357 
   358   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   359     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   360 
   361   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   362     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   363     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   364 
   365   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   366     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   367 
   368   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   369     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   370     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   371 
   372   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   373     Redefine using other integer operations.
   374 
   375 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   376 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   377 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   378 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   379 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   380 
   381   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   382     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   383     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   384     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   385     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   386 
   387     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   388     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   389 
   390   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   391     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   392     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   393     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   394     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   395     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   396     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   397     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   398 
   399   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   400     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   401     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   402     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   403 
   404   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   405     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   406     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   407     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   408 
   409   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   410     from type nat to type int.
   411 
   412 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   413 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   414 
   415   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   416     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   417     type.  Example syntax:
   418 
   419     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   420       is List.insert
   421 
   422     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   423     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   424     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   425     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   426     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   427     by the package.
   428 
   429   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   430     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   431     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   432     code generation for each constant.
   433 
   434   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   435     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   436     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   437     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   438     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   439 
   440   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   441     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   442     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   443 
   444 * Quotient package:
   445 
   446   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   447     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   448 
   449   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   450     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   451 
   452   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   453     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   454     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   455 
   456   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   457     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   458 
   459 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   460 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   461 
   462 * Quickcheck:
   463 
   464   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   465     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   466     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   467     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   468     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   469 
   470     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   471     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   472     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   473 
   474     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   475     continues searching for genuine ones.
   476 
   477     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   478     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   479     show genuine counterexamples.
   480 
   481   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   482     value generators for a given type and operations.
   483 
   484     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   485     constructors of that type.
   486 
   487   - Support for multisets.
   488 
   489   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   490 
   491   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   492     conjectures in a locale context.
   493 
   494 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   495 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   496 
   497 * Sledgehammer:
   498   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   499     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   500   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   501   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   502     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   503   - Sped up the minimizer.
   504   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   505   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   506   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   507 
   508 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   509 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   510 
   511 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   512 
   513 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   514 
   515 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   516 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   517 
   518   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   519 
   520 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   521 a list and a nat.
   522 
   523 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   524 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   525 
   526 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   527 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   528 default.
   529 
   530 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   531 
   532   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   533 
   534 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   535 
   536 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   537 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   538 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   539 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   540 one_case.
   541 
   542 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   543 the result of the fact expression.
   544 
   545 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   546 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   547 of some relation theorems:
   548 
   549   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   550   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   551   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   552   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   553   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   554   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   555 
   556 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   557 
   558 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   559 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   560 
   561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   562 
   563 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   564 to match the constant's name:
   565 
   566   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   567   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   568   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   569   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   570   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   571   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   572   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   573   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   574   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   575   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   576   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   577   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   578   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   579   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   580   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   581   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   582   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   583   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   584   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   585   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   586   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   587   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   588   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   589   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   590 
   591 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   592 
   593 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   594 and corresponding theorem names:
   595 
   596   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   597 
   598   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   599 
   600   - Renamed theorems:
   601 
   602     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   603     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   604     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   605     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   606     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   607     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   608     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   609     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   610     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   611     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   612     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   613     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   614     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   615     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   616     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   617     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   618     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   619     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   620     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   621     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   622     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   623     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   624     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   625 
   626     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   627 
   628     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   629 
   630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631 
   632 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   633 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   634 
   635   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   636   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   637   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   638   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   639   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   640   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   641   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   642   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   643   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   644   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   645   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   646   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   647   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   648   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   649   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   650   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   651   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   652   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   653   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   654   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   655   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   656 
   657 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   658 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   659 
   660 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   661 
   662 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   663 
   664   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   665   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   666   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   667   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   668   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   669   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   670   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   671   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   672   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   673   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   674   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   675   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   676   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   677   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   678   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   679   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   680   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   681   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   682 
   683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   684 
   685 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   686 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   687 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   688 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   689 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   690 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   691 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   692 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   693 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   694 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   695 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   696 
   697 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   698 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   699 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   700 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   701 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   702 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   703 
   704 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   705 through option types.
   706 
   707 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   708 relations.
   709 
   710 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   711 
   712 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   713 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   714 
   715   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   716   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   717   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   718   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   719   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   720   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   721   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   722   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   723   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   724   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   725   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   726   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   727   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   728   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   729   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   730   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   731   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   732   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   733   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   734   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   735   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   736   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   737   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   738   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   739   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   740   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   741   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   742   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   743   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   744   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   745   zless_le ~> less_le
   746   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   747   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   748   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   749 
   750 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   751 
   752   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   753 
   754 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   755 
   756 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   757 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   758 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   759 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   761 
   762 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   763 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   764 
   765 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   766 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   767 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   768 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   769 follows:
   770 
   771   Operations:
   772   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   773   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   774   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   775   del -> rbt_del
   776   delete -> rbt_delete
   777   ins -> rbt_ins
   778   insert -> rbt_insert
   779   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   780   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   781   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   782   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   783   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   784   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   785   tree_less -> rbt_less
   786   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   787   union -> rbt_union
   788   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   789   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   790 
   791   Lemmas:
   792   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   793   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   794   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   795   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   796   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   797   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   798   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   799   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   800   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   801   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   802   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   803   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   804   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   805   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   806   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   807   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   808   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   809   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   810   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   811   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   812   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   813   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   814   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   815   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   816   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   817   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   818   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   819   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   820   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   821   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   822   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   823   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   824   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   825   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   826   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   827   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   828   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   829   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   830   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   831   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   832   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   833   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   834   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   835   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   836   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   837   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   838   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   839   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   840   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   841   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   842   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   843   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   844   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   845   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   846   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   847   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   848   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   849   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   850   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   851   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   852   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   853   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   854   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   855   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   856   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   857   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   858   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   859   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   860   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   861   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   862   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   863   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   864   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   865   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   866   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   867   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   868   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   869   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   870   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   871   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   872   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   873   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   874   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   875 
   876 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   877 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   878 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   879 
   880   Changed Operations:
   881   float_abs -> abs
   882   float_nprt -> nprt
   883   float_pprt -> pprt
   884   pow2 -> use powr
   885   round_down -> float_round_down
   886   round_up -> float_round_up
   887   scale -> exponent
   888 
   889   Removed Operations:
   890   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   891 
   892   Renamed Lemmas:
   893   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   894   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   895   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   896   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   897   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   898   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   899   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   900   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   901   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   902   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   903   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   904   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   905   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   906   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   907   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   908   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   909   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   910   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   911   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   912   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   913   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   914   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   915   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   916   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   917   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   918   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   919   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   920   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   921   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   922   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   923   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   924   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   925   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   926   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   927   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   928   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   929 
   930   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   931   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   932   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   933   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   934   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   935   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   936   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   937   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   938   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   939   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   940 
   941 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   942 association lists with distinct keys.
   943 
   944 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   945 annotated commands.
   946 
   947 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   948 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   949 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   950 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   951 
   952 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   953 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   954 instead.
   955 
   956   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   957   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   958   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   959   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   960   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   961   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   962   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   963   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   964   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   965   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   966   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   967   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   968   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   969   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   970   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   971   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   972   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   973   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   974   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   975   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   976   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   977   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   978   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   979   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   980   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   981   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   982   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   983   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   984   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   985   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   986   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   987   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   988   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   989   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   990   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   991   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   992   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   993   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   994   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   995   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   996   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   997 
   998 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
   999 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1000 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1001 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1002 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1003 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1004 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1005 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1006 
  1007 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1008 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1009 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1010 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1011 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1012 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1013 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1014 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1015 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1016 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1017 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1018 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1019 
  1020   Renamed constants:
  1021   measure -> emeasure
  1022   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1023   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1024   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1025   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1026 
  1027   Removed locales:
  1028   completeable_measure_space
  1029   finite_measure_space
  1030   finite_prob_space
  1031   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1032   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1033   finite_sigma_algebra
  1034   measure_space
  1035   pair_finite_prob_space
  1036   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1037   pair_finite_space
  1038   pair_sigma_algebra
  1039   product_sigma_algebra
  1040 
  1041   Removed constants:
  1042   conditional_space
  1043   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1044   image_space
  1045   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1046   pair_measure_generator
  1047   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1048   subvimage
  1049 
  1050   Replacement theorems:
  1051   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1052   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1053   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1054   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1055   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1056   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1057   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1058   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1059   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1060   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1061   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1062   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1063   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1064   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1065   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1066   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1067   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1068   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1069   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1070   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1071   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1072   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1073   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1074   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1075   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1076   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1077   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1078   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1079   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1080   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1081   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1082   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1083   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1084   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1085   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1086   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1087   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1088   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1089   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1090   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1091   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1092   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1093   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1094   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1095   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1096   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1097   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1098   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1099   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1100   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1101   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1102   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1103   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1104   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1105   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1106   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1107   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1108   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1109   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1110   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1111   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1112   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1113   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1114   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1115   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1116   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1117   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1118   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1119   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1120   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1121   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1122   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1123   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1124   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1125   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1126   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1127   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1128   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1129   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1130   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1131   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1132   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1133   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1134   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1135   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1136   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1137   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1138   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1139   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1140   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1141   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1142   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1143   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1144   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1145   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1146   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1147   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1148   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1149   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1150   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1151   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1152   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1153   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1154   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1155   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1156   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1157   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1158   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1159   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1160   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1161   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1162   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1163   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1164   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1165   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1166   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1167   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1168   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1169   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1170   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1171   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1172   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1173   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1174   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1175   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1176   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1177   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1178   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1179 
  1180 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1181 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1182 
  1183 
  1184 *** FOL ***
  1185 
  1186 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1187 
  1188 
  1189 *** ZF ***
  1190 
  1191 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1192 analysis.
  1193 
  1194 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1195 
  1196 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1197 
  1198 
  1199 *** ML ***
  1200 
  1201 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1202 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1203 
  1204 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1205 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1206 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1207 
  1208 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1209 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1210 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1211 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1212 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1213 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1214 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1215 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1216 
  1217 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1218 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1219 
  1220 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1221 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1222 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1223 
  1224 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1225 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1226 
  1227 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1228 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1229 context as well.
  1230 
  1231 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1232 
  1233   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1234   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1235   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1236   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1237   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1238   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1239   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1240   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1241   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1242   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1243   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1244   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1245 
  1246 
  1247 *** System ***
  1248 
  1249 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1250 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1251 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1252 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1253 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1254 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1255 the generic user home was intended.
  1256 
  1257 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1258 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1259 
  1260 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1261 (not just JRE).
  1262 
  1263 
  1264 
  1265 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1266 ------------------------------------
  1267 
  1268 *** General ***
  1269 
  1270 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1271 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1272 
  1273   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1274     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1275     files for checking).
  1276 
  1277   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1278     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1279     positions.
  1280 
  1281   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1282     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1283     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1284 
  1285   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1286     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1287     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1288 
  1289   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1290     cores.
  1291 
  1292   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1293     versions (garbage collection).
  1294 
  1295 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1296 including some remaining limitations.
  1297 
  1298 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1299 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1300 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1301 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1302 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1304 
  1305 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1306 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1307 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1308 
  1309 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1310 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1311 usedir option -Q.
  1312 
  1313 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1314 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1315 
  1316   long_names   ~> names_long
  1317   short_names  ~> names_short
  1318   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1319 
  1320 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1321 
  1322   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1323 
  1324 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1325 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1326 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1327 
  1328 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1329 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1330 
  1331 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1332   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1333   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1334   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1335     "Classical Reasoner".
  1336 
  1337 
  1338 *** HOL ***
  1339 
  1340 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1341 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1342 
  1343 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1344 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1345 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1346 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1347 class complete_linorder.
  1348 
  1349 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1350 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1351 
  1352 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1353 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1354 
  1355   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1356   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1357   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1358   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1359   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1360   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1361   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1362   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1363   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1364   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1365   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1366 
  1367 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1368 
  1369   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1370   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1371   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1372   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1373   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1374   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1375   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1376   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1377   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1378   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1379   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1380   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1381   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1382   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1383   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1384   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1385 
  1386 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1387 
  1388 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1390 
  1391 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1392 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1393 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1394 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1395 
  1396 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1397 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1398 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1399 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1400 
  1401 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1402 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1403 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1404 
  1405 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1406 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1407 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1408 
  1409 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1410 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1411 
  1412 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1413 
  1414     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1415     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1416 
  1417 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1418 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1419 
  1420 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1421 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1422 
  1423 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1424 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1425 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1426 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1427 
  1428   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1429   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1430   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1431   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1432   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1433   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1434   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1435 
  1436 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1437 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1438 
  1439   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1440   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1441   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1442   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1443   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1444   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1445   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1446   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1447   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1448   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1449   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1450   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1451   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1452   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1453   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1454   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1455   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1456   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1457   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1458   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1459   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1460   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1461   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1462   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1463   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1464   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1465   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1466   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1467   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1468   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1469   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1470   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1471   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1472   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1473   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1474   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1475   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1476   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1477   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1478   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1479   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1480   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1481   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1482   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1483   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1484   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1485   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1486   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1487   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1488   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1489   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1490   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1491   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1492   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1493   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1494   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1495   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1496   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1497   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1498   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1499   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1500   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1501   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1502   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1503   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1504   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1505   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1506   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1507   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1508   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1509   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1510   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1511   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1512   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1513   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1514   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1515   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1516   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1517   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1518   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1519   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1520   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1521 
  1522 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1523 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1524 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1525 
  1526 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1527 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1528 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1529 
  1530 * Code generation:
  1531 
  1532   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1533     characters in the target language.
  1534 
  1535   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1536     instead.
  1537 
  1538   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1539 
  1540   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1541     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1542 
  1543       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1544 
  1545 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1546 
  1547 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1548 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1549 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1550 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1551 syntax.
  1552 
  1553 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1554 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1555 
  1556 * Nitpick:
  1557   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1558   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1559   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1560     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1561 
  1562 * Sledgehammer:
  1563   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1564   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1565     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1566   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1567     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1568   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1569     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1570   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1571     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1572   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1573     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1574 
  1575 * Metis:
  1576   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1577   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1578     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580 * Command 'try':
  1581   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1582     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1583   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1584     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1585 
  1586 * Quickcheck:
  1587   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1588     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1589   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1590     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1591   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1592     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1593     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1594     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1595   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1596     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1597 
  1598 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1599 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1600 
  1601 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1602 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1603 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1604 
  1605 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1606 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1608 
  1609 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1610 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1611 
  1612 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1613 arithmetic.
  1614 
  1615 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1616 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1617 and lattice type classes.
  1618 
  1619 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1620 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1621 
  1622 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1623 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1624 
  1625 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1626 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1627 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1628 
  1629   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1630   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1631   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1632   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1633 
  1634 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1635 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1636 constants:
  1637 
  1638   type inat   ~> type enat
  1639   Fin         ~> enat
  1640   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1641   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1642   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1643 
  1644 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1645 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1646 
  1647 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1648 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1649 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1650 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1651 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1652 
  1653 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1654 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1655 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1656 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1657 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1658 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1659 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1660 
  1661   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1662   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1663   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1664   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1665 
  1666 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1667 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1668 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1669 
  1670   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1671   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1672   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1673   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1674   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1675   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1676   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1677   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1678   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1679   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1680   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1681   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1682   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1683   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1684   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1685   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1686   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1687   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1688   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1689   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1690   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1691   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1692   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1693   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1694   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1695   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1696   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1697   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1698   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1699   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1700   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1701   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1702   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1703   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1704   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1705   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1706   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1707   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1708   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1709   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1710   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1711   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1712   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1713   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1714   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1715   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1716   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1717   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1718   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1719   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1720   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1721 
  1722 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1723   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1724   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1725   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1726   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1727     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1728 
  1729 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1730 
  1731   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1732   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1733   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1734   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1735   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1736   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1737   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1738   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1739   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1740   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1741   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1742   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1743   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1744   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1745   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1746   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1747   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1748   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1749   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1750   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1751   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1752   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1753   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1754   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1755   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1756 
  1757 
  1758 *** Document preparation ***
  1759 
  1760 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1761 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1762 same.
  1763 
  1764 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1765 result.
  1766 
  1767 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1768 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1769 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1770 
  1771 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1772 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1773 
  1774 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1775 like this:
  1776 
  1777   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1778   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1779 
  1780 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1781 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1782 layouts.
  1783 
  1784 
  1785 *** ML ***
  1786 
  1787 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1788 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1789 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1790 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1791 under external program control.
  1792 
  1793 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1794 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1795 
  1796 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1797 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1798 (better known as Proof General).
  1799 
  1800 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1801 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1802 
  1803 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1804 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1805 
  1806 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1807 (including quotes etc.).
  1808 
  1809 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1810 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1811 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1812 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1813 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1814 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1815 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1816 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1817 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1818 
  1819 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1820 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1821 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1822 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1823 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1824 
  1825 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1826 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1827 
  1828 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1829 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1830 
  1831 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1832 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1833 
  1834 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1835 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1836 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1837 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1838 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1839 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1840 proper Proof.context.
  1841 
  1842 
  1843 *** System ***
  1844 
  1845 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1846 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1847 
  1848 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1849 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1850 
  1851 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1852 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1853 
  1854   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1855   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1856   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1857   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1858   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1859 
  1860 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1861 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1862 
  1863 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1864 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1865 example:
  1866 
  1867   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1868 
  1869 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1870 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1871 
  1872 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1873 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1874 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1875 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1876 
  1877 
  1878 
  1879 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1880 ----------------------------------
  1881 
  1882 *** General ***
  1883 
  1884 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1885 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1886 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1887 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1888 like this:
  1889 
  1890   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1891 
  1892 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1893 
  1894 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1895 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1896 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1897 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1898 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1899 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1900 
  1901 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1902 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1903 the following package declarations:
  1904 
  1905   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1906   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1907 
  1908 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1909 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1910 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1911 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1912 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1913 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1914 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1915 
  1916 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1917 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1918 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1919 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1920 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1921 
  1922 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1923 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1924 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1925 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1926 
  1927 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1928 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1929 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1930 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1931 
  1932   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1933 
  1934   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1935   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1936   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1937   show_types                    show_types
  1938   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1939   show_consts                   show_consts
  1940   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1941 
  1942   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1943   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1944   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1945 
  1946   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1947   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1948 
  1949   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1950 
  1951   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1952   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1953   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1954   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1955   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1956 
  1957 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1958 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1959 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1960 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1961 
  1962 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1963 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1964 
  1965   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1966   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1967 
  1968 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1969 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1970 float_token.
  1971 
  1972 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1973 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1974 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1975 
  1976 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1977 DejaVu Sans.
  1978 
  1979 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1980 
  1981 
  1982 *** Pure ***
  1983 
  1984 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1985 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1986 time.
  1987 
  1988 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1989 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1990 
  1991 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1992 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1993 
  1994 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1995 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1996 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1997 command already provided this functionality.
  1998 
  1999 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2000 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2001 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2002 without interpretations.
  2003 
  2004 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2005 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2006 
  2007 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2008 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2009 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2010 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2011 
  2012 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2013 'definition' instead.
  2014 
  2015 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2016 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2017 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2018 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2019 
  2020 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2021 constructors.
  2022 
  2023 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2024 the local file system.
  2025 
  2026 
  2027 *** HOL ***
  2028 
  2029 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2030 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2031 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2032 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2033 
  2034   declare [[coercion f]]
  2035 
  2036 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2037 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2038 
  2039   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2040 
  2041 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2042 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2043 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2044 other theories like this:
  2045 
  2046   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2047 
  2048 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2049 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2050 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2051 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2052 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2053 for examples.
  2054 
  2055 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2056 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2057 
  2058 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2059 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2060 
  2061 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2062 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2063 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2064 
  2065 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2066 functorial structure of types.
  2067 
  2068 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2069 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2070 
  2071 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2072 languages.
  2073 
  2074 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2075 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2077 
  2078 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2079 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2080 
  2081 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2082 combinators any longer.
  2083 
  2084 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2085 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2086 
  2087 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2088 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2089 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2090 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2091 
  2092   record 'a foo = ...
  2093   ...
  2094   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2095 
  2096 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2097 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2099 
  2100 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2101 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2102 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2103 
  2104 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2105 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2106 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2107 
  2108 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2109 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2110 
  2111 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2112 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2113 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2114 independently.
  2115 
  2116 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2117 counter example search.
  2118 
  2119 * Sledgehammer:
  2120   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2121     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2122     sledgehammer").
  2123   - Renamed commands:
  2124     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2125     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2126     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2127     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2128   - Renamed options:
  2129     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2130     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2131     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2132     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2133     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2134 
  2135 * Nitpick:
  2136   - Renamed options:
  2137     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2138     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2139     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2140   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2141   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2142   - Added "whack" option.
  2143   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2144   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2145   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2146   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2147     higher cardinalities.
  2148   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2149 
  2150 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2151 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2152 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2153 
  2154     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2155 
  2156 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2157 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2158 
  2159 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2160 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2161 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2162 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2163 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2164 "smt_solver".
  2165 
  2166 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2167 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2168 
  2169 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2170 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2171 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2172 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2173 
  2174 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2175   - Renamed:
  2176     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2177     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2178     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2179   - Added:
  2180     smt_verbose
  2181     smt_random_seed
  2182     smt_datatypes
  2183     smt_infer_triggers
  2184     smt_monomorph_limit
  2185     cvc3_options
  2186     remote_cvc3_options
  2187     remote_z3_options
  2188     yices_options
  2189 
  2190 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2191 header.
  2192 
  2193 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2194 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2195 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2196 
  2197   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2198 
  2199 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2200 
  2201 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2202 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2203 
  2204 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2205 
  2206 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2207 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2208 
  2209 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2210 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2211 
  2212 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2213 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2214 
  2215 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2216 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2217 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2218 
  2219 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2220 
  2221 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2222 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2223 
  2224 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2225 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2226 
  2227 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2228 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2229 for congruent(2)).
  2230 
  2231 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2232 
  2233   types
  2234     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2235     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2236 
  2237   constants
  2238     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2239     True ~> HOL.True
  2240     False ~> HOL.False
  2241     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2242     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2243     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2244     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2245     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2246     The ~> HOL.The
  2247     All ~> HOL.All
  2248     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2249     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2250     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2251     If ~> HOL.If
  2252     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2253     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2254     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2255     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2256     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2257     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2258     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2259     op : ~> Set.member
  2260     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2261 
  2262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2263 
  2264 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2265 
  2266     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2267     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2268     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2269     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2270     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2271     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2272     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2273     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2274 
  2275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2276 
  2277 * More stylized fact names:
  2278 
  2279   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2280   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2281   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2282   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2283 
  2284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2285 
  2286 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2287 
  2288   constants
  2289     null ~> List.null
  2290 
  2291   facts
  2292     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2293     null_empty ~> null_def
  2294 
  2295 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2296 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2297 generation.
  2298 
  2299 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2300 Haskell code.
  2301 
  2302 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2303 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2304 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2305 
  2306 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2307 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2308 
  2309 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2310 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2311 
  2312 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2313 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2314 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2315 
  2316 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2317 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2318 
  2319 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2320 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2321 
  2322 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2323 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2324 referred to by its qualified name.
  2325 
  2326   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2327   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2328   product ~>  Enum.product
  2329 
  2330 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2331 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2333 
  2334 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2335 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2336 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2338 
  2339 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2340 sort_key.
  2341 
  2342 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2344 
  2345 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2346 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2347 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2348 
  2349   types
  2350     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2351               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2352               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2353         (depends on your needs)
  2354 
  2355   constants
  2356      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2357      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2358      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2359 
  2360 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2361 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2362 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2363 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2364 
  2365 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2366 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2367 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2368 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2369 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2370 
  2371 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2373 
  2374 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2375 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2376 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2377 
  2378 
  2379 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2380 
  2381 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2382 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2383 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2384 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2385 compatibility.
  2386 
  2387 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2388 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2389 
  2390 
  2391 *** HOLCF ***
  2392 
  2393 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2394 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2395 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2396 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2397 
  2398 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2399 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2400 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2401 
  2402   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2403   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2404   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2405 
  2406 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2407 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2408 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2409 
  2410 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2411 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2412 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2413 domain definition now works:
  2414 
  2415   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2416 
  2417 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2418 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2419 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2420 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2421 
  2422   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2423     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2424 
  2425   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2426 
  2427 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2428 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2429 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2430 
  2431 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2432 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2433 
  2434 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2435 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2436 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2437 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2438 
  2439 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2440 
  2441 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2442 
  2443 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2444 
  2445 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2447 
  2448 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2449 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2450 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2451 
  2452 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2453 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2454 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2455 
  2456 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2457 still supported as an input translation.
  2458 
  2459 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2460 
  2461   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2462   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2463   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2464   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2465   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2466   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2467   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2468 
  2469 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2470 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2471 
  2472   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2473   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2474   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2475   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2476   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2477   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2478 
  2479 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2480 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2481 
  2482 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2483 
  2484   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2485   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2486   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2487   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2488 
  2489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2490 
  2491 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2492 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2493 
  2494 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2495 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2496 
  2497   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2498   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2499   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2500   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2501   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2502   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2503   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2504   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2505   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2506   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2507   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2508   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2509   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2510   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2511   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2512   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2513   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2514   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2515   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2516   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2517 
  2518 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2519 
  2520   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2521   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2522   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2523   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2524   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2525   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2526   box_less             ~> box_below
  2527   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2528   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2529   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2530   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2531   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2532   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2533   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2534   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2535   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2536   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2537   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2538   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2539   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2540   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2541   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2542   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2543   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2544   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2545   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2546   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2547   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2548   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2549   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2550   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2551   up_less              ~> up_below
  2552   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2553   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2554   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2555   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2556   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2557   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2558   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2559   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2560   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2561   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2562   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2563   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2564   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2565 
  2566 
  2567 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2568 
  2569 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2570 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2571 
  2572 
  2573 *** ML ***
  2574 
  2575 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2576 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2577 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2578 
  2579 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2580 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2581 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2582 
  2583 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2584 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2585 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2586 
  2587 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2588 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2589 
  2590 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2591 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2592 
  2593 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2594 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2595 
  2596 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2597 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2598 
  2599 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2600 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2601 almost all situations.
  2602 
  2603 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2604 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2605 Isabelle/ML.
  2606 
  2607 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2608 meaning.
  2609 
  2610 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2611 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2612 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2613 
  2614 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2615 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2616 
  2617 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2618 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2619 
  2620 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2621 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2622 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2623 
  2624 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2625 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2626 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2627 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2628 configuration options.
  2629 
  2630 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2631 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2632 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2633 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2634 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2635 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2636 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2637 
  2638 
  2639 
  2640 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2641 ---------------------------------
  2642 
  2643 *** General ***
  2644 
  2645 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2646 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2647 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2648 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2649 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2650 their full internal name.
  2651 
  2652 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2653 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2654 Some hints on upgrading:
  2655 
  2656   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2657     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2658     which are independent of this issue.
  2659 
  2660   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2661     provides the following special forms:
  2662 
  2663       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2664       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2665       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2666 
  2667     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2668     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2669     extra variables".
  2670 
  2671     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2672     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2673     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2674     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2675     "logic".
  2676 
  2677   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2678     antiquotations:
  2679 
  2680       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2681       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2682       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2683       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2684 
  2685   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2686     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2687     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2688     antiquotations.
  2689 
  2690 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2691 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2692 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2693 diagnose syntax problems.
  2694 
  2695 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2696 
  2697 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2698 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2699 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2700 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2701 
  2702 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2703 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2704 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2705 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2706 
  2707 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2708 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2709 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2710 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2711 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2712 
  2713 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2714 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2715 
  2716 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2717 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2718 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2719 
  2720   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2721 
  2722 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2723 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2724 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2725 
  2726 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2727 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2728 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2729 
  2730 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2731 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2732 
  2733 
  2734 *** Pure ***
  2735 
  2736 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2737 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2738 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2739 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2740 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2741 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2742 inspect proof terms.
  2743 
  2744 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2745 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2746 are added internally.  For example:
  2747 
  2748   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2749 
  2750 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2751 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2752 
  2753 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2754 
  2755 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2756 'class' instead.
  2757 
  2758 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2759 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2761 
  2762 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2763 invariants.
  2764 
  2765 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2766 user space functionality any longer.
  2767 
  2768 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2769 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2771 
  2772 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2773 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2774 
  2775 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2776 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2777 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2778 
  2779 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2780 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2781 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2782 
  2783 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2784 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2785 
  2786 
  2787 *** HOL ***
  2788 
  2789 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2790 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2791 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2792 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2793 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2794 
  2795 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2796 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2797 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2798 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2799 
  2800   fun
  2801     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2802   where
  2803     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2804 
  2805   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2806     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2807 
  2808   quotient_definition
  2809     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2810 
  2811 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2812 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2813 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2814 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2815 
  2816 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2817 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2818 
  2819 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2820 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2821 
  2822 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2823 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2824 
  2825 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2826 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2827 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2828 
  2829 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2830 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2831 
  2832 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2834 
  2835 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2837 
  2838 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2839 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2840 
  2841 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2842 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2843 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2844 
  2845   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2846   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2847   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2848   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2849   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2850   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2851   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2852   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2853   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2854   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2855   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2856   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2857   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2858   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2859   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2860   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2861   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2862   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2863   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2864   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2865   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2866   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2867   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2868   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2869   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2870   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2871   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2872   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2873   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2874   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2875 
  2876 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2877 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2878 
  2879 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2880 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2881 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2882 
  2883 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2884 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2885 
  2886 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2887 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2888 
  2889 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2890 
  2891 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2892 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2893 
  2894 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2895 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2896 
  2897 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2898 
  2899 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2900 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2901 
  2902 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2903 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2904 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2905 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2906 
  2907 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2908   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2909   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2910   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2912 
  2913 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2914 lattices):
  2915 
  2916     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2917     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2918 
  2919     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2920 
  2921     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2922     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2923     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2924     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2925     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2926     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2927     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2928     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2929     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2930     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2931     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2932     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2933     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2934 
  2935     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2936     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2937     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2938     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2939     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2940     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2941     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2942     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2943     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2944     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2945     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2946     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2947     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2948     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2949     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2950     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2951     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2952     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2953 
  2954   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2955   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2956 
  2957     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2958     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2959     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2960     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2961     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2962 
  2963 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2964 
  2965 * Refined field classes:
  2966   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2967     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2968     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2969   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2970 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 
  2972 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2973   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2974   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2975   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2976     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2977   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2978     equal_neg_zero.
  2979 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2980 
  2981 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2982 sets to lattices:
  2983 
  2984   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2985   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2986   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2987   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2988   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2989   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2990   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2991   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2992   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2993   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2994 
  2995 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2996 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2997 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2998 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2999 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3000 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001 
  3002 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3003 multiset order:
  3004 
  3005   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3006     <= and <;
  3007   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3008     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3009     multiset_order;
  3010   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3011     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3012     generation;
  3013   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3014     if needed.
  3015 
  3016 Renamed:
  3017 
  3018   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3019   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3020   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3021 
  3022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023 
  3024 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3025 
  3026 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3027 
  3028 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3029 
  3030 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3031 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3032 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3033 
  3034   Constants:
  3035   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3036   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3037   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3038   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3039   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3040   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3041   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3042   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3043   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3044   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3045   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3046   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3047   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3048 
  3049   Lemmas:
  3050   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3051   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3052   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3053   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3054   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3055   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3056   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3057   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3058   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3059   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3060   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3061   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3062   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3063 
  3064 * Sledgehammer:
  3065   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3066     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3067     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3068     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3069     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3070     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3071     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3072   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3073   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3074     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3075   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3076     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3077     is still experimental.)
  3078   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3079     full-typed mode.
  3080   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3081 
  3082 * Nitpick:
  3083   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3084   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3085   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3086     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3087   - Added support for quotient types.
  3088   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3089     constructs.
  3090   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3091     "termination" proofs).
  3092   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3093   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3094   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3095   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3096     record getters.
  3097   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3098   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3099   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3100   - Added "atoms" option.
  3101   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3102     problems.
  3103   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3104     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3105     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3106   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3107     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3108   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3109 
  3110 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3111   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3112   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3113   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3114   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3115   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3116   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3117   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3118   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3119   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3120 
  3121 
  3122 *** HOLCF ***
  3123 
  3124 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3125 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3126 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3127 
  3128 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3129 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3130 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3131 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3132 
  3133 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3134 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3135 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3136 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3137 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3138 
  3139 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3140 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3141 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3142 
  3143 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3144 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3145 
  3146   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3147   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3148 
  3149 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3150 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3151 
  3152   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3153   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3154   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3155   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3156   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3157 
  3158 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3159 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160 
  3161   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3162   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3163   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3164 
  3165 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3166 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3168 
  3169 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3170 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3173 
  3174 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3175 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3176 
  3177 
  3178 *** ML ***
  3179 
  3180 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3181 
  3182     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3183     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3184 
  3185     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3186     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3187     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3188     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3189 
  3190     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3191     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3192     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3193 
  3194 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3195 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3196 
  3197 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3198 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3199 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3200 
  3201 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3202 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3203 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3204 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3205 
  3206 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3207 the context or even global references.
  3208 
  3209 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3210 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3211 
  3212 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3213 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3214 
  3215   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3216   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3217   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3218   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3219   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3220   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3221   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3222   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3223   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3224   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3225 
  3226 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3227 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3228 
  3229 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3230 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3231 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3232 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3233 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3234 
  3235 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3236 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3237 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3238 Theory_Data version.
  3239 
  3240 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3241 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3242 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3243 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3244 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3245 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3246 explicitly in rare situations.
  3247 
  3248 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3249 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3251 
  3252 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3253 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254 
  3255 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3256 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3257 quite rare).
  3258 
  3259 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3260 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261 
  3262 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3263 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3264 terms.
  3265 
  3266 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3267 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3268 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3269 
  3270 
  3271 *** System ***
  3272 
  3273 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3274 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3275 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3276 
  3277 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3278 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3279 respectively.
  3280 
  3281 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3282 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3283 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3284 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3285 
  3286   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3287 
  3288 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3289 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3290 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3291 component.
  3292 
  3293 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3294 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3295 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3296 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3297 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3298 the user for manual installation.
  3299 
  3300 
  3301 
  3302 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3303 -------------------------------------
  3304 
  3305 *** General ***
  3306 
  3307 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3308 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3309 
  3310 
  3311 *** Pure ***
  3312 
  3313 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3314 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3315 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3316 
  3317 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3318 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3319 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3320 
  3321 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3322 interpretation.
  3323 
  3324 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3325 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326 
  3327 
  3328 *** Document preparation ***
  3329 
  3330 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3331 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3332 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3333 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3334 
  3335 
  3336 *** HOL ***
  3337 
  3338 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3339 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3340 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3341 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3342 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3343 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3344 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3345 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3346 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3347 
  3348 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3349 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3350 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3351 
  3352 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3353 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3354 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3355 
  3356 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3357 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3358 
  3359 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3360 
  3361 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3362 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3363 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3364 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3365 
  3366 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3367 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3368 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3369 "mirabelle" utility.
  3370 
  3371 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3372 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3373 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3374 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3375 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3376 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3377 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3378 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3379 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3380 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3381 
  3382 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3383 procedure only.
  3384 
  3385 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3386 
  3387 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3388 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3389 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3390 that fail later.
  3391 
  3392 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3393 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3394 
  3395 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3396 the same method as the approximation method.
  3397 
  3398 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3399 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3400 series expansion.
  3401 
  3402 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3403 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3404 
  3405 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3406 reals.
  3407 
  3408 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3409 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3410 
  3411 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3412 fixpoint theorem.
  3413 
  3414 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3415   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3416     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3417   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3418     accordingly
  3419   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3420     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3421   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3422     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3423 
  3424 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3425 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3426 lattice.
  3427 
  3428 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3429 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3430 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3431 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3432 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3433 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3434 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3435 
  3436 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3437   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3438     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3439   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3440     le_inf_iff
  3441   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3442     sup_aci)
  3443   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3444   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3445   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3446     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3447     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3448     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3449     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3450     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3451     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3452     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3453     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3454     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3455     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3456   - authentic syntax for
  3457     Set.Pow
  3458     Set.image
  3459   - mere abbreviations:
  3460     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3461     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3462     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3463     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3464     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3465     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3466     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3467     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3468   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3469 
  3470 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3471 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3472 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3473 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3474 
  3475 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3476 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3477 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3478 
  3479 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3480 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3481 
  3482 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3483 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3484 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3485 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3486 
  3487 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3488 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3489 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3490 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3491 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3492 
  3493 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3494 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3496 
  3497 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3498 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3499 
  3500 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3501 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3502 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3503 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3504 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3505 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3506 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3510     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3511     code_post       replaces    code post
  3512     etc.
  3513   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3514 
  3515 * Renamed methods:
  3516     sizechange -> size_change
  3517     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3518   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3521 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3522 
  3523 * Renamed theorems:
  3524     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3525     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3526     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3527     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3528     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3529   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3530 
  3531 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3532 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3533 
  3534 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3536 
  3537 
  3538 *** HOLCF ***
  3539 
  3540 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3541 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3542 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3543 
  3544 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3545 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3546 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3547 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3548 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3549 
  3550 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3551 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3552 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3553 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3554 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3555 
  3556 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3557 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3558 constructor are pre-configured.
  3559 
  3560 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3561 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3562 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3563 
  3564 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3565 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3566 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3567 as well.)
  3568 
  3569 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3570 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3571 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3572 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3573 examples.
  3574 
  3575 
  3576 *** ML ***
  3577 
  3578 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3579 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3580 
  3581 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3582 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3583 position, logical grouping etc.
  3584 
  3585 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3586 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3587 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3588 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3589 
  3590 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3591 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3592 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3593 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3594 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3595 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3596 
  3597 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3598 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3599 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3600 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3601 experiments with references.
  3602 
  3603 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3604 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3605 
  3606 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3607 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3608 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3609 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3610 
  3611 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3612 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3613 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3614 
  3615 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3616 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3617 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3618 
  3619 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3620 
  3621 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3623 
  3624 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3625 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3626 
  3627 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3628 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3629 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3630 
  3631 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3632 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3633 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3634 
  3635 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3636 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3637 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3638 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3639 
  3640 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3641 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3642 instead of global theory.
  3643 
  3644 
  3645 *** System ***
  3646 
  3647 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3648 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3649 usedir option -q.
  3650 
  3651 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3652 also the system manual.
  3653 
  3654 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3655 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3656 
  3657 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3658 this is always enabled.
  3659 
  3660 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3661 
  3662 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3663 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3664 currently supported on Linux only.
  3665 
  3666 
  3667 
  3668 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3669 --------------------------------
  3670 
  3671 *** General ***
  3672 
  3673 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3674 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3675 
  3676   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3677     "isatool."
  3678 
  3679   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3680     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3681 
  3682   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3683     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3684 
  3685 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3686 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3687 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3688 
  3689 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3690 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3691 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3692 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3693 via "isabelle emacs".
  3694 
  3695 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3696 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3697 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3698 
  3699 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3700 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3701 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3702 
  3703 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3704 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3705 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3706 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3707 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3708 
  3709 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3710 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3711 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3712 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3713 
  3714 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3715 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3716 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3717 
  3718 
  3719 *** Pure ***
  3720 
  3721 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3722 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3723 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3724 
  3725 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3726 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3727 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3728 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3729 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3730 
  3731 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3732 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3733 useful in locale declarations.
  3734 
  3735 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3736 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3737 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3738 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3739 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3740 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3741 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3742 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3743 no longer generated.
  3744 
  3745 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3746 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3747 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3748 
  3749 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3750 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3751 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3752 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3753 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3754 
  3755 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3756 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3757 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3758 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3759 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3760 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3761 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3762 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3763 
  3764 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3765 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3766 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3767 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3768 
  3769 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3770 
  3771 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3772 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3773 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3774 
  3775 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3776 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3777 
  3778 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3779 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3780 in HOL, write
  3781 
  3782     class foo = ...
  3783 
  3784 instead of
  3785 
  3786     class foo = type + ...
  3787 
  3788 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3789 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790 
  3791 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3792 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3793 
  3794 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3795 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3796 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3797 
  3798 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3799 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3800 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3801 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3802 directly in regular applications.
  3803 
  3804 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3805 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3806 
  3807 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3808 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3809 
  3810 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3811 theory context.
  3812 
  3813 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3814 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815 
  3816 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3817 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3818 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3819 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3820 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3821 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3822 
  3823   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3824 
  3825 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3826 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3827 normalization.
  3828 
  3829 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3830 addressing etc.
  3831 
  3832 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3833 
  3834   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3835   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3836 
  3837 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3838 
  3839   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3840      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3841      parts of the code generator framework).
  3842 
  3843   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3844      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3845      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3846 
  3847 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3848 
  3849 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3850 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3851 
  3852 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3853 patterns, e.g.
  3854 
  3855     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3856 
  3857 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3858 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3859 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3860 hyphen:
  3861 
  3862     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3863 
  3864 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3865 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3866 
  3867 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3868 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3869 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3870 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3871 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3872 higher-order unification.
  3873 
  3874 
  3875 *** Document preparation ***
  3876 
  3877 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3878 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3879 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3880 
  3881 
  3882 *** HOL ***
  3883 
  3884 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3885 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3886 
  3887 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3888 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3889 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3890 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3891 Main, as before.
  3892 
  3893 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3894 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3895 
  3896 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3897 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3898 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3899 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3900 
  3901 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3902 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3903 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3904 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3905 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3906 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3907 
  3908 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3909 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3910 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3911 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3912 
  3913 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3914 menu.
  3915 
  3916 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3917 (contains the empty clause).
  3918 
  3919 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3920 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3921 
  3922 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3923 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3924 
  3925 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3926 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3927 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3928 
  3929 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3930 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3931 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3932 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3933 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3934 
  3935 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3936 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3937 
  3938 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3939 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3940 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3941 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3942 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3943 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3944 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3945 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3946 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3947 
  3948 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3949 
  3950 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3951 
  3952 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3953 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954 
  3955 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3956 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3957 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3958 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3959 
  3960 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3961 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3962 
  3963     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3964     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3965     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3966     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3967     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3968     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3969     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3970     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3971 
  3972 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3973 theory Set.
  3974 
  3975 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3976 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3977 
  3978 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3979 
  3980 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3981 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3982 
  3983 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3984 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3985 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3986 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3987 allowed. For examples see
  3988 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3989 
  3990 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3991 
  3992 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3994 
  3995 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3996 structure:
  3997 
  3998     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3999     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4000     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4001     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4002     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4003     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4004     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4005     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4006     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4007     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4008     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4009     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4010     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4011     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4012     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4013     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4014     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4015     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4016     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4017     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4018     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4019     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4020     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4021     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4022     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4023     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4024     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4025     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4026     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4027     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4028     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4029     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4030     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4031 
  4032     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4033     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4034     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4035     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4036     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4037     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4038     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4039     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4040     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4041     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4042 
  4043     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4044     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4045     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4046     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4047     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4048     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4049 
  4050 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4051 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4052 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4053 
  4054 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4055 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4056 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4057 
  4058 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4059 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4060 
  4061 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4062 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4063 
  4064 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4065 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4066 proofs, e.g.
  4067 
  4068   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4069 
  4070 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4071 
  4072 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4073 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4074 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4075 
  4076 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4077 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4078 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4079 
  4080 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4081 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4082 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4083 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084 
  4085 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4086 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4087 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4088 preorder_class.*.
  4089 
  4090 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4091 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4092 
  4093 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4094 
  4095   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4096 
  4097 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4098 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4099 fold_image.
  4100 
  4101 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4102 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4103 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4104 the former will disappear at some point.
  4105 
  4106 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4107 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4108 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4109 
  4110 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4111 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4112 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4113 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4114 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4115 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4116 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4117 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4118 
  4119 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4120 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4121 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4122 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4123 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4124 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4125 
  4126     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4127     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4128     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4129     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4130     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4131     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4132     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4133 
  4134 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4135 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4136 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4137 
  4138 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4139 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4140 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4141 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4142 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4143 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4144 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4145 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4146 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4147 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4148 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4149 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4150 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4151 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4152 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4153 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4154 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4155 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4156 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4157 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4158 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4159 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4160 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4161 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4162 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4163 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4164 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4165 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4166 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4167 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4168 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4169 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4170 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4171 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4172 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4173 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4174 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4175 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4176 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4177 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4178 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4179 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4180 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4181 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4182 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4183 
  4184 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4185 
  4186 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4187 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4188 
  4189 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4190 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4191 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4192 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4193 
  4194 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4195 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4196 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4197 theory RealVector.
  4198 
  4199 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4200 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4201 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4202 and inner products are included.
  4203 
  4204 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4205 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4206 supported.
  4207 
  4208 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4209 first diagonalization argument.
  4210 
  4211 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4212 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4213 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4214 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4215 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4216 
  4217     hide (open) const gcd
  4218     abbreviation gcd where
  4219       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4220     notation (output)
  4221       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4222 
  4223 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4224 
  4225 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4226 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4227 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4228 
  4229 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4230 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4231 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4232 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4233 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4234 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4235 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4236 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4237 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4238 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4239 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4240 cases.
  4241 
  4242 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4243 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4244 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4245 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4246 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4247 
  4248     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4249     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4250     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4251     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4252     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4253 
  4254 
  4255 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4256 
  4257 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4258 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4259 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4260 
  4261 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4262 
  4263 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4264 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4265 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4266 
  4267 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4268 
  4269 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4270 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4271 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4272 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4273 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4274 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4275 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4276 
  4277 
  4278 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4279 
  4280 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4281 
  4282 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4283 theory targets.
  4284 
  4285 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4286 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4287 'inductive' etc.
  4288 
  4289 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4290 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4291 
  4292 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4293 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4294 
  4295 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4296 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4297 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4298 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4299 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4300 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4301 the algorithm W:
  4302 
  4303  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4304  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4305          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4306 
  4307 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4308 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4309 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4310 
  4311 
  4312 *** HOLCF ***
  4313 
  4314 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4315 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4316 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4317 
  4318 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4319 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4320 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4321 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4322 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4323 
  4324 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4325 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4326 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4327 
  4328 
  4329 *** ZF ***
  4330 
  4331 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4332 
  4333 
  4334 *** ML ***
  4335 
  4336 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4337 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4338 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4339 5.2.1!
  4340 
  4341 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4342 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4343 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4344 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4345 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4346 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4347 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4348 
  4349 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4350 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4351 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4352 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4353 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4354 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4355 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4356 
  4357 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4358 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4359 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4360 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4361 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4362 
  4363 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4364 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4365 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4366 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4367 Method.add_method.
  4368 
  4369 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4370 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4371 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4372 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4373 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4374 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4375 
  4376 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4377 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4378 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4379 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4380 examples.
  4381 
  4382 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4383 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4384 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4385 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4386 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4387 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4388 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4389 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4390 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4391 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4392 
  4393 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4394 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4395 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4396 
  4397 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4398 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4399 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4400 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4401 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4402 resort for legacy applications.
  4403 
  4404 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4405 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4406 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4407 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4408 explicit runtime argument.
  4409 
  4410 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4411 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4412 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4413 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4414 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4415 
  4416 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4417 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4418 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4419 theory state.
  4420 
  4421 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4422 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4423 
  4424   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4425   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4426   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4427   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4428   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4429   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4430   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4431   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4432   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4433   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4434 
  4435 
  4436 *** System ***
  4437 
  4438 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4439 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4440 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4441 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4442 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4443 
  4444 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4445 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4446 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4447 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4448 
  4449 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4450 
  4451 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4452 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4453 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4454 prover operations.
  4455 
  4456 
  4457 
  4458 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4459 -------------------------------
  4460 
  4461 *** General ***
  4462 
  4463 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4464 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4465 
  4466 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4467 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4468 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4469 provides a proper context already.
  4470 
  4471 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4472 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4473 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4474 
  4475 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4476 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4477 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4478 swap theory imports.
  4479 
  4480 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4481 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4482 
  4483 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4484 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4485 white space without escapes.
  4486 
  4487 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4488 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4489 "foo_bar".
  4490 
  4491 
  4492 *** Pure ***
  4493 
  4494 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4495 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4496 
  4497 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4498 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4499 
  4500 (1) unused_thms
  4501      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4502 
  4503 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4504      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4505      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4506 
  4507 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4508      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4509      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4510      their ancestors.
  4511 
  4512 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4513 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4514 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4515 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4516 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4517 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4518 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4519 
  4520 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4521 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4522 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4523 
  4524 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4525 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4526 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4527 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4528 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4529 
  4530 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4531 
  4532 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4533 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4534 update of theories within ML code.
  4535 
  4536 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4537 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4538 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4539 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4540 
  4541 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4542 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4543 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4544 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4545 
  4546 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4547 
  4548 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4549 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4550 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4551 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4552 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4553 
  4554 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4555 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4556 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4557 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4558 situations.
  4559 
  4560 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4561 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4562 proof text.
  4563 
  4564 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4565 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4566 
  4567 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4568 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4569 predicates.
  4570 
  4571 
  4572 *** Document preparation ***
  4573 
  4574 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4575 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4576 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4577 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4578 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4579 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4580 
  4581 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4582 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4583 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4584 
  4585 
  4586 *** HOL ***
  4587 
  4588 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4589 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4590 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4591 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4592 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4593 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4594 
  4595 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4596 with multithreading.
  4597 
  4598 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4599 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4600 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4601 
  4602 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4603 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4604 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4605 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4606 
  4607 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4608 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4609 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4610 and makes them available separately.  See
  4611 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4612 
  4613 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4614 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4615 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4616 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4617 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4618 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4619 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4620 the declared rules.
  4621 
  4622 This setup also deals with rules like
  4623 
  4624   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4625 
  4626 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4627 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4628 
  4629 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4630 
  4631   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4632 
  4633   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4634     definitions on => and bool.
  4635 
  4636   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4637     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4638     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4639 
  4640       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4641       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4642       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4643       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4644       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4645       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4646       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4647       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4648 
  4649   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4650     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4651     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4652 
  4653   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4654     The proof pattern
  4655 
  4656       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4657       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4658 
  4659     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4660     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4661 
  4662       have "EX S. P S"
  4663       proof
  4664         show "P S" <...>
  4665       qed
  4666 
  4667   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4668     The proof pattern
  4669 
  4670       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4671       also have "S = T" <...>
  4672       finally have "P T" .
  4673 
  4674     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4675     must be replaced by something like
  4676 
  4677       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4678       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4679       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4680 
  4681   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4682     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4683 
  4684       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4685 
  4686     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4687     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4688     type of the form
  4689 
  4690       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4691 
  4692     rather than
  4693 
  4694       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4695 
  4696 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4697 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4698 
  4699 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4700 
  4701 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4702 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4704 
  4705 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4706 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4707 
  4708 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4709 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4710 
  4711 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4712 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4713 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4714 
  4715 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4716 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4717 
  4718   less_trans
  4719   less_linear
  4720   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4721   le_less_trans
  4722   less_le_trans
  4723   less_not_sym
  4724   less_asym
  4725 
  4726 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4727 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4728 and different variable names.
  4729 
  4730 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4731 
  4732 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4733 finite maps.
  4734 
  4735 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4736 
  4737 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4738 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4739 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4740 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4741 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4742 accordingly.
  4743 
  4744 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4745 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4746 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4747 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4748 
  4749 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4750 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4751 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4752 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4753 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4755 
  4756 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4757 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4758 
  4759 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4760 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4761 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4762 
  4763 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4765 
  4766 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4767 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4768 
  4769 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4770 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4771 
  4772 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4773 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4774 
  4775 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4776 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4777 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4778 
  4779 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4780 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4781 
  4782 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4783 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4784 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4785 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4786 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4787 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4788 
  4789 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4790 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4791 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4792 
  4793 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4794 
  4795 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4796 
  4797 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4798 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4799 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4800 
  4801 
  4802 *** ZF ***
  4803 
  4804 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4805 same session:
  4806 
  4807   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4808   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4809   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4810   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4811   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4812   List      -> List_ZF
  4813   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4814 
  4815 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4816 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4817 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4818 
  4819 
  4820 *** ML ***
  4821 
  4822 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4823 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4824 
  4825 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4826 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4827 
  4828 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4829 
  4830 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4831 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4832 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4833 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4834 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4835 
  4836 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4837 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4838 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4839 
  4840 
  4841 *** System ***
  4842 
  4843 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4844 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4845 
  4846 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4847 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4848 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4849 
  4850 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4851 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4852 
  4853 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4854 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4855 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4856 
  4857 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4858 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4859 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4860 
  4861 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4862 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4863 
  4864 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4865 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4866 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4867 script.
  4868 
  4869 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4870 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4871 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4872 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4873 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4874 
  4875 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4876 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4877 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4878 
  4879 
  4880 
  4881 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4882 -----------------------------------
  4883 
  4884 *** General ***
  4885 
  4886 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4887 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4888 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4889 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4890 
  4891 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4892 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4893 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4894 
  4895 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4896 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4897 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4898 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4899 
  4900 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4901 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4902 quotes.
  4903 
  4904 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4905 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4906 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4907 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4908 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4909 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4910 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4911 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4912 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4913 
  4914 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4915 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4916 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4917 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4918 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4919 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4920 
  4921 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4922 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4923 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4924 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4925 
  4926 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4927 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4928 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4929 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4930 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4931 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4932 
  4933 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4934 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4935 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4936 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4937 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4938 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4939 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4940 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4941 
  4942 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4943 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4944 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4945 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4946 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4947 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4948 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4949 
  4950 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4951 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4952 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4953 
  4954 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4955 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4956 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4957 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4958 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4959 limit is imposed.
  4960 
  4961 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4962 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4963 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4964 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4965 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4966 and scalability.
  4967 
  4968 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4969 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4970 
  4971 
  4972 *** Document preparation ***
  4973 
  4974 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4975 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4976 current context.
  4977 
  4978 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4979 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4980 
  4981 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4982 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4983 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4984 
  4985 
  4986 *** Pure ***
  4987 
  4988 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4989 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4990 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4991 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4992 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4993 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4994 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4995 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4996 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4997 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4998 
  4999 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5000 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5001 sketch:
  5002 
  5003     internal compilation:
  5004         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5005     writing SML code to a file:
  5006         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5007     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5008         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5009     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5010         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5011 
  5012     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5013         method ``eval''
  5014 
  5015 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5016 
  5017 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5018 
  5019     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5020     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5021     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5022     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5023 
  5024 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5025 
  5026     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5027       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5028 
  5029     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5030       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5031 
  5032     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5033       {(target)}+
  5034         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5035 
  5036     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5037       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5038         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5039 
  5040 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5041 
  5042 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5043 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5044 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5045 codegen".
  5046 
  5047 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5048 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5049 annotations).
  5050 
  5051 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5052 syntax.
  5053 
  5054 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5055 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5056 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5057 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5058 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5059 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5060 
  5061 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5062 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5063 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5064 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5065 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5066 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5067 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5068 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5069 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5070 equations, see section "definitions".
  5071 
  5072 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5073 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5074 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5075 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5076 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5077 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5078 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5079 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5080 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5081 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5082 
  5083 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5084 configuration options:
  5085 
  5086   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5087   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5088   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5089   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5090   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5091   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5092   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5093   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5094   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5095 
  5096 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5097 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5098 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5099 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5100 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5101 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5102 order.
  5103 
  5104 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5105 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5106 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5107 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5108 context encountered later on.
  5109 
  5110 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5111 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5112 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5113 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5114 
  5115 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5116 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5117 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5118 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5119 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5120 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5121 
  5122 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5123 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5124 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5125 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5126 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5127 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5128 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5129 more permissive.
  5130 
  5131 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5132 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5133 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5134 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5135 maintainability of proof texts.
  5136 
  5137 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5138 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5139 
  5140   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5141   then guess x and y by clarify
  5142 
  5143 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5144 proof tools being involved here.
  5145 
  5146 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5147 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5148 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5149 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5150 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5151 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5152 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5153 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5154 
  5155 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5156 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5157 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5158 
  5159   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5160   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5161   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5162   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5163 
  5164 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5165 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5166 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5167 
  5168 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5169 both named and unnamed ones.
  5170 
  5171 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5172 
  5173   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5174 
  5175 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5176 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5177 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5178 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5179 
  5180 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5181 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5182 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5183 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5184 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5185 
  5186 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5187 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5188 
  5189 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5190 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5191 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5192 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5193 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5194 originally first one.
  5195 
  5196 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5197 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5198 expected.
  5199 
  5200 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5201 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5202 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5203 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5204 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5205 
  5206   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5207     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5208     obtains x where "P x"
  5209 
  5210   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5211     assumes "A & B"
  5212     obtains A and B
  5213 
  5214   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5215     assumes "A | B"
  5216     obtains
  5217       A
  5218     | B
  5219 
  5220 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5221 explicitly:
  5222 
  5223   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5224     obtains "~ thesis"
  5225 
  5226   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5227     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5228 
  5229 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5230 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5231 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5232 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5233 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5234 case_names).
  5235 
  5236 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5237 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5238 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5239 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5240 
  5241 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5242 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5243 top-level lemma.
  5244 
  5245 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5246 introduction rule (default "that").
  5247 
  5248 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5249 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5250 to occur.
  5251 
  5252 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5253 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5254 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5255 representations independently of name spaces.
  5256 
  5257 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5258 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5259 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5260 
  5261 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5262 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5263 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5264 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5265 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5266 current context.
  5267 
  5268 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5269 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5270 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5271 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5272 
  5273   axiomatization
  5274     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5275     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5276 
  5277   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5278   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5279 
  5280   abbreviation
  5281     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5282     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5283 
  5284 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5285 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5286 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5287 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5288 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5289 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5290 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5291 
  5292 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5293 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5294 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5295 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5296 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5297 
  5298 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5299 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5300 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5301 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5302 
  5303 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5304 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5305 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5306 
  5307   definition "K x _ = x"
  5308 
  5309   inductive conj for A B
  5310   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5311 
  5312 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5313 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5314 abbreviations on output.
  5315 
  5316 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5317 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5318 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5319 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5320 
  5321 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5322 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5323 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5324 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5325 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5326 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5327 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5328 
  5329 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5330 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5331 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5332 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5333 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5334 
  5335 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5336 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5337 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5338 
  5339 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5340 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5341 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5342 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5343 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5344 
  5345   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5346     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5347 
  5348 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5349 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5350 partial_order.
  5351 
  5352 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5353 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5354 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5355 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5356 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5357 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5358 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5359 examples.
  5360 
  5361 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5362 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5363 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5364 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5365 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5366 
  5367 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5368 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5369 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5370 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5371 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5372 
  5373   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5374   (induct set: foo bar)
  5375   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5376   (induct type: foo bar)
  5377 
  5378 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5379 new format.
  5380 
  5381 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5382 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5383 
  5384 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5385 considered a legacy feature.
  5386 
  5387 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5388 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5389 
  5390 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5391 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5392 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5393 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5394 
  5395 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5396 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5397 manipulating the claset.
  5398 
  5399 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5400 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5401 least one premise.
  5402 
  5403 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5404 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5405 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5406 rule steps.
  5407 
  5408 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5409 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5410 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5411 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5412 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5413 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5414 
  5415 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5416 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5417 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5418 
  5419 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5420 the graph browser tool.
  5421 
  5422 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5423 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5424 
  5425 
  5426 *** HOL ***
  5427 
  5428 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5429 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5430 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5431 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5432 multi-threading.
  5433 
  5434 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5435 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5436 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5437 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5438 work with multi-threading.
  5439 
  5440 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5441 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5442 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5443 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5444 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5445 
  5446 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5447 
  5448 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5449 equality.
  5450 
  5451 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5452 the new 'class' package:
  5453 
  5454     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5455     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5456     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5457     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5458     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5459     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5460     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5461     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5462     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5463     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5464     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5465     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5466     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5467     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5468     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5469     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5470     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5471     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5472     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5473     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5474 
  5475 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5476 
  5477 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5478 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5479 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5480 names.
  5481 
  5482 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5483 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5484 
  5485 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5486 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5487 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5488 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5489 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5490 
  5491 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5492 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5493 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5494 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5495 
  5496 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5497 
  5498 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5499 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5500 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5501 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5503 
  5504 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5505 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5506 
  5507 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5508 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5509 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5510 
  5511 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5512 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5513 
  5514 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5515 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5516 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5517 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5518 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5519 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5520 in the current context.
  5521 
  5522 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5523 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5525 
  5526 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5527 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5528 
  5529 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5530 
  5531     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5532     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5533 
  5534     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5535       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5536     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5537     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5538 
  5539     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5540     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5541 
  5542   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5543 
  5544     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5545     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5546     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5547     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5548     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5549     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5550     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5551     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5552     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5553     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5554     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5555     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5556     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5557     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5558     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5559     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5560     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5561     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5562     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5563     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5564     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5565     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5566     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5567     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5568     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5569     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5570     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5571     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5572     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5573     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5574     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5575     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5576     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5577     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5578     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5579 
  5580     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5581     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5582     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5583     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5584     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5585     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5586     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5587     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5588     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5589     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5590     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5591     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5592     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5593     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5594     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5595     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5596     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5597 
  5598     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5599     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5600     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5601     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5602     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5603     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5604     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5605     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5606     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5607     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5608     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5609     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5610     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5611     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5612     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5613     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5614     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5615     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5616     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5617     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5618     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5619     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5620     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5621     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5622     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5623     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5624     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5625     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5626 
  5627     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5628     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5629     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5630     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5631     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5632     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5633 
  5634     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5635     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5636     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5637     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5638 
  5639     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5640     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5641 
  5642     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5643     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5644 
  5645 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5646 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5647 
  5648 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5649 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5650 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5651 "*.size".
  5652 
  5653 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5655 
  5656 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5657 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5658 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5659 
  5660 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5661 
  5662 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5663 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5664 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5665 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5666 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5667 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5668 numerals on all operations.
  5669 
  5670 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5671 
  5672 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5673 
  5674 * Code generator library theories:
  5675   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5676     languages.
  5677   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5678     languages.
  5679   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5680     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5681   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5682   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5683     denominator).
  5684   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5685     representable by rational numbers.
  5686   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5687     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5688     includes Code_Integer.
  5689   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5690     target-language built-in integers.
  5691   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5692     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5693 
  5694 * New package for inductive predicates
  5695 
  5696   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5697 
  5698     inductive
  5699       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5700       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5701     where
  5702       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5703     | ...
  5704 
  5705   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5706 
  5707     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5708 
  5709     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5710     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5711 
  5712     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5713     intros
  5714       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5715       ...
  5716 
  5717   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5718   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5719 
  5720     inductive_set
  5721       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5722       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5723     where
  5724       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5725     | ...
  5726 
  5727   or
  5728 
  5729     inductive_set
  5730       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5731       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5732       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5733     where
  5734       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5735     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5736     | ...
  5737 
  5738   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5739 
  5740   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5741   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5742 
  5743   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5744 
  5745   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5746     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5747     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5748     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5749     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5750 
  5751   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5752     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5753     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5754     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5755     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5756     statements of the form
  5757 
  5758       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5759 
  5760     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5761     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5762 
  5763       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5764 
  5765   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5766 
  5767       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5768         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5769         ==> ... ==> P
  5770 
  5771     for predicates and
  5772 
  5773       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5774         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5775         ==> ... ==> P
  5776 
  5777     for sets rather than
  5778 
  5779       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5780         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5781         ==> ... ==> P
  5782 
  5783     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5784     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5785     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5786 
  5787   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5788     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5789     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5790 
  5791 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5792 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5793 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5794 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5795 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5796 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5797 
  5798 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5799 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5800 
  5801 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5802 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5803 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5804 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5805 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5806 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5807 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5808 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5809 variable.
  5810 
  5811 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5812 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5813 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5814 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5815   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5816   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5817 
  5818 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5819 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5820 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5821 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5822 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5823 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5824 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5825 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5826 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5827 
  5828 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5829 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5830 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5831 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5832 rat, etc.
  5833 
  5834 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5835 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5836 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5837 
  5838 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5839 
  5840 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5841 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5842 
  5843 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5844 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5845 
  5846 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5847 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5848 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5849 
  5850 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5851 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5853 
  5854 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5855 
  5856 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5857 
  5858 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5859 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5860 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5861 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5862 
  5863 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5864 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5865 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5866 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5867 
  5868 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5869 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5870 algebraic operations.
  5871 
  5872 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5874 
  5875 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5877 
  5878 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5879 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5880 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5881 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5882 adapted.
  5883 
  5884 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5885 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5886 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5887 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5888 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5889 
  5890 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5891 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5892 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5893 
  5894 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5895 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5896 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5897 
  5898 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5899 
  5900 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5901 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5902 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5903   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5904       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5905   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5906   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5907   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5908 
  5909 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5910 
  5911 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5912 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5913 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5914 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5915 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5916 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5917 
  5918 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5919 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5920 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5921 
  5922 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5923 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5924 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5926 
  5927 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5928 
  5929 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5930 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5931 
  5932 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5933 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5934 
  5935 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5936 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5937 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5938 
  5939 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5940 True/False.
  5941 
  5942 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5943 
  5944 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5945 
  5946 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5947 ``rule'' method.
  5948 
  5949 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5950 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5951 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5952 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5953 
  5954 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5955 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5956 
  5957 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5958 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5959 
  5960 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5961 Library.
  5962 
  5963 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5964 
  5965 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5966 as greatest fixed-point.
  5967 
  5968 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5969 association lists.
  5970 
  5971 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5972 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5973 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5974 
  5975 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5976 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5977 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5978 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5979 behavior.
  5980 
  5981 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5982 
  5983 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5984 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5985 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5986 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5987 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5988 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5989 
  5990 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5991 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5992 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5993 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5994 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5995 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5996 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5997 
  5998 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5999 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6000 
  6001 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6002 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6003 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6004 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6005 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6006 
  6007 
  6008 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6009 
  6010 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6011 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6012 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6013 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6014 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6015 
  6016 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6017 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6018 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6019 
  6020 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6021 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6022 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6023 
  6024 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6025 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6026 
  6027 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6028 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6029 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6031 
  6032   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6033   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6034   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6035   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6036   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6037   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6038   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6039   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6040   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6041   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6042   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6043   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6044   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6045   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6046   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6047 
  6048 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6049 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6050 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6051 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6052 
  6053   approx        <-- capprox
  6054   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6055   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6056   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6057   monad         <-- cmonad
  6058   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6059   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6060   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6061   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6062 
  6063 
  6064 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6065 
  6066 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6067 
  6068 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6070 
  6071 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6072 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6073 
  6074 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6075 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6076 of algebraic structures.
  6077 
  6078 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6079 
  6080 
  6081 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6082 
  6083 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6084 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6085 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6086 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6087 
  6088 
  6089 *** ML ***
  6090 
  6091 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6092 (even on SML/NJ).
  6093 
  6094 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6095 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6096 compile-time.  For example:
  6097 
  6098 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6099 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6100 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6101 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6102 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6103 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6104 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6105 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6106 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6107 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6108 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6109 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6110 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6111 ML {* @{context} *}
  6112 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6113 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6114 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6115 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6116 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6117 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6118 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6119 
  6120 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6121 
  6122 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6123 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6124 
  6125 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6126 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6127 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6128 
  6129 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6130 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6131 
  6132 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6133 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6134 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6135 
  6136 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6137 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6138 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6139 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6140 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6141 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6142 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6143 declarations and definitions.
  6144 
  6145 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6146 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6147 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6148 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6149 
  6150 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6151 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6152 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6153 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6154 
  6155 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6156 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6157 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6158 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6159 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6160 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6161 
  6162 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6163 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6164 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6165 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6166 attributes, methods, etc.
  6167 
  6168 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6169 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6170 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6171 fold_map combinators.
  6172 
  6173 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6174 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6175 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6176 derivation.
  6177 
  6178 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6179 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6180 achieve the old behaviour.
  6181 
  6182 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6183 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6184 statements.
  6185 
  6186 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6187 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6188 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6189 
  6190 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6191 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6192 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6193 
  6194   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6195   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6196   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6197 
  6198 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6199 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6200 
  6201 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6202 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6203 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6204 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6205 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6206 
  6207 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6208 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6209 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6210 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6211 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6212 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6213 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6214 in a locale context).
  6215 
  6216 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6217 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6218 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6219 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6220 
  6221 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6222 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6223 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6224 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6225 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6226 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6227 
  6228 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6229 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6230 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6231 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6232 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6233 
  6234   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6235 
  6236 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6237 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6238 this:
  6239