NEWS
author haftmann
Wed Apr 18 20:48:15 2012 +0200 (2012-04-18)
changeset 47554 10c92d6a3caf
parent 47552 bd6c65d46b85
child 47563 01f687b84aff
permissions -rw-r--r--
dropped errorneous NEWS entry
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
     5 ------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10 
    11   - markup for bound variables
    12   - markup for types of term variables (e.g. displayed as tooltips)
    13   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    14   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
    15     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
    16 
    17 * Updated and extended reference manuals ("isar-ref" and
    18 "implementation"); reduced remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    19 
    20 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    21 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    22 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    23 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    24 etc. was exploited.
    25 
    26 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    27 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    28 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    29 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    30 indices of schematic variables.
    31 
    32 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
    33 
    34     num ~> num_token
    35     xnum ~> xnum_token
    36     xstr ~> str_token
    37 
    38 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
    39 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
    40 position information via constraints).
    41 
    42 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
    43 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
    44 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    45 
    46 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    47 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    48 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    49 
    50 
    51 *** Pure ***
    52 
    53 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
    54 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
    55 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
    56 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
    57 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
    58 
    59   context
    60     fixes x y z :: 'a
    61     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
    62   begin
    63 
    64   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
    65 
    66   end
    67 
    68   thm my_trans
    69 
    70 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
    71 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
    72 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
    73 
    74 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
    75 ... begin ... end" block as well.
    76 
    77 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
    78 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
    79 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
    80 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.
    81 
    82 See commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref
    83 manual.
    84 
    85 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
    86 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
    87 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
    88 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
    89 
    90 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
    91 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
    92 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
    93 
    94 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
    95 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
    96 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
    97 undocumented feature.)
    98 
    99 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   100 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   101 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   102 
   103 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   104 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   105 
   106 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   107 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   108 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   109 
   110 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   111 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   114 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   115 
   116   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   117 
   118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   119 
   120 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   121 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   122 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   123 
   124   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   125 
   126   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   127     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   128 
   129 
   130 *** HOL ***
   131 
   132 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL" ("prog-prove").
   133 It completely supercedes "A Tutorial Introduction to Structured Isar Proofs",
   134 which has been removed. It supercedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant
   135 for Higher-Order Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial
   136 but does not cover all of the material of that old tutorial.
   137 
   138 * Discontinued old Tutorial on Isar ("isar-overview");
   139 
   140 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   141 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   142 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   143 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase sets S accidentally
   144 used as predicates by "%x. x : S" and predicates P accidentally used
   145 as sets by "{x. P x}".  Corresponding proofs in a first step should be
   146 pruned from any tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def
   147 as far as possible.
   148 
   149 For developments which deliberately mixed predicates and sets, a
   150 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   151 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   152 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   153 
   154 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   155 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   156 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   157 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. (See definitions
   158 in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.) Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some user theories
   159 may require adaptations as follows:
   160 
   161   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   162     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   163 
   164   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   165     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   166     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   167 
   168   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   169     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   170 
   171   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   172     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   173     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   174 
   175   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   176     Redefine using other integer operations.
   177 
   178 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   179 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * New proof import from HOL Light: Faster, simpler, and more scalable.
   182 Requires a proof bundle, which is available as an external component.
   183 Discontinued old (and mostly dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.
   184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185 
   186 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   187 
   188 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   189 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   190 of some relation theorems:
   191 
   192   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   193   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   194   symp_def ~> (dropped, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   195   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   196   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   197   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   198 
   199 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   200 
   201 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   202 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   203 
   204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   207 to match the constant's name:
   208 
   209   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   210   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   211   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   212   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   213   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   214   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   215   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   216   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   217   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   218   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   219   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   220   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   221   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   222   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   223   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   224   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   225   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   226   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   227   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   228   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   229   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   230   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   231   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   232   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   233 
   234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   237 and corresponding theorem names:
   238 
   239   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   240 
   241   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   242 
   243   - Renamed theorems:
   244 
   245     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   246     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   247     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   248     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   249     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   250     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   251     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   252     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   253     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   254     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   255     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   256     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   257     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   258     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   259     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   260     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   261     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   262     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   263     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   264     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   265     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   266     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   267     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   268 
   269     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   270 
   271     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   272 
   273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   274 
   275 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   276 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   277 
   278   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   279   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   280   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   281   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   282   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   283   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   284   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   285   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   286   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   287   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   288   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   289   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   290   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   291   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   292   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   293   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   294   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   295   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   296   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   297   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   298   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   299 
   300 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   301 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   302 
   303 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   306 
   307   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   308   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   309   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   310   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   311   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   312   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   313   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   314   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   315   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   316   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   317   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   318   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   319   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   320   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   321   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   322   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   323   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   324   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   325 
   326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   327 
   328 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   329 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   330 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   331 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   332 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   333 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   334 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   335 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   336 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   337 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   338 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   339 
   340 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   341 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   342 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   343 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   344 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   345 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   346 
   347 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   348 through option types.
   349 
   350 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   351 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   352 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   353 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   354 one_case.
   355 
   356 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   357 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   358 
   359 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   360 association lists with distinct keys.
   361 
   362 * 'datatype' specifications allow explicit sort constraints.
   363 
   364 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   365 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   366 
   367 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   368 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   369 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   370 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   371 follows:
   372 
   373   Operations:
   374   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   375   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   376   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   377   del -> rbt_del
   378   delete -> rbt_delete
   379   ins -> rbt_ins
   380   insert -> rbt_insert
   381   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   382   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   383   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   384   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   385   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   386   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   387   tree_less -> rbt_less
   388   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   389   union -> rbt_union
   390   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   391   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   392 
   393   Lemmas:
   394   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   395   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   396   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   397   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   398   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   399   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   400   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   401   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   402   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   403   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   404   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   405   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   406   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   407   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   408   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   409   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   410   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   411   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   412   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   413   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   414   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   415   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   416   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   417   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   418   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   419   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   420   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   421   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   422   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   423   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   424   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   425   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   426   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   427   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   428   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   429   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   430   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   431   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   432   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   433   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   434   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   435   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   436   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   437   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   438   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   439   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   440   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   441   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   442   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   443   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   444   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   445   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   446   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   447   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   448   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   449   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   450   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   451   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   452   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   453   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   454   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   455   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   456   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   457   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   458   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   459   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   460   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   461   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   462   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   463   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   464   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   465   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   466   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   467   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   468   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   469   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   470   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   471   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   472   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   473   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   474   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   475   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   476   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   477 
   478 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   479 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   480 instead.
   481 
   482   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   483   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   484   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   485   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   486   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   487   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   488   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   489   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   490   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   491   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   492   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   493   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   494   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   495   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   496   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   497   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   498   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   499   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   500   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   501   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   502   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   503   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   504   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   505   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   506   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   507   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   508   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   509   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   510   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   511   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   512   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   513   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   514   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   515   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   516   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   517   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   518   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   519   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   520   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   521   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   522   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   523 
   524 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   525 the result of the fact expression.
   526 
   527 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   528 relations.
   529 
   530 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   531 
   532 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   533 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   534 
   535   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   536   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   537   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   538   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   539   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   540   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   541   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   542   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   543   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   544   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   545   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   546   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   547   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   548   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   549   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   550   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   551   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   552   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   553   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   554   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   555   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   556   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   557   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   558   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   559   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   560   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   561   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   562   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   563   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   564   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   565   zless_le ~> less_le
   566   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   567   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   568   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   569 
   570 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   571 
   572   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   573 
   574 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   575 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   576 
   577   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   578 
   579 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   580 a list and a nat.
   581 
   582 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   583 
   584 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   585 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   586 
   587 * Quickcheck:
   588 
   589   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   590     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   591     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   592     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   593     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   594 
   595     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   596     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   597     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   598 
   599     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   600     continues searching for genuine ones.
   601 
   602     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   603     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   604     show genuine counterexamples.
   605 
   606   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   607     value generators for a given type and operations.
   608 
   609     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   610     constructors of that type.
   611 
   612   - Support for multisets.
   613 
   614   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   615 
   616   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   617     conjectures in a locale context.
   618 
   619 * Nitpick:
   620 
   621   - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and
   622     affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   623 
   624 * Sledgehammer:
   625   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   626   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   627   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   628 
   629 * Metis:
   630   - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   631     parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   632 
   633 * SMT:
   634   - renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   635 
   636 * Command 'try0':
   637   - Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   638 
   639 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   640 eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.
   641 
   642 * HOL/TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all languages)
   643 into Isabelle/HOL.
   644 
   645 
   646 *** FOL ***
   647 
   648 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
   649 
   650 
   651 *** ZF ***
   652 
   653 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
   654 analysis.
   655 
   656 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
   657 
   658 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   659 
   660 
   661 *** ML ***
   662 
   663 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
   664 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
   665 
   666 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
   667 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
   668 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
   669 
   670 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
   671 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
   672 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
   673 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
   674 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
   675 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
   676 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
   677 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
   678 
   679 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
   680 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
   681 
   682 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
   683 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
   684 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
   685 
   686 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   687 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   688 
   689 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
   690 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
   691 context as well.
   692 
   693 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
   694 
   695   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
   696   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
   697   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
   698   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
   699   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
   700   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
   701   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
   702   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
   703   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
   704   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
   705   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
   706   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
   707 
   708 
   709 *** System ***
   710 
   711 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
   712 (not just JRE).
   713 
   714 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
   715 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
   716 
   717 
   718 
   719 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
   720 ------------------------------------
   721 
   722 *** General ***
   723 
   724 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
   725 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
   726 
   727   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
   728     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
   729     files for checking).
   730 
   731   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
   732     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
   733     positions.
   734 
   735   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
   736     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
   737     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
   738 
   739   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
   740     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
   741     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
   742 
   743   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
   744     cores.
   745 
   746   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
   747     versions (garbage collection).
   748 
   749 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
   750 including some remaining limitations.
   751 
   752 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
   753 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   754 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
   755 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
   756 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
   757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   758 
   759 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
   760 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
   761 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
   762 
   763 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
   764 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
   765 usedir option -Q.
   766 
   767 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
   768 configuration options, with more conventional names:
   769 
   770   long_names   ~> names_long
   771   short_names  ~> names_short
   772   unique_names ~> names_unique
   773 
   774 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
   775 
   776   declare [[names_unique = false]]
   777 
   778 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
   779 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
   780 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
   781 
   782 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
   783 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
   784 
   785 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
   786   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
   787   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
   788   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
   789     "Classical Reasoner".
   790 
   791 
   792 *** HOL ***
   793 
   794 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
   795 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   796 
   797 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
   798 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
   799 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
   800 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
   801 class complete_linorder.
   802 
   803 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
   804 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
   805 
   806 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
   807 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
   808 
   809   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
   810   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
   811   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   812   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   813   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   814   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   815   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
   816   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
   817   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
   818   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
   819   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
   820 
   821 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   822 
   823   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
   824   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
   825   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   826   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   827   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   828   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   829   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   830   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   831   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   832   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   833   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   834   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   835   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   836   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   837   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   838   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   839 
   840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   841 
   842 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
   843 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   844 
   845 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
   846 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
   847 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
   848 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   849 
   850 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
   851 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
   852 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
   853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   854 
   855 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   856 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   857 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   858 
   859 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   860 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   861 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   862 
   863 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   864 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   865 
   866 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   867 
   868     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   869     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   870 
   871 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   872 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   873 
   874 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   875 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   876 
   877 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   878 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   879 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   880 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   881 
   882   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   883   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   884   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   885   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   886   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   887   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   888   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   889 
   890 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   891 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   892 
   893   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
   894   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
   895   real_less_def ~> less_le
   896   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
   897   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
   898   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   899   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   900   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   901   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   902   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   903   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
   904   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
   905   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
   906   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
   907   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
   908   real_le_linear ~> linear
   909   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
   910   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   911   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
   912   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
   913   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   914   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   915   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   916   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   917   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   918   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   919   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   920   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   921   expi_add ~> exp_add
   922   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   923   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   924   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   925   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   926   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   927   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   928   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   929   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   930   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   931   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   932   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   933   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   934   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   935   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   936   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   937   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   938   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   939   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   940   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   941   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   942   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   943   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   944   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   945   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   946   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   947   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   948   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   949   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   950   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   951   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   952   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   953   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   954   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   955   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   956   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   957   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   958   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   959   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   960   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   961   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   962   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   963   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   964   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   965   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   966   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   967   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   968   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   969   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   970   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   971   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   972   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   973   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   974   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   975 
   976 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
   977 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
   978 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
   979 
   980 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
   981 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
   982 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
   983 
   984 * Code generation:
   985 
   986   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
   987     characters in the target language.
   988 
   989   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
   990     instead.
   991 
   992   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
   993 
   994   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
   995     reactivated by the following theory command:
   996 
   997       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
   998 
   999 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1000 
  1001 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1002 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1003 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1004 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1005 syntax.
  1006 
  1007 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1008 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1009 
  1010 * Nitpick:
  1011   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1012   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1013   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1014     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1015 
  1016 * Sledgehammer:
  1017   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1018   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1019     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1020   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1021     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1022   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1023     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1024   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1025     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1026   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1027     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1028 
  1029 * Metis:
  1030   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1031   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1032     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1033 
  1034 * Command 'try':
  1035   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1036     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1037   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1038     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1039 
  1040 * Quickcheck:
  1041   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1042     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1043   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1044     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1045   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1046     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1047     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1048     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1049   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1050     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1051 
  1052 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1053 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1054 
  1055 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1056 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1057 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1058 
  1059 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1060 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1062 
  1063 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1064 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1065 
  1066 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1067 arithmetic.
  1068 
  1069 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1070 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1071 and lattice type classes.
  1072 
  1073 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1074 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1075 
  1076 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1077 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1078 
  1079 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1080 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1081 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1082 
  1083   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1084   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1085   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1086   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1087 
  1088 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1089 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1090 constants:
  1091 
  1092   type inat   ~> type enat
  1093   Fin         ~> enat
  1094   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1095   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1096   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1097 
  1098 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1099 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1100 
  1101 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1102 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1103 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1104 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1105 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1106 
  1107 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1108 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1109 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1110 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1111 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1112 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1113 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1114 
  1115   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1116   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1117   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1118   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1119 
  1120 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1121 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1122 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1123 
  1124   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1125   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1126   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1127   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1128   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1129   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1130   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1131   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1132   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1133   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1134   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1135   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1136   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1137   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1138   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1139   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1140   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1141   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1142   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1143   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1144   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1145   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1146   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1147   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1148   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1149   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1150   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1151   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1152   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1153   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1154   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1155   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1156   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1157   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1158   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1159   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1160   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1161   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1162   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1163   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1164   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1165   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1166   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1167   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1168   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1169   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1170   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1171   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1172   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1173   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1174   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1175 
  1176 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1177   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1178   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1179   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1180   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1181     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1182 
  1183 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1184 
  1185   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1186   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1187   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1188   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1189   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1190   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1191   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1192   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1193   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1194   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1195   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1196   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1197   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1198   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1199   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1200   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1201   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1202   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1203   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1204   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1205   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1206   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1207   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1208   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1209   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1210 
  1211 
  1212 *** Document preparation ***
  1213 
  1214 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1215 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1216 same.
  1217 
  1218 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1219 result.
  1220 
  1221 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1222 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1223 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1224 
  1225 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1226 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1227 
  1228 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1229 like this:
  1230 
  1231   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1232   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1233 
  1234 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1235 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1236 layouts.
  1237 
  1238 
  1239 *** ML ***
  1240 
  1241 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1242 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1243 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1244 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1245 under external program control.
  1246 
  1247 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1248 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1249 
  1250 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1251 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1252 (better known as Proof General).
  1253 
  1254 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1255 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1256 
  1257 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1258 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1259 
  1260 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1261 (including quotes etc.).
  1262 
  1263 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1264 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1265 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1266 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1267 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1268 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1269 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1270 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1271 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1272 
  1273 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1274 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1275 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1276 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1277 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1278 
  1279 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1280 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1281 
  1282 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1283 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1284 
  1285 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1286 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1287 
  1288 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1289 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1290 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1291 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1292 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1293 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1294 proper Proof.context.
  1295 
  1296 
  1297 *** System ***
  1298 
  1299 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1300 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1301 
  1302 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1303 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1304 
  1305 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1306 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1307 
  1308   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1309   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1310   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1311   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1312   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1313 
  1314 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1315 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1316 
  1317 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1318 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1319 example:
  1320 
  1321   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1322 
  1323 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1324 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1325 
  1326 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1327 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1328 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1329 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1330 
  1331 
  1332 
  1333 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1334 ----------------------------------
  1335 
  1336 *** General ***
  1337 
  1338 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1339 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1340 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1341 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1342 like this:
  1343 
  1344   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1345 
  1346 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1347 
  1348 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1349 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1350 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1351 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1352 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1353 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1354 
  1355 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1356 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1357 the following package declarations:
  1358 
  1359   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1360   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1361 
  1362 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1363 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1364 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1365 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1366 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1367 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1368 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1369 
  1370 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1371 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1372 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1373 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1374 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1375 
  1376 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1377 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1378 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1379 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1380 
  1381 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1382 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1383 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1384 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1385 
  1386   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1387 
  1388   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1389   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1390   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1391   show_types                    show_types
  1392   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1393   show_consts                   show_consts
  1394   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1395 
  1396   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1397   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1398   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1399 
  1400   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1401   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1402 
  1403   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1404 
  1405   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1406   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1407   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1408   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1409   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1410 
  1411 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1412 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1413 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1414 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1415 
  1416 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1418 
  1419   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1420   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1421 
  1422 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1423 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1424 float_token.
  1425 
  1426 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1427 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1429 
  1430 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1431 DejaVu Sans.
  1432 
  1433 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1434 
  1435 
  1436 *** Pure ***
  1437 
  1438 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1439 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1440 time.
  1441 
  1442 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1443 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1444 
  1445 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1446 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1447 
  1448 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1449 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1450 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1451 command already provided this functionality.
  1452 
  1453 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1454 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1455 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1456 without interpretations.
  1457 
  1458 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1459 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1460 
  1461 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1462 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1463 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1464 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1465 
  1466 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1467 'definition' instead.
  1468 
  1469 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1470 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1471 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1472 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1473 
  1474 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1475 constructors.
  1476 
  1477 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1478 the local file system.
  1479 
  1480 
  1481 *** HOL ***
  1482 
  1483 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1484 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1485 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1486 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1487 
  1488   declare [[coercion f]]
  1489 
  1490 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1491 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1492 
  1493   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1494 
  1495 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1496 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1497 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1498 other theories like this:
  1499 
  1500   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1501 
  1502 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1503 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1504 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1505 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1506 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1507 for examples.
  1508 
  1509 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1510 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511 
  1512 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1513 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1514 
  1515 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1516 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1517 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1518 
  1519 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1520 functorial structure of types.
  1521 
  1522 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1523 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1524 
  1525 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1526 languages.
  1527 
  1528 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1529 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1530 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1531 
  1532 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1533 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1534 
  1535 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1536 combinators any longer.
  1537 
  1538 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1539 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1540 
  1541 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1542 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1543 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1544 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1545 
  1546   record 'a foo = ...
  1547   ...
  1548   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1549 
  1550 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1551 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1552 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1553 
  1554 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1555 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1556 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1557 
  1558 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1559 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1560 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1561 
  1562 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1563 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1564 
  1565 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1566 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1567 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1568 independently.
  1569 
  1570 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1571 counter example search.
  1572 
  1573 * Sledgehammer:
  1574   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1575     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1576     sledgehammer").
  1577   - Renamed commands:
  1578     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1579     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1580     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1581     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1582   - Renamed options:
  1583     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1584     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1585     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1586     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1587     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1588 
  1589 * Nitpick:
  1590   - Renamed options:
  1591     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1592     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1593     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1594   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1595   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1596   - Added "whack" option.
  1597   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1598   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1599   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1600   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1601     higher cardinalities.
  1602   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1603 
  1604 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1605 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1606 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1607 
  1608     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1609 
  1610 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1611 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1612 
  1613 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1614 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1615 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1616 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1617 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1618 "smt_solver".
  1619 
  1620 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1621 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1622 
  1623 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1624 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1625 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1626 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1627 
  1628 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1629   - Renamed:
  1630     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1631     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1632     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1633   - Added:
  1634     smt_verbose
  1635     smt_random_seed
  1636     smt_datatypes
  1637     smt_infer_triggers
  1638     smt_monomorph_limit
  1639     cvc3_options
  1640     remote_cvc3_options
  1641     remote_z3_options
  1642     yices_options
  1643 
  1644 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  1645 header.
  1646 
  1647 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  1648 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  1649 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  1650 
  1651   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  1652 
  1653 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1654 
  1655 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  1656 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1657 
  1658 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1659 
  1660 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  1661 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1662 
  1663 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  1664 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  1665 
  1666 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  1667 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1668 
  1669 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  1670 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  1671 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1672 
  1673 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1674 
  1675 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  1676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1677 
  1678 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  1679 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1680 
  1681 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  1682 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  1683 for congruent(2)).
  1684 
  1685 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  1686 
  1687   types
  1688     bool ~> HOL.bool
  1689     nat ~> Nat.nat
  1690 
  1691   constants
  1692     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  1693     True ~> HOL.True
  1694     False ~> HOL.False
  1695     op & ~> HOL.conj
  1696     op | ~> HOL.disj
  1697     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  1698     op = ~> HOL.eq
  1699     Not ~> HOL.Not
  1700     The ~> HOL.The
  1701     All ~> HOL.All
  1702     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  1703     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  1704     Let ~> HOL.Let
  1705     If ~> HOL.If
  1706     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  1707     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  1708     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  1709     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  1710     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  1711     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  1712     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  1713     op : ~> Set.member
  1714     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  1715 
  1716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1717 
  1718 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  1719 
  1720     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  1721     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  1722     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  1723     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  1724     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  1725     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  1726     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  1727     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  1728 
  1729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1730 
  1731 * More stylized fact names:
  1732 
  1733   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  1734   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  1735   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  1736   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  1737 
  1738 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1739 
  1740 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  1741 
  1742   constants
  1743     null ~> List.null
  1744 
  1745   facts
  1746     mem_iff ~> member_def
  1747     null_empty ~> null_def
  1748 
  1749 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  1750 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  1751 generation.
  1752 
  1753 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  1754 Haskell code.
  1755 
  1756 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  1757 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  1758 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1759 
  1760 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  1761 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1762 
  1763 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  1764 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  1765 
  1766 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  1767 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  1768 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1769 
  1770 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  1771 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1772 
  1773 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  1774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1775 
  1776 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  1777 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  1778 referred to by its qualified name.
  1779 
  1780   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1781   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1782   product ~>  Enum.product
  1783 
  1784 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1785 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1787 
  1788 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1789 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1790 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1792 
  1793 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1794 sort_key.
  1795 
  1796 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1797 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1798 
  1799 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1800 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1801 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1802 
  1803   types
  1804     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1805               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1806               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1807         (depends on your needs)
  1808 
  1809   constants
  1810      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1811      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1812      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1813 
  1814 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1815 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1816 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1817 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1818 
  1819 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1820 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1821 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1822 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1823 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1824 
  1825 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1827 
  1828 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1829 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1830 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1831 
  1832 
  1833 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1834 
  1835 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1836 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1837 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1838 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  1839 compatibility.
  1840 
  1841 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1842 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1843 
  1844 
  1845 *** HOLCF ***
  1846 
  1847 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1848 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1849 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1851 
  1852 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1853 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1854 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1855 
  1856   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1857   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1858   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1859 
  1860 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1861 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1862 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1863 
  1864 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1865 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1866 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1867 domain definition now works:
  1868 
  1869   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1870 
  1871 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1872 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1873 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1874 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1875 
  1876   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1877     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1878 
  1879   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1880 
  1881 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1882 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1883 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1884 
  1885 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1886 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1887 
  1888 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1889 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1890 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1891 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1892 
  1893 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1894 
  1895 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1896 
  1897 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1898 
  1899 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1901 
  1902 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1903 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1904 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1905 
  1906 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1907 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1908 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1909 
  1910 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1911 still supported as an input translation.
  1912 
  1913 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1914 
  1915   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1916   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1917   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1918   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1919   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1920   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1921   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1922 
  1923 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1924 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1925 
  1926   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1927   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1928   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1929   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1930   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1931   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1932 
  1933 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1934 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1935 
  1936 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1937 
  1938   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1939   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1940   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1941   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1942 
  1943 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1944 
  1945 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1946 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1947 
  1948 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1949 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1950 
  1951   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1952   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1953   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1954   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1955   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1956   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1957   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1958   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1959   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1960   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1961   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1962   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1963   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1964   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1965   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1966   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1967   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1968   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1969   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1970   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1971 
  1972 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1973 
  1974   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1975   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1976   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1977   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1978   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1979   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1980   box_less             ~> box_below
  1981   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1982   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1983   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  1984   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  1985   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  1986   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  1987   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  1988   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  1989   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  1990   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  1991   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  1992   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  1993   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  1994   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  1995   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  1996   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  1997   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  1998   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  1999   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2000   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2001   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2002   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2003   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2004   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2005   up_less              ~> up_below
  2006   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2007   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2008   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2009   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2010   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2011   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2012   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2013   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2014   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2015   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2016   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2017   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2018   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2019 
  2020 
  2021 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2022 
  2023 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2024 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2025 
  2026 
  2027 *** ML ***
  2028 
  2029 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2030 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2031 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2032 
  2033 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2034 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2035 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2036 
  2037 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2038 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2039 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2040 
  2041 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2042 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2043 
  2044 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2045 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2046 
  2047 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2048 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2049 
  2050 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2051 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2052 
  2053 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2054 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2055 almost all situations.
  2056 
  2057 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2058 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2059 Isabelle/ML.
  2060 
  2061 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2062 meaning.
  2063 
  2064 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2065 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2066 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2067 
  2068 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2069 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2070 
  2071 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2072 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2073 
  2074 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2075 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2076 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2077 
  2078 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2079 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2080 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2081 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2082 configuration options.
  2083 
  2084 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2085 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2086 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2087 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2088 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2089 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2090 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2091 
  2092 
  2093 
  2094 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2095 ---------------------------------
  2096 
  2097 *** General ***
  2098 
  2099 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2100 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2101 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2102 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2103 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2104 their full internal name.
  2105 
  2106 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2107 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2108 Some hints on upgrading:
  2109 
  2110   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2111     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2112     which are independent of this issue.
  2113 
  2114   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2115     provides the following special forms:
  2116 
  2117       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2118       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2119       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2120 
  2121     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2122     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2123     extra variables".
  2124 
  2125     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2126     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2127     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2128     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2129     "logic".
  2130 
  2131   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2132     antiquotations:
  2133 
  2134       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2135       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2136       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2137       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2138 
  2139   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2140     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2141     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2142     antiquotations.
  2143 
  2144 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2145 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2146 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2147 diagnose syntax problems.
  2148 
  2149 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2150 
  2151 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2152 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2153 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2154 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2155 
  2156 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2157 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2158 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2159 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2160 
  2161 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2162 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2163 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2164 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2165 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2166 
  2167 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2168 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2169 
  2170 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2171 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2172 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2173 
  2174   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2175 
  2176 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2177 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2178 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2179 
  2180 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2181 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2183 
  2184 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2185 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2186 
  2187 
  2188 *** Pure ***
  2189 
  2190 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2191 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2192 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2193 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2194 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2195 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2196 inspect proof terms.
  2197 
  2198 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2199 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2200 are added internally.  For example:
  2201 
  2202   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2203 
  2204 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2205 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2206 
  2207 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2208 
  2209 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2210 'class' instead.
  2211 
  2212 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2213 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2215 
  2216 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2217 invariants.
  2218 
  2219 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2220 user space functionality any longer.
  2221 
  2222 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2223 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2225 
  2226 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2227 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2228 
  2229 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2230 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2231 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2232 
  2233 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2234 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2235 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2236 
  2237 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2238 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2239 
  2240 
  2241 *** HOL ***
  2242 
  2243 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2244 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2245 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2246 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2247 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2248 
  2249 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2250 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2251 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2252 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2253 
  2254   fun
  2255     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2256   where
  2257     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2258 
  2259   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2260     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2261 
  2262   quotient_definition
  2263     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2264 
  2265 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2266 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2267 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2268 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2269 
  2270 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2271 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2272 
  2273 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2274 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2275 
  2276 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2277 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2278 
  2279 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2280 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2281 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2282 
  2283 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2284 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2285 
  2286 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2288 
  2289 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2291 
  2292 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2293 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2294 
  2295 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2296 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2297 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2298 
  2299   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2300   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2301   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2302   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2303   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2304   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2305   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2306   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2307   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2308   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2309   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2310   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2311   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2312   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2313   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2314   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2315   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2316   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2317   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2318   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2319   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2320   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2321   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2322   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2323   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2324   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2325   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2326   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2327   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2328   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2329 
  2330 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2331 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2332 
  2333 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2334 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2335 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2336 
  2337 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2338 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2339 
  2340 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2341 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2342 
  2343 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2344 
  2345 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2346 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2347 
  2348 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2349 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2350 
  2351 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2352 
  2353 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2354 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2355 
  2356 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2357 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2358 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2359 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2360 
  2361 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2362   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2363   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2364   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2368 lattices):
  2369 
  2370     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2371     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2372 
  2373     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2374 
  2375     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2376     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2377     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2378     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2379     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2380     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2381     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2382     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2383     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2384     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2385     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2386     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2387     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2388 
  2389     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2390     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2391     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2392     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2393     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2394     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2395     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2396     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2397     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2398     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2399     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2400     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2401     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2402     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2403     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2404     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2405     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2406     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2407 
  2408   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2409   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2410 
  2411     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2412     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2413     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2414     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2415     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2416 
  2417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2418 
  2419 * Refined field classes:
  2420   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2421     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2422     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2423   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2425 
  2426 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2427   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2428   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2429   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2430     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2431   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2432     equal_neg_zero.
  2433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2434 
  2435 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2436 sets to lattices:
  2437 
  2438   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2439   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2440   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2441   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2442   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2443   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2444   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2445   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2446   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2447   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2448 
  2449 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2450 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2451 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2452 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2453 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2454 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2455 
  2456 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2457 multiset order:
  2458 
  2459   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2460     <= and <;
  2461   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2462     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2463     multiset_order;
  2464   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2465     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2466     generation;
  2467   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2468     if needed.
  2469 
  2470 Renamed:
  2471 
  2472   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2473   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2474   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2475 
  2476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2477 
  2478 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2479 
  2480 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2481 
  2482 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2483 
  2484 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2485 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2486 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2487 
  2488   Constants:
  2489   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2490   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2491   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2492   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2493   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2494   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2495   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2496   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2497   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2498   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2499   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2500   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2501   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2502 
  2503   Lemmas:
  2504   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2505   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2506   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2507   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2508   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2509   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2510   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2511   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2512   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2513   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2514   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2515   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2516   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2517 
  2518 * Sledgehammer:
  2519   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2520     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2521     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2522     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2523     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2524     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2525     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2526   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2527   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2528     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2529   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2530     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2531     is still experimental.)
  2532   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2533     full-typed mode.
  2534   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2535 
  2536 * Nitpick:
  2537   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2538   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2539   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2540     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2541   - Added support for quotient types.
  2542   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2543     constructs.
  2544   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2545     "termination" proofs).
  2546   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2547   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2548   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2549   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2550     record getters.
  2551   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2552   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2553   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2554   - Added "atoms" option.
  2555   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2556     problems.
  2557   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2558     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2559     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2560   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2561     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2562   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2563 
  2564 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2565   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2566   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2567   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2568   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2569   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2570   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2571   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2572   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2573   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2574 
  2575 
  2576 *** HOLCF ***
  2577 
  2578 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2579 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2580 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2581 
  2582 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2583 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2584 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2585 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2586 
  2587 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2588 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2589 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2590 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2591 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2592 
  2593 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2594 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2595 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2596 
  2597 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2598 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2599 
  2600   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2601   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2602 
  2603 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2604 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2605 
  2606   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2607   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2608   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2609   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2610   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2611 
  2612 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2613 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2614 
  2615   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2616   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2617   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2618 
  2619 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2620 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2622 
  2623 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2624 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2625 
  2626 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2627 
  2628 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2629 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2630 
  2631 
  2632 *** ML ***
  2633 
  2634 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2635 
  2636     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2637     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2638 
  2639     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  2640     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  2641     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  2642     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2643 
  2644     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  2645     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  2646     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2647 
  2648 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  2649 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  2650 
  2651 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  2652 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  2653 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  2654 
  2655 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  2656 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  2657 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  2658 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  2659 
  2660 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  2661 the context or even global references.
  2662 
  2663 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  2664 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  2665 
  2666 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  2667 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  2668 
  2669   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  2670   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  2671   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  2672   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  2673   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  2674   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  2675   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  2676   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  2677   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  2678   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  2679 
  2680 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  2681 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  2682 
  2683 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  2684 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  2685 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  2686 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  2687 pass the proper local context through the code!
  2688 
  2689 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  2690 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  2691 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  2692 Theory_Data version.
  2693 
  2694 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  2695 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  2696 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  2697 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  2698 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  2699 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  2700 explicitly in rare situations.
  2701 
  2702 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  2703 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  2704 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2705 
  2706 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  2707 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2708 
  2709 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  2710 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  2711 quite rare).
  2712 
  2713 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  2714 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2715 
  2716 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  2717 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  2718 terms.
  2719 
  2720 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  2721 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  2722 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  2723 
  2724 
  2725 *** System ***
  2726 
  2727 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  2728 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  2729 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  2730 
  2731 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  2732 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  2733 respectively.
  2734 
  2735 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  2736 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  2737 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  2738 prefers 64 bit if available:
  2739 
  2740   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  2741 
  2742 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  2743 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  2744 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  2745 component.
  2746 
  2747 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  2748 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  2749 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  2750 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  2751 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  2752 the user for manual installation.
  2753 
  2754 
  2755 
  2756 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  2757 -------------------------------------
  2758 
  2759 *** General ***
  2760 
  2761 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  2762 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  2763 
  2764 
  2765 *** Pure ***
  2766 
  2767 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  2768 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  2769 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  2770 
  2771 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  2772 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  2773 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  2774 
  2775 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  2776 interpretation.
  2777 
  2778 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  2779 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2780 
  2781 
  2782 *** Document preparation ***
  2783 
  2784 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2785 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2786 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2787 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2788 
  2789 
  2790 *** HOL ***
  2791 
  2792 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2793 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2794 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2795 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2796 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2797 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2798 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2799 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2800 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2801 
  2802 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2803 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2804 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2805 
  2806 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2807 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2808 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2809 
  2810 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2811 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2812 
  2813 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2814 
  2815 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2816 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2817 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2818 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2819 
  2820 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2821 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2822 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2823 "mirabelle" utility.
  2824 
  2825 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2826 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2827 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2828 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2829 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2830 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2831 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2832 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2833 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2834 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2835 
  2836 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2837 procedure only.
  2838 
  2839 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  2840 
  2841 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2842 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2843 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2844 that fail later.
  2845 
  2846 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2847 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2848 
  2849 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2850 the same method as the approximation method.
  2851 
  2852 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2853 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2854 series expansion.
  2855 
  2856 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2857 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2858 
  2859 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2860 reals.
  2861 
  2862 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2863 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2864 
  2865 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2866 fixpoint theorem.
  2867 
  2868 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2869   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2870     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2871   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2872     accordingly
  2873   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2874     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2875   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2876     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2877 
  2878 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2879 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2880 lattice.
  2881 
  2882 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2883 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2884 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2885 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2886 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2887 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2889 
  2890 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2891   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2892     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2893   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2894     le_inf_iff
  2895   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2896     sup_aci)
  2897   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2898   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2899   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2900     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2901     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2902     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2903     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2904     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2905     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2906     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2907     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2908     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2909     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2910   - authentic syntax for
  2911     Set.Pow
  2912     Set.image
  2913   - mere abbreviations:
  2914     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2915     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2916     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2917     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2918     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2919     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2920     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2921     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2922   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2923 
  2924 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2925 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2926 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2927 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2928 
  2929 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2930 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2931 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2932 
  2933 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2934 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2935 
  2936 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2937 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2938 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2939 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2940 
  2941 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2942 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2943 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2944 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2945 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2946 
  2947 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2948 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2949 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2950 
  2951 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2952 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2953 
  2954 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2955 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2956 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2957 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2958 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2959 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2960 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2962 
  2963 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2964     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2965     code_post       replaces    code post
  2966     etc.
  2967   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2968 
  2969 * Renamed methods:
  2970     sizechange -> size_change
  2971     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2972   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2973 
  2974 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2975 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2976 
  2977 * Renamed theorems:
  2978     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2979     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2980     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2981     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2982     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2983   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2984 
  2985 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  2986 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2987 
  2988 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  2989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2990 
  2991 
  2992 *** HOLCF ***
  2993 
  2994 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  2995 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  2996 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  2997 
  2998 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  2999 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3000 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3001 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3002 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3003 
  3004 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3005 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3006 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3007 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3008 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3009 
  3010 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3011 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3012 constructor are pre-configured.
  3013 
  3014 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3015 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3016 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3017 
  3018 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3019 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3020 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3021 as well.)
  3022 
  3023 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3024 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3025 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3026 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3027 examples.
  3028 
  3029 
  3030 *** ML ***
  3031 
  3032 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3033 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3034 
  3035 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3036 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3037 position, logical grouping etc.
  3038 
  3039 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3040 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3041 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3042 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3043 
  3044 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3045 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3046 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3047 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3048 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3049 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3050 
  3051 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3052 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3053 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3054 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3055 experiments with references.
  3056 
  3057 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3058 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3059 
  3060 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3061 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3062 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3063 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3064 
  3065 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3066 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3067 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3068 
  3069 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3070 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3071 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3072 
  3073 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077 
  3078 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3079 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3080 
  3081 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3082 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3083 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3084 
  3085 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3086 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3087 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3090 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3091 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3093 
  3094 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3095 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3096 instead of global theory.
  3097 
  3098 
  3099 *** System ***
  3100 
  3101 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3102 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3103 usedir option -q.
  3104 
  3105 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3106 also the system manual.
  3107 
  3108 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3109 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3110 
  3111 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3112 this is always enabled.
  3113 
  3114 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3115 
  3116 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3117 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3118 currently supported on Linux only.
  3119 
  3120 
  3121 
  3122 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3123 --------------------------------
  3124 
  3125 *** General ***
  3126 
  3127 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3128 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3129 
  3130   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3131     "isatool."
  3132 
  3133   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3134     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3135 
  3136   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3137     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3138 
  3139 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3140 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3141 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3142 
  3143 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3144 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3145 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3146 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3147 via "isabelle emacs".
  3148 
  3149 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3150 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3151 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3152 
  3153 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3154 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3155 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3156 
  3157 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3158 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3159 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3160 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3161 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3162 
  3163 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3164 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3165 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3166 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3167 
  3168 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3169 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3170 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3171 
  3172 
  3173 *** Pure ***
  3174 
  3175 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3176 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3177 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3178 
  3179 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3180 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3181 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3182 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3183 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3184 
  3185 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3186 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3187 useful in locale declarations.
  3188 
  3189 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3190 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3191 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3192 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3193 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3194 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3195 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3196 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3197 no longer generated.
  3198 
  3199 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3200 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3201 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3202 
  3203 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3204 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3205 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3206 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3207 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3208 
  3209 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3210 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3211 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3212 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3213 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3214 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3215 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3216 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3217 
  3218 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3219 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3220 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3221 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3222 
  3223 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3224 
  3225 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3226 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3227 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3228 
  3229 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3230 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3231 
  3232 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3233 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3234 in HOL, write
  3235 
  3236     class foo = ...
  3237 
  3238 instead of
  3239 
  3240     class foo = type + ...
  3241 
  3242 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3243 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244 
  3245 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3246 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3247 
  3248 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3249 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3250 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3251 
  3252 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3253 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3254 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3255 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3256 directly in regular applications.
  3257 
  3258 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3259 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3260 
  3261 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3262 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3263 
  3264 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3265 theory context.
  3266 
  3267 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3268 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269 
  3270 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3271 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3272 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3273 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3274 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3275 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3276 
  3277   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3278 
  3279 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3280 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3281 normalization.
  3282 
  3283 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3284 addressing etc.
  3285 
  3286 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3287 
  3288   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3289   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3290 
  3291 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3292 
  3293   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3294      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3295      parts of the code generator framework).
  3296 
  3297   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3298      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3299      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3300 
  3301 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3302 
  3303 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3304 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3305 
  3306 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3307 patterns, e.g.
  3308 
  3309     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3310 
  3311 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3312 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3313 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3314 hyphen:
  3315 
  3316     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3317 
  3318 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3319 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3320 
  3321 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3322 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3323 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3324 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3325 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3326 higher-order unification.
  3327 
  3328 
  3329 *** Document preparation ***
  3330 
  3331 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3332 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3333 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3334 
  3335 
  3336 *** HOL ***
  3337 
  3338 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3339 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3340 
  3341 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3342 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3343 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3344 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3345 Main, as before.
  3346 
  3347 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3348 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3349 
  3350 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3351 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3352 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3353 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3354 
  3355 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3356 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3357 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3358 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3359 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3360 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3361 
  3362 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3363 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3364 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3365 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3366 
  3367 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3368 menu.
  3369 
  3370 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3371 (contains the empty clause).
  3372 
  3373 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3374 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3375 
  3376 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3377 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3378 
  3379 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3380 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3381 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3382 
  3383 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3384 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3385 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3386 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3387 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3388 
  3389 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3390 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3391 
  3392 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3393 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3394 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3395 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3396 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3397 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3398 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3399 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3400 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3401 
  3402 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3403 
  3404 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3405 
  3406 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3407 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3408 
  3409 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3410 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3411 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3412 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3413 
  3414 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3415 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3416 
  3417     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3418     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3419     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3420     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3421     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3422     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3423     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3424     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3425 
  3426 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3427 theory Set.
  3428 
  3429 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3430 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3431 
  3432 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3433 
  3434 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3435 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3436 
  3437 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3438 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3439 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3440 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3441 allowed. For examples see
  3442 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3443 
  3444 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3445 
  3446 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3448 
  3449 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3450 structure:
  3451 
  3452     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3453     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3454     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3455     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3456     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3457     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3458     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3459     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3460     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3461     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3462     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3463     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3464     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3465     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3466     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3467     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3468     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3469     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3470     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3471     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3472     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3473     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3474     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3475     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3476     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3477     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3478     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3479     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3480     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3481     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3482     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3483     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3484     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3485 
  3486     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3487     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3488     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3489     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3490     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3491     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3492     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3493     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3494     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3495     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3496 
  3497     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3498     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3499     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3500     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3501     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3502     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3503 
  3504 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3505 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3506 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3507 
  3508 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3509 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3510 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3511 
  3512 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3513 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3514 
  3515 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3516 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3517 
  3518 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3519 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3520 proofs, e.g.
  3521 
  3522   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3523 
  3524 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3525 
  3526 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3527 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3528 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3529 
  3530 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3531 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3532 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3533 
  3534 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3535 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3536 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3537 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3538 
  3539 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3540 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3541 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3542 preorder_class.*.
  3543 
  3544 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3545 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3546 
  3547 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3548 
  3549   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3550 
  3551 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3552 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3553 fold_image.
  3554 
  3555 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3556 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3557 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3558 the former will disappear at some point.
  3559 
  3560 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3561 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3562 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3563 
  3564 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3565 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3566 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3567 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3568 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3569 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3570 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3571 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3572 
  3573 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3574 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3575 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3576 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3577 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3578 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3579 
  3580     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3581     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3582     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3583     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3584     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3585     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3586     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3587 
  3588 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3589 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3590 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3591 
  3592 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3593 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3594 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3595 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3596 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3597 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3598 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3599 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3600 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3601 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3602 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3603 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3604 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3605 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3606 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3607 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3608 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3609 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3610 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3611 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3612 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3613 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3614 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3615 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3616 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3617 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3618 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3619 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3620 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3621 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3622 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3623 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3624 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3625 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3626 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3627 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3628 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3629 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3630 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3631 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3632 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3633 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3634 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3635 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3636 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3637 
  3638 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3639 
  3640 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  3641 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  3642 
  3643 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  3644 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  3645 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  3646 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  3647 
  3648 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  3649 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  3650 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  3651 theory RealVector.
  3652 
  3653 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  3654 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  3655 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  3656 and inner products are included.
  3657 
  3658 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  3659 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  3660 supported.
  3661 
  3662 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  3663 first diagonalization argument.
  3664 
  3665 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  3666 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  3667 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  3668 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3669 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  3670 
  3671     hide (open) const gcd
  3672     abbreviation gcd where
  3673       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  3674     notation (output)
  3675       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  3676 
  3677 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  3678 
  3679 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  3680 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  3681 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3682 
  3683 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  3684 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  3685 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  3686 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  3687 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  3688 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  3689 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  3690 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  3691 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  3692 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  3693 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  3694 cases.
  3695 
  3696 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  3697 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  3698 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  3699 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  3700 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  3701 
  3702     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  3703     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  3704     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  3705     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  3706     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  3707 
  3708 
  3709 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3710 
  3711 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  3712 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  3713 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  3714 
  3715 * New theory of factorial domains.
  3716 
  3717 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  3718 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  3719 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  3720 
  3721 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3722 
  3723 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  3724 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  3725 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  3726 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  3727 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  3728 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  3729 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  3730 
  3731 
  3732 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3733 
  3734 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  3735 
  3736 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  3737 theory targets.
  3738 
  3739 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  3740 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  3741 'inductive' etc.
  3742 
  3743 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  3744 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  3745 
  3746 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  3747 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  3748 
  3749 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  3750 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  3751 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  3752 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  3753 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  3754 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  3755 the algorithm W:
  3756 
  3757  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  3758  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  3759          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  3760 
  3761 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  3762 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  3763 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  3764 
  3765 
  3766 *** HOLCF ***
  3767 
  3768 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  3769 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  3770 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  3771 
  3772 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  3773 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  3774 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  3775 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  3776 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3777 
  3778 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  3779 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3780 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3781 
  3782 
  3783 *** ZF ***
  3784 
  3785 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3786 
  3787 
  3788 *** ML ***
  3789 
  3790 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3791 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3792 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3793 5.2.1!
  3794 
  3795 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3796 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3797 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3798 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3799 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3800 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3801 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3802 
  3803 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3804 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3805 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3806 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3807 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3808 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3809 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3810 
  3811 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3812 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3813 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3814 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3815 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3816 
  3817 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3818 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3819 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3820 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3821 Method.add_method.
  3822 
  3823 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3824 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3825 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3826 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3827 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3828 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3829 
  3830 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3831 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3832 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3833 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3834 examples.
  3835 
  3836 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3837 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3838 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  3839 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  3840 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3841 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3842 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3843 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3844 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3845 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3846 
  3847 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3848 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3849 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3850 
  3851 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3852 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3853 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3854 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3855 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3856 resort for legacy applications.
  3857 
  3858 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3859 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3860 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3861 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3862 explicit runtime argument.
  3863 
  3864 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3865 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3866 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3867 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3868 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3869 
  3870 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3871 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3872 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3873 theory state.
  3874 
  3875 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3876 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3877 
  3878   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3879   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3880   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3881   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3882   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3883   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3884   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3885   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3886   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3887   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3888 
  3889 
  3890 *** System ***
  3891 
  3892 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3893 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3894 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3895 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3896 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3897 
  3898 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3899 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3900 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3901 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3902 
  3903 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3904 
  3905 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3906 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3907 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3908 prover operations.
  3909 
  3910 
  3911 
  3912 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3913 -------------------------------
  3914 
  3915 *** General ***
  3916 
  3917 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3918 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3919 
  3920 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3921 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3922 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3923 provides a proper context already.
  3924 
  3925 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3926 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3927 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3928 
  3929 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3930 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3931 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3932 swap theory imports.
  3933 
  3934 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3935 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3936 
  3937 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3938 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3939 white space without escapes.
  3940 
  3941 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3942 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3943 "foo_bar".
  3944 
  3945 
  3946 *** Pure ***
  3947 
  3948 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3949 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3950 
  3951 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3952 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3953 
  3954 (1) unused_thms
  3955      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3956 
  3957 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3958      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3959      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3960 
  3961 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3962      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3963      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3964      their ancestors.
  3965 
  3966 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3967 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3968 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3969 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3970 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3971 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3972 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3973 
  3974 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3975 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3976 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3977 
  3978 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3979 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3980 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3981 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3982 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3983 
  3984 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  3985 
  3986 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  3987 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  3988 update of theories within ML code.
  3989 
  3990 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  3991 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  3992 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  3993 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  3994 
  3995 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  3996 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  3997 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  3998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4001 
  4002 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4003 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4004 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4005 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4006 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4007 
  4008 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4009 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4010 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4011 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4012 situations.
  4013 
  4014 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4015 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4016 proof text.
  4017 
  4018 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4019 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4020 
  4021 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4022 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4023 predicates.
  4024 
  4025 
  4026 *** Document preparation ***
  4027 
  4028 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4029 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4030 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4031 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4032 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4033 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4034 
  4035 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4036 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4037 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4038 
  4039 
  4040 *** HOL ***
  4041 
  4042 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4043 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4044 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4045 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4046 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4047 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4048 
  4049 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4050 with multithreading.
  4051 
  4052 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4053 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4054 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4055 
  4056 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4057 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4058 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4059 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4060 
  4061 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4062 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4063 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4064 and makes them available separately.  See
  4065 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4066 
  4067 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4068 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4069 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4070 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4071 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4072 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4073 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4074 the declared rules.
  4075 
  4076 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4077 
  4078   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4079 
  4080 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4081 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4082 
  4083 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4084 
  4085   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4086 
  4087   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4088     definitions on => and bool.
  4089 
  4090   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4091     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4092     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4093 
  4094       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4095       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4096       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4097       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4098       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4099       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4100       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4101       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4102 
  4103   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4104     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4105     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4106 
  4107   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4108     The proof pattern
  4109 
  4110       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4111       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4112 
  4113     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4114     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4115 
  4116       have "EX S. P S"
  4117       proof
  4118         show "P S" <...>
  4119       qed
  4120 
  4121   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4122     The proof pattern
  4123 
  4124       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4125       also have "S = T" <...>
  4126       finally have "P T" .
  4127 
  4128     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4129     must be replaced by something like
  4130 
  4131       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4132       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4133       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4134 
  4135   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4136     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4137 
  4138       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4139 
  4140     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4141     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4142     type of the form
  4143 
  4144       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4145 
  4146     rather than
  4147 
  4148       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4149 
  4150 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4151 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4152 
  4153 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4154 
  4155 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4156 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4157 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4158 
  4159 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4160 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4161 
  4162 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4163 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4164 
  4165 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4166 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4167 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4168 
  4169 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4170 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4171 
  4172   less_trans
  4173   less_linear
  4174   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4175   le_less_trans
  4176   less_le_trans
  4177   less_not_sym
  4178   less_asym
  4179 
  4180 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4181 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4182 and different variable names.
  4183 
  4184 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4185 
  4186 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4187 finite maps.
  4188 
  4189 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4190 
  4191 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4192 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4193 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4194 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4195 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4196 accordingly.
  4197 
  4198 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4199 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4200 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4201 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4202 
  4203 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4204 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4205 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4206 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4207 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4209 
  4210 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4211 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4212 
  4213 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4214 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4215 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4216 
  4217 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4219 
  4220 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4221 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4222 
  4223 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4224 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4225 
  4226 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4227 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4228 
  4229 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4230 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4232 
  4233 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4234 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4235 
  4236 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4237 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4238 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4239 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4240 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4241 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4242 
  4243 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4244 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4245 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4246 
  4247 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4248 
  4249 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4250 
  4251 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4252 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4253 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4254 
  4255 
  4256 *** ZF ***
  4257 
  4258 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4259 same session:
  4260 
  4261   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4262   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4263   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4264   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4265   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4266   List      -> List_ZF
  4267   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4268 
  4269 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4270 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4271 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4272 
  4273 
  4274 *** ML ***
  4275 
  4276 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4277 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4278 
  4279 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4280 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4281 
  4282 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4283 
  4284 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4285 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4286 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4287 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4288 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4289 
  4290 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4291 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4292 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4293 
  4294 
  4295 *** System ***
  4296 
  4297 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4298 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4299 
  4300 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4301 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4302 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4303 
  4304 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4305 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4306 
  4307 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4308 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4309 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4310 
  4311 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4312 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4313 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4314 
  4315 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4316 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4317 
  4318 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4319 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4320 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4321 script.
  4322 
  4323 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4324 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4325 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4326 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4327 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4328 
  4329 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4330 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4331 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4332 
  4333 
  4334 
  4335 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4336 -----------------------------------
  4337 
  4338 *** General ***
  4339 
  4340 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4341 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4342 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4343 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4344 
  4345 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4346 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4347 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4348 
  4349 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4350 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4351 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4352 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4353 
  4354 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4355 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4356 quotes.
  4357 
  4358 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4359 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4360 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4361 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4362 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4363 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4364 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4365 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4366 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4367 
  4368 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4369 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4370 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4371 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4372 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4373 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4374 
  4375 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4376 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4377 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4378 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4379 
  4380 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4381 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4382 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4383 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4384 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4385 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4386 
  4387 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4388 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4389 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4390 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4391 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4392 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4393 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4394 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4395 
  4396 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4397 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4398 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4399 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4400 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4401 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4402 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4403 
  4404 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4405 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4406 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4407 
  4408 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4409 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4410 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4411 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4412 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4413 limit is imposed.
  4414 
  4415 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4416 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4417 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4418 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4419 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4420 and scalability.
  4421 
  4422 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4423 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4424 
  4425 
  4426 *** Document preparation ***
  4427 
  4428 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4429 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4430 current context.
  4431 
  4432 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4433 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4434 
  4435 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4436 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4437 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4438 
  4439 
  4440 *** Pure ***
  4441 
  4442 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4443 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4444 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4445 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4446 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4447 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4448 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4449 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4450 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4451 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4452 
  4453 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4454 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4455 sketch:
  4456 
  4457     internal compilation:
  4458         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4459     writing SML code to a file:
  4460         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4461     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4462         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4463     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4464         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4465 
  4466     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4467         method ``eval''
  4468 
  4469 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4470 
  4471 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4472 
  4473     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4474     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4475     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4476     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4477 
  4478 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4479 
  4480     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4481       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4482 
  4483     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4484       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4485 
  4486     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4487       {(target)}+
  4488         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4489 
  4490     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4491       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4492         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4493 
  4494 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4495 
  4496 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4497 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4498 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4499 codegen".
  4500 
  4501 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4502 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4503 annotations).
  4504 
  4505 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4506 syntax.
  4507 
  4508 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4509 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4510 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4511 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4512 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4513 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4514 
  4515 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4516 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4517 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4518 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4519 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4520 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4521 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4522 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4523 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4524 equations, see section "definitions".
  4525 
  4526 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4527 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4528 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4529 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4530 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4531 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4532 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4533 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4534 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4535 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4536 
  4537 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4538 configuration options:
  4539 
  4540   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4541   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4542   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4543   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4544   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4545   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4546   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4547   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4548   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4549 
  4550 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4551 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4552 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4553 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4554 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4555 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4556 order.
  4557 
  4558 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4559 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4560 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4561 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4562 context encountered later on.
  4563 
  4564 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4565 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4566 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4567 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4568 
  4569 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4570 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4571 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4572 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4573 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4574 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4575 
  4576 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4577 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4578 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4579 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4580 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4581 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4582 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4583 more permissive.
  4584 
  4585 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4586 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4587 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4588 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4589 maintainability of proof texts.
  4590 
  4591 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4592 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4593 
  4594   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4595   then guess x and y by clarify
  4596 
  4597 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4598 proof tools being involved here.
  4599 
  4600 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4601 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4602 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4603 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4604 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4605 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4606 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4607 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4608 
  4609 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4610 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4611 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4612 
  4613   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4614   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4615   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4616   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4617 
  4618 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4619 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4620 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4621 
  4622 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4623 both named and unnamed ones.
  4624 
  4625 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4626 
  4627   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4628 
  4629 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4630 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4631 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4632 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4633 
  4634 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4635 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4636 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4637 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4638 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4639 
  4640 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  4641 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  4642 
  4643 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  4644 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  4645 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  4646 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  4647 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  4648 originally first one.
  4649 
  4650 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  4651 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  4652 expected.
  4653 
  4654 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  4655 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  4656 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  4657 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  4658 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  4659 
  4660   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4661     assumes "EX x. P x"
  4662     obtains x where "P x"
  4663 
  4664   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4665     assumes "A & B"
  4666     obtains A and B
  4667 
  4668   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4669     assumes "A | B"
  4670     obtains
  4671       A
  4672     | B
  4673 
  4674 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  4675 explicitly:
  4676 
  4677   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4678     obtains "~ thesis"
  4679 
  4680   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4681     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  4682 
  4683 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  4684 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  4685 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  4686 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  4687 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  4688 case_names).
  4689 
  4690 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  4691 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  4692 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  4693 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  4694 
  4695 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  4696 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  4697 top-level lemma.
  4698 
  4699 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  4700 introduction rule (default "that").
  4701 
  4702 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4703 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  4704 to occur.
  4705 
  4706 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  4707 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  4708 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  4709 representations independently of name spaces.
  4710 
  4711 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  4712 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  4713 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4714 
  4715 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  4716 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  4717 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  4718 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  4719 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  4720 current context.
  4721 
  4722 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  4723 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  4724 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  4725 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  4726 
  4727   axiomatization
  4728     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  4729     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  4730 
  4731   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  4732   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  4733 
  4734   abbreviation
  4735     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  4736     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  4737 
  4738 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  4739 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  4740 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  4741 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  4742 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  4743 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  4744 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  4745 
  4746 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  4747 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  4748 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  4749 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  4750 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  4751 
  4752 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  4753 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  4754 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  4755 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  4756 
  4757 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  4758 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  4759 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  4760 
  4761   definition "K x _ = x"
  4762 
  4763   inductive conj for A B
  4764   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  4765 
  4766 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  4767 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  4768 abbreviations on output.
  4769 
  4770 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  4771 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  4772 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  4773 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  4774 
  4775 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  4776 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  4777 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  4778 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  4779 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  4780 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4781 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4782 
  4783 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4784 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4785 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4786 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4787 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4788 
  4789 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4790 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4791 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4792 
  4793 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4794 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4795 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4796 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4797 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4798 
  4799   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4800     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4801 
  4802 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4803 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4804 partial_order.
  4805 
  4806 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4807 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4808 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4809 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4810 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4811 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4812 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4813 examples.
  4814 
  4815 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4816 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4817 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4818 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4819 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4820 
  4821 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4822 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4823 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4824 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4825 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4826 
  4827   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4828   (induct set: foo bar)
  4829   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4830   (induct type: foo bar)
  4831 
  4832 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4833 new format.
  4834 
  4835 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4836 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4837 
  4838 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  4839 considered a legacy feature.
  4840 
  4841 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4842 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4843 
  4844 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4845 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4846 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4847 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4848   
  4849 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4850 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4851 manipulating the claset.
  4852 
  4853 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4854 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4855 least one premise.
  4856 
  4857 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4858 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4859 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4860 rule steps.
  4861 
  4862 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4863 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4864 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4865 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4866 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4867 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4868 
  4869 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4870 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4871 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4872 
  4873 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4874 the graph browser tool.
  4875 
  4876 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4877 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4878 
  4879 
  4880 *** HOL ***
  4881 
  4882 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4883 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4884 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4885 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4886 multi-threading.
  4887   
  4888 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4889 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4890 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4891 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4892 work with multi-threading.
  4893 
  4894 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4895 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4896 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4897 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4898 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4899 
  4900 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4901 
  4902 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4903 equality.
  4904 
  4905 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4906 the new 'class' package:
  4907 
  4908     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4909     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4910     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4911     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4912     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4913     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4914     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4915     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4916     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4917     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4918     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4919     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4920     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4921     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4922     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4923     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4924     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4925     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4926     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4927     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4928 
  4929 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4930 
  4931 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4932 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4933 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4934 names.
  4935 
  4936 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4937 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4938 
  4939 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4940 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4941 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4942 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4943 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4944 
  4945 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4946 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4947 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4948 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4949 
  4950 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4951 
  4952 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4953 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4954 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4955 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4956 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4957 
  4958 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4959 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4960 
  4961 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4962 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4963 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4964 
  4965 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4966 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4967 
  4968 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4969 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4970 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4971 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4972 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4973 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4974 in the current context.
  4975 
  4976 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4977 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4979 
  4980 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4981 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4982 
  4983 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  4984 
  4985     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  4986     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  4987 
  4988     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  4989       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  4990     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  4991     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  4992 
  4993     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  4994     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  4995 
  4996   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  4997 
  4998     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  4999     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5000     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5001     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5002     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5003     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5004     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5005     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5006     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5007     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5008     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5009     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5010     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5011     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5012     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5013     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5014     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5015     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5016     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5017     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5018     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5019     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5020     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5021     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5022     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5023     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5024     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5025     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5026     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5027     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5028     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5029     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5030     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5031     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5032     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5033 
  5034     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5035     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5036     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5037     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5038     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5039     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5040     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5041     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5042     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5043     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5044     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5045     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5046     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5047     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5048     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5049     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5050     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5051 
  5052     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5053     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5054     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5055     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5056     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5057     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5058     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5059     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5060     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5061     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5062     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5063     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5064     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5065     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5066     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5067     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5068     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5069     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5070     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5071     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5072     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5073     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5074     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5075     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5076     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5077     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5078     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5079     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5080 
  5081     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5082     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5083     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5084     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5085     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5086     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5087 
  5088     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5089     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5090     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5091     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5092 
  5093     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5094     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5095 
  5096     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5097     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5098 
  5099 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5100 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5101 
  5102 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5103 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5104 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5105 "*.size".
  5106 
  5107 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5108 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5109 
  5110 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5111 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5112 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5113 
  5114 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5115 
  5116 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5117 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5118 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5119 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5120 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5121 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5122 numerals on all operations.
  5123 
  5124 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5125 
  5126 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5127 
  5128 * Code generator library theories:
  5129   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5130     languages.
  5131   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5132     languages.
  5133   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5134     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5135   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5136   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5137     denominator).
  5138   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5139     representable by rational numbers.
  5140   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5141     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5142     includes Code_Integer.
  5143   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5144     target-language built-in integers.
  5145   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5146     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5147 
  5148 * New package for inductive predicates
  5149 
  5150   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5151 
  5152     inductive
  5153       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5154       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5155     where
  5156       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5157     | ...
  5158 
  5159   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5160 
  5161     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5162 
  5163     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5164     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5165 
  5166     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5167     intros
  5168       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5169       ...
  5170 
  5171   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5172   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5173 
  5174     inductive_set
  5175       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5176       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5177     where
  5178       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5179     | ...
  5180 
  5181   or
  5182 
  5183     inductive_set
  5184       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5185       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5186       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5187     where
  5188       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5189     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5190     | ...
  5191 
  5192   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5193 
  5194   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5195   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5196 
  5197   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5198 
  5199   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5200     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5201     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5202     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5203     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5204 
  5205   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5206     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5207     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5208     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5209     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5210     statements of the form
  5211 
  5212       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5213 
  5214     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5215     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5216 
  5217       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5218 
  5219   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5220 
  5221       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5222         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5223         ==> ... ==> P
  5224 
  5225     for predicates and
  5226 
  5227       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5228         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5229         ==> ... ==> P
  5230 
  5231     for sets rather than
  5232 
  5233       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5234         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5235         ==> ... ==> P
  5236 
  5237     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5238     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5239     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5240 
  5241   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5242     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5243     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5244 
  5245 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5246 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5247 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5248 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5249 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5250 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5251 
  5252 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5253 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5254 
  5255 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5256 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5257 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5258 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5259 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5260 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5261 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5262 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5263 variable.
  5264 
  5265 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5266 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5267 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5268 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5269   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5270   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5271 
  5272 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5273 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5274 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5275 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5276 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5277 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5278 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5279 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5280 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5281 
  5282 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5283 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5284 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5285 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5286 rat, etc.
  5287 
  5288 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5289 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5290 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5291 
  5292 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5293 
  5294 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5295 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5296 
  5297 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5298 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5299 
  5300 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5301 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5302 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5303 
  5304 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5305 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5307 
  5308 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5309 
  5310 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5311 
  5312 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5313 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5314 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5315 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5316 
  5317 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5318 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5319 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5320 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5321 
  5322 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5323 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5324 algebraic operations.
  5325 
  5326 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5328 
  5329 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5331 
  5332 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5333 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5334 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5335 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5336 adapted.
  5337  
  5338 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5339 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5340 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5341 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5342 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5343 
  5344 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5345 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5346 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5347 
  5348 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5349 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5350 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5351 
  5352 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5353 
  5354 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5355 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5356 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5357   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5358       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5359   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5360   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5361   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5362 
  5363 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5364 
  5365 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5366 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5367 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5368 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5369 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5370 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5371 
  5372 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5373 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5374 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5375 
  5376 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5377 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5378 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5379 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5380 
  5381 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5382 
  5383 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5384 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5385 
  5386 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5387 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5388 
  5389 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5390 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5391 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5392 
  5393 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5394 True/False.
  5395 
  5396 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5397 
  5398 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5399 
  5400 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5401 ``rule'' method.
  5402 
  5403 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5404 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5405 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5406 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5407 
  5408 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5409 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5410 
  5411 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5412 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5413 
  5414 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5415 Library.
  5416 
  5417 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5418 
  5419 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5420 as greatest fixed-point.
  5421 
  5422 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5423 association lists.
  5424 
  5425 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5426 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5427 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5428 
  5429 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5430 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5431 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5432 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5433 behavior.
  5434 
  5435 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5436 
  5437 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5438 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5439 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5440 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5441 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5442 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5443 
  5444 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5445 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5446 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5447 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5448 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5449 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5450 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5451 
  5452 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5453 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5454 
  5455 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5456 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5457 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5458 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5459 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5460 
  5461 
  5462 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5463 
  5464 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5465 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5466 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5467 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5469 
  5470 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5471 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5472 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5473 
  5474 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5475 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5476 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5477 
  5478 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5479 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5480 
  5481 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5482 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5483 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5485 
  5486   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5487   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5488   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5489   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5490   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5491   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5492   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5493   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5494   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5495   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5496   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5497   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5498   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5499   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5500   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5501 
  5502 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5503 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5504 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5505 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5506 
  5507   approx        <-- capprox
  5508   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5509   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5510   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5511   monad         <-- cmonad
  5512   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5513   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5514   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5515   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5516 
  5517 
  5518 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5519 
  5520 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5521 
  5522 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5523 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5524 
  5525 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5526 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5527 
  5528 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5529 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5530 of algebraic structures.
  5531 
  5532 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5533 
  5534 
  5535 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5536 
  5537 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5538 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5539 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5540 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5541 
  5542 
  5543 *** ML ***
  5544 
  5545 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5546 (even on SML/NJ).
  5547 
  5548 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5549 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5550 compile-time.  For example:
  5551 
  5552 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5553 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5554 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5555 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5556 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5557 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5558 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5559 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5560 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5561 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5562 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5563 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5564 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5565 ML {* @{context} *}
  5566 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5567 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5568 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5569 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5570 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5571 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5572 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5573 
  5574 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5575 
  5576 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5577 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5578 
  5579 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5580 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5581 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5582 
  5583 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5584 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5585 
  5586 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5587 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5588 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5589 
  5590 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5591 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5592 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5593 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5594 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5595 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5596 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5597 declarations and definitions.
  5598 
  5599 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5600 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5601 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5602 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5603 
  5604 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5605 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5606 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5607 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5608 
  5609 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5610 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5611 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5612 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5613 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5614 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5615 
  5616 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5617 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5618 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5619 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5620 attributes, methods, etc.
  5621 
  5622 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5623 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5624 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5625 fold_map combinators.
  5626 
  5627 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5628 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5629 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5630 derivation.
  5631 
  5632 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5633 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5634 achieve the old behaviour.
  5635 
  5636 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5637 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5638 statements.
  5639 
  5640 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  5641 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  5642 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  5643 
  5644 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  5645 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  5646 some popular functions from term.ML:
  5647 
  5648   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  5649   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  5650   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  5651 
  5652 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  5653 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  5654 
  5655 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  5656 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  5657 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  5658 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  5659 various freeze_thaw operations.
  5660 
  5661 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  5662 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  5663 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  5664 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  5665 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  5666 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  5667 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  5668 in a locale context).
  5669 
  5670 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  5671 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  5672 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  5673 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  5674 
  5675 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  5676 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  5677 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  5678 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  5679 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  5680 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  5681 
  5682 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  5683 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  5684 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  5685 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  5686 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  5687 
  5688   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  5689 
  5690 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  5691 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  5692 this:
  5693 
  5694   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  5695 
  5696 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  5697 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  5698 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  5699 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  5700 
  5701 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  5702 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  5703 
  5704 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  5705 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  5706 
  5707 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  5708 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  5709 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  5710 batch mode.
  5711 
  5712 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  5713 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  5714 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  5715 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5716 
  5717 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  5718 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  5719 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  5720 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  5721 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  5722 
  5723 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  5724 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  5725 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  5726 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  5727 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  5728 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  5729 
  5730 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  5731 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  5732 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  5733 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5734 
  5735 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  5736 "Trueprop" etc.
  5737 
  5738 
  5739 *** System ***
  5740 
  5741 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  5742 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  5743 Isabelle installations.
  5744 
  5745 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  5746 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  5747 code.
  5748 
  5749 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  5750 
  5751 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  5752 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  5753 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  5754 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  5755 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  5756 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  5757 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  5758 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  5759 Implementation manual.
  5760 
  5761 
  5762 
  5763 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  5764 ----------------------------------
  5765 
  5766 *** General ***
  5767 
  5768 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  5769 
  5770   theory <name>
  5771   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  5772   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  5773   begin
  5774 
  5775 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  5776 
  5777   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  5778 
  5779 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  5780 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5781 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5782 
  5783 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5784 relative and absolute paths.
  5785 
  5786 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5787 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5788 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5789 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5790 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5791 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5792 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5793 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5794 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5795 
  5796   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5797 
  5798 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5799 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5800 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5801 
  5802 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5803 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5804 
  5805 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5806 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5807 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5808 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5809 
  5810   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5811   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5812 
  5813 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5814 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5815 faster.
  5816 
  5817 
  5818 *** Document preparation ***
  5819 
  5820 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5821 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5822 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5823 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5824 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5825 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5826 
  5827 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5828 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5829 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5830 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5831 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5832 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5833 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5834 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5835 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5836 \isadroptag.
  5837 
  5838 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  5839 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  5840 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5841 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5842 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5843 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5844 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5845 specified above.
  5846 
  5847 * Several new antiquotations:
  5848 
  5849   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5850 
  5851   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5852 
  5853   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5854   argument is a known logical constant;
  5855 
  5856   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5857   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5858 
  5859   @{ML text}
  5860 
  5861 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5862 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5863 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5864 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5865 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5866 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5867 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5868 
  5869 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5870 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5871 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5872 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5873 
  5874 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5875 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5876 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5877 
  5878 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5879 a proof context.
  5880 
  5881 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5882 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5883 
  5884 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5885 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5886 
  5887 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5888 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5889 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5890 
  5891 
  5892 *** Pure ***
  5893 
  5894 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5895 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5896 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5897 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5898 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5899 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5900 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5901 
  5902 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5903 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5904 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5905 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5906 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5907 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5908 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5909 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5910 
  5911 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5912 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5913 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5914 
  5915 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5916 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5917 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5918 
  5919 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5920 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5921 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5922 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5923 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5924 
  5925 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5926 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5927 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5928 axclasses vs. locales.
  5929 
  5930 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5931 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5932 
  5933 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5934 marks in schematic variable names.
  5935 
  5936 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5937 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5938 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5939 
  5940   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5941     by simp
  5942 
  5943 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5944 
  5945 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5946 annotations as "(00...)".
  5947 
  5948 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5949 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5950 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5951 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5952 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5953 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5954 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5955 
  5956 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5957 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5958 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5959 specifications.
  5960 
  5961 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5962 locally fixed variables as well.
  5963 
  5964 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5965 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5966 Limit.
  5967 
  5968 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5969 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5970 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5971 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5972 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5973 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5974 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5975 
  5976 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5977 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5978 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5979 
  5980 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5981 
  5982 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5983 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  5984 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  5985 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  5986 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  5987 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  5988 
  5989 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  5990 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  5991 
  5992 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  5993 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  5994 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  5995 
  5996 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  5997 
  5998 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  5999 theory development.
  6000 
  6001 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  6002 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  6003 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  6004 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  6005 
  6006 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  6007 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  6008 quoted when used as identifier.
  6009 
  6010 
  6011 *** Locales ***
  6012 
  6013 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  6014 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  6015 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  6016 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  6017 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  6018 commands is a follows:
  6019 
  6020   (1) interpretation expr inst
  6021   (2) interpretation target < expr
  6022   (3) interpret expr inst
  6023 
  6024 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  6025 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  6026 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  6027 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  6028 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  6029 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  6030 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  6031 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  6032 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  6033 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  6034 
  6035 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  6036 'interpret' instead.
  6037 
  6038 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  6039 parameters.
  6040 
  6041 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  6042 redeclaration.
  6043 
  6044 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  6045 
  6046 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  6047 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  6048 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  6049 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  6050 to attribute arguments as expected.
  6051 
  6052 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  6053 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  6054 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  6055 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  6056 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  6057 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  6058 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  6059 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  6060 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  6061 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  6062 
  6063 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  6064 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  6065 theorem statement in rare situations.
  6066 
  6067 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  6068 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  6069 
  6070 
  6071 *** Provers ***
  6072 
  6073 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  6074 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  6075 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  6076 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  6077 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  6078 
  6079 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  6080 and quasi orders.
  6081 
  6082 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  6083 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  6084 
  6085 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  6086 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  6087 
  6088 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  6089 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  6090 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6091 
  6092 
  6093 *** HOL ***
  6094 
  6095 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  6096 
  6097   syntax (epsilon)
  6098     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  6099 
  6100 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  6101 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  6102 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  6103 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6104 
  6105 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  6106 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  6107 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  6108 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  6109 
  6110 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  6111 instead of ":".
  6112 
  6113 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  6114 
  6115   Old       New
  6116   {..n(}    {..<n}
  6117   {)n..}    {n<..}
  6118   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  6119   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  6120   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  6121 
  6122 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  6123 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  6124 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  6125 
  6126   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  6127   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  6128 
  6129 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  6130 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  6131 interface.
  6132 
  6133 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  6134 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  6135 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  6136 be a tuple pattern.
  6137 
  6138 Some new syntax forms are available:
  6139 
  6140   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  6141   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  6142   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  6143   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  6144 
  6145 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  6146 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  6147 
  6148 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  6149 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  6150 (insert F x)'.
  6151 
  6152 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  6153 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  6154 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  6155 
  6156 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  6157 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  6158 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  6159 
  6160 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  6161 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  6162 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  6163 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  6164 in unstructured proof scripts.
  6165 
  6166 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  6167 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  6168 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  6169 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  6170 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  6171 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  6172 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  6173 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  6174 <record_name>_ext_type.
  6175 
  6176 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  6177 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  6178 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  6179 quite long.
  6180 
  6181 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  6182 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  6183 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  6184 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  6185 
  6186 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  6187 type-variables in the term.
  6188 
  6189 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  6190 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  6191 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6192 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  6193 goals than previously.
  6194 
  6195 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  6196 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  6197 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  6198 just like y <= x.
  6199 
  6200 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  6201 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  6202 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  6203 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  6204 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  6205 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  6206 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  6207 
  6208 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  6209 
  6210 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  6211 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  6212 
  6213 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  6214 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  6215 inequalities.
  6216 
  6217 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  6218 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6219 
  6220   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  6221   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  6222   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  6223   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  6224   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  6225   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  6226   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  6227   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  6228   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  6229   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  6230   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  6231 
  6232 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  6233      
  6234      zero_le_square
  6235      not_square_less_zero 
  6236 
  6237   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  6238   
  6239      realpow_zero_zero
  6240      realpow_two
  6241      realpow_less
  6242      zero_le_power
  6243      realpow_two_le
  6244      abs_realpow_two
  6245      realpow_two_abs     
  6246 
  6247 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  6248 
  6249 * Theory List:
  6250 
  6251 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  6252 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6253 
  6254   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  6255   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  6256   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  6257   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  6258 
  6259 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  6260 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO