NEWS
author blanchet
Mon May 19 23:43:53 2014 +0200 (2014-05-19)
changeset 57008 10f68b83b474
parent 56996 891e992e510f
child 57020 f7cf92543e6c
permissions -rw-r--r--
use E 1.8's auto scheduler option
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Support for path completion within the formal text, based on
    93     file-system content.
    94 
    95   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    96     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    97     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    98 
    99   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
   100     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   101 
   102 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   103 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   104 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   105 
   106 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   107 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   110 auxiliary ML files.
   111 
   112 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   113 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   114 
   115 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   116 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   117 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   118 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   119 
   120 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   121 to highlight text via regular expression.
   122 
   123 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   124 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   125 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   126 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   127 
   128 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   129 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   130 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   131 
   132 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   133 
   134 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   135 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   136 
   137 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   138 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   139 
   140 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   141 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   142 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   143 
   144 
   145 *** Pure ***
   146 
   147 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   148 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   149 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   150 renaming needs to be applied:
   151 
   152   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   153   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   154   all            ~>  Pure.all
   155   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   156   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   157 
   158 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   159 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   160 old constants:
   161 
   162 setup {*
   163   fn thy => thy
   164     |> Sign.root_path
   165     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   166     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   167     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   168     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   169 *}
   170 
   171 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   172 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   173 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   174 
   175 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   176 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   177 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   178 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   179 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   180 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   181 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   182 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   183 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   184 
   185 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   186 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   187 instantiated theorem.
   188 
   189 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   190 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   191 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   192 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   193 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   194 
   195   attribute_setup standard =
   196     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   197 
   198 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   199 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   200 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   201 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   202 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   203 
   204 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   205 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   206 differently).
   207 
   208 
   209 *** HOL ***
   210 
   211 * Command and antiquotation ''value'' are hardcoded against nbe and
   212 ML now.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Separate command ''approximate'' for approximative computation
   215 in Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216 
   217 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   218   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   219   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   220   and SUP instead uniformly.
   221   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   222   or SUP and Sup.
   223   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   224   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   225   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   226   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   227   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   229 
   230 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   231   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   232   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   233   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   234   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   235   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236 
   237 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   238   can now deal with conjunctions.
   239   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   240   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   241   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   242 
   243 * HOL-Word:
   244   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   245   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   246   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   247   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   248   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   249 
   250 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   251 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   257 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   260 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   263 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   266   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   267   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   268   Theory renamings:
   269     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   270     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   271     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   272     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   273     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   274     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   275     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   276     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   277     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   278     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   279     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   280     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   281     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   282     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   283     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   284     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   285     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   286     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   287     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   288     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   289     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   290     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   291   New theories:
   292     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   293     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   294     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   295     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   296     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   297   Discontinued theories:
   298     BNF/BNF.thy
   299     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   300   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302 * New (co)datatype package:
   303   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   304   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   305     required by "fun".
   306   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   307     with Transfer.
   308   * Renamed commands:
   309       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   310       primrec_new ~> primrec
   311       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   312     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   314     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   315     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   316   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   317     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   318     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   319 
   320 * Old datatype package:
   321   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   322     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   323     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   324   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   325     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   326     "case_prod").
   327     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   328 
   329 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   330   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   331   datatype package.
   332   Renamed constants:
   333     Option.set ~> set_option
   334     Option.map ~> map_option
   335     option_rel ~> rel_option
   336   Renamed theorems:
   337     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   338     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   339     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   340     option.recs ~> option.rec
   341     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   342     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   343     map.simps ~> list.map
   344     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   345     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   346     the.simps ~> option.sel
   347   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   348 
   349 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   350     sum_map ~> map_sum
   351     map_pair ~> map_prod
   352     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   353     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   354     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   355     set_rel ~> rel_set
   356     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   357     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   358     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   359     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   360 
   361 * New theory:
   362     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   363 
   364 * Theory reorganizations:
   365   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   366 
   367 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof traces.
   368   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   369   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   370   use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now the default SAT
   371   solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and corresponding tactics;
   372   the old default can be restored using
   373   "declare [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   374 
   375 * SMT module:
   376   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   377     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   378     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   379     elsewhere.
   380 
   381 * Sledgehammer:
   382   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   383   - New option:
   384       smt_proofs
   385   - Renamed options:
   386       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   387       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   388     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   389 
   390 * Metis:
   391   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   392     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   395 
   396 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   397 
   398 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   399 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   400 
   401 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   402 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   403 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   404 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   405 
   406 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   408 
   409 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   410 with the given constants.
   411 
   412 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   413 
   414 Fact consolidations:
   415     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   416     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   417     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   418     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   419     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   420     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   421     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   422     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   423     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   424     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   425     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   426     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   427     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   428     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   429     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   430     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   431     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   432     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   433     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   434     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   435     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   436     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   437     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   438     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   439     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   440     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   441     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   442     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   443     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   444     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   445     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   446     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   447     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   448     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   449     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   450     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   451     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   452     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   453     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   454     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   455 
   456 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   457 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   458 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   459 
   460 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   461 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   462 
   463 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   464 
   465 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   466 
   467 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   469 
   470 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   472 
   473 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   474 operations on records.
   475 
   476 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   478 
   479 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   480     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   481 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   482 
   483 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   484     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   485     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   487 
   488 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   489   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   490   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   491   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   492     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   493   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   494     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   495   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   497 
   498 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   499     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   500     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   501     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   502     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   504 
   505 * Fact name consolidation:
   506     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   507     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   508     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   509     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   510     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   512 
   513 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   514 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   515 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   516 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   517 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   518 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   519 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   520 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   521 
   522 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   523 
   524 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   525 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   526 
   527 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   528 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   529 
   530 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   531 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   532 or the brute way with
   533 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   534 
   535 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   536 
   537 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   538 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   539 
   540 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   541 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   542 
   543 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   544 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   545 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   546 INCOMPATIBILITY
   547 
   548 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   549   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   550   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   551   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   552   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   553   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   554   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   555   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   556   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   557   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   558   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   559   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   560 
   561   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   562 
   563   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   564     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   565     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   566     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   567     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   569 
   570 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   571   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   572 
   573   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   574 
   575   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   576 
   577   - removed constant isDiff
   578 
   579   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   580     syntax.
   581 
   582   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   583 
   584   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   585 
   586   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   587 
   588   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   589 
   590   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   591     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   592 
   593   - Other renamings:
   594     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   595     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   596     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   597     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   598     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   599     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   600     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   602 
   603 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   604   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   605 
   606 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im, the Complex
   607   constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use primcorec to defined the
   608   behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   609 
   610   Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they are
   611   available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This especially
   612   removes
   613     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   614 
   615   Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   616     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   617 
   618   Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   619 
   620   Renamings:
   621     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   622     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   623     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   624     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   625     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   626     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   627     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   628     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   629     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   630     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   631     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   632     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   633 
   634     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   635     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   636     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   637 
   638   Removed theorems:
   639     complex_zero_def
   640     complex_add_def
   641     complex_minus_def
   642     complex_diff_def
   643     complex_one_def
   644     complex_mult_def
   645     complex_inverse_def
   646     complex_scaleR_def
   647 
   648 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   649 
   650 * Nitpick:
   651   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   652     infinite values.
   653   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   654     "Rep_Integ".
   655   - Removed "std" option.
   656   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   657     "hide_types".
   658 
   659 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   660   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   661   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   662     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   663     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   664     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   665     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   666     intervals.
   667 
   668   - renamed theorems:
   669     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   670     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   671     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   672 
   673 * HOL-Probability:
   674   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general Bochner
   675     integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   676 
   677     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   678     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   679     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   680     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   681     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   682     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   683     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   684     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   685     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   686     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   687     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   688     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   689     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   690     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   691     integral_indicator          ~>
   692          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   693     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   694     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   695     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   696 
   697     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   698          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   699 
   700     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   701          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   702 
   703     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   704          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   705 
   706     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   707          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   708          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   709 
   710     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   711          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   712 
   713     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   714          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   715 
   716     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   717          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   718          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   719 
   720     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   721          positive_integral_real_affine
   722 
   723     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   724          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   725 
   726     The following theorems where removed:
   727 
   728     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   729     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   730     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   731     lebesgue_integral_multc
   732     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   733     integral_cmul_indicator
   734     integral_real
   735 
   736   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
   737 
   738     * Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
   739       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
   740 
   741     * Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
   742 
   743 *** Scala ***
   744 
   745 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   746 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   747 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   748 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   749 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   750 
   751 
   752 *** ML ***
   753 
   754 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   755 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   756 
   757 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   758 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   759 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   760 
   761 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   763 
   764 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   765 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   766 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   768 
   769 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   770 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   771 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   772 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   773 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   774 of schematic variables.
   775 
   776 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   777 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   778 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   779 formal context.
   780 
   781 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   782 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   783 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   784 actually belongs to it).
   785 
   786 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   787 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   788 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   789 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   790 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   791 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   792 
   793 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   794 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   795 
   796 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   797 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   798 
   799 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   800 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   801 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   802 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   803 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   804 
   805 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   806 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   807 purposes.
   808 
   809 
   810 *** System ***
   811 
   812 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   813 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   814 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   815 processing is started.
   816 
   817 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   818 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   819 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   820 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   821 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   822 
   823 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   824 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   825 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   826 
   827 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   828 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   829 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   830 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   831 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   832 settings variable yet.
   833 
   834 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality
   835 may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   836 
   837 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   838 -------------------------------------
   839 
   840 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   841 
   842 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   843 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   844 
   845 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   846 after edits surrounding the command location.
   847 
   848 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   849 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   850 e.g. out-of-memory).
   851 
   852 
   853 *** System ***
   854 
   855 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   856 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   857 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   858 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   859 
   860 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   861 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   862 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   863 
   864 
   865 
   866 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   867 -------------------------------------
   868 
   869 *** General ***
   870 
   871 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   872 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   873 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   874 
   875 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   876 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   877 
   878 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   879 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   880 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   881 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   882 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   883 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   884 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   885 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   886 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   887 syntax.
   888 
   889 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   890 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   891 
   892 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   893 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   894 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   895 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   896 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   897 
   898 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   900 
   901 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   902 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   903 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   904 
   905 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   906 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   907 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   908 
   909 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   910 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   911 
   912 
   913 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   914 
   915 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   916 Documentation panel.
   917 
   918 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   919 documentation.
   920 
   921 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   922 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   923 
   924 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   925 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   926 normal editing and checking process.
   927 
   928 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   929 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   930 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   931 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   932 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   933 
   934 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   935 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   936 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   937 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   938 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   939 
   940 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   941 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   942 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   943 
   944 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   945 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   946 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   947 to resolve conflict.
   948 
   949 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   950 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   951 
   952 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   953 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   954 such command executions while editing.
   955 
   956 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   957 document content.
   958 
   959 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   960 toplevel theorem statements.
   961 
   962 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   963 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   964 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   965 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   966 
   967 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   968 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   969 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   970 
   971 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   972 / Global Options / Appearance".
   973 
   974 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   975 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   976 
   977 
   978 *** Pure ***
   979 
   980 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   981 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   982 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   983 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   984 details.
   985 
   986 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   987 
   988 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   989 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   990 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   991 
   992 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   994 
   995 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   996 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   997 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   998 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   999 
  1000 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1001 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1002 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1003 
  1004 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1005 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1006 
  1007 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1008 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1009 situations.
  1010 
  1011 
  1012 *** HOL ***
  1013 
  1014 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1015 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1016 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1017 
  1018 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1019 
  1020 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1021 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1022 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1023 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1024 
  1025   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1026 
  1027 * Code generator:
  1028   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1029     'code_instance'.
  1030   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1031     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1032 
  1033 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1034 examples.
  1035 
  1036 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1037 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1038 to distinguish both when desired.
  1039 
  1040 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1041 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1042 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1043 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1044 
  1045 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1046 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1047 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1048 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1049 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1050 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1051 
  1052 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1053 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1054 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1055 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1056 
  1057 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1058 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1059 
  1060 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1061 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1062 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1063 
  1064 * Lifting:
  1065   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1066     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1067       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1068       transfer rules
  1069     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1070       correspondence relation can be generated
  1071     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1072       parametricity
  1073     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1074   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1075   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1076     copies
  1077   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1078     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1079     anonymous context)
  1080   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1081     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1082   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1083     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1084   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1085     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1086 
  1087 * Transfer:
  1088   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1089     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1090   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1091   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1092     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1093   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1094 
  1095 * Reification and reflection:
  1096   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1097     "Reification".
  1098   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1099   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1100 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1101 
  1102 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1103   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1104     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1105     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1106   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1107     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1108   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1109     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1110     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1111     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1112     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1113     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1114     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1115     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1116   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1117     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1118   - Fact renames:
  1119       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1120       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1122 
  1123 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1124 
  1125 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1126 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1127 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1129 
  1130 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1131 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1132 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1133 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1134 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1135 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1136 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1137 lemmas.
  1138 
  1139 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1140 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1141 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1142 
  1143 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1144 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1145 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1146 
  1147 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1148 top and bottom elements.
  1149 
  1150 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1151 
  1152 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1153 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1154 
  1155  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1156    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1157    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1158 
  1159  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1160    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1161    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1162 
  1163    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1164    arbitrary filter.
  1165 
  1166  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1167    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1168    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1169    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1170    on a compact set.
  1171 
  1172  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1173    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1174    linear_continuum_topology).
  1175 
  1176  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1177    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1178    on all sequences converging to x.
  1179 
  1180  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1181    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1182    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1183    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1184    left or right.
  1185 
  1186  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1187 
  1188      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1189 
  1190  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1191    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1192 
  1193  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1194    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1195    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1196    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1197    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1198    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1199 
  1200  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1201 
  1202    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1203 
  1204    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1205      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1206 
  1207    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1208 
  1209    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1210      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1211 
  1212    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1213 
  1214    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1215 
  1216  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1217 
  1218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1219 
  1220 * Nitpick:
  1221   - Added option "spy".
  1222   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1223 
  1224 * Sledgehammer:
  1225   - Renamed option:
  1226       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1227     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1228   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1229   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1230   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1231 
  1232 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1233 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1234 
  1235 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1236   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1237   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1238     generated code.
  1239   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1240   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1241   - Fact renames:
  1242     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1243     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1244     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1245 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1246 
  1247 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1248 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1249 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1250 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1251 
  1252 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1253 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1254 
  1255 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1256 
  1257 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1258 
  1259     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1260     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1261 
  1262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1263 
  1264 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1265 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1266 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1267 
  1268 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1269 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1270 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1271 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1272 
  1273 * HOL-BNF:
  1274   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1275     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1276     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1277     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1278   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1279     coinduct).
  1280   - Renamed keywords:
  1281     data ~> datatype_new
  1282     codata ~> codatatype
  1283     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1284   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1285     discs ~> disc
  1286     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1287     map_id' ~> map_id
  1288     sels ~> sel
  1289     set_map' ~> set_map
  1290     sets ~> set
  1291 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1292 
  1293 
  1294 *** ML ***
  1295 
  1296 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1297 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1298 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1299 Examples.thy in particular.
  1300 
  1301 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1302 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1303 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1304 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1305 
  1306 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1307 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1308 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1309 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1311 
  1312 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1313 
  1314     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1315     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1316 
  1317 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1318 
  1319 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1320 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1321 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1322 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1323 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1324 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1325 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1326 
  1327 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1328 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1329 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1330 clasets separately from the context.
  1331 
  1332 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1333 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1334 
  1335 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1336 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1337 
  1338 
  1339 *** System ***
  1340 
  1341 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1342 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1343 
  1344 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1345 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1346 
  1347 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1348 settings variable.
  1349 
  1350 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1351 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1352 always pdf.
  1353 
  1354 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1355 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1356 
  1357 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1358 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1359 
  1360 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1361 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1362 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1363 
  1364 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1365 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1366 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1367 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1368 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1369 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1370 
  1371 
  1372 
  1373 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1374 -----------------------------------
  1375 
  1376 *** General ***
  1377 
  1378 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1379 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1380 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1381 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1382 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1383 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1384 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1385 
  1386 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1387 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1388 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1389 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1390 
  1391 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1392 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1393 
  1394 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1395 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1396 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1397 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1398 dependencies properly.
  1399 
  1400 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1401 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1402 
  1403 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1404 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1405 
  1406 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1407 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1408 and "class ... context ...".
  1409 
  1410 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1411 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1412 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1413 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1414 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1415 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1416 
  1417 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1418 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1419 
  1420 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1421 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1422 
  1423 
  1424 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1425 
  1426 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1427 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1428 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1429 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1430 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1431 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1432 
  1433 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1434 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1435 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1436 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1437 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1438 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1439 
  1440 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1441 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1442 browser on demand.
  1443 
  1444 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1445 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1446 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1447 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1448 
  1449 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1450 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1451 
  1452 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1453 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1454 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1455 potentially infinite message streams.
  1456 
  1457 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1458 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1459 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1460 schemes.
  1461 
  1462 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1463 symbols.
  1464 
  1465 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1466 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1467 
  1468 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1469 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1470 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1471 
  1472 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1473 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1474 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1475 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1476 
  1477 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1478 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1479 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1480 
  1481 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1482 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1483 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1484 Isabelle distribution.
  1485 
  1486 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1487 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1488 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1489 
  1490 
  1491 *** Pure ***
  1492 
  1493 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1494 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1495 
  1496 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1497 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1498 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1499 
  1500 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1501 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1502 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1503 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1504 with some care where this is really required.
  1505 
  1506 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1507 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1508 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1509 
  1510   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1511 
  1512 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1513 a Hasse diagram.
  1514 
  1515 
  1516 *** HOL ***
  1517 
  1518 * Sledgehammer:
  1519 
  1520   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1521     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1522   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1523   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1524   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1525   - Renamed options:
  1526       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1527       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1528       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1529       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1530 
  1531 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1532 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1533 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1534 
  1535 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1536 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1537 
  1538 * Lifting:
  1539   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1540   - quot_del attribute
  1541   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1542 
  1543 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1544 expressions.
  1545 
  1546 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1547 pointfree expressions.
  1548 
  1549 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1550 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1551 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1552 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1554 
  1555 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1556 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1557 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1558 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1559 accordingly.
  1560 
  1561 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1562 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1563 
  1564 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1565 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1566 
  1567 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1568 
  1569 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1570 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1571 
  1572 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1573 
  1574 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1575 
  1576   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1577   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1578 
  1579 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1580 
  1581 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1582 
  1583   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1584   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1585 
  1586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1587 
  1588 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1589 
  1590   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1591     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1592     output f x converges to G.
  1593 
  1594   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1595     infinity (at_bot).
  1596 
  1597   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1598     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1599 
  1600   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1601     at_top".
  1602 
  1603 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1604 
  1605 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1606 lattice type classes.
  1607 
  1608 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1609 
  1610     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1611     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1612 
  1613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1614 
  1615 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1616 changes as follows.
  1617 
  1618   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1619 
  1620       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1621       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1622 
  1623   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1624     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1625     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1626     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1627 
  1628   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1629     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1630     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1631 
  1632   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1633     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1634     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1635     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1636 
  1637   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1638     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1639 
  1640       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1641       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1642       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1643       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1644       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1645       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1646       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1647       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1648       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1649       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1650       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1651       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1652       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1653       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1654       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1655       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1656 
  1657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1658 
  1659 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1660 
  1661 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1662 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1663 
  1664 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1665 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1666 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1667 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1668 
  1669   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1670   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1671   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1672   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1673   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1674   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1675   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1676   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1677   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1678   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1679 
  1680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1681 
  1682 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1683 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1684 Data").
  1685 
  1686 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1687 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1688 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1689 code.
  1690 
  1691 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1692 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1693 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1694 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1695 
  1696 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1697 
  1698 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1699 
  1700 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1701 
  1702   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1703   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1704 
  1705 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1706 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1707 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1708 
  1709   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1710 
  1711     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1712     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1713     cart_base i  removed
  1714     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1715 
  1716   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1717 
  1718   Renamed lemmas:
  1719 
  1720     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1721     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1722     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1723     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1724     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1725     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1726     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1727     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1728     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1729     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1730 
  1731 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1732 
  1733 * HOL/Probability:
  1734 
  1735   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1736 
  1737   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1738     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1739     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1740 
  1741   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1742     projective family).
  1743 
  1744 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1745 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1746 
  1747 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1748 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1749 datatypes.
  1750 
  1751 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1752 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1753 
  1754 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1755 trees for the code generator.
  1756 
  1757 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1758 Lifting/Transfer.
  1759 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1760 
  1761 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1763 
  1764 
  1765 *** Document preparation ***
  1766 
  1767 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1768 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1769 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1770 
  1771 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1772 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1773 
  1774 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1775 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1776 document/root.tex.
  1777 
  1778 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1779 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1780 
  1781 
  1782 *** ML ***
  1783 
  1784 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1785 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1786 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1787 
  1788 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1789 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1790 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1791 
  1792 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1793 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1794 necessarily printing visible text.
  1795 
  1796 
  1797 *** System ***
  1798 
  1799 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1800 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1801 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1802 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1803 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1804 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1805 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1806 
  1807 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1808 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1809 
  1810   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1811 
  1812 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1813 
  1814 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1815 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1816 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1817 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1818 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1819 
  1820 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1821 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1822 
  1823 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1824 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1825 
  1826 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1827 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1828 
  1829 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1830 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1831 version of Isabelle.
  1832 
  1833 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1834 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1835 
  1836 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1837 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1838 for home-made settings.
  1839 
  1840 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1841 
  1842 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1843 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1844 configuration.
  1845 
  1846 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1847 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1848 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1849 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1850 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1851 
  1852 
  1853 
  1854 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1855 ------------------------------
  1856 
  1857 *** General ***
  1858 
  1859 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1860 
  1861   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1862     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1863   - markup for bound variables
  1864   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1865   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1866   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1867     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1868 
  1869 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1870 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1871 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1872 
  1873 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1874 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1875 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1876 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1877 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1878 
  1879   context
  1880     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1881     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1882   begin
  1883 
  1884   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1885 
  1886   end
  1887 
  1888   thm my_trans
  1889 
  1890 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1891 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1892 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1893 
  1894 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1895 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1896 
  1897 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1898 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1899 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1900 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1901 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1902 
  1903 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1904 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1905 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1906 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1907 indices of schematic variables.
  1908 
  1909 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1910 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1911 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1912 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1913 etc. was exploited.
  1914 
  1915 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1916 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1917 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1918 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1919 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1920 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1921 
  1922 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1923 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1924 manual.
  1925 
  1926 
  1927 *** Pure ***
  1928 
  1929 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1930 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1931 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1932 
  1933 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1934 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1935 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1936 undocumented feature.)
  1937 
  1938 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1939 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1940 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1941 
  1942   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1943 
  1944   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1945     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1946 
  1947 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1948 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1949 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1950 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1951 
  1952 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1953 
  1954     num ~> num_token
  1955     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1956     xstr ~> str_token
  1957 
  1958 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1959 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1960 position information via constraints).
  1961 
  1962 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1963 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1964 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1965 
  1966 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1967 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1968 
  1969 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1970 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1971 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1972 
  1973 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1974 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1975 
  1976 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1977 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1978 
  1979   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1980 
  1981 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1982 
  1983 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1984 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1985 
  1986 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1987 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1988 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1989 
  1990 
  1991 *** HOL ***
  1992 
  1993 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1994 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1995 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1996 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1997 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1998 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1999 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2000 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2001 possible.
  2002 
  2003 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2004 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2005 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2006 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2007 
  2008 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2009 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2010 
  2011 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2012 
  2013 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2014 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2015 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2016 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2017 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2018 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2019 
  2020   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2021     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2022 
  2023   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2024     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2025     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2026 
  2027   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2028     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2029 
  2030   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2031     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2032     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2033 
  2034   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2035     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2036 
  2037 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2038 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2039 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2040 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2041 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2042 
  2043   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2044     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2045     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2046     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2047     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2048 
  2049     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2050     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2051 
  2052   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2053     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2054     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2055     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2056     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2057     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2058     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2059     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2060 
  2061   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2062     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2063     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2064     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2065 
  2066   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2067     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2068     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2069     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2070 
  2071   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2072     from type nat to type int.
  2073 
  2074 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2075 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2076 
  2077   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2078     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2079     type.  Example syntax:
  2080 
  2081     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2082       is List.insert
  2083 
  2084     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2085     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2086     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2087     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2088     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2089     by the package.
  2090 
  2091   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2092     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2093     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2094     code generation for each constant.
  2095 
  2096   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2097     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2098     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2099     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2100     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2101 
  2102   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2103     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2104     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2105 
  2106 * Quotient package:
  2107 
  2108   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2109     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2110 
  2111   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2112     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2113 
  2114   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2115     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2116     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2117 
  2118   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2119     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2120 
  2121 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2122 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2123 
  2124 * Quickcheck:
  2125 
  2126   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2127     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2128     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2129     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2130     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2131 
  2132     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2133     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2134     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2135 
  2136     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2137     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2138 
  2139     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2140     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2141     show genuine counterexamples.
  2142 
  2143   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2144     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2145 
  2146     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2147     constructors of that type.
  2148 
  2149   - Support for multisets.
  2150 
  2151   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2152 
  2153   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2154     conjectures in a locale context.
  2155 
  2156 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2157 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2158 
  2159 * Sledgehammer:
  2160   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2161     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2162   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2163   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2164     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2165   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2166   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2167   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2168   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2169 
  2170 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2171 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2172 
  2173 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2174 
  2175 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2176 
  2177 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2178 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2179 
  2180   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2181 
  2182 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2183 a list and a nat.
  2184 
  2185 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2186 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2187 
  2188 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2189 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2190 default.
  2191 
  2192 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2193 
  2194   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2195 
  2196 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2197 
  2198 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2199 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2200 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2201 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2202 one_case.
  2203 
  2204 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2205 the result of the fact expression.
  2206 
  2207 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2208 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2209 of some relation theorems:
  2210 
  2211   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2212   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2213   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2214   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2215   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2216   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2217 
  2218 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2219 
  2220 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2221 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2222 
  2223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2224 
  2225 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2226 to match the constant's name:
  2227 
  2228   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2229   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2230   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2231   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2232   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2233   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2234   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2235   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2236   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2237   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2238   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2239   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2240   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2241   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2242   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2243   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2244   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2245   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2246   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2247   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2248   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2249   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2250   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2251   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2252 
  2253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2254 
  2255 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2256 and corresponding theorem names:
  2257 
  2258   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2259 
  2260   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2261 
  2262   - Renamed theorems:
  2263 
  2264     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2265     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2266     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2267     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2268     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2269     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2270     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2271     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2272     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2273     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2274     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2275     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2276     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2277     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2278     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2279     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2280     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2281     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2282     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2283     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2284     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2285     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2286     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2287 
  2288     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2289 
  2290     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2291 
  2292 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2293 
  2294 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2295 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2296 
  2297   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2298   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2299   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2300   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2301   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2302   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2303   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2304   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2305   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2306   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2307   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2308   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2309   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2310   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2311   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2312   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2313   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2314   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2315   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2316   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2317   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2318 
  2319 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2320 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2321 
  2322 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2323 
  2324 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2325 
  2326   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2327   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2328   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2329   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2330   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2331   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2332   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2333   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2334   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2335   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2336   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2337   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2338   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2339   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2340   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2341   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2342   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2343   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2344 
  2345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2346 
  2347 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2348 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2349 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2350 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2351 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2352 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2353 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2354 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2355 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2356 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2357 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2358 
  2359 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2360 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2361 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2362 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2363 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2364 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2365 
  2366 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2367 through option types.
  2368 
  2369 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2370 relations.
  2371 
  2372 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2373 
  2374 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2375 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2376 
  2377   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2378   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2379   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2380   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2381   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2382   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2383   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2384   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2385   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2386   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2387   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2388   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2389   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2390   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2391   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2392   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2393   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2394   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2395   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2396   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2397   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2398   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2399   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2400   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2401   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2402   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2403   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2404   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2405   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2406   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2407   zless_le ~> less_le
  2408   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2409   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2410   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2411 
  2412 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2413 
  2414   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2415 
  2416 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2417 
  2418 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2419 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2420 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2421 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2423 
  2424 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2425 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2426 
  2427 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2428 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2429 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2430 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2431 follows:
  2432 
  2433   Operations:
  2434   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2435   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2436   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2437   del -> rbt_del
  2438   delete -> rbt_delete
  2439   ins -> rbt_ins
  2440   insert -> rbt_insert
  2441   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2442   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2443   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2444   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2445   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2446   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2447   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2448   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2449   union -> rbt_union
  2450   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2451   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2452 
  2453   Lemmas:
  2454   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2455   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2456   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2457   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2458   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2459   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2460   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2461   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2462   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2463   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2464   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2465   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2466   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2467   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2468   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2469   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2470   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2471   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2472   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2473   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2474   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2475   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2476   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2477   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2478   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2479   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2480   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2481   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2482   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2483   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2484   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2485   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2486   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2487   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2488   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2489   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2490   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2491   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2492   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2493   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2494   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2495   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2496   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2497   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2498   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2499   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2500   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2501   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2502   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2503   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2504   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2505   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2506   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2507   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2508   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2509   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2510   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2511   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2512   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2513   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2514   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2515   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2516   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2517   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2518   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2519   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2520   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2521   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2522   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2523   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2524   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2525   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2526   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2527   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2528   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2529   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2530   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2531   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2532   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2533   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2534   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2535   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2536   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2537 
  2538 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2539 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2540 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2541 
  2542   Changed Operations:
  2543   float_abs -> abs
  2544   float_nprt -> nprt
  2545   float_pprt -> pprt
  2546   pow2 -> use powr
  2547   round_down -> float_round_down
  2548   round_up -> float_round_up
  2549   scale -> exponent
  2550 
  2551   Removed Operations:
  2552   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2553 
  2554   Renamed Lemmas:
  2555   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2556   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2557   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2558   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2559   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2560   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2561   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2562   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2563   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2564   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2565   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2566   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2567   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2568   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2569   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2570   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2571   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2572   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2573   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2574   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2575   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2576   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2577   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2578   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2579   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2580   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2581   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2582   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2583   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2584   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2585   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2586   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2587   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2588   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2589   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2590   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2591 
  2592   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2593   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2594   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2595   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2596   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2597   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2598   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2599   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2600   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2601   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2602 
  2603 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2604 association lists with distinct keys.
  2605 
  2606 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2607 annotated commands.
  2608 
  2609 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2610 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2611 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2612 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2613 
  2614 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2615 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2616 instead.
  2617 
  2618   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2619   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2620   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2621   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2622   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2623   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2624   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2625   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2626   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2627   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2628   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2629   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2630   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2631   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2632   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2633   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2634   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2635   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2636   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2637   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2638   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2639   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2640   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2641   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2642   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2643   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2644   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2645   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2646   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2647   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2648   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2649   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2650   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2651   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2652   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2653   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2654   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2655   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2656   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2657   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2658   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2659 
  2660 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2661 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2662 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2663 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2664 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2665 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2666 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2667 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2668 
  2669 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2670 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2671 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2672 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2673 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2674 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2675 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2676 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2677 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2678 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2679 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2680 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2681 
  2682   Renamed constants:
  2683   measure -> emeasure
  2684   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2685   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2686   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2687   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2688 
  2689   Removed locales:
  2690   completeable_measure_space
  2691   finite_measure_space
  2692   finite_prob_space
  2693   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2694   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2695   finite_sigma_algebra
  2696   measure_space
  2697   pair_finite_prob_space
  2698   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2699   pair_finite_space
  2700   pair_sigma_algebra
  2701   product_sigma_algebra
  2702 
  2703   Removed constants:
  2704   conditional_space
  2705   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2706   image_space
  2707   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2708   pair_measure_generator
  2709   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2710   subvimage
  2711 
  2712   Replacement theorems:
  2713   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2714   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2715   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2716   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2717   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2718   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2719   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2720   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2721   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2722   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2723   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2724   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2725   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2726   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2727   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2728   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2729   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2730   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2731   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2732   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2733   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2734   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2735   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2736   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2737   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2738   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2739   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2740   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2741   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2742   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2743   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2744   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2745   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2746   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2747   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2748   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2749   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2750   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2751   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2752   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2753   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2754   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2755   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2756   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2757   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2758   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2759   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2760   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2761   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2762   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2763   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2764   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2765   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2766   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2767   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2768   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2769   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2770   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2771   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2772   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2773   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2774   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2775   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2776   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2777   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2778   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2779   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2780   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2781   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2782   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2783   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2784   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2785   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2786   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2787   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2788   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2789   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2790   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2791   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2792   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2793   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2794   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2795   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2796   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2797   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2798   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2799   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2800   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2801   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2802   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2803   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2804   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2805   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2806   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2807   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2808   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2809   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2810   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2811   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2812   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2813   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2814   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2815   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2816   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2817   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2818   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2819   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2820   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2821   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2822   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2823   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2824   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2825   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2826   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2827   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2828   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2829   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2830   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2831   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2832   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2833   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2834   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2835   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2836   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2837   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2838   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2839   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2840   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2841 
  2842 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2843 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2844 
  2845 
  2846 *** FOL ***
  2847 
  2848 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2849 
  2850 
  2851 *** ZF ***
  2852 
  2853 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2854 analysis.
  2855 
  2856 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2857 
  2858 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2859 
  2860 
  2861 *** ML ***
  2862 
  2863 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2864 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2865 
  2866 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2867 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2868 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2869 
  2870 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2871 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2872 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2873 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2874 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2875 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2876 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2877 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2878 
  2879 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2880 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2881 
  2882 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2883 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2884 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2885 
  2886 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2887 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2888 
  2889 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2890 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2891 context as well.
  2892 
  2893 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2894 
  2895   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2896   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2897   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2898   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2899   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2900   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2901   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2902   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2903   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2904   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2905   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2906   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2907 
  2908 
  2909 *** System ***
  2910 
  2911 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2912 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2913 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2914 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2915 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2916 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2917 the generic user home was intended.
  2918 
  2919 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2920 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2921 
  2922 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2923 (not just JRE).
  2924 
  2925 
  2926 
  2927 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2928 ------------------------------------
  2929 
  2930 *** General ***
  2931 
  2932 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2933 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2934 
  2935   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2936     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2937     files for checking).
  2938 
  2939   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2940     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2941     positions.
  2942 
  2943   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2944     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2945     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2946 
  2947   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2948     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2949     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2950 
  2951   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2952     cores.
  2953 
  2954   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2955     versions (garbage collection).
  2956 
  2957 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2958 including some remaining limitations.
  2959 
  2960 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2961 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2962 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2963 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2964 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2965 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2966 
  2967 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2968 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2969 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2970 
  2971 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2972 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2973 usedir option -Q.
  2974 
  2975 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2976 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2977 
  2978   long_names   ~> names_long
  2979   short_names  ~> names_short
  2980   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2981 
  2982 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2983 
  2984   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2985 
  2986 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2987 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2988 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2989 
  2990 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2991 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2992 
  2993 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2994   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2995   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2996   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2997     "Classical Reasoner".
  2998 
  2999 
  3000 *** HOL ***
  3001 
  3002 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3003 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3004 
  3005 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3006 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3007 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3008 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3009 class complete_linorder.
  3010 
  3011 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3012 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3013 
  3014 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3015 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3016 
  3017   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3018   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3019   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3020   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3021   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3022   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3023   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3024   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3025   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3026   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3027   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3028 
  3029 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3030 
  3031   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3032   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3033   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3034   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3035   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3036   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3037   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3038   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3039   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3040   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3041   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3042   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3043   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3044   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3045   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3046   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3047 
  3048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3049 
  3050 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3052 
  3053 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3054 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3055 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3056 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3057 
  3058 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3059 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3060 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3062 
  3063 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3064 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3065 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3066 
  3067 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3068 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3069 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3070 
  3071 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3072 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3073 
  3074 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3075 
  3076     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3077     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3078 
  3079 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3080 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3081 
  3082 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3083 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3084 
  3085 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3086 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3087 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3088 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3089 
  3090   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3091   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3092   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3093   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3094   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3095   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3096   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3097 
  3098 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3099 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3100 
  3101   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3102   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3103   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3104   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3105   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3106   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3107   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3108   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3109   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3110   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3111   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3112   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3113   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3114   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3115   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3116   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3117   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3118   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3119   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3120   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3121   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3122   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3123   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3124   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3125   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3126   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3127   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3128   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3129   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3130   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3131   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3132   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3133   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3134   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3135   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3136   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3137   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3138   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3139   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3140   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3141   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3142   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3143   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3144   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3145   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3146   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3147   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3148   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3149   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3150   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3151   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3152   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3153   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3154   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3155   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3156   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3157   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3158   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3159   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3160   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3161   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3162   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3163   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3164   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3165   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3166   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3167   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3168   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3169   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3170   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3171   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3172   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3173   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3174   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3175   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3176   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3177   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3178   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3179   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3180   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3181   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3182   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3183 
  3184 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3185 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3186 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3187 
  3188 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3189 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3190 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3191 
  3192 * Code generation:
  3193 
  3194   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3195     characters in the target language.
  3196 
  3197   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3198     instead.
  3199 
  3200   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3201 
  3202   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3203     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3204 
  3205       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3206 
  3207 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3208 
  3209 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3210 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3211 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3212 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3213 syntax.
  3214 
  3215 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3216 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3217 
  3218 * Nitpick:
  3219   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3220   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3221   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3222     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3223 
  3224 * Sledgehammer:
  3225   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3226   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3227     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3228   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3229     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3230   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3231     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3232   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3233     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3234   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3235     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3236 
  3237 * Metis:
  3238   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3239   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3240     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3241 
  3242 * Command 'try':
  3243   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3244     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3245   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3246     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3247 
  3248 * Quickcheck:
  3249   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3250     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3251   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3252     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3253   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3254     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3255     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3256     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3257   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3258     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3259 
  3260 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3261 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3262 
  3263 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3264 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3265 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3266 
  3267 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3268 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3269 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3270 
  3271 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3272 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273 
  3274 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3275 arithmetic.
  3276 
  3277 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3278 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3279 and lattice type classes.
  3280 
  3281 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3282 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3283 
  3284 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3285 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3286 
  3287 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3288 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3289 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3292   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3293   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3294   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3295 
  3296 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3297 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3298 constants:
  3299 
  3300   type inat   ~> type enat
  3301   Fin         ~> enat
  3302   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3303   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3304   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3305 
  3306 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3307 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3308 
  3309 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3310 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3311 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3312 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3313 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3314 
  3315 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3316 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3317 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3318 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3319 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3320 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3321 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3322 
  3323   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3324   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3325   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3326   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3327 
  3328 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3329 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3330 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3331 
  3332   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3333   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3334   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3335   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3336   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3337   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3338   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3339   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3340   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3341   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3342   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3343   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3344   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3345   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3346   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3347   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3348   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3349   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3350   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3351   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3352   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3353   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3354   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3355   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3356   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3357   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3358   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3359   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3360   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3361   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3362   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3363   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3364   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3365   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3366   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3367   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3368   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3369   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3370   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3371   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3372   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3373   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3374   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3375   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3376   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3377   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3378   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3379   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3380   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3381   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3382   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3383 
  3384 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3385   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3386   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3387   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3388   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3389     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3390 
  3391 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3392 
  3393   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3394   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3395   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3396   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3397   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3398   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3399   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3400   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3401   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3402   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3403   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3404   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3405   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3406   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3407   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3408   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3409   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3410   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3411   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3412   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3413   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3414   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3415   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3416   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3417   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3418 
  3419 
  3420 *** Document preparation ***
  3421 
  3422 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3423 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3424 same.
  3425 
  3426 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3427 result.
  3428 
  3429 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3430 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3431 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3432 
  3433 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3434 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3435 
  3436 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3437 like this:
  3438 
  3439   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3440   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3441 
  3442 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3443 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3444 layouts.
  3445 
  3446 
  3447 *** ML ***
  3448 
  3449 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3450 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3451 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3452 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3453 under external program control.
  3454 
  3455 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3456 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3457 
  3458 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3459 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3460 (better known as Proof General).
  3461 
  3462 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3463 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3464 
  3465 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3466 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3467 
  3468 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3469 (including quotes etc.).
  3470 
  3471 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3472 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3473 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3474 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3475 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3476 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3477 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3478 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3479 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3480 
  3481 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3482 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3483 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3484 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3485 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3486 
  3487 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3488 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3489 
  3490 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3491 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3492 
  3493 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3494 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3495 
  3496 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3497 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3498 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3499 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3500 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3501 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3502 proper Proof.context.
  3503 
  3504 
  3505 *** System ***
  3506 
  3507 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3508 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3509 
  3510 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3511 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3512 
  3513 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3514 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3515 
  3516   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3517   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3518   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3519   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3520   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3521 
  3522 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3523 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3524 
  3525 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3526 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3527 example:
  3528 
  3529   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3530 
  3531 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3532 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3533 
  3534 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3535 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3536 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3537 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3538 
  3539 
  3540 
  3541 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3542 ----------------------------------
  3543 
  3544 *** General ***
  3545 
  3546 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3547 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3548 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3549 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3550 like this:
  3551 
  3552   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3553 
  3554 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3555 
  3556 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3557 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3558 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3559 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3560 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3561 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3562 
  3563 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3564 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3565 the following package declarations:
  3566 
  3567   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3568   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3569 
  3570 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3571 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3572 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3573 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3574 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3575 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3576 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3577 
  3578 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3579 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3580 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3581 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3582 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3583 
  3584 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3585 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3586 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3587 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3588 
  3589 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3590 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3591 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3592 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3593 
  3594   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3595 
  3596   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3597   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3598   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3599   show_types                    show_types
  3600   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3601   show_consts                   show_consts
  3602   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3603 
  3604   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3605   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3606   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3607 
  3608   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3609   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3610 
  3611   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3612 
  3613   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3614   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3615   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3616   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3617   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3618 
  3619 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3620 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3621 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3622 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3623 
  3624 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3626 
  3627   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3628   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3629 
  3630 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3631 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3632 float_token.
  3633 
  3634 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3635 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3637 
  3638 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3639 DejaVu Sans.
  3640 
  3641 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3642 
  3643 
  3644 *** Pure ***
  3645 
  3646 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3647 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3648 time.
  3649 
  3650 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3651 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3652 
  3653 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3654 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3655 
  3656 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3657 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3658 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3659 command already provided this functionality.
  3660 
  3661 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3662 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3663 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3664 without interpretations.
  3665 
  3666 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3667 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3668 
  3669 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3670 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3671 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3672 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3673 
  3674 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3675 'definition' instead.
  3676 
  3677 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3678 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3679 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3680 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3681 
  3682 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3683 constructors.
  3684 
  3685 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3686 the local file system.
  3687 
  3688 
  3689 *** HOL ***
  3690 
  3691 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3692 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3693 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3694 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3695 
  3696   declare [[coercion f]]
  3697 
  3698 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3699 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3700 
  3701   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3702 
  3703 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3704 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3705 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3706 other theories like this:
  3707 
  3708   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3709 
  3710 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3711 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3712 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3713 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3714 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3715 for examples.
  3716 
  3717 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3718 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3719 
  3720 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3721 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3722 
  3723 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3724 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3725 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3726 
  3727 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3728 functorial structure of types.
  3729 
  3730 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3731 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3732 
  3733 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3734 languages.
  3735 
  3736 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3737 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3738 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3741 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3742 
  3743 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3744 combinators any longer.
  3745 
  3746 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3747 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3748 
  3749 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3750 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3751 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3752 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3753 
  3754   record 'a foo = ...
  3755   ...
  3756   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3757 
  3758 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3759 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3761 
  3762 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3763 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3764 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3765 
  3766 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3767 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3768 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3769 
  3770 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3771 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3772 
  3773 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3774 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3775 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3776 independently.
  3777 
  3778 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3779 counter example search.
  3780 
  3781 * Sledgehammer:
  3782   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3783     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3784     sledgehammer").
  3785   - Renamed commands:
  3786     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3787     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3788     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3789     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790   - Renamed options:
  3791     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3792     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3793     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3794     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3795     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3796 
  3797 * Nitpick:
  3798   - Renamed options:
  3799     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3800     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3801     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3802   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3803   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3804   - Added "whack" option.
  3805   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3806   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3807   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3808   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3809     higher cardinalities.
  3810   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3811 
  3812 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3813 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3814 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3815 
  3816     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3817 
  3818 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3819 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3820 
  3821 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3822 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3823 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3824 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3825 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3826 "smt_solver".
  3827 
  3828 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3829 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3830 
  3831 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3832 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3833 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3834 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3835 
  3836 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3837   - Renamed:
  3838     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3839     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3840     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3841   - Added:
  3842     smt_verbose
  3843     smt_random_seed
  3844     smt_datatypes
  3845     smt_infer_triggers
  3846     smt_monomorph_limit
  3847     cvc3_options
  3848     remote_cvc3_options
  3849     remote_z3_options
  3850     yices_options
  3851 
  3852 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3853 header.
  3854 
  3855 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3856 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3857 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3858 
  3859   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3860 
  3861 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3862 
  3863 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3864 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3865 
  3866 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3867 
  3868 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3869 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3870 
  3871 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3872 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3873 
  3874 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3875 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3876 
  3877 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3878 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3879 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880 
  3881 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3882 
  3883 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3884 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3887 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3888 
  3889 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3890 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3891 for congruent(2)).
  3892 
  3893 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3894 
  3895   types
  3896     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3897     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3898 
  3899   constants
  3900     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3901     True ~> HOL.True
  3902     False ~> HOL.False
  3903     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3904     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3905     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3906     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3907     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3908     The ~> HOL.The
  3909     All ~> HOL.All
  3910     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3911     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3912     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3913     If ~> HOL.If
  3914     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3915     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3916     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3917     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3918     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3919     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3920     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3921     op : ~> Set.member
  3922     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3923 
  3924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3925 
  3926 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3927 
  3928     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3929     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3930     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3931     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3932     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3933     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3934     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3935     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3936 
  3937 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3938 
  3939 * More stylized fact names:
  3940 
  3941   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3942   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3943   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3944   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3945 
  3946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3947 
  3948 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3949 
  3950   constants
  3951     null ~> List.null
  3952 
  3953   facts
  3954     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3955     null_empty ~> null_def
  3956 
  3957 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3958 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3959 generation.
  3960 
  3961 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3962 Haskell code.
  3963 
  3964 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3965 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3966 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3969 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3972 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3973 
  3974 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3975 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3976 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3977 
  3978 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3979 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980 
  3981 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983 
  3984 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3985 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3986 referred to by its qualified name.
  3987 
  3988   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3989   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3990   product ~>  Enum.product
  3991 
  3992 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3993 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3995 
  3996 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3997 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3998 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3999 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4000 
  4001 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4002 sort_key.
  4003 
  4004 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4006 
  4007 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4008 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4009 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4010 
  4011   types
  4012     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4013               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4014               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4015         (depends on your needs)
  4016 
  4017   constants
  4018      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4019      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4020      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4021 
  4022 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4023 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4024 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4025 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4026 
  4027 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4028 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4029 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4030 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4031 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032 
  4033 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4034 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035 
  4036 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4037 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4038 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4039 
  4040 
  4041 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4042 
  4043 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4044 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4045 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4046 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4047 compatibility.
  4048 
  4049 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4050 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4051 
  4052 
  4053 *** HOLCF ***
  4054 
  4055 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4056 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4057 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4059 
  4060 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4061 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4062 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4063 
  4064   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4065   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4066   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4067 
  4068 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4069 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4070 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4071 
  4072 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4073 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4074 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4075 domain definition now works:
  4076 
  4077   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4078 
  4079 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4080 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4081 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4082 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4083 
  4084   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4085     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4086 
  4087   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4088 
  4089 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4090 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4091 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4092 
  4093 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4094 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4095 
  4096 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4097 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4098 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4099 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4100 
  4101 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4102 
  4103 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4104 
  4105 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4106 
  4107 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4108 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4109 
  4110 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4111 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4112 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4113 
  4114 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4115 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4116 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4117 
  4118 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4119 still supported as an input translation.
  4120 
  4121 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4122 
  4123   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4124   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4125   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4126   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4127   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4128   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4129   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4130 
  4131 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4132 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4133 
  4134   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4135   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4136   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4137   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4138   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4139   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4140 
  4141 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4142 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4143 
  4144 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4145 
  4146   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4147   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4148   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4149   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4150 
  4151 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4152 
  4153 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4154 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4155 
  4156 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4157 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4158 
  4159   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4160   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4161   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4162   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4163   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4164   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4165   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4166   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4167   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4168   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4169   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4170   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4171   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4172   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4173   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4174   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4175   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4176   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4177   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4178   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4179 
  4180 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4181 
  4182   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4183   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4184   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4185   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4186   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4187   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4188   box_less             ~> box_below
  4189   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4190   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4191   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4192   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4193   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4194   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4195   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4196   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4197   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4198   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4199   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4200   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4201   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4202   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4203   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4204   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4205   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4206   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4207   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4208   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4209   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4210   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4211   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4212   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4213   up_less              ~> up_below
  4214   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4215   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4216   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4217   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4218   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4219   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4220   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4221   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4222   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4223   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4224   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4225   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4226   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4227 
  4228 
  4229 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4230 
  4231 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4232 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4233 
  4234 
  4235 *** ML ***
  4236 
  4237 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4238 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4239 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4240 
  4241 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4242 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4243 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4244 
  4245 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4246 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4247 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4248 
  4249 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4250 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4251 
  4252 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4253 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4254 
  4255 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4256 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4257 
  4258 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4259 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4260 
  4261 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4262 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4263 almost all situations.
  4264 
  4265 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4266 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4267 Isabelle/ML.
  4268 
  4269 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4270 meaning.
  4271 
  4272 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4273 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4274 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4275 
  4276 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4277 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4278 
  4279 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4280 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4281 
  4282 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4283 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4284 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4285 
  4286 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4287 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4288 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4289 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4290 configuration options.
  4291 
  4292 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4293 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4294 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4295 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4296 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4297 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4298 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4299 
  4300 
  4301 
  4302 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4303 ---------------------------------
  4304 
  4305 *** General ***
  4306 
  4307 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4308 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4309 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4310 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4311 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4312 their full internal name.
  4313 
  4314 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4315 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4316 Some hints on upgrading:
  4317 
  4318   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4319     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4320     which are independent of this issue.
  4321 
  4322   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4323     provides the following special forms:
  4324 
  4325       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4326       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4327       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4328 
  4329     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4330     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4331     extra variables".
  4332 
  4333     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4334     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4335     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4336     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4337     "logic".
  4338 
  4339   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4340     antiquotations:
  4341 
  4342       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4343       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4344       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4345       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4346 
  4347   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4348     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4349     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4350     antiquotations.
  4351 
  4352 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4353 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4354 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4355 diagnose syntax problems.
  4356 
  4357 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4358 
  4359 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4360 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4361 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4362 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4363 
  4364 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4365 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4366 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4367 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4368 
  4369 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4370 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4371 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4372 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4373 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4374 
  4375 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4376 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4377 
  4378 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4379 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4380 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4381 
  4382   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4383 
  4384 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4385 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4386 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4387 
  4388 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4389 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4390 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4391 
  4392 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4393 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4394 
  4395 
  4396 *** Pure ***
  4397 
  4398 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4399 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4400 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4401 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4402 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4403 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4404 inspect proof terms.
  4405 
  4406 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4407 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4408 are added internally.  For example:
  4409 
  4410   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4411 
  4412 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4413 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4414 
  4415 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4416 
  4417 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4418 'class' instead.
  4419 
  4420 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4421 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4423 
  4424 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4425 invariants.
  4426 
  4427 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4428 user space functionality any longer.
  4429 
  4430 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4431 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4433 
  4434 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4435 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4436 
  4437 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4438 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4439 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4440 
  4441 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4442 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4443 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4444 
  4445 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4446 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4447 
  4448 
  4449 *** HOL ***
  4450 
  4451 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4452 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4453 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4454 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4455 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4456 
  4457 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4458 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4459 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4460 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4461 
  4462   fun
  4463     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4464   where
  4465     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4466 
  4467   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4468     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4469 
  4470   quotient_definition
  4471     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4472 
  4473 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4474 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4475 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4476 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4477 
  4478 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4479 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4480 
  4481 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4482 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4483 
  4484 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4486 
  4487 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4488 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4489 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4490 
  4491 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4492 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4493 
  4494 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4496 
  4497 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4499 
  4500 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4501 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4502 
  4503 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4504 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4505 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4506 
  4507   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4508   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4509   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4510   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4511   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4512   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4513   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4514   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4515   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4516   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4517   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4518   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4519   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4520   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4521   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4522   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4523   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4524   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4525   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4526   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4527   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4528   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4529   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4530   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4531   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4532   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4533   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4534   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4535   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4536   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4537 
  4538 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4539 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4540 
  4541 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4542 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4543 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4544 
  4545 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4546 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4547 
  4548 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4549 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4550 
  4551 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4552 
  4553 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4554 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4555 
  4556 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4557 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4558 
  4559 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4560 
  4561 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4562 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4563 
  4564 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4565 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4566 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4567 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4568 
  4569 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4570   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4571   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4572   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4574 
  4575 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4576 lattices):
  4577 
  4578     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4579     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4580 
  4581     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4582 
  4583     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4584     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4585     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4586     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4587     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4588     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4589     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4590     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4591     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4592     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4593     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4594     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4595     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4596 
  4597     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4598     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4599     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4600     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4601     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4602     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4603     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4604     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4605     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4606     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4607     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4608     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4609     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4610     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4611     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4612     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4613     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4614     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4615 
  4616   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4617   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4618 
  4619     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4620     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4621     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4622     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4623     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4624 
  4625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4626 
  4627 * Refined field classes:
  4628   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4629     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4630     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4631   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4633 
  4634 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4635   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4636   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4637   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4638     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4639   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4640     equal_neg_zero.
  4641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4642 
  4643 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4644 sets to lattices:
  4645 
  4646   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4647   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4648   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4649   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4650   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4651   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4652   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4653   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4654   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4655   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4656 
  4657 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4658 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4659 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4660 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4661 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4662 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4663 
  4664 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4665 multiset order:
  4666 
  4667   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4668     <= and <;
  4669   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4670     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4671     multiset_order;
  4672   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4673     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4674     generation;
  4675   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4676     if needed.
  4677 
  4678 Renamed:
  4679 
  4680   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4681   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4682   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4683 
  4684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4685 
  4686 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4687 
  4688 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4689 
  4690 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4691 
  4692 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4693 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4694 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4695 
  4696   Constants:
  4697   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4698   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4699   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4700   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4701   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4702   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4703   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4704   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4705   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4706   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4707   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4708   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4709   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4710 
  4711   Lemmas:
  4712   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4713   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4714   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4715   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4716   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4717   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4718   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4719   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4720   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4721   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4722   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4723   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4724   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4725 
  4726 * Sledgehammer:
  4727   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4728     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4729     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4730     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4731     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4732     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4733     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4734   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4735   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4736     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4737   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4738     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4739     is still experimental.)
  4740   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4741     full-typed mode.
  4742   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4743 
  4744 * Nitpick:
  4745   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4746   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4747   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4748     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4749   - Added support for quotient types.
  4750   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4751     constructs.
  4752   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4753     "termination" proofs).
  4754   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4755   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4756   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4757   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4758     record getters.
  4759   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4760   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4761   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4762   - Added "atoms" option.
  4763   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4764     problems.
  4765   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4766     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4767     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4768   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4769     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4770   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4771 
  4772 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4773   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4774   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4775   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4776   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4777   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4778   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4779   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4780   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4781   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4782 
  4783 
  4784 *** HOLCF ***
  4785 
  4786 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4787 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4788 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4789 
  4790 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4791 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4792 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4793 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4794 
  4795 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4796 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4797 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4798 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4799 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4800 
  4801 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4802 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4803 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4804 
  4805 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4806 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4807 
  4808   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4809   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4810 
  4811 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4812 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4813 
  4814   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4815   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4816   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4817   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4818   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4819 
  4820 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4821 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4822 
  4823   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4824   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4825   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4826 
  4827 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4828 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4830 
  4831 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4832 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4833 
  4834 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4835 
  4836 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4837 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4838 
  4839 
  4840 *** ML ***
  4841 
  4842 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4843 
  4844     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4845     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4846 
  4847     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4848     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4849     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4850     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4851 
  4852     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4853     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4854     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4855 
  4856 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4857 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4858 
  4859 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4860 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4861 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4862 
  4863 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4864 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4865 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4866 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4867 
  4868 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4869 the context or even global references.
  4870 
  4871 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4872 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4873 
  4874 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4875 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4876 
  4877   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4878   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4879   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4880   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4881   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4882   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4883   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4884   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4885   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4886   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4887 
  4888 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4889 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4890 
  4891 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4892 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4893 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4894 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4895 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4896 
  4897 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4898 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4899 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4900 Theory_Data version.
  4901 
  4902 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4903 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4904 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4905 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4906 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4907 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4908 explicitly in rare situations.
  4909 
  4910 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4911 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4913 
  4914 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4915 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4916 
  4917 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4918 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4919 quite rare).
  4920 
  4921 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4922 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4923 
  4924 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4925 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4926 terms.
  4927 
  4928 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4929 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4930 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4931 
  4932 
  4933 *** System ***
  4934 
  4935 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4936 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4937 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4938 
  4939 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4940 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4941 respectively.
  4942 
  4943 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4944 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4945 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4946 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4947 
  4948   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4949 
  4950 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4951 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4952 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4953 component.
  4954 
  4955 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4956 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4957 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4958 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4959 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4960 the user for manual installation.
  4961 
  4962 
  4963 
  4964 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4965 -------------------------------------
  4966 
  4967 *** General ***
  4968 
  4969 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4970 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4971 
  4972 
  4973 *** Pure ***
  4974 
  4975 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4976 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4977 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4978 
  4979 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4980 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4981 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4982 
  4983 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4984 interpretation.
  4985 
  4986 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4987 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4988 
  4989 
  4990 *** Document preparation ***
  4991 
  4992 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4993 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4994 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4995 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4996 
  4997 
  4998 *** HOL ***
  4999 
  5000 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5001 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5002 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5003 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5004 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5005 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5006 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5007 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5008 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5009 
  5010 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5011 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5012 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5013 
  5014 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5015 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5016 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5017 
  5018 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5019 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5020 
  5021 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5022 
  5023 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5024 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5025 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5026 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5027 
  5028 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5029 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5030 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5031 "mirabelle" utility.
  5032 
  5033 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5034 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5035 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5036 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5037 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5038 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5039 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5040 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5041 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5042 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5043 
  5044 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5045 procedure only.
  5046 
  5047 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5048 
  5049 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5050 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5051 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5052 that fail later.
  5053 
  5054 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5055 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5056 
  5057 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5058 the same method as the approximation method.
  5059 
  5060 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5061 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5062 series expansion.
  5063 
  5064 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5065 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5066 
  5067 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5068 reals.
  5069 
  5070 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5071 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5072 
  5073 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5074 fixpoint theorem.
  5075 
  5076 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5077   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5078     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5079   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5080     accordingly
  5081   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5082     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5083   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5084     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5085 
  5086 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5087 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5088 lattice.
  5089 
  5090 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5091 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5092 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5093 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5094 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5095 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5096 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5097 
  5098 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5099   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5100     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5101   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5102     le_inf_iff
  5103   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5104     sup_aci)
  5105   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5106   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5107   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5108     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5109     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5110     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5111     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5112     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5113     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5114     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5115     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5116     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5117     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5118   - authentic syntax for
  5119     Set.Pow
  5120     Set.image
  5121   - mere abbreviations:
  5122     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5123     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5124     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5125     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5126     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5127     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5128     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5129     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5130   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5131 
  5132 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5133 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5134 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5135 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5136 
  5137 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5138 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5139 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5140 
  5141 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5142 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5143 
  5144 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5145 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5146 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5147 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5148 
  5149 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5150 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5151 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5152 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5153 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5154 
  5155 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5156 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5157 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5158 
  5159 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5160 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5161 
  5162 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5163 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5164 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5165 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5166 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5167 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5168 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5169 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5170 
  5171 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5172     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5173     code_post       replaces    code post
  5174     etc.
  5175   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5176 
  5177 * Renamed methods:
  5178     sizechange -> size_change
  5179     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5180   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5181 
  5182 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5183 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5184 
  5185 * Renamed theorems:
  5186     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5187     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5188     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5189     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5190     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5191   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5192 
  5193 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5195 
  5196 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5198 
  5199 
  5200 *** HOLCF ***
  5201 
  5202 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5203 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5204 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5205 
  5206 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5207 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5208 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5209 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5210 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5211 
  5212 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5213 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5214 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5215 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5216 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5217 
  5218 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5219 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5220 constructor are pre-configured.
  5221 
  5222 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5223 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5224 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5225 
  5226 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5227 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5228 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5229 as well.)
  5230 
  5231 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5232 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5233 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5234 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5235 examples.
  5236 
  5237 
  5238 *** ML ***
  5239 
  5240 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5241 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5242 
  5243 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5244 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5245 position, logical grouping etc.
  5246 
  5247 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5248 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5249 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5250 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5251 
  5252 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5253 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5254 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5255 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5256 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5257 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5258 
  5259 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5260 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5261 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5262 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5263 experiments with references.
  5264 
  5265 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5266 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5267 
  5268 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5269 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5270 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5271 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5272 
  5273 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5274 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5275 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5276 
  5277 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5278 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5279 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5280 
  5281 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5282 
  5283 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5285 
  5286 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5287 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5288 
  5289 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5290 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5291 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5292 
  5293 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5294 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5295 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5296 
  5297 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5298 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5299 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5301 
  5302 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5303 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5304 instead of global theory.
  5305 
  5306 
  5307 *** System ***
  5308 
  5309 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5310 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5311 usedir option -q.
  5312 
  5313 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5314 also the system manual.
  5315 
  5316 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5317 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5318 
  5319 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5320 this is always enabled.
  5321 
  5322 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5323 
  5324 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5325 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5326 currently supported on Linux only.
  5327 
  5328 
  5329 
  5330 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5331 --------------------------------
  5332 
  5333 *** General ***
  5334 
  5335 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5336 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5337 
  5338   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5339     "isatool."
  5340 
  5341   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5342     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5343 
  5344   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5345     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5346 
  5347 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5348 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5349 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5350 
  5351 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5352 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5353 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5354 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5355 via "isabelle emacs".
  5356 
  5357 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5358 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5359 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5360 
  5361 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5362 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5363 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5364 
  5365 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5366 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5367 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5368 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5369 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5370 
  5371 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5372 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5373 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5374 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5375 
  5376 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5377 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5378 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5379 
  5380 
  5381 *** Pure ***
  5382 
  5383 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5384 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5385 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5386 
  5387 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5388 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5389 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5390 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5391 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5392 
  5393 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5394 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5395 useful in locale declarations.
  5396 
  5397 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5398 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5399 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5400 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5401 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5402 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5403 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5404 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5405 no longer generated.
  5406 
  5407 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5408 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5409 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5410 
  5411 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5412 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5413 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5414 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5415 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5416 
  5417 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5418 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5419 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5420 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5421 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5422 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5423 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5424 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5425 
  5426 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5427 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5428 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5429 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5430 
  5431 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5432 
  5433 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5434 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5435 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5436 
  5437 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5438 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5439 
  5440 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5441 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5442 in HOL, write
  5443 
  5444     class foo = ...
  5445 
  5446 instead of
  5447 
  5448     class foo = type + ...
  5449 
  5450 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5451 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5452 
  5453 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5454 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5455 
  5456 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5457 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5458 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5459 
  5460 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5461 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5462 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5463 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5464 directly in regular applications.
  5465 
  5466 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5467 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5468 
  5469 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5470 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5471 
  5472 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5473 theory context.
  5474 
  5475 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5476 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5477 
  5478 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5479 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5480 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5481 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5482 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5483 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5484 
  5485   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5486 
  5487 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5488 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5489 normalization.
  5490 
  5491 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5492 addressing etc.
  5493 
  5494 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5495 
  5496   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5497   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5498 
  5499 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5500 
  5501   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5502      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5503      parts of the code generator framework).
  5504 
  5505   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5506      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5507      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5508 
  5509 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5510 
  5511 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5512 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5513 
  5514 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5515 patterns, e.g.
  5516 
  5517     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5518 
  5519 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5520 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5521 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5522 hyphen:
  5523 
  5524     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5525 
  5526 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5527 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5528 
  5529 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5530 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5531 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5532 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5533 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5534 higher-order unification.
  5535 
  5536 
  5537 *** Document preparation ***
  5538 
  5539 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5540 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5541 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5542 
  5543 
  5544 *** HOL ***
  5545 
  5546 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5547 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5548 
  5549 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5550 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5551 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5552 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5553 Main, as before.
  5554 
  5555 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5556 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5557 
  5558 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5559 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5560 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5561 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5562 
  5563 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5564 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5565 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5566 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5567 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5568 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5569 
  5570 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5571 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5572 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5573 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5574 
  5575 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5576 menu.
  5577 
  5578 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5579 (contains the empty clause).
  5580 
  5581 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5582 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5583 
  5584 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5585 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5586 
  5587 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5588 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5589 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5590 
  5591 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5592 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5593 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5594 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5595 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5596 
  5597 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5598 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5599 
  5600 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5601 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5602 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5603 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5604 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5605 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5606 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5607 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5608 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5609 
  5610 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5611 
  5612 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5613 
  5614 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5615 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5616 
  5617 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5618 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5619 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5620 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5621 
  5622 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5623 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5624 
  5625     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5626     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5627     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5628     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5629     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5630     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5631     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5632     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5633 
  5634 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5635 theory Set.
  5636 
  5637 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5638 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5639 
  5640 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5641 
  5642 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5643 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5644 
  5645 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5646 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5647 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5648 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5649 allowed. For examples see
  5650 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5651 
  5652 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5653 
  5654 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5655 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5656 
  5657 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5658 structure:
  5659 
  5660     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5661     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5662     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5663     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5664     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5665     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5666     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5667     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5668     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5669     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5670     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5671     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5672     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5673     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5674     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5675     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5676     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5677     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5678     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5679     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5680     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5681     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5682     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5683     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5684     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5685     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5686     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5687     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5688     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5689     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5690     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5691     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5692     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5693 
  5694     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5695     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5696     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5697     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5698     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5699     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5700     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5701     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5702     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5703     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5704 
  5705     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5706     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5707     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5708     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5709     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5710     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5711 
  5712 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5713 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5714 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5715 
  5716 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5717 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5718 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5719 
  5720 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5721 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5722 
  5723 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5724 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5725 
  5726 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5727 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5728 proofs, e.g.
  5729 
  5730   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5731 
  5732 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5733 
  5734 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5735 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5736 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5737 
  5738 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5739 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5741 
  5742 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5743 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5744 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5746 
  5747 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5748 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5749 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5750 preorder_class.*.
  5751 
  5752 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5753 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5754 
  5755 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5756 
  5757   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5758 
  5759 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5760 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5761 fold_image.
  5762 
  5763 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5764 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5765 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5766 the former will disappear at some point.
  5767 
  5768 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5769 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5770 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5771 
  5772 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5773 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5774 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5775 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5776 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5777 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5778 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5779 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5780 
  5781 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5782 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5783 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5784 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5785 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5786 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5787 
  5788     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5789     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5790     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5791     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5792     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5793     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5794     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5795 
  5796 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5797 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5798 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5799 
  5800 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5801 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5802 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5803 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5804 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5805 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5806 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5807 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5808 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5809 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5810 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5811 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5812 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5813 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5814 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5815 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5816 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5817 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5818 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5819 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5820 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5821 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5822 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5823 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5824 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5825 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5826 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5827 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5828 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5829 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5830 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5831 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5832 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5833 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5834 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5835 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5836 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5837 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5838 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5839 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5840 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5841 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5842 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5843 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5844 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5845 
  5846 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5847 
  5848 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5849 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5850 
  5851 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5852 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5853 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5854 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5855 
  5856 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5857 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5858 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5859 theory RealVector.
  5860 
  5861 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5862 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5863 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5864 and inner products are included.
  5865 
  5866 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5867 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5868 supported.
  5869 
  5870 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5871 first diagonalization argument.
  5872 
  5873 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5874 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5875 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5876 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5877 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5878 
  5879     hide (open) const gcd
  5880     abbreviation gcd where
  5881       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5882     notation (output)
  5883       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5884 
  5885 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5886 
  5887 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5888 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5889 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5890 
  5891 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5892 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5893 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5894 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5895 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5896 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5897 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5898 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5899 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5900 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5901 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5902 cases.
  5903 
  5904 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5905 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5906 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5907 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5908 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5909 
  5910     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5911     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5912     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5913     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5914     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5915 
  5916 
  5917 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5918 
  5919 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5920 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5921 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5922 
  5923 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5924 
  5925 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5926 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5927 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5928 
  5929 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5930 
  5931 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5932 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5933 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5934 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5935 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5936 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5937 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5938 
  5939 
  5940 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5941 
  5942 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5943 
  5944 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5945 theory targets.
  5946 
  5947 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5948 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5949 'inductive' etc.
  5950 
  5951 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5952 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5953 
  5954 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5955 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5956 
  5957 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5958 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5959 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5960 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5961 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5962 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5963 the algorithm W:
  5964 
  5965  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5966  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5967          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5968 
  5969 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5970 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5971 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5972 
  5973 
  5974 *** HOLCF ***
  5975 
  5976 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5977 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5978 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5979 
  5980 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5981 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5982 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5983 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5984 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5985 
  5986 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5987 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5988 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5989 
  5990 
  5991 *** ZF ***
  5992 
  5993 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5994 
  5995 
  5996 *** ML ***
  5997 
  5998 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5999 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  6000 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  6001 5.2.1!
  6002 
  6003 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  6004 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  6005 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  6006 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6007 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6008 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6009 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6010 
  6011 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6012 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6013 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6014 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6015 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6016 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6017 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6018 
  6019 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6020 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6021 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6022 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6023 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6024 
  6025 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6026 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6027 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6028 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6029 Method.add_method.
  6030 
  6031 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6032 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6033 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6034 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6035 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6036 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6037 
  6038 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6039 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6040 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6041 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6042 examples.
  6043 
  6044 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6045 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6046 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6047 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  6048 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  6049 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  6050 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  6051 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  6052 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  6053 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  6054 
  6055 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  6056 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  6057 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  6058 
  6059 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  6060 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  6061 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  6062 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  6063 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  6064 resort for legacy applications.
  6065 
  6066 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  6067 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  6068 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  6069 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  6070 explicit runtime argument.
  6071 
  6072 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  6073 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  6074 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  6075 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  6076 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6077 
  6078 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  6079 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  6080 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  6081 theory state.
  6082 
  6083 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  6084 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  6085 
  6086   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  6087   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  6088   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  6089   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  6090   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  6091   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  6092   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  6093   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  6094   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  6095   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  6096 
  6097 
  6098 *** System ***
  6099 
  6100 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  6101 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  6102 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  6103 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  6104 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  6105 
  6106 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  6107 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  6108 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  6109 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  6110 
  6111 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  6112 
  6113 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  6114 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  6115 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  6116 prover operations.
  6117 
  6118 
  6119 
  6120 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  6121 -------------------------------
  6122 
  6123 *** General ***
  6124 
  6125 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  6126 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  6127 
  6128 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6129 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6130 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6131 provides a proper context already.
  6132 
  6133 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6134 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6135 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6136 
  6137 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6138 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6139 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6140 swap theory imports.
  6141 
  6142 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6143 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6144 
  6145 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6146 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6147 white space without escapes.
  6148 
  6149 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6150 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6151 "foo_bar".
  6152 
  6153 
  6154 *** Pure ***
  6155 
  6156 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6157 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6158 
  6159 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6160 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6161 
  6162 (1) unused_thms
  6163      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6164 
  6165 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6166      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6167      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6168 
  6169 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6170      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6171      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6172      their ancestors.
  6173 
  6174 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6175 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6176 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6177 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6178 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6179 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6180 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6181 
  6182 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6183 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6184 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6185 
  6186 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6187 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6188 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6189 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6190 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6191 
  6192 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6193 
  6194 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6195 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6196 update of theories within ML code.
  6197 
  6198 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6199 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6200 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6201 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6202 
  6203 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6204 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6205 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6207 
  6208 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6209 
  6210 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6211 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6212 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6213 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6214 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6215 
  6216 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6217 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6218 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6219 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6220 situations.
  6221 
  6222 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6223 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6224 proof text.
  6225 
  6226 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6227 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6228 
  6229 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6230 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6231 predicates.
  6232 
  6233 
  6234 *** Document preparation ***
  6235 
  6236 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6237 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6238 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6239 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  6240 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  6241 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  6242 
  6243 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6244 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  6245 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  6246 
  6247 
  6248 *** HOL ***
  6249 
  6250 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  6251 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6252 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6253 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6254 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6255 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6256 
  6257 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  6258 with multithreading.
  6259 
  6260 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a