src/HOL/Real_Vector_Spaces.thy
 author blanchet Thu Sep 11 18:54:36 2014 +0200 (2014-09-11) changeset 58306 117ba6cbe414 parent 57514 bdc2c6b40bf2 child 58889 5b7a9633cfa8 permissions -rw-r--r--
renamed 'rep_datatype' to 'old_rep_datatype' (HOL)
```     1 (*  Title:      HOL/Real_Vector_Spaces.thy
```
```     2     Author:     Brian Huffman
```
```     3     Author:     Johannes Hölzl
```
```     4 *)
```
```     5
```
```     6 header {* Vector Spaces and Algebras over the Reals *}
```
```     7
```
```     8 theory Real_Vector_Spaces
```
```     9 imports Real Topological_Spaces
```
```    10 begin
```
```    11
```
```    12 subsection {* Locale for additive functions *}
```
```    13
```
```    14 locale additive =
```
```    15   fixes f :: "'a::ab_group_add \<Rightarrow> 'b::ab_group_add"
```
```    16   assumes add: "f (x + y) = f x + f y"
```
```    17 begin
```
```    18
```
```    19 lemma zero: "f 0 = 0"
```
```    20 proof -
```
```    21   have "f 0 = f (0 + 0)" by simp
```
```    22   also have "\<dots> = f 0 + f 0" by (rule add)
```
```    23   finally show "f 0 = 0" by simp
```
```    24 qed
```
```    25
```
```    26 lemma minus: "f (- x) = - f x"
```
```    27 proof -
```
```    28   have "f (- x) + f x = f (- x + x)" by (rule add [symmetric])
```
```    29   also have "\<dots> = - f x + f x" by (simp add: zero)
```
```    30   finally show "f (- x) = - f x" by (rule add_right_imp_eq)
```
```    31 qed
```
```    32
```
```    33 lemma diff: "f (x - y) = f x - f y"
```
```    34   using add [of x "- y"] by (simp add: minus)
```
```    35
```
```    36 lemma setsum: "f (setsum g A) = (\<Sum>x\<in>A. f (g x))"
```
```    37 apply (cases "finite A")
```
```    38 apply (induct set: finite)
```
```    39 apply (simp add: zero)
```
```    40 apply (simp add: add)
```
```    41 apply (simp add: zero)
```
```    42 done
```
```    43
```
```    44 end
```
```    45
```
```    46 subsection {* Vector spaces *}
```
```    47
```
```    48 locale vector_space =
```
```    49   fixes scale :: "'a::field \<Rightarrow> 'b::ab_group_add \<Rightarrow> 'b"
```
```    50   assumes scale_right_distrib [algebra_simps]:
```
```    51     "scale a (x + y) = scale a x + scale a y"
```
```    52   and scale_left_distrib [algebra_simps]:
```
```    53     "scale (a + b) x = scale a x + scale b x"
```
```    54   and scale_scale [simp]: "scale a (scale b x) = scale (a * b) x"
```
```    55   and scale_one [simp]: "scale 1 x = x"
```
```    56 begin
```
```    57
```
```    58 lemma scale_left_commute:
```
```    59   "scale a (scale b x) = scale b (scale a x)"
```
```    60 by (simp add: mult.commute)
```
```    61
```
```    62 lemma scale_zero_left [simp]: "scale 0 x = 0"
```
```    63   and scale_minus_left [simp]: "scale (- a) x = - (scale a x)"
```
```    64   and scale_left_diff_distrib [algebra_simps]:
```
```    65         "scale (a - b) x = scale a x - scale b x"
```
```    66   and scale_setsum_left: "scale (setsum f A) x = (\<Sum>a\<in>A. scale (f a) x)"
```
```    67 proof -
```
```    68   interpret s: additive "\<lambda>a. scale a x"
```
```    69     proof qed (rule scale_left_distrib)
```
```    70   show "scale 0 x = 0" by (rule s.zero)
```
```    71   show "scale (- a) x = - (scale a x)" by (rule s.minus)
```
```    72   show "scale (a - b) x = scale a x - scale b x" by (rule s.diff)
```
```    73   show "scale (setsum f A) x = (\<Sum>a\<in>A. scale (f a) x)" by (rule s.setsum)
```
```    74 qed
```
```    75
```
```    76 lemma scale_zero_right [simp]: "scale a 0 = 0"
```
```    77   and scale_minus_right [simp]: "scale a (- x) = - (scale a x)"
```
```    78   and scale_right_diff_distrib [algebra_simps]:
```
```    79         "scale a (x - y) = scale a x - scale a y"
```
```    80   and scale_setsum_right: "scale a (setsum f A) = (\<Sum>x\<in>A. scale a (f x))"
```
```    81 proof -
```
```    82   interpret s: additive "\<lambda>x. scale a x"
```
```    83     proof qed (rule scale_right_distrib)
```
```    84   show "scale a 0 = 0" by (rule s.zero)
```
```    85   show "scale a (- x) = - (scale a x)" by (rule s.minus)
```
```    86   show "scale a (x - y) = scale a x - scale a y" by (rule s.diff)
```
```    87   show "scale a (setsum f A) = (\<Sum>x\<in>A. scale a (f x))" by (rule s.setsum)
```
```    88 qed
```
```    89
```
```    90 lemma scale_eq_0_iff [simp]:
```
```    91   "scale a x = 0 \<longleftrightarrow> a = 0 \<or> x = 0"
```
```    92 proof cases
```
```    93   assume "a = 0" thus ?thesis by simp
```
```    94 next
```
```    95   assume anz [simp]: "a \<noteq> 0"
```
```    96   { assume "scale a x = 0"
```
```    97     hence "scale (inverse a) (scale a x) = 0" by simp
```
```    98     hence "x = 0" by simp }
```
```    99   thus ?thesis by force
```
```   100 qed
```
```   101
```
```   102 lemma scale_left_imp_eq:
```
```   103   "\<lbrakk>a \<noteq> 0; scale a x = scale a y\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> x = y"
```
```   104 proof -
```
```   105   assume nonzero: "a \<noteq> 0"
```
```   106   assume "scale a x = scale a y"
```
```   107   hence "scale a (x - y) = 0"
```
```   108      by (simp add: scale_right_diff_distrib)
```
```   109   hence "x - y = 0" by (simp add: nonzero)
```
```   110   thus "x = y" by (simp only: right_minus_eq)
```
```   111 qed
```
```   112
```
```   113 lemma scale_right_imp_eq:
```
```   114   "\<lbrakk>x \<noteq> 0; scale a x = scale b x\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> a = b"
```
```   115 proof -
```
```   116   assume nonzero: "x \<noteq> 0"
```
```   117   assume "scale a x = scale b x"
```
```   118   hence "scale (a - b) x = 0"
```
```   119      by (simp add: scale_left_diff_distrib)
```
```   120   hence "a - b = 0" by (simp add: nonzero)
```
```   121   thus "a = b" by (simp only: right_minus_eq)
```
```   122 qed
```
```   123
```
```   124 lemma scale_cancel_left [simp]:
```
```   125   "scale a x = scale a y \<longleftrightarrow> x = y \<or> a = 0"
```
```   126 by (auto intro: scale_left_imp_eq)
```
```   127
```
```   128 lemma scale_cancel_right [simp]:
```
```   129   "scale a x = scale b x \<longleftrightarrow> a = b \<or> x = 0"
```
```   130 by (auto intro: scale_right_imp_eq)
```
```   131
```
```   132 end
```
```   133
```
```   134 subsection {* Real vector spaces *}
```
```   135
```
```   136 class scaleR =
```
```   137   fixes scaleR :: "real \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'a" (infixr "*\<^sub>R" 75)
```
```   138 begin
```
```   139
```
```   140 abbreviation
```
```   141   divideR :: "'a \<Rightarrow> real \<Rightarrow> 'a" (infixl "'/\<^sub>R" 70)
```
```   142 where
```
```   143   "x /\<^sub>R r == scaleR (inverse r) x"
```
```   144
```
```   145 end
```
```   146
```
```   147 class real_vector = scaleR + ab_group_add +
```
```   148   assumes scaleR_add_right: "scaleR a (x + y) = scaleR a x + scaleR a y"
```
```   149   and scaleR_add_left: "scaleR (a + b) x = scaleR a x + scaleR b x"
```
```   150   and scaleR_scaleR: "scaleR a (scaleR b x) = scaleR (a * b) x"
```
```   151   and scaleR_one: "scaleR 1 x = x"
```
```   152
```
```   153 interpretation real_vector:
```
```   154   vector_space "scaleR :: real \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'a::real_vector"
```
```   155 apply unfold_locales
```
```   156 apply (rule scaleR_add_right)
```
```   157 apply (rule scaleR_add_left)
```
```   158 apply (rule scaleR_scaleR)
```
```   159 apply (rule scaleR_one)
```
```   160 done
```
```   161
```
```   162 text {* Recover original theorem names *}
```
```   163
```
```   164 lemmas scaleR_left_commute = real_vector.scale_left_commute
```
```   165 lemmas scaleR_zero_left = real_vector.scale_zero_left
```
```   166 lemmas scaleR_minus_left = real_vector.scale_minus_left
```
```   167 lemmas scaleR_diff_left = real_vector.scale_left_diff_distrib
```
```   168 lemmas scaleR_setsum_left = real_vector.scale_setsum_left
```
```   169 lemmas scaleR_zero_right = real_vector.scale_zero_right
```
```   170 lemmas scaleR_minus_right = real_vector.scale_minus_right
```
```   171 lemmas scaleR_diff_right = real_vector.scale_right_diff_distrib
```
```   172 lemmas scaleR_setsum_right = real_vector.scale_setsum_right
```
```   173 lemmas scaleR_eq_0_iff = real_vector.scale_eq_0_iff
```
```   174 lemmas scaleR_left_imp_eq = real_vector.scale_left_imp_eq
```
```   175 lemmas scaleR_right_imp_eq = real_vector.scale_right_imp_eq
```
```   176 lemmas scaleR_cancel_left = real_vector.scale_cancel_left
```
```   177 lemmas scaleR_cancel_right = real_vector.scale_cancel_right
```
```   178
```
```   179 text {* Legacy names *}
```
```   180
```
```   181 lemmas scaleR_left_distrib = scaleR_add_left
```
```   182 lemmas scaleR_right_distrib = scaleR_add_right
```
```   183 lemmas scaleR_left_diff_distrib = scaleR_diff_left
```
```   184 lemmas scaleR_right_diff_distrib = scaleR_diff_right
```
```   185
```
```   186 lemma scaleR_minus1_left [simp]:
```
```   187   fixes x :: "'a::real_vector"
```
```   188   shows "scaleR (-1) x = - x"
```
```   189   using scaleR_minus_left [of 1 x] by simp
```
```   190
```
```   191 class real_algebra = real_vector + ring +
```
```   192   assumes mult_scaleR_left [simp]: "scaleR a x * y = scaleR a (x * y)"
```
```   193   and mult_scaleR_right [simp]: "x * scaleR a y = scaleR a (x * y)"
```
```   194
```
```   195 class real_algebra_1 = real_algebra + ring_1
```
```   196
```
```   197 class real_div_algebra = real_algebra_1 + division_ring
```
```   198
```
```   199 class real_field = real_div_algebra + field
```
```   200
```
```   201 instantiation real :: real_field
```
```   202 begin
```
```   203
```
```   204 definition
```
```   205   real_scaleR_def [simp]: "scaleR a x = a * x"
```
```   206
```
```   207 instance proof
```
```   208 qed (simp_all add: algebra_simps)
```
```   209
```
```   210 end
```
```   211
```
```   212 interpretation scaleR_left: additive "(\<lambda>a. scaleR a x::'a::real_vector)"
```
```   213 proof qed (rule scaleR_left_distrib)
```
```   214
```
```   215 interpretation scaleR_right: additive "(\<lambda>x. scaleR a x::'a::real_vector)"
```
```   216 proof qed (rule scaleR_right_distrib)
```
```   217
```
```   218 lemma nonzero_inverse_scaleR_distrib:
```
```   219   fixes x :: "'a::real_div_algebra" shows
```
```   220   "\<lbrakk>a \<noteq> 0; x \<noteq> 0\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> inverse (scaleR a x) = scaleR (inverse a) (inverse x)"
```
```   221 by (rule inverse_unique, simp)
```
```   222
```
```   223 lemma inverse_scaleR_distrib:
```
```   224   fixes x :: "'a::{real_div_algebra, division_ring_inverse_zero}"
```
```   225   shows "inverse (scaleR a x) = scaleR (inverse a) (inverse x)"
```
```   226 apply (case_tac "a = 0", simp)
```
```   227 apply (case_tac "x = 0", simp)
```
```   228 apply (erule (1) nonzero_inverse_scaleR_distrib)
```
```   229 done
```
```   230
```
```   231
```
```   232 subsection {* Embedding of the Reals into any @{text real_algebra_1}:
```
```   233 @{term of_real} *}
```
```   234
```
```   235 definition
```
```   236   of_real :: "real \<Rightarrow> 'a::real_algebra_1" where
```
```   237   "of_real r = scaleR r 1"
```
```   238
```
```   239 lemma scaleR_conv_of_real: "scaleR r x = of_real r * x"
```
```   240 by (simp add: of_real_def)
```
```   241
```
```   242 lemma of_real_0 [simp]: "of_real 0 = 0"
```
```   243 by (simp add: of_real_def)
```
```   244
```
```   245 lemma of_real_1 [simp]: "of_real 1 = 1"
```
```   246 by (simp add: of_real_def)
```
```   247
```
```   248 lemma of_real_add [simp]: "of_real (x + y) = of_real x + of_real y"
```
```   249 by (simp add: of_real_def scaleR_left_distrib)
```
```   250
```
```   251 lemma of_real_minus [simp]: "of_real (- x) = - of_real x"
```
```   252 by (simp add: of_real_def)
```
```   253
```
```   254 lemma of_real_diff [simp]: "of_real (x - y) = of_real x - of_real y"
```
```   255 by (simp add: of_real_def scaleR_left_diff_distrib)
```
```   256
```
```   257 lemma of_real_mult [simp]: "of_real (x * y) = of_real x * of_real y"
```
```   258 by (simp add: of_real_def mult.commute)
```
```   259
```
```   260 lemma of_real_setsum[simp]: "of_real (setsum f s) = (\<Sum>x\<in>s. of_real (f x))"
```
```   261   by (induct s rule: infinite_finite_induct) auto
```
```   262
```
```   263 lemma of_real_setprod[simp]: "of_real (setprod f s) = (\<Prod>x\<in>s. of_real (f x))"
```
```   264   by (induct s rule: infinite_finite_induct) auto
```
```   265
```
```   266 lemma nonzero_of_real_inverse:
```
```   267   "x \<noteq> 0 \<Longrightarrow> of_real (inverse x) =
```
```   268    inverse (of_real x :: 'a::real_div_algebra)"
```
```   269 by (simp add: of_real_def nonzero_inverse_scaleR_distrib)
```
```   270
```
```   271 lemma of_real_inverse [simp]:
```
```   272   "of_real (inverse x) =
```
```   273    inverse (of_real x :: 'a::{real_div_algebra, division_ring_inverse_zero})"
```
```   274 by (simp add: of_real_def inverse_scaleR_distrib)
```
```   275
```
```   276 lemma nonzero_of_real_divide:
```
```   277   "y \<noteq> 0 \<Longrightarrow> of_real (x / y) =
```
```   278    (of_real x / of_real y :: 'a::real_field)"
```
```   279 by (simp add: divide_inverse nonzero_of_real_inverse)
```
```   280
```
```   281 lemma of_real_divide [simp]:
```
```   282   "of_real (x / y) =
```
```   283    (of_real x / of_real y :: 'a::{real_field, field_inverse_zero})"
```
```   284 by (simp add: divide_inverse)
```
```   285
```
```   286 lemma of_real_power [simp]:
```
```   287   "of_real (x ^ n) = (of_real x :: 'a::{real_algebra_1}) ^ n"
```
```   288 by (induct n) simp_all
```
```   289
```
```   290 lemma of_real_eq_iff [simp]: "(of_real x = of_real y) = (x = y)"
```
```   291 by (simp add: of_real_def)
```
```   292
```
```   293 lemma inj_of_real:
```
```   294   "inj of_real"
```
```   295   by (auto intro: injI)
```
```   296
```
```   297 lemmas of_real_eq_0_iff [simp] = of_real_eq_iff [of _ 0, simplified]
```
```   298
```
```   299 lemma of_real_eq_id [simp]: "of_real = (id :: real \<Rightarrow> real)"
```
```   300 proof
```
```   301   fix r
```
```   302   show "of_real r = id r"
```
```   303     by (simp add: of_real_def)
```
```   304 qed
```
```   305
```
```   306 text{*Collapse nested embeddings*}
```
```   307 lemma of_real_of_nat_eq [simp]: "of_real (of_nat n) = of_nat n"
```
```   308 by (induct n) auto
```
```   309
```
```   310 lemma of_real_of_int_eq [simp]: "of_real (of_int z) = of_int z"
```
```   311 by (cases z rule: int_diff_cases, simp)
```
```   312
```
```   313 lemma of_real_real_of_nat_eq [simp]: "of_real (real n) = of_nat n"
```
```   314   by (simp add: real_of_nat_def)
```
```   315
```
```   316 lemma of_real_real_of_int_eq [simp]: "of_real (real z) = of_int z"
```
```   317   by (simp add: real_of_int_def)
```
```   318
```
```   319 lemma of_real_numeral: "of_real (numeral w) = numeral w"
```
```   320 using of_real_of_int_eq [of "numeral w"] by simp
```
```   321
```
```   322 lemma of_real_neg_numeral: "of_real (- numeral w) = - numeral w"
```
```   323 using of_real_of_int_eq [of "- numeral w"] by simp
```
```   324
```
```   325 text{*Every real algebra has characteristic zero*}
```
```   326
```
```   327 instance real_algebra_1 < ring_char_0
```
```   328 proof
```
```   329   from inj_of_real inj_of_nat have "inj (of_real \<circ> of_nat)" by (rule inj_comp)
```
```   330   then show "inj (of_nat :: nat \<Rightarrow> 'a)" by (simp add: comp_def)
```
```   331 qed
```
```   332
```
```   333 instance real_field < field_char_0 ..
```
```   334
```
```   335
```
```   336 subsection {* The Set of Real Numbers *}
```
```   337
```
```   338 definition Reals :: "'a::real_algebra_1 set" where
```
```   339   "Reals = range of_real"
```
```   340
```
```   341 notation (xsymbols)
```
```   342   Reals  ("\<real>")
```
```   343
```
```   344 lemma Reals_of_real [simp]: "of_real r \<in> Reals"
```
```   345 by (simp add: Reals_def)
```
```   346
```
```   347 lemma Reals_of_int [simp]: "of_int z \<in> Reals"
```
```   348 by (subst of_real_of_int_eq [symmetric], rule Reals_of_real)
```
```   349
```
```   350 lemma Reals_of_nat [simp]: "of_nat n \<in> Reals"
```
```   351 by (subst of_real_of_nat_eq [symmetric], rule Reals_of_real)
```
```   352
```
```   353 lemma Reals_numeral [simp]: "numeral w \<in> Reals"
```
```   354 by (subst of_real_numeral [symmetric], rule Reals_of_real)
```
```   355
```
```   356 lemma Reals_0 [simp]: "0 \<in> Reals"
```
```   357 apply (unfold Reals_def)
```
```   358 apply (rule range_eqI)
```
```   359 apply (rule of_real_0 [symmetric])
```
```   360 done
```
```   361
```
```   362 lemma Reals_1 [simp]: "1 \<in> Reals"
```
```   363 apply (unfold Reals_def)
```
```   364 apply (rule range_eqI)
```
```   365 apply (rule of_real_1 [symmetric])
```
```   366 done
```
```   367
```
```   368 lemma Reals_add [simp]: "\<lbrakk>a \<in> Reals; b \<in> Reals\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> a + b \<in> Reals"
```
```   369 apply (auto simp add: Reals_def)
```
```   370 apply (rule range_eqI)
```
```   371 apply (rule of_real_add [symmetric])
```
```   372 done
```
```   373
```
```   374 lemma Reals_minus [simp]: "a \<in> Reals \<Longrightarrow> - a \<in> Reals"
```
```   375 apply (auto simp add: Reals_def)
```
```   376 apply (rule range_eqI)
```
```   377 apply (rule of_real_minus [symmetric])
```
```   378 done
```
```   379
```
```   380 lemma Reals_diff [simp]: "\<lbrakk>a \<in> Reals; b \<in> Reals\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> a - b \<in> Reals"
```
```   381 apply (auto simp add: Reals_def)
```
```   382 apply (rule range_eqI)
```
```   383 apply (rule of_real_diff [symmetric])
```
```   384 done
```
```   385
```
```   386 lemma Reals_mult [simp]: "\<lbrakk>a \<in> Reals; b \<in> Reals\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> a * b \<in> Reals"
```
```   387 apply (auto simp add: Reals_def)
```
```   388 apply (rule range_eqI)
```
```   389 apply (rule of_real_mult [symmetric])
```
```   390 done
```
```   391
```
```   392 lemma nonzero_Reals_inverse:
```
```   393   fixes a :: "'a::real_div_algebra"
```
```   394   shows "\<lbrakk>a \<in> Reals; a \<noteq> 0\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> inverse a \<in> Reals"
```
```   395 apply (auto simp add: Reals_def)
```
```   396 apply (rule range_eqI)
```
```   397 apply (erule nonzero_of_real_inverse [symmetric])
```
```   398 done
```
```   399
```
```   400 lemma Reals_inverse:
```
```   401   fixes a :: "'a::{real_div_algebra, division_ring_inverse_zero}"
```
```   402   shows "a \<in> Reals \<Longrightarrow> inverse a \<in> Reals"
```
```   403 apply (auto simp add: Reals_def)
```
```   404 apply (rule range_eqI)
```
```   405 apply (rule of_real_inverse [symmetric])
```
```   406 done
```
```   407
```
```   408 lemma Reals_inverse_iff [simp]:
```
```   409   fixes x:: "'a :: {real_div_algebra, division_ring_inverse_zero}"
```
```   410   shows "inverse x \<in> \<real> \<longleftrightarrow> x \<in> \<real>"
```
```   411 by (metis Reals_inverse inverse_inverse_eq)
```
```   412
```
```   413 lemma nonzero_Reals_divide:
```
```   414   fixes a b :: "'a::real_field"
```
```   415   shows "\<lbrakk>a \<in> Reals; b \<in> Reals; b \<noteq> 0\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> a / b \<in> Reals"
```
```   416 apply (auto simp add: Reals_def)
```
```   417 apply (rule range_eqI)
```
```   418 apply (erule nonzero_of_real_divide [symmetric])
```
```   419 done
```
```   420
```
```   421 lemma Reals_divide [simp]:
```
```   422   fixes a b :: "'a::{real_field, field_inverse_zero}"
```
```   423   shows "\<lbrakk>a \<in> Reals; b \<in> Reals\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> a / b \<in> Reals"
```
```   424 apply (auto simp add: Reals_def)
```
```   425 apply (rule range_eqI)
```
```   426 apply (rule of_real_divide [symmetric])
```
```   427 done
```
```   428
```
```   429 lemma Reals_power [simp]:
```
```   430   fixes a :: "'a::{real_algebra_1}"
```
```   431   shows "a \<in> Reals \<Longrightarrow> a ^ n \<in> Reals"
```
```   432 apply (auto simp add: Reals_def)
```
```   433 apply (rule range_eqI)
```
```   434 apply (rule of_real_power [symmetric])
```
```   435 done
```
```   436
```
```   437 lemma Reals_cases [cases set: Reals]:
```
```   438   assumes "q \<in> \<real>"
```
```   439   obtains (of_real) r where "q = of_real r"
```
```   440   unfolding Reals_def
```
```   441 proof -
```
```   442   from `q \<in> \<real>` have "q \<in> range of_real" unfolding Reals_def .
```
```   443   then obtain r where "q = of_real r" ..
```
```   444   then show thesis ..
```
```   445 qed
```
```   446
```
```   447 lemma setsum_in_Reals: assumes "\<And>i. i \<in> s \<Longrightarrow> f i \<in> \<real>" shows "setsum f s \<in> \<real>"
```
```   448 proof (cases "finite s")
```
```   449   case True then show ?thesis using assms
```
```   450     by (induct s rule: finite_induct) auto
```
```   451 next
```
```   452   case False then show ?thesis using assms
```
```   453     by (metis Reals_0 setsum.infinite)
```
```   454 qed
```
```   455
```
```   456 lemma setprod_in_Reals: assumes "\<And>i. i \<in> s \<Longrightarrow> f i \<in> \<real>" shows "setprod f s \<in> \<real>"
```
```   457 proof (cases "finite s")
```
```   458   case True then show ?thesis using assms
```
```   459     by (induct s rule: finite_induct) auto
```
```   460 next
```
```   461   case False then show ?thesis using assms
```
```   462     by (metis Reals_1 setprod.infinite)
```
```   463 qed
```
```   464
```
```   465 lemma Reals_induct [case_names of_real, induct set: Reals]:
```
```   466   "q \<in> \<real> \<Longrightarrow> (\<And>r. P (of_real r)) \<Longrightarrow> P q"
```
```   467   by (rule Reals_cases) auto
```
```   468
```
```   469 subsection {* Ordered real vector spaces *}
```
```   470
```
```   471 class ordered_real_vector = real_vector + ordered_ab_group_add +
```
```   472   assumes scaleR_left_mono: "x \<le> y \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> a \<Longrightarrow> a *\<^sub>R x \<le> a *\<^sub>R y"
```
```   473   assumes scaleR_right_mono: "a \<le> b \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> x \<Longrightarrow> a *\<^sub>R x \<le> b *\<^sub>R x"
```
```   474 begin
```
```   475
```
```   476 lemma scaleR_mono:
```
```   477   "a \<le> b \<Longrightarrow> x \<le> y \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> b \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> x \<Longrightarrow> a *\<^sub>R x \<le> b *\<^sub>R y"
```
```   478 apply (erule scaleR_right_mono [THEN order_trans], assumption)
```
```   479 apply (erule scaleR_left_mono, assumption)
```
```   480 done
```
```   481
```
```   482 lemma scaleR_mono':
```
```   483   "a \<le> b \<Longrightarrow> c \<le> d \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> a \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> c \<Longrightarrow> a *\<^sub>R c \<le> b *\<^sub>R d"
```
```   484   by (rule scaleR_mono) (auto intro: order.trans)
```
```   485
```
```   486 lemma pos_le_divideRI:
```
```   487   assumes "0 < c"
```
```   488   assumes "c *\<^sub>R a \<le> b"
```
```   489   shows "a \<le> b /\<^sub>R c"
```
```   490 proof -
```
```   491   from scaleR_left_mono[OF assms(2)] assms(1)
```
```   492   have "c *\<^sub>R a /\<^sub>R c \<le> b /\<^sub>R c"
```
```   493     by simp
```
```   494   with assms show ?thesis
```
```   495     by (simp add: scaleR_one scaleR_scaleR inverse_eq_divide)
```
```   496 qed
```
```   497
```
```   498 lemma pos_le_divideR_eq:
```
```   499   assumes "0 < c"
```
```   500   shows "a \<le> b /\<^sub>R c \<longleftrightarrow> c *\<^sub>R a \<le> b"
```
```   501 proof rule
```
```   502   assume "a \<le> b /\<^sub>R c"
```
```   503   from scaleR_left_mono[OF this] assms
```
```   504   have "c *\<^sub>R a \<le> c *\<^sub>R (b /\<^sub>R c)"
```
```   505     by simp
```
```   506   with assms show "c *\<^sub>R a \<le> b"
```
```   507     by (simp add: scaleR_one scaleR_scaleR inverse_eq_divide)
```
```   508 qed (rule pos_le_divideRI[OF assms])
```
```   509
```
```   510 lemma scaleR_image_atLeastAtMost:
```
```   511   "c > 0 \<Longrightarrow> scaleR c ` {x..y} = {c *\<^sub>R x..c *\<^sub>R y}"
```
```   512   apply (auto intro!: scaleR_left_mono)
```
```   513   apply (rule_tac x = "inverse c *\<^sub>R xa" in image_eqI)
```
```   514   apply (simp_all add: pos_le_divideR_eq[symmetric] scaleR_scaleR scaleR_one)
```
```   515   done
```
```   516
```
```   517 end
```
```   518
```
```   519 lemma scaleR_nonneg_nonneg: "0 \<le> a \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> (x::'a::ordered_real_vector) \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> a *\<^sub>R x"
```
```   520   using scaleR_left_mono [of 0 x a]
```
```   521   by simp
```
```   522
```
```   523 lemma scaleR_nonneg_nonpos: "0 \<le> a \<Longrightarrow> (x::'a::ordered_real_vector) \<le> 0 \<Longrightarrow> a *\<^sub>R x \<le> 0"
```
```   524   using scaleR_left_mono [of x 0 a] by simp
```
```   525
```
```   526 lemma scaleR_nonpos_nonneg: "a \<le> 0 \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> (x::'a::ordered_real_vector) \<Longrightarrow> a *\<^sub>R x \<le> 0"
```
```   527   using scaleR_right_mono [of a 0 x] by simp
```
```   528
```
```   529 lemma split_scaleR_neg_le: "(0 \<le> a & x \<le> 0) | (a \<le> 0 & 0 \<le> x) \<Longrightarrow>
```
```   530   a *\<^sub>R (x::'a::ordered_real_vector) \<le> 0"
```
```   531   by (auto simp add: scaleR_nonneg_nonpos scaleR_nonpos_nonneg)
```
```   532
```
```   533 lemma le_add_iff1:
```
```   534   fixes c d e::"'a::ordered_real_vector"
```
```   535   shows "a *\<^sub>R e + c \<le> b *\<^sub>R e + d \<longleftrightarrow> (a - b) *\<^sub>R e + c \<le> d"
```
```   536   by (simp add: algebra_simps)
```
```   537
```
```   538 lemma le_add_iff2:
```
```   539   fixes c d e::"'a::ordered_real_vector"
```
```   540   shows "a *\<^sub>R e + c \<le> b *\<^sub>R e + d \<longleftrightarrow> c \<le> (b - a) *\<^sub>R e + d"
```
```   541   by (simp add: algebra_simps)
```
```   542
```
```   543 lemma scaleR_left_mono_neg:
```
```   544   fixes a b::"'a::ordered_real_vector"
```
```   545   shows "b \<le> a \<Longrightarrow> c \<le> 0 \<Longrightarrow> c *\<^sub>R a \<le> c *\<^sub>R b"
```
```   546   apply (drule scaleR_left_mono [of _ _ "- c"])
```
```   547   apply simp_all
```
```   548   done
```
```   549
```
```   550 lemma scaleR_right_mono_neg:
```
```   551   fixes c::"'a::ordered_real_vector"
```
```   552   shows "b \<le> a \<Longrightarrow> c \<le> 0 \<Longrightarrow> a *\<^sub>R c \<le> b *\<^sub>R c"
```
```   553   apply (drule scaleR_right_mono [of _ _ "- c"])
```
```   554   apply simp_all
```
```   555   done
```
```   556
```
```   557 lemma scaleR_nonpos_nonpos: "a \<le> 0 \<Longrightarrow> (b::'a::ordered_real_vector) \<le> 0 \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> a *\<^sub>R b"
```
```   558 using scaleR_right_mono_neg [of a 0 b] by simp
```
```   559
```
```   560 lemma split_scaleR_pos_le:
```
```   561   fixes b::"'a::ordered_real_vector"
```
```   562   shows "(0 \<le> a \<and> 0 \<le> b) \<or> (a \<le> 0 \<and> b \<le> 0) \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> a *\<^sub>R b"
```
```   563   by (auto simp add: scaleR_nonneg_nonneg scaleR_nonpos_nonpos)
```
```   564
```
```   565 lemma zero_le_scaleR_iff:
```
```   566   fixes b::"'a::ordered_real_vector"
```
```   567   shows "0 \<le> a *\<^sub>R b \<longleftrightarrow> 0 < a \<and> 0 \<le> b \<or> a < 0 \<and> b \<le> 0 \<or> a = 0" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
```
```   568 proof cases
```
```   569   assume "a \<noteq> 0"
```
```   570   show ?thesis
```
```   571   proof
```
```   572     assume lhs: ?lhs
```
```   573     {
```
```   574       assume "0 < a"
```
```   575       with lhs have "inverse a *\<^sub>R 0 \<le> inverse a *\<^sub>R (a *\<^sub>R b)"
```
```   576         by (intro scaleR_mono) auto
```
```   577       hence ?rhs using `0 < a`
```
```   578         by simp
```
```   579     } moreover {
```
```   580       assume "0 > a"
```
```   581       with lhs have "- inverse a *\<^sub>R 0 \<le> - inverse a *\<^sub>R (a *\<^sub>R b)"
```
```   582         by (intro scaleR_mono) auto
```
```   583       hence ?rhs using `0 > a`
```
```   584         by simp
```
```   585     } ultimately show ?rhs using `a \<noteq> 0` by arith
```
```   586   qed (auto simp: not_le `a \<noteq> 0` intro!: split_scaleR_pos_le)
```
```   587 qed simp
```
```   588
```
```   589 lemma scaleR_le_0_iff:
```
```   590   fixes b::"'a::ordered_real_vector"
```
```   591   shows "a *\<^sub>R b \<le> 0 \<longleftrightarrow> 0 < a \<and> b \<le> 0 \<or> a < 0 \<and> 0 \<le> b \<or> a = 0"
```
```   592   by (insert zero_le_scaleR_iff [of "-a" b]) force
```
```   593
```
```   594 lemma scaleR_le_cancel_left:
```
```   595   fixes b::"'a::ordered_real_vector"
```
```   596   shows "c *\<^sub>R a \<le> c *\<^sub>R b \<longleftrightarrow> (0 < c \<longrightarrow> a \<le> b) \<and> (c < 0 \<longrightarrow> b \<le> a)"
```
```   597   by (auto simp add: neq_iff scaleR_left_mono scaleR_left_mono_neg
```
```   598     dest: scaleR_left_mono[where a="inverse c"] scaleR_left_mono_neg[where c="inverse c"])
```
```   599
```
```   600 lemma scaleR_le_cancel_left_pos:
```
```   601   fixes b::"'a::ordered_real_vector"
```
```   602   shows "0 < c \<Longrightarrow> c *\<^sub>R a \<le> c *\<^sub>R b \<longleftrightarrow> a \<le> b"
```
```   603   by (auto simp: scaleR_le_cancel_left)
```
```   604
```
```   605 lemma scaleR_le_cancel_left_neg:
```
```   606   fixes b::"'a::ordered_real_vector"
```
```   607   shows "c < 0 \<Longrightarrow> c *\<^sub>R a \<le> c *\<^sub>R b \<longleftrightarrow> b \<le> a"
```
```   608   by (auto simp: scaleR_le_cancel_left)
```
```   609
```
```   610 lemma scaleR_left_le_one_le:
```
```   611   fixes x::"'a::ordered_real_vector" and a::real
```
```   612   shows "0 \<le> x \<Longrightarrow> a \<le> 1 \<Longrightarrow> a *\<^sub>R x \<le> x"
```
```   613   using scaleR_right_mono[of a 1 x] by simp
```
```   614
```
```   615
```
```   616 subsection {* Real normed vector spaces *}
```
```   617
```
```   618 class dist =
```
```   619   fixes dist :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> real"
```
```   620
```
```   621 class norm =
```
```   622   fixes norm :: "'a \<Rightarrow> real"
```
```   623
```
```   624 class sgn_div_norm = scaleR + norm + sgn +
```
```   625   assumes sgn_div_norm: "sgn x = x /\<^sub>R norm x"
```
```   626
```
```   627 class dist_norm = dist + norm + minus +
```
```   628   assumes dist_norm: "dist x y = norm (x - y)"
```
```   629
```
```   630 class open_dist = "open" + dist +
```
```   631   assumes open_dist: "open S \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x\<in>S. \<exists>e>0. \<forall>y. dist y x < e \<longrightarrow> y \<in> S)"
```
```   632
```
```   633 class real_normed_vector = real_vector + sgn_div_norm + dist_norm + open_dist +
```
```   634   assumes norm_eq_zero [simp]: "norm x = 0 \<longleftrightarrow> x = 0"
```
```   635   and norm_triangle_ineq: "norm (x + y) \<le> norm x + norm y"
```
```   636   and norm_scaleR [simp]: "norm (scaleR a x) = \<bar>a\<bar> * norm x"
```
```   637 begin
```
```   638
```
```   639 lemma norm_ge_zero [simp]: "0 \<le> norm x"
```
```   640 proof -
```
```   641   have "0 = norm (x + -1 *\<^sub>R x)"
```
```   642     using scaleR_add_left[of 1 "-1" x] norm_scaleR[of 0 x] by (simp add: scaleR_one)
```
```   643   also have "\<dots> \<le> norm x + norm (-1 *\<^sub>R x)" by (rule norm_triangle_ineq)
```
```   644   finally show ?thesis by simp
```
```   645 qed
```
```   646
```
```   647 end
```
```   648
```
```   649 class real_normed_algebra = real_algebra + real_normed_vector +
```
```   650   assumes norm_mult_ineq: "norm (x * y) \<le> norm x * norm y"
```
```   651
```
```   652 class real_normed_algebra_1 = real_algebra_1 + real_normed_algebra +
```
```   653   assumes norm_one [simp]: "norm 1 = 1"
```
```   654
```
```   655 class real_normed_div_algebra = real_div_algebra + real_normed_vector +
```
```   656   assumes norm_mult: "norm (x * y) = norm x * norm y"
```
```   657
```
```   658 class real_normed_field = real_field + real_normed_div_algebra
```
```   659
```
```   660 instance real_normed_div_algebra < real_normed_algebra_1
```
```   661 proof
```
```   662   fix x y :: 'a
```
```   663   show "norm (x * y) \<le> norm x * norm y"
```
```   664     by (simp add: norm_mult)
```
```   665 next
```
```   666   have "norm (1 * 1::'a) = norm (1::'a) * norm (1::'a)"
```
```   667     by (rule norm_mult)
```
```   668   thus "norm (1::'a) = 1" by simp
```
```   669 qed
```
```   670
```
```   671 lemma norm_zero [simp]: "norm (0::'a::real_normed_vector) = 0"
```
```   672 by simp
```
```   673
```
```   674 lemma zero_less_norm_iff [simp]:
```
```   675   fixes x :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
```
```   676   shows "(0 < norm x) = (x \<noteq> 0)"
```
```   677 by (simp add: order_less_le)
```
```   678
```
```   679 lemma norm_not_less_zero [simp]:
```
```   680   fixes x :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
```
```   681   shows "\<not> norm x < 0"
```
```   682 by (simp add: linorder_not_less)
```
```   683
```
```   684 lemma norm_le_zero_iff [simp]:
```
```   685   fixes x :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
```
```   686   shows "(norm x \<le> 0) = (x = 0)"
```
```   687 by (simp add: order_le_less)
```
```   688
```
```   689 lemma norm_minus_cancel [simp]:
```
```   690   fixes x :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
```
```   691   shows "norm (- x) = norm x"
```
```   692 proof -
```
```   693   have "norm (- x) = norm (scaleR (- 1) x)"
```
```   694     by (simp only: scaleR_minus_left scaleR_one)
```
```   695   also have "\<dots> = \<bar>- 1\<bar> * norm x"
```
```   696     by (rule norm_scaleR)
```
```   697   finally show ?thesis by simp
```
```   698 qed
```
```   699
```
```   700 lemma norm_minus_commute:
```
```   701   fixes a b :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
```
```   702   shows "norm (a - b) = norm (b - a)"
```
```   703 proof -
```
```   704   have "norm (- (b - a)) = norm (b - a)"
```
```   705     by (rule norm_minus_cancel)
```
```   706   thus ?thesis by simp
```
```   707 qed
```
```   708
```
```   709 lemma norm_triangle_ineq2:
```
```   710   fixes a b :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
```
```   711   shows "norm a - norm b \<le> norm (a - b)"
```
```   712 proof -
```
```   713   have "norm (a - b + b) \<le> norm (a - b) + norm b"
```
```   714     by (rule norm_triangle_ineq)
```
```   715   thus ?thesis by simp
```
```   716 qed
```
```   717
```
```   718 lemma norm_triangle_ineq3:
```
```   719   fixes a b :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
```
```   720   shows "\<bar>norm a - norm b\<bar> \<le> norm (a - b)"
```
```   721 apply (subst abs_le_iff)
```
```   722 apply auto
```
```   723 apply (rule norm_triangle_ineq2)
```
```   724 apply (subst norm_minus_commute)
```
```   725 apply (rule norm_triangle_ineq2)
```
```   726 done
```
```   727
```
```   728 lemma norm_triangle_ineq4:
```
```   729   fixes a b :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
```
```   730   shows "norm (a - b) \<le> norm a + norm b"
```
```   731 proof -
```
```   732   have "norm (a + - b) \<le> norm a + norm (- b)"
```
```   733     by (rule norm_triangle_ineq)
```
```   734   then show ?thesis by simp
```
```   735 qed
```
```   736
```
```   737 lemma norm_diff_ineq:
```
```   738   fixes a b :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
```
```   739   shows "norm a - norm b \<le> norm (a + b)"
```
```   740 proof -
```
```   741   have "norm a - norm (- b) \<le> norm (a - - b)"
```
```   742     by (rule norm_triangle_ineq2)
```
```   743   thus ?thesis by simp
```
```   744 qed
```
```   745
```
```   746 lemma norm_diff_triangle_ineq:
```
```   747   fixes a b c d :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
```
```   748   shows "norm ((a + b) - (c + d)) \<le> norm (a - c) + norm (b - d)"
```
```   749 proof -
```
```   750   have "norm ((a + b) - (c + d)) = norm ((a - c) + (b - d))"
```
```   751     by (simp add: algebra_simps)
```
```   752   also have "\<dots> \<le> norm (a - c) + norm (b - d)"
```
```   753     by (rule norm_triangle_ineq)
```
```   754   finally show ?thesis .
```
```   755 qed
```
```   756
```
```   757 lemma norm_triangle_mono:
```
```   758   fixes a b :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
```
```   759   shows "\<lbrakk>norm a \<le> r; norm b \<le> s\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> norm (a + b) \<le> r + s"
```
```   760 by (metis add_mono_thms_linordered_semiring(1) norm_triangle_ineq order.trans)
```
```   761
```
```   762 lemma norm_setsum:
```
```   763   fixes f :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'b::real_normed_vector"
```
```   764   shows "norm (setsum f A) \<le> (\<Sum>i\<in>A. norm (f i))"
```
```   765   by (induct A rule: infinite_finite_induct) (auto intro: norm_triangle_mono)
```
```   766
```
```   767 lemma setsum_norm_le:
```
```   768   fixes f :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'b::real_normed_vector"
```
```   769   assumes fg: "\<forall>x \<in> S. norm (f x) \<le> g x"
```
```   770   shows "norm (setsum f S) \<le> setsum g S"
```
```   771   by (rule order_trans [OF norm_setsum setsum_mono]) (simp add: fg)
```
```   772
```
```   773 lemma abs_norm_cancel [simp]:
```
```   774   fixes a :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
```
```   775   shows "\<bar>norm a\<bar> = norm a"
```
```   776 by (rule abs_of_nonneg [OF norm_ge_zero])
```
```   777
```
```   778 lemma norm_add_less:
```
```   779   fixes x y :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
```
```   780   shows "\<lbrakk>norm x < r; norm y < s\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> norm (x + y) < r + s"
```
```   781 by (rule order_le_less_trans [OF norm_triangle_ineq add_strict_mono])
```
```   782
```
```   783 lemma norm_mult_less:
```
```   784   fixes x y :: "'a::real_normed_algebra"
```
```   785   shows "\<lbrakk>norm x < r; norm y < s\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> norm (x * y) < r * s"
```
```   786 apply (rule order_le_less_trans [OF norm_mult_ineq])
```
```   787 apply (simp add: mult_strict_mono')
```
```   788 done
```
```   789
```
```   790 lemma norm_of_real [simp]:
```
```   791   "norm (of_real r :: 'a::real_normed_algebra_1) = \<bar>r\<bar>"
```
```   792 unfolding of_real_def by simp
```
```   793
```
```   794 lemma norm_numeral [simp]:
```
```   795   "norm (numeral w::'a::real_normed_algebra_1) = numeral w"
```
```   796 by (subst of_real_numeral [symmetric], subst norm_of_real, simp)
```
```   797
```
```   798 lemma norm_neg_numeral [simp]:
```
```   799   "norm (- numeral w::'a::real_normed_algebra_1) = numeral w"
```
```   800 by (subst of_real_neg_numeral [symmetric], subst norm_of_real, simp)
```
```   801
```
```   802 lemma norm_of_int [simp]:
```
```   803   "norm (of_int z::'a::real_normed_algebra_1) = \<bar>of_int z\<bar>"
```
```   804 by (subst of_real_of_int_eq [symmetric], rule norm_of_real)
```
```   805
```
```   806 lemma norm_of_nat [simp]:
```
```   807   "norm (of_nat n::'a::real_normed_algebra_1) = of_nat n"
```
```   808 apply (subst of_real_of_nat_eq [symmetric])
```
```   809 apply (subst norm_of_real, simp)
```
```   810 done
```
```   811
```
```   812 lemma nonzero_norm_inverse:
```
```   813   fixes a :: "'a::real_normed_div_algebra"
```
```   814   shows "a \<noteq> 0 \<Longrightarrow> norm (inverse a) = inverse (norm a)"
```
```   815 apply (rule inverse_unique [symmetric])
```
```   816 apply (simp add: norm_mult [symmetric])
```
```   817 done
```
```   818
```
```   819 lemma norm_inverse:
```
```   820   fixes a :: "'a::{real_normed_div_algebra, division_ring_inverse_zero}"
```
```   821   shows "norm (inverse a) = inverse (norm a)"
```
```   822 apply (case_tac "a = 0", simp)
```
```   823 apply (erule nonzero_norm_inverse)
```
```   824 done
```
```   825
```
```   826 lemma nonzero_norm_divide:
```
```   827   fixes a b :: "'a::real_normed_field"
```
```   828   shows "b \<noteq> 0 \<Longrightarrow> norm (a / b) = norm a / norm b"
```
```   829 by (simp add: divide_inverse norm_mult nonzero_norm_inverse)
```
```   830
```
```   831 lemma norm_divide:
```
```   832   fixes a b :: "'a::{real_normed_field, field_inverse_zero}"
```
```   833   shows "norm (a / b) = norm a / norm b"
```
```   834 by (simp add: divide_inverse norm_mult norm_inverse)
```
```   835
```
```   836 lemma norm_power_ineq:
```
```   837   fixes x :: "'a::{real_normed_algebra_1}"
```
```   838   shows "norm (x ^ n) \<le> norm x ^ n"
```
```   839 proof (induct n)
```
```   840   case 0 show "norm (x ^ 0) \<le> norm x ^ 0" by simp
```
```   841 next
```
```   842   case (Suc n)
```
```   843   have "norm (x * x ^ n) \<le> norm x * norm (x ^ n)"
```
```   844     by (rule norm_mult_ineq)
```
```   845   also from Suc have "\<dots> \<le> norm x * norm x ^ n"
```
```   846     using norm_ge_zero by (rule mult_left_mono)
```
```   847   finally show "norm (x ^ Suc n) \<le> norm x ^ Suc n"
```
```   848     by simp
```
```   849 qed
```
```   850
```
```   851 lemma norm_power:
```
```   852   fixes x :: "'a::{real_normed_div_algebra}"
```
```   853   shows "norm (x ^ n) = norm x ^ n"
```
```   854 by (induct n) (simp_all add: norm_mult)
```
```   855
```
```   856 lemma setprod_norm:
```
```   857   fixes f :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'b::{comm_semiring_1,real_normed_div_algebra}"
```
```   858   shows "setprod (\<lambda>x. norm(f x)) A = norm (setprod f A)"
```
```   859   by (induct A rule: infinite_finite_induct) (auto simp: norm_mult)
```
```   860
```
```   861 lemma norm_setprod_le:
```
```   862   "norm (setprod f A) \<le> (\<Prod>a\<in>A. norm (f a :: 'a :: {real_normed_algebra_1, comm_monoid_mult}))"
```
```   863 proof (induction A rule: infinite_finite_induct)
```
```   864   case (insert a A)
```
```   865   then have "norm (setprod f (insert a A)) \<le> norm (f a) * norm (setprod f A)"
```
```   866     by (simp add: norm_mult_ineq)
```
```   867   also have "norm (setprod f A) \<le> (\<Prod>a\<in>A. norm (f a))"
```
```   868     by (rule insert)
```
```   869   finally show ?case
```
```   870     by (simp add: insert mult_left_mono)
```
```   871 qed simp_all
```
```   872
```
```   873 lemma norm_setprod_diff:
```
```   874   fixes z w :: "'i \<Rightarrow> 'a::{real_normed_algebra_1, comm_monoid_mult}"
```
```   875   shows "(\<And>i. i \<in> I \<Longrightarrow> norm (z i) \<le> 1) \<Longrightarrow> (\<And>i. i \<in> I \<Longrightarrow> norm (w i) \<le> 1) \<Longrightarrow>
```
```   876     norm ((\<Prod>i\<in>I. z i) - (\<Prod>i\<in>I. w i)) \<le> (\<Sum>i\<in>I. norm (z i - w i))"
```
```   877 proof (induction I rule: infinite_finite_induct)
```
```   878   case (insert i I)
```
```   879   note insert.hyps[simp]
```
```   880
```
```   881   have "norm ((\<Prod>i\<in>insert i I. z i) - (\<Prod>i\<in>insert i I. w i)) =
```
```   882     norm ((\<Prod>i\<in>I. z i) * (z i - w i) + ((\<Prod>i\<in>I. z i) - (\<Prod>i\<in>I. w i)) * w i)"
```
```   883     (is "_ = norm (?t1 + ?t2)")
```
```   884     by (auto simp add: field_simps)
```
```   885   also have "... \<le> norm ?t1 + norm ?t2"
```
```   886     by (rule norm_triangle_ineq)
```
```   887   also have "norm ?t1 \<le> norm (\<Prod>i\<in>I. z i) * norm (z i - w i)"
```
```   888     by (rule norm_mult_ineq)
```
```   889   also have "\<dots> \<le> (\<Prod>i\<in>I. norm (z i)) * norm(z i - w i)"
```
```   890     by (rule mult_right_mono) (auto intro: norm_setprod_le)
```
```   891   also have "(\<Prod>i\<in>I. norm (z i)) \<le> (\<Prod>i\<in>I. 1)"
```
```   892     by (intro setprod_mono) (auto intro!: insert)
```
```   893   also have "norm ?t2 \<le> norm ((\<Prod>i\<in>I. z i) - (\<Prod>i\<in>I. w i)) * norm (w i)"
```
```   894     by (rule norm_mult_ineq)
```
```   895   also have "norm (w i) \<le> 1"
```
```   896     by (auto intro: insert)
```
```   897   also have "norm ((\<Prod>i\<in>I. z i) - (\<Prod>i\<in>I. w i)) \<le> (\<Sum>i\<in>I. norm (z i - w i))"
```
```   898     using insert by auto
```
```   899   finally show ?case
```
```   900     by (auto simp add: ac_simps mult_right_mono mult_left_mono)
```
```   901 qed simp_all
```
```   902
```
```   903 lemma norm_power_diff:
```
```   904   fixes z w :: "'a::{real_normed_algebra_1, comm_monoid_mult}"
```
```   905   assumes "norm z \<le> 1" "norm w \<le> 1"
```
```   906   shows "norm (z^m - w^m) \<le> m * norm (z - w)"
```
```   907 proof -
```
```   908   have "norm (z^m - w^m) = norm ((\<Prod> i < m. z) - (\<Prod> i < m. w))"
```
```   909     by (simp add: setprod_constant)
```
```   910   also have "\<dots> \<le> (\<Sum>i<m. norm (z - w))"
```
```   911     by (intro norm_setprod_diff) (auto simp add: assms)
```
```   912   also have "\<dots> = m * norm (z - w)"
```
```   913     by (simp add: real_of_nat_def)
```
```   914   finally show ?thesis .
```
```   915 qed
```
```   916
```
```   917 subsection {* Metric spaces *}
```
```   918
```
```   919 class metric_space = open_dist +
```
```   920   assumes dist_eq_0_iff [simp]: "dist x y = 0 \<longleftrightarrow> x = y"
```
```   921   assumes dist_triangle2: "dist x y \<le> dist x z + dist y z"
```
```   922 begin
```
```   923
```
```   924 lemma dist_self [simp]: "dist x x = 0"
```
```   925 by simp
```
```   926
```
```   927 lemma zero_le_dist [simp]: "0 \<le> dist x y"
```
```   928 using dist_triangle2 [of x x y] by simp
```
```   929
```
```   930 lemma zero_less_dist_iff: "0 < dist x y \<longleftrightarrow> x \<noteq> y"
```
```   931 by (simp add: less_le)
```
```   932
```
```   933 lemma dist_not_less_zero [simp]: "\<not> dist x y < 0"
```
```   934 by (simp add: not_less)
```
```   935
```
```   936 lemma dist_le_zero_iff [simp]: "dist x y \<le> 0 \<longleftrightarrow> x = y"
```
```   937 by (simp add: le_less)
```
```   938
```
```   939 lemma dist_commute: "dist x y = dist y x"
```
```   940 proof (rule order_antisym)
```
```   941   show "dist x y \<le> dist y x"
```
```   942     using dist_triangle2 [of x y x] by simp
```
```   943   show "dist y x \<le> dist x y"
```
```   944     using dist_triangle2 [of y x y] by simp
```
```   945 qed
```
```   946
```
```   947 lemma dist_triangle: "dist x z \<le> dist x y + dist y z"
```
```   948 using dist_triangle2 [of x z y] by (simp add: dist_commute)
```
```   949
```
```   950 lemma dist_triangle3: "dist x y \<le> dist a x + dist a y"
```
```   951 using dist_triangle2 [of x y a] by (simp add: dist_commute)
```
```   952
```
```   953 lemma dist_triangle_alt:
```
```   954   shows "dist y z <= dist x y + dist x z"
```
```   955 by (rule dist_triangle3)
```
```   956
```
```   957 lemma dist_pos_lt:
```
```   958   shows "x \<noteq> y ==> 0 < dist x y"
```
```   959 by (simp add: zero_less_dist_iff)
```
```   960
```
```   961 lemma dist_nz:
```
```   962   shows "x \<noteq> y \<longleftrightarrow> 0 < dist x y"
```
```   963 by (simp add: zero_less_dist_iff)
```
```   964
```
```   965 lemma dist_triangle_le:
```
```   966   shows "dist x z + dist y z <= e \<Longrightarrow> dist x y <= e"
```
```   967 by (rule order_trans [OF dist_triangle2])
```
```   968
```
```   969 lemma dist_triangle_lt:
```
```   970   shows "dist x z + dist y z < e ==> dist x y < e"
```
```   971 by (rule le_less_trans [OF dist_triangle2])
```
```   972
```
```   973 lemma dist_triangle_half_l:
```
```   974   shows "dist x1 y < e / 2 \<Longrightarrow> dist x2 y < e / 2 \<Longrightarrow> dist x1 x2 < e"
```
```   975 by (rule dist_triangle_lt [where z=y], simp)
```
```   976
```
```   977 lemma dist_triangle_half_r:
```
```   978   shows "dist y x1 < e / 2 \<Longrightarrow> dist y x2 < e / 2 \<Longrightarrow> dist x1 x2 < e"
```
```   979 by (rule dist_triangle_half_l, simp_all add: dist_commute)
```
```   980
```
```   981 subclass topological_space
```
```   982 proof
```
```   983   have "\<exists>e::real. 0 < e"
```
```   984     by (fast intro: zero_less_one)
```
```   985   then show "open UNIV"
```
```   986     unfolding open_dist by simp
```
```   987 next
```
```   988   fix S T assume "open S" "open T"
```
```   989   then show "open (S \<inter> T)"
```
```   990     unfolding open_dist
```
```   991     apply clarify
```
```   992     apply (drule (1) bspec)+
```
```   993     apply (clarify, rename_tac r s)
```
```   994     apply (rule_tac x="min r s" in exI, simp)
```
```   995     done
```
```   996 next
```
```   997   fix K assume "\<forall>S\<in>K. open S" thus "open (\<Union>K)"
```
```   998     unfolding open_dist by fast
```
```   999 qed
```
```  1000
```
```  1001 lemma open_ball: "open {y. dist x y < d}"
```
```  1002 proof (unfold open_dist, intro ballI)
```
```  1003   fix y assume *: "y \<in> {y. dist x y < d}"
```
```  1004   then show "\<exists>e>0. \<forall>z. dist z y < e \<longrightarrow> z \<in> {y. dist x y < d}"
```
```  1005     by (auto intro!: exI[of _ "d - dist x y"] simp: field_simps dist_triangle_lt)
```
```  1006 qed
```
```  1007
```
```  1008 subclass first_countable_topology
```
```  1009 proof
```
```  1010   fix x
```
```  1011   show "\<exists>A::nat \<Rightarrow> 'a set. (\<forall>i. x \<in> A i \<and> open (A i)) \<and> (\<forall>S. open S \<and> x \<in> S \<longrightarrow> (\<exists>i. A i \<subseteq> S))"
```
```  1012   proof (safe intro!: exI[of _ "\<lambda>n. {y. dist x y < inverse (Suc n)}"])
```
```  1013     fix S assume "open S" "x \<in> S"
```
```  1014     then obtain e where e: "0 < e" and "{y. dist x y < e} \<subseteq> S"
```
```  1015       by (auto simp: open_dist subset_eq dist_commute)
```
```  1016     moreover
```
```  1017     from e obtain i where "inverse (Suc i) < e"
```
```  1018       by (auto dest!: reals_Archimedean)
```
```  1019     then have "{y. dist x y < inverse (Suc i)} \<subseteq> {y. dist x y < e}"
```
```  1020       by auto
```
```  1021     ultimately show "\<exists>i. {y. dist x y < inverse (Suc i)} \<subseteq> S"
```
```  1022       by blast
```
```  1023   qed (auto intro: open_ball)
```
```  1024 qed
```
```  1025
```
```  1026 end
```
```  1027
```
```  1028 instance metric_space \<subseteq> t2_space
```
```  1029 proof
```
```  1030   fix x y :: "'a::metric_space"
```
```  1031   assume xy: "x \<noteq> y"
```
```  1032   let ?U = "{y'. dist x y' < dist x y / 2}"
```
```  1033   let ?V = "{x'. dist y x' < dist x y / 2}"
```
```  1034   have th0: "\<And>d x y z. (d x z :: real) \<le> d x y + d y z \<Longrightarrow> d y z = d z y
```
```  1035                \<Longrightarrow> \<not>(d x y * 2 < d x z \<and> d z y * 2 < d x z)" by arith
```
```  1036   have "open ?U \<and> open ?V \<and> x \<in> ?U \<and> y \<in> ?V \<and> ?U \<inter> ?V = {}"
```
```  1037     using dist_pos_lt[OF xy] th0[of dist, OF dist_triangle dist_commute]
```
```  1038     using open_ball[of _ "dist x y / 2"] by auto
```
```  1039   then show "\<exists>U V. open U \<and> open V \<and> x \<in> U \<and> y \<in> V \<and> U \<inter> V = {}"
```
```  1040     by blast
```
```  1041 qed
```
```  1042
```
```  1043 text {* Every normed vector space is a metric space. *}
```
```  1044
```
```  1045 instance real_normed_vector < metric_space
```
```  1046 proof
```
```  1047   fix x y :: 'a show "dist x y = 0 \<longleftrightarrow> x = y"
```
```  1048     unfolding dist_norm by simp
```
```  1049 next
```
```  1050   fix x y z :: 'a show "dist x y \<le> dist x z + dist y z"
```
```  1051     unfolding dist_norm
```
```  1052     using norm_triangle_ineq4 [of "x - z" "y - z"] by simp
```
```  1053 qed
```
```  1054
```
```  1055 subsection {* Class instances for real numbers *}
```
```  1056
```
```  1057 instantiation real :: real_normed_field
```
```  1058 begin
```
```  1059
```
```  1060 definition dist_real_def:
```
```  1061   "dist x y = \<bar>x - y\<bar>"
```
```  1062
```
```  1063 definition open_real_def [code del]:
```
```  1064   "open (S :: real set) \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x\<in>S. \<exists>e>0. \<forall>y. dist y x < e \<longrightarrow> y \<in> S)"
```
```  1065
```
```  1066 definition real_norm_def [simp]:
```
```  1067   "norm r = \<bar>r\<bar>"
```
```  1068
```
```  1069 instance
```
```  1070 apply (intro_classes, unfold real_norm_def real_scaleR_def)
```
```  1071 apply (rule dist_real_def)
```
```  1072 apply (rule open_real_def)
```
```  1073 apply (simp add: sgn_real_def)
```
```  1074 apply (rule abs_eq_0)
```
```  1075 apply (rule abs_triangle_ineq)
```
```  1076 apply (rule abs_mult)
```
```  1077 apply (rule abs_mult)
```
```  1078 done
```
```  1079
```
```  1080 end
```
```  1081
```
```  1082 declare [[code abort: "open :: real set \<Rightarrow> bool"]]
```
```  1083
```
```  1084 instance real :: linorder_topology
```
```  1085 proof
```
```  1086   show "(open :: real set \<Rightarrow> bool) = generate_topology (range lessThan \<union> range greaterThan)"
```
```  1087   proof (rule ext, safe)
```
```  1088     fix S :: "real set" assume "open S"
```
```  1089     then obtain f where "\<forall>x\<in>S. 0 < f x \<and> (\<forall>y. dist y x < f x \<longrightarrow> y \<in> S)"
```
```  1090       unfolding open_real_def bchoice_iff ..
```
```  1091     then have *: "S = (\<Union>x\<in>S. {x - f x <..} \<inter> {..< x + f x})"
```
```  1092       by (fastforce simp: dist_real_def)
```
```  1093     show "generate_topology (range lessThan \<union> range greaterThan) S"
```
```  1094       apply (subst *)
```
```  1095       apply (intro generate_topology_Union generate_topology.Int)
```
```  1096       apply (auto intro: generate_topology.Basis)
```
```  1097       done
```
```  1098   next
```
```  1099     fix S :: "real set" assume "generate_topology (range lessThan \<union> range greaterThan) S"
```
```  1100     moreover have "\<And>a::real. open {..<a}"
```
```  1101       unfolding open_real_def dist_real_def
```
```  1102     proof clarify
```
```  1103       fix x a :: real assume "x < a"
```
```  1104       hence "0 < a - x \<and> (\<forall>y. \<bar>y - x\<bar> < a - x \<longrightarrow> y \<in> {..<a})" by auto
```
```  1105       thus "\<exists>e>0. \<forall>y. \<bar>y - x\<bar> < e \<longrightarrow> y \<in> {..<a}" ..
```
```  1106     qed
```
```  1107     moreover have "\<And>a::real. open {a <..}"
```
```  1108       unfolding open_real_def dist_real_def
```
```  1109     proof clarify
```
```  1110       fix x a :: real assume "a < x"
```
```  1111       hence "0 < x - a \<and> (\<forall>y. \<bar>y - x\<bar> < x - a \<longrightarrow> y \<in> {a<..})" by auto
```
```  1112       thus "\<exists>e>0. \<forall>y. \<bar>y - x\<bar> < e \<longrightarrow> y \<in> {a<..}" ..
```
```  1113     qed
```
```  1114     ultimately show "open S"
```
```  1115       by induct auto
```
```  1116   qed
```
```  1117 qed
```
```  1118
```
```  1119 instance real :: linear_continuum_topology ..
```
```  1120
```
```  1121 lemmas open_real_greaterThan = open_greaterThan[where 'a=real]
```
```  1122 lemmas open_real_lessThan = open_lessThan[where 'a=real]
```
```  1123 lemmas open_real_greaterThanLessThan = open_greaterThanLessThan[where 'a=real]
```
```  1124 lemmas closed_real_atMost = closed_atMost[where 'a=real]
```
```  1125 lemmas closed_real_atLeast = closed_atLeast[where 'a=real]
```
```  1126 lemmas closed_real_atLeastAtMost = closed_atLeastAtMost[where 'a=real]
```
```  1127
```
```  1128 subsection {* Extra type constraints *}
```
```  1129
```
```  1130 text {* Only allow @{term "open"} in class @{text topological_space}. *}
```
```  1131
```
```  1132 setup {* Sign.add_const_constraint
```
```  1133   (@{const_name "open"}, SOME @{typ "'a::topological_space set \<Rightarrow> bool"}) *}
```
```  1134
```
```  1135 text {* Only allow @{term dist} in class @{text metric_space}. *}
```
```  1136
```
```  1137 setup {* Sign.add_const_constraint
```
```  1138   (@{const_name dist}, SOME @{typ "'a::metric_space \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> real"}) *}
```
```  1139
```
```  1140 text {* Only allow @{term norm} in class @{text real_normed_vector}. *}
```
```  1141
```
```  1142 setup {* Sign.add_const_constraint
```
```  1143   (@{const_name norm}, SOME @{typ "'a::real_normed_vector \<Rightarrow> real"}) *}
```
```  1144
```
```  1145 subsection {* Sign function *}
```
```  1146
```
```  1147 lemma norm_sgn:
```
```  1148   "norm (sgn(x::'a::real_normed_vector)) = (if x = 0 then 0 else 1)"
```
```  1149 by (simp add: sgn_div_norm)
```
```  1150
```
```  1151 lemma sgn_zero [simp]: "sgn(0::'a::real_normed_vector) = 0"
```
```  1152 by (simp add: sgn_div_norm)
```
```  1153
```
```  1154 lemma sgn_zero_iff: "(sgn(x::'a::real_normed_vector) = 0) = (x = 0)"
```
```  1155 by (simp add: sgn_div_norm)
```
```  1156
```
```  1157 lemma sgn_minus: "sgn (- x) = - sgn(x::'a::real_normed_vector)"
```
```  1158 by (simp add: sgn_div_norm)
```
```  1159
```
```  1160 lemma sgn_scaleR:
```
```  1161   "sgn (scaleR r x) = scaleR (sgn r) (sgn(x::'a::real_normed_vector))"
```
```  1162 by (simp add: sgn_div_norm ac_simps)
```
```  1163
```
```  1164 lemma sgn_one [simp]: "sgn (1::'a::real_normed_algebra_1) = 1"
```
```  1165 by (simp add: sgn_div_norm)
```
```  1166
```
```  1167 lemma sgn_of_real:
```
```  1168   "sgn (of_real r::'a::real_normed_algebra_1) = of_real (sgn r)"
```
```  1169 unfolding of_real_def by (simp only: sgn_scaleR sgn_one)
```
```  1170
```
```  1171 lemma sgn_mult:
```
```  1172   fixes x y :: "'a::real_normed_div_algebra"
```
```  1173   shows "sgn (x * y) = sgn x * sgn y"
```
```  1174 by (simp add: sgn_div_norm norm_mult mult.commute)
```
```  1175
```
```  1176 lemma real_sgn_eq: "sgn (x::real) = x / \<bar>x\<bar>"
```
```  1177 by (simp add: sgn_div_norm divide_inverse)
```
```  1178
```
```  1179 lemma real_sgn_pos: "0 < (x::real) \<Longrightarrow> sgn x = 1"
```
```  1180 unfolding real_sgn_eq by simp
```
```  1181
```
```  1182 lemma real_sgn_neg: "(x::real) < 0 \<Longrightarrow> sgn x = -1"
```
```  1183 unfolding real_sgn_eq by simp
```
```  1184
```
```  1185 lemma zero_le_sgn_iff [simp]: "0 \<le> sgn x \<longleftrightarrow> 0 \<le> (x::real)"
```
```  1186   by (cases "0::real" x rule: linorder_cases) simp_all
```
```  1187
```
```  1188 lemma zero_less_sgn_iff [simp]: "0 < sgn x \<longleftrightarrow> 0 < (x::real)"
```
```  1189   by (cases "0::real" x rule: linorder_cases) simp_all
```
```  1190
```
```  1191 lemma sgn_le_0_iff [simp]: "sgn x \<le> 0 \<longleftrightarrow> (x::real) \<le> 0"
```
```  1192   by (cases "0::real" x rule: linorder_cases) simp_all
```
```  1193
```
```  1194 lemma sgn_less_0_iff [simp]: "sgn x < 0 \<longleftrightarrow> (x::real) < 0"
```
```  1195   by (cases "0::real" x rule: linorder_cases) simp_all
```
```  1196
```
```  1197 lemma norm_conv_dist: "norm x = dist x 0"
```
```  1198   unfolding dist_norm by simp
```
```  1199
```
```  1200 subsection {* Bounded Linear and Bilinear Operators *}
```
```  1201
```
```  1202 locale linear = additive f for f :: "'a::real_vector \<Rightarrow> 'b::real_vector" +
```
```  1203   assumes scaleR: "f (scaleR r x) = scaleR r (f x)"
```
```  1204
```
```  1205 lemma linearI:
```
```  1206   assumes "\<And>x y. f (x + y) = f x + f y"
```
```  1207   assumes "\<And>c x. f (c *\<^sub>R x) = c *\<^sub>R f x"
```
```  1208   shows "linear f"
```
```  1209   by default (rule assms)+
```
```  1210
```
```  1211 locale bounded_linear = linear f for f :: "'a::real_normed_vector \<Rightarrow> 'b::real_normed_vector" +
```
```  1212   assumes bounded: "\<exists>K. \<forall>x. norm (f x) \<le> norm x * K"
```
```  1213 begin
```
```  1214
```
```  1215 lemma pos_bounded:
```
```  1216   "\<exists>K>0. \<forall>x. norm (f x) \<le> norm x * K"
```
```  1217 proof -
```
```  1218   obtain K where K: "\<And>x. norm (f x) \<le> norm x * K"
```
```  1219     using bounded by fast
```
```  1220   show ?thesis
```
```  1221   proof (intro exI impI conjI allI)
```
```  1222     show "0 < max 1 K"
```
```  1223       by (rule order_less_le_trans [OF zero_less_one max.cobounded1])
```
```  1224   next
```
```  1225     fix x
```
```  1226     have "norm (f x) \<le> norm x * K" using K .
```
```  1227     also have "\<dots> \<le> norm x * max 1 K"
```
```  1228       by (rule mult_left_mono [OF max.cobounded2 norm_ge_zero])
```
```  1229     finally show "norm (f x) \<le> norm x * max 1 K" .
```
```  1230   qed
```
```  1231 qed
```
```  1232
```
```  1233 lemma nonneg_bounded:
```
```  1234   "\<exists>K\<ge>0. \<forall>x. norm (f x) \<le> norm x * K"
```
```  1235 proof -
```
```  1236   from pos_bounded
```
```  1237   show ?thesis by (auto intro: order_less_imp_le)
```
```  1238 qed
```
```  1239
```
```  1240 lemma linear: "linear f" ..
```
```  1241
```
```  1242 end
```
```  1243
```
```  1244 lemma bounded_linear_intro:
```
```  1245   assumes "\<And>x y. f (x + y) = f x + f y"
```
```  1246   assumes "\<And>r x. f (scaleR r x) = scaleR r (f x)"
```
```  1247   assumes "\<And>x. norm (f x) \<le> norm x * K"
```
```  1248   shows "bounded_linear f"
```
```  1249   by default (fast intro: assms)+
```
```  1250
```
```  1251 locale bounded_bilinear =
```
```  1252   fixes prod :: "['a::real_normed_vector, 'b::real_normed_vector]
```
```  1253                  \<Rightarrow> 'c::real_normed_vector"
```
```  1254     (infixl "**" 70)
```
```  1255   assumes add_left: "prod (a + a') b = prod a b + prod a' b"
```
```  1256   assumes add_right: "prod a (b + b') = prod a b + prod a b'"
```
```  1257   assumes scaleR_left: "prod (scaleR r a) b = scaleR r (prod a b)"
```
```  1258   assumes scaleR_right: "prod a (scaleR r b) = scaleR r (prod a b)"
```
```  1259   assumes bounded: "\<exists>K. \<forall>a b. norm (prod a b) \<le> norm a * norm b * K"
```
```  1260 begin
```
```  1261
```
```  1262 lemma pos_bounded:
```
```  1263   "\<exists>K>0. \<forall>a b. norm (a ** b) \<le> norm a * norm b * K"
```
```  1264 apply (cut_tac bounded, erule exE)
```
```  1265 apply (rule_tac x="max 1 K" in exI, safe)
```
```  1266 apply (rule order_less_le_trans [OF zero_less_one max.cobounded1])
```
```  1267 apply (drule spec, drule spec, erule order_trans)
```
```  1268 apply (rule mult_left_mono [OF max.cobounded2])
```
```  1269 apply (intro mult_nonneg_nonneg norm_ge_zero)
```
```  1270 done
```
```  1271
```
```  1272 lemma nonneg_bounded:
```
```  1273   "\<exists>K\<ge>0. \<forall>a b. norm (a ** b) \<le> norm a * norm b * K"
```
```  1274 proof -
```
```  1275   from pos_bounded
```
```  1276   show ?thesis by (auto intro: order_less_imp_le)
```
```  1277 qed
```
```  1278
```
```  1279 lemma additive_right: "additive (\<lambda>b. prod a b)"
```
```  1280 by (rule additive.intro, rule add_right)
```
```  1281
```
```  1282 lemma additive_left: "additive (\<lambda>a. prod a b)"
```
```  1283 by (rule additive.intro, rule add_left)
```
```  1284
```
```  1285 lemma zero_left: "prod 0 b = 0"
```
```  1286 by (rule additive.zero [OF additive_left])
```
```  1287
```
```  1288 lemma zero_right: "prod a 0 = 0"
```
```  1289 by (rule additive.zero [OF additive_right])
```
```  1290
```
```  1291 lemma minus_left: "prod (- a) b = - prod a b"
```
```  1292 by (rule additive.minus [OF additive_left])
```
```  1293
```
```  1294 lemma minus_right: "prod a (- b) = - prod a b"
```
```  1295 by (rule additive.minus [OF additive_right])
```
```  1296
```
```  1297 lemma diff_left:
```
```  1298   "prod (a - a') b = prod a b - prod a' b"
```
```  1299 by (rule additive.diff [OF additive_left])
```
```  1300
```
```  1301 lemma diff_right:
```
```  1302   "prod a (b - b') = prod a b - prod a b'"
```
```  1303 by (rule additive.diff [OF additive_right])
```
```  1304
```
```  1305 lemma bounded_linear_left:
```
```  1306   "bounded_linear (\<lambda>a. a ** b)"
```
```  1307 apply (cut_tac bounded, safe)
```
```  1308 apply (rule_tac K="norm b * K" in bounded_linear_intro)
```
```  1309 apply (rule add_left)
```
```  1310 apply (rule scaleR_left)
```
```  1311 apply (simp add: ac_simps)
```
```  1312 done
```
```  1313
```
```  1314 lemma bounded_linear_right:
```
```  1315   "bounded_linear (\<lambda>b. a ** b)"
```
```  1316 apply (cut_tac bounded, safe)
```
```  1317 apply (rule_tac K="norm a * K" in bounded_linear_intro)
```
```  1318 apply (rule add_right)
```
```  1319 apply (rule scaleR_right)
```
```  1320 apply (simp add: ac_simps)
```
```  1321 done
```
```  1322
```
```  1323 lemma prod_diff_prod:
```
```  1324   "(x ** y - a ** b) = (x - a) ** (y - b) + (x - a) ** b + a ** (y - b)"
```
```  1325 by (simp add: diff_left diff_right)
```
```  1326
```
```  1327 end
```
```  1328
```
```  1329 lemma bounded_linear_ident[simp]: "bounded_linear (\<lambda>x. x)"
```
```  1330   by default (auto intro!: exI[of _ 1])
```
```  1331
```
```  1332 lemma bounded_linear_zero[simp]: "bounded_linear (\<lambda>x. 0)"
```
```  1333   by default (auto intro!: exI[of _ 1])
```
```  1334
```
```  1335 lemma bounded_linear_add:
```
```  1336   assumes "bounded_linear f"
```
```  1337   assumes "bounded_linear g"
```
```  1338   shows "bounded_linear (\<lambda>x. f x + g x)"
```
```  1339 proof -
```
```  1340   interpret f: bounded_linear f by fact
```
```  1341   interpret g: bounded_linear g by fact
```
```  1342   show ?thesis
```
```  1343   proof
```
```  1344     from f.bounded obtain Kf where Kf: "\<And>x. norm (f x) \<le> norm x * Kf" by blast
```
```  1345     from g.bounded obtain Kg where Kg: "\<And>x. norm (g x) \<le> norm x * Kg" by blast
```
```  1346     show "\<exists>K. \<forall>x. norm (f x + g x) \<le> norm x * K"
```
```  1347       using add_mono[OF Kf Kg]
```
```  1348       by (intro exI[of _ "Kf + Kg"]) (auto simp: field_simps intro: norm_triangle_ineq order_trans)
```
```  1349   qed (simp_all add: f.add g.add f.scaleR g.scaleR scaleR_right_distrib)
```
```  1350 qed
```
```  1351
```
```  1352 lemma bounded_linear_minus:
```
```  1353   assumes "bounded_linear f"
```
```  1354   shows "bounded_linear (\<lambda>x. - f x)"
```
```  1355 proof -
```
```  1356   interpret f: bounded_linear f by fact
```
```  1357   show ?thesis apply (unfold_locales)
```
```  1358     apply (simp add: f.add)
```
```  1359     apply (simp add: f.scaleR)
```
```  1360     apply (simp add: f.bounded)
```
```  1361     done
```
```  1362 qed
```
```  1363
```
```  1364 lemma bounded_linear_compose:
```
```  1365   assumes "bounded_linear f"
```
```  1366   assumes "bounded_linear g"
```
```  1367   shows "bounded_linear (\<lambda>x. f (g x))"
```
```  1368 proof -
```
```  1369   interpret f: bounded_linear f by fact
```
```  1370   interpret g: bounded_linear g by fact
```
```  1371   show ?thesis proof (unfold_locales)
```
```  1372     fix x y show "f (g (x + y)) = f (g x) + f (g y)"
```
```  1373       by (simp only: f.add g.add)
```
```  1374   next
```
```  1375     fix r x show "f (g (scaleR r x)) = scaleR r (f (g x))"
```
```  1376       by (simp only: f.scaleR g.scaleR)
```
```  1377   next
```
```  1378     from f.pos_bounded
```
```  1379     obtain Kf where f: "\<And>x. norm (f x) \<le> norm x * Kf" and Kf: "0 < Kf" by fast
```
```  1380     from g.pos_bounded
```
```  1381     obtain Kg where g: "\<And>x. norm (g x) \<le> norm x * Kg" by fast
```
```  1382     show "\<exists>K. \<forall>x. norm (f (g x)) \<le> norm x * K"
```
```  1383     proof (intro exI allI)
```
```  1384       fix x
```
```  1385       have "norm (f (g x)) \<le> norm (g x) * Kf"
```
```  1386         using f .
```
```  1387       also have "\<dots> \<le> (norm x * Kg) * Kf"
```
```  1388         using g Kf [THEN order_less_imp_le] by (rule mult_right_mono)
```
```  1389       also have "(norm x * Kg) * Kf = norm x * (Kg * Kf)"
```
```  1390         by (rule mult.assoc)
```
```  1391       finally show "norm (f (g x)) \<le> norm x * (Kg * Kf)" .
```
```  1392     qed
```
```  1393   qed
```
```  1394 qed
```
```  1395
```
```  1396 lemma bounded_bilinear_mult:
```
```  1397   "bounded_bilinear (op * :: 'a \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'a::real_normed_algebra)"
```
```  1398 apply (rule bounded_bilinear.intro)
```
```  1399 apply (rule distrib_right)
```
```  1400 apply (rule distrib_left)
```
```  1401 apply (rule mult_scaleR_left)
```
```  1402 apply (rule mult_scaleR_right)
```
```  1403 apply (rule_tac x="1" in exI)
```
```  1404 apply (simp add: norm_mult_ineq)
```
```  1405 done
```
```  1406
```
```  1407 lemma bounded_linear_mult_left:
```
```  1408   "bounded_linear (\<lambda>x::'a::real_normed_algebra. x * y)"
```
```  1409   using bounded_bilinear_mult
```
```  1410   by (rule bounded_bilinear.bounded_linear_left)
```
```  1411
```
```  1412 lemma bounded_linear_mult_right:
```
```  1413   "bounded_linear (\<lambda>y::'a::real_normed_algebra. x * y)"
```
```  1414   using bounded_bilinear_mult
```
```  1415   by (rule bounded_bilinear.bounded_linear_right)
```
```  1416
```
```  1417 lemmas bounded_linear_mult_const =
```
```  1418   bounded_linear_mult_left [THEN bounded_linear_compose]
```
```  1419
```
```  1420 lemmas bounded_linear_const_mult =
```
```  1421   bounded_linear_mult_right [THEN bounded_linear_compose]
```
```  1422
```
```  1423 lemma bounded_linear_divide:
```
```  1424   "bounded_linear (\<lambda>x::'a::real_normed_field. x / y)"
```
```  1425   unfolding divide_inverse by (rule bounded_linear_mult_left)
```
```  1426
```
```  1427 lemma bounded_bilinear_scaleR: "bounded_bilinear scaleR"
```
```  1428 apply (rule bounded_bilinear.intro)
```
```  1429 apply (rule scaleR_left_distrib)
```
```  1430 apply (rule scaleR_right_distrib)
```
```  1431 apply simp
```
```  1432 apply (rule scaleR_left_commute)
```
```  1433 apply (rule_tac x="1" in exI, simp)
```
```  1434 done
```
```  1435
```
```  1436 lemma bounded_linear_scaleR_left: "bounded_linear (\<lambda>r. scaleR r x)"
```
```  1437   using bounded_bilinear_scaleR
```
```  1438   by (rule bounded_bilinear.bounded_linear_left)
```
```  1439
```
```  1440 lemma bounded_linear_scaleR_right: "bounded_linear (\<lambda>x. scaleR r x)"
```
```  1441   using bounded_bilinear_scaleR
```
```  1442   by (rule bounded_bilinear.bounded_linear_right)
```
```  1443
```
```  1444 lemma bounded_linear_of_real: "bounded_linear (\<lambda>r. of_real r)"
```
```  1445   unfolding of_real_def by (rule bounded_linear_scaleR_left)
```
```  1446
```
```  1447 lemma real_bounded_linear:
```
```  1448   fixes f :: "real \<Rightarrow> real"
```
```  1449   shows "bounded_linear f \<longleftrightarrow> (\<exists>c::real. f = (\<lambda>x. x * c))"
```
```  1450 proof -
```
```  1451   { fix x assume "bounded_linear f"
```
```  1452     then interpret bounded_linear f .
```
```  1453     from scaleR[of x 1] have "f x = x * f 1"
```
```  1454       by simp }
```
```  1455   then show ?thesis
```
```  1456     by (auto intro: exI[of _ "f 1"] bounded_linear_mult_left)
```
```  1457 qed
```
```  1458
```
```  1459 instance real_normed_algebra_1 \<subseteq> perfect_space
```
```  1460 proof
```
```  1461   fix x::'a
```
```  1462   show "\<not> open {x}"
```
```  1463     unfolding open_dist dist_norm
```
```  1464     by (clarsimp, rule_tac x="x + of_real (e/2)" in exI, simp)
```
```  1465 qed
```
```  1466
```
```  1467 subsection {* Filters and Limits on Metric Space *}
```
```  1468
```
```  1469 lemma (in metric_space) nhds_metric: "nhds x = (INF e:{0 <..}. principal {y. dist y x < e})"
```
```  1470   unfolding nhds_def
```
```  1471 proof (safe intro!: INF_eq)
```
```  1472   fix S assume "open S" "x \<in> S"
```
```  1473   then obtain e where "{y. dist y x < e} \<subseteq> S" "0 < e"
```
```  1474     by (auto simp: open_dist subset_eq)
```
```  1475   then show "\<exists>e\<in>{0<..}. principal {y. dist y x < e} \<le> principal S"
```
```  1476     by auto
```
```  1477 qed (auto intro!: exI[of _ "{y. dist x y < e}" for e] open_ball simp: dist_commute)
```
```  1478
```
```  1479 lemma (in metric_space) tendsto_iff:
```
```  1480   "(f ---> l) F \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>e>0. eventually (\<lambda>x. dist (f x) l < e) F)"
```
```  1481   unfolding nhds_metric filterlim_INF filterlim_principal by auto
```
```  1482
```
```  1483 lemma (in metric_space) tendstoI: "(\<And>e. 0 < e \<Longrightarrow> eventually (\<lambda>x. dist (f x) l < e) F) \<Longrightarrow> (f ---> l) F"
```
```  1484   by (auto simp: tendsto_iff)
```
```  1485
```
```  1486 lemma (in metric_space) tendstoD: "(f ---> l) F \<Longrightarrow> 0 < e \<Longrightarrow> eventually (\<lambda>x. dist (f x) l < e) F"
```
```  1487   by (auto simp: tendsto_iff)
```
```  1488
```
```  1489 lemma (in metric_space) eventually_nhds_metric:
```
```  1490   "eventually P (nhds a) \<longleftrightarrow> (\<exists>d>0. \<forall>x. dist x a < d \<longrightarrow> P x)"
```
```  1491   unfolding nhds_metric
```
```  1492   by (subst eventually_INF_base)
```
```  1493      (auto simp: eventually_principal Bex_def subset_eq intro: exI[of _ "min a b" for a b])
```
```  1494
```
```  1495 lemma eventually_at:
```
```  1496   fixes a :: "'a :: metric_space"
```
```  1497   shows "eventually P (at a within S) \<longleftrightarrow> (\<exists>d>0. \<forall>x\<in>S. x \<noteq> a \<and> dist x a < d \<longrightarrow> P x)"
```
```  1498   unfolding eventually_at_filter eventually_nhds_metric by (auto simp: dist_nz)
```
```  1499
```
```  1500 lemma eventually_at_le:
```
```  1501   fixes a :: "'a::metric_space"
```
```  1502   shows "eventually P (at a within S) \<longleftrightarrow> (\<exists>d>0. \<forall>x\<in>S. x \<noteq> a \<and> dist x a \<le> d \<longrightarrow> P x)"
```
```  1503   unfolding eventually_at_filter eventually_nhds_metric
```
```  1504   apply auto
```
```  1505   apply (rule_tac x="d / 2" in exI)
```
```  1506   apply auto
```
```  1507   done
```
```  1508
```
```  1509 lemma metric_tendsto_imp_tendsto:
```
```  1510   fixes a :: "'a :: metric_space" and b :: "'b :: metric_space"
```
```  1511   assumes f: "(f ---> a) F"
```
```  1512   assumes le: "eventually (\<lambda>x. dist (g x) b \<le> dist (f x) a) F"
```
```  1513   shows "(g ---> b) F"
```
```  1514 proof (rule tendstoI)
```
```  1515   fix e :: real assume "0 < e"
```
```  1516   with f have "eventually (\<lambda>x. dist (f x) a < e) F" by (rule tendstoD)
```
```  1517   with le show "eventually (\<lambda>x. dist (g x) b < e) F"
```
```  1518     using le_less_trans by (rule eventually_elim2)
```
```  1519 qed
```
```  1520
```
```  1521 lemma filterlim_real_sequentially: "LIM x sequentially. real x :> at_top"
```
```  1522   unfolding filterlim_at_top
```
```  1523   apply (intro allI)
```
```  1524   apply (rule_tac c="natceiling (Z + 1)" in eventually_sequentiallyI)
```
```  1525   apply (auto simp: natceiling_le_eq)
```
```  1526   done
```
```  1527
```
```  1528 subsubsection {* Limits of Sequences *}
```
```  1529
```
```  1530 lemma LIMSEQ_def: "X ----> (L::'a::metric_space) \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>r>0. \<exists>no. \<forall>n\<ge>no. dist (X n) L < r)"
```
```  1531   unfolding tendsto_iff eventually_sequentially ..
```
```  1532
```
```  1533 lemma LIMSEQ_iff_nz: "X ----> (L::'a::metric_space) = (\<forall>r>0. \<exists>no>0. \<forall>n\<ge>no. dist (X n) L < r)"
```
```  1534   unfolding LIMSEQ_def by (metis Suc_leD zero_less_Suc)
```
```  1535
```
```  1536 lemma metric_LIMSEQ_I:
```
```  1537   "(\<And>r. 0 < r \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>no. \<forall>n\<ge>no. dist (X n) L < r) \<Longrightarrow> X ----> (L::'a::metric_space)"
```
```  1538 by (simp add: LIMSEQ_def)
```
```  1539
```
```  1540 lemma metric_LIMSEQ_D:
```
```  1541   "\<lbrakk>X ----> (L::'a::metric_space); 0 < r\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>no. \<forall>n\<ge>no. dist (X n) L < r"
```
```  1542 by (simp add: LIMSEQ_def)
```
```  1543
```
```  1544
```
```  1545 subsubsection {* Limits of Functions *}
```
```  1546
```
```  1547 lemma LIM_def: "f -- (a::'a::metric_space) --> (L::'b::metric_space) =
```
```  1548      (\<forall>r > 0. \<exists>s > 0. \<forall>x. x \<noteq> a & dist x a < s
```
```  1549         --> dist (f x) L < r)"
```
```  1550   unfolding tendsto_iff eventually_at by simp
```
```  1551
```
```  1552 lemma metric_LIM_I:
```
```  1553   "(\<And>r. 0 < r \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>s>0. \<forall>x. x \<noteq> a \<and> dist x a < s \<longrightarrow> dist (f x) L < r)
```
```  1554     \<Longrightarrow> f -- (a::'a::metric_space) --> (L::'b::metric_space)"
```
```  1555 by (simp add: LIM_def)
```
```  1556
```
```  1557 lemma metric_LIM_D:
```
```  1558   "\<lbrakk>f -- (a::'a::metric_space) --> (L::'b::metric_space); 0 < r\<rbrakk>
```
```  1559     \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>s>0. \<forall>x. x \<noteq> a \<and> dist x a < s \<longrightarrow> dist (f x) L < r"
```
```  1560 by (simp add: LIM_def)
```
```  1561
```
```  1562 lemma metric_LIM_imp_LIM:
```
```  1563   assumes f: "f -- a --> (l::'a::metric_space)"
```
```  1564   assumes le: "\<And>x. x \<noteq> a \<Longrightarrow> dist (g x) m \<le> dist (f x) l"
```
```  1565   shows "g -- a --> (m::'b::metric_space)"
```
```  1566   by (rule metric_tendsto_imp_tendsto [OF f]) (auto simp add: eventually_at_topological le)
```
```  1567
```
```  1568 lemma metric_LIM_equal2:
```
```  1569   assumes 1: "0 < R"
```
```  1570   assumes 2: "\<And>x. \<lbrakk>x \<noteq> a; dist x a < R\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> f x = g x"
```
```  1571   shows "g -- a --> l \<Longrightarrow> f -- (a::'a::metric_space) --> l"
```
```  1572 apply (rule topological_tendstoI)
```
```  1573 apply (drule (2) topological_tendstoD)
```
```  1574 apply (simp add: eventually_at, safe)
```
```  1575 apply (rule_tac x="min d R" in exI, safe)
```
```  1576 apply (simp add: 1)
```
```  1577 apply (simp add: 2)
```
```  1578 done
```
```  1579
```
```  1580 lemma metric_LIM_compose2:
```
```  1581   assumes f: "f -- (a::'a::metric_space) --> b"
```
```  1582   assumes g: "g -- b --> c"
```
```  1583   assumes inj: "\<exists>d>0. \<forall>x. x \<noteq> a \<and> dist x a < d \<longrightarrow> f x \<noteq> b"
```
```  1584   shows "(\<lambda>x. g (f x)) -- a --> c"
```
```  1585   using inj
```
```  1586   by (intro tendsto_compose_eventually[OF g f]) (auto simp: eventually_at)
```
```  1587
```
```  1588 lemma metric_isCont_LIM_compose2:
```
```  1589   fixes f :: "'a :: metric_space \<Rightarrow> _"
```
```  1590   assumes f [unfolded isCont_def]: "isCont f a"
```
```  1591   assumes g: "g -- f a --> l"
```
```  1592   assumes inj: "\<exists>d>0. \<forall>x. x \<noteq> a \<and> dist x a < d \<longrightarrow> f x \<noteq> f a"
```
```  1593   shows "(\<lambda>x. g (f x)) -- a --> l"
```
```  1594 by (rule metric_LIM_compose2 [OF f g inj])
```
```  1595
```
```  1596 subsection {* Complete metric spaces *}
```
```  1597
```
```  1598 subsection {* Cauchy sequences *}
```
```  1599
```
```  1600 definition (in metric_space) Cauchy :: "(nat \<Rightarrow> 'a) \<Rightarrow> bool" where
```
```  1601   "Cauchy X = (\<forall>e>0. \<exists>M. \<forall>m \<ge> M. \<forall>n \<ge> M. dist (X m) (X n) < e)"
```
```  1602
```
```  1603 subsection {* Cauchy Sequences *}
```
```  1604
```
```  1605 lemma metric_CauchyI:
```
```  1606   "(\<And>e. 0 < e \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>M. \<forall>m\<ge>M. \<forall>n\<ge>M. dist (X m) (X n) < e) \<Longrightarrow> Cauchy X"
```
```  1607   by (simp add: Cauchy_def)
```
```  1608
```
```  1609 lemma metric_CauchyD:
```
```  1610   "Cauchy X \<Longrightarrow> 0 < e \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>M. \<forall>m\<ge>M. \<forall>n\<ge>M. dist (X m) (X n) < e"
```
```  1611   by (simp add: Cauchy_def)
```
```  1612
```
```  1613 lemma metric_Cauchy_iff2:
```
```  1614   "Cauchy X = (\<forall>j. (\<exists>M. \<forall>m \<ge> M. \<forall>n \<ge> M. dist (X m) (X n) < inverse(real (Suc j))))"
```
```  1615 apply (simp add: Cauchy_def, auto)
```
```  1616 apply (drule reals_Archimedean, safe)
```
```  1617 apply (drule_tac x = n in spec, auto)
```
```  1618 apply (rule_tac x = M in exI, auto)
```
```  1619 apply (drule_tac x = m in spec, simp)
```
```  1620 apply (drule_tac x = na in spec, auto)
```
```  1621 done
```
```  1622
```
```  1623 lemma Cauchy_iff2:
```
```  1624   "Cauchy X = (\<forall>j. (\<exists>M. \<forall>m \<ge> M. \<forall>n \<ge> M. \<bar>X m - X n\<bar> < inverse(real (Suc j))))"
```
```  1625   unfolding metric_Cauchy_iff2 dist_real_def ..
```
```  1626
```
```  1627 lemma Cauchy_subseq_Cauchy:
```
```  1628   "\<lbrakk> Cauchy X; subseq f \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> Cauchy (X o f)"
```
```  1629 apply (auto simp add: Cauchy_def)
```
```  1630 apply (drule_tac x=e in spec, clarify)
```
```  1631 apply (rule_tac x=M in exI, clarify)
```
```  1632 apply (blast intro: le_trans [OF _ seq_suble] dest!: spec)
```
```  1633 done
```
```  1634
```
```  1635 theorem LIMSEQ_imp_Cauchy:
```
```  1636   assumes X: "X ----> a" shows "Cauchy X"
```
```  1637 proof (rule metric_CauchyI)
```
```  1638   fix e::real assume "0 < e"
```
```  1639   hence "0 < e/2" by simp
```
```  1640   with X have "\<exists>N. \<forall>n\<ge>N. dist (X n) a < e/2" by (rule metric_LIMSEQ_D)
```
```  1641   then obtain N where N: "\<forall>n\<ge>N. dist (X n) a < e/2" ..
```
```  1642   show "\<exists>N. \<forall>m\<ge>N. \<forall>n\<ge>N. dist (X m) (X n) < e"
```
```  1643   proof (intro exI allI impI)
```
```  1644     fix m assume "N \<le> m"
```
```  1645     hence m: "dist (X m) a < e/2" using N by fast
```
```  1646     fix n assume "N \<le> n"
```
```  1647     hence n: "dist (X n) a < e/2" using N by fast
```
```  1648     have "dist (X m) (X n) \<le> dist (X m) a + dist (X n) a"
```
```  1649       by (rule dist_triangle2)
```
```  1650     also from m n have "\<dots> < e" by simp
```
```  1651     finally show "dist (X m) (X n) < e" .
```
```  1652   qed
```
```  1653 qed
```
```  1654
```
```  1655 lemma convergent_Cauchy: "convergent X \<Longrightarrow> Cauchy X"
```
```  1656 unfolding convergent_def
```
```  1657 by (erule exE, erule LIMSEQ_imp_Cauchy)
```
```  1658
```
```  1659 subsubsection {* Cauchy Sequences are Convergent *}
```
```  1660
```
```  1661 class complete_space = metric_space +
```
```  1662   assumes Cauchy_convergent: "Cauchy X \<Longrightarrow> convergent X"
```
```  1663
```
```  1664 lemma Cauchy_convergent_iff:
```
```  1665   fixes X :: "nat \<Rightarrow> 'a::complete_space"
```
```  1666   shows "Cauchy X = convergent X"
```
```  1667 by (fast intro: Cauchy_convergent convergent_Cauchy)
```
```  1668
```
```  1669 subsection {* The set of real numbers is a complete metric space *}
```
```  1670
```
```  1671 text {*
```
```  1672 Proof that Cauchy sequences converge based on the one from
```
```  1673 @{url "http://pirate.shu.edu/~wachsmut/ira/numseq/proofs/cauconv.html"}
```
```  1674 *}
```
```  1675
```
```  1676 text {*
```
```  1677   If sequence @{term "X"} is Cauchy, then its limit is the lub of
```
```  1678   @{term "{r::real. \<exists>N. \<forall>n\<ge>N. r < X n}"}
```
```  1679 *}
```
```  1680
```
```  1681 lemma increasing_LIMSEQ:
```
```  1682   fixes f :: "nat \<Rightarrow> real"
```
```  1683   assumes inc: "\<And>n. f n \<le> f (Suc n)"
```
```  1684       and bdd: "\<And>n. f n \<le> l"
```
```  1685       and en: "\<And>e. 0 < e \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>n. l \<le> f n + e"
```
```  1686   shows "f ----> l"
```
```  1687 proof (rule increasing_tendsto)
```
```  1688   fix x assume "x < l"
```
```  1689   with dense[of 0 "l - x"] obtain e where "0 < e" "e < l - x"
```
```  1690     by auto
```
```  1691   from en[OF `0 < e`] obtain n where "l - e \<le> f n"
```
```  1692     by (auto simp: field_simps)
```
```  1693   with `e < l - x` `0 < e` have "x < f n" by simp
```
```  1694   with incseq_SucI[of f, OF inc] show "eventually (\<lambda>n. x < f n) sequentially"
```
```  1695     by (auto simp: eventually_sequentially incseq_def intro: less_le_trans)
```
```  1696 qed (insert bdd, auto)
```
```  1697
```
```  1698 lemma real_Cauchy_convergent:
```
```  1699   fixes X :: "nat \<Rightarrow> real"
```
```  1700   assumes X: "Cauchy X"
```
```  1701   shows "convergent X"
```
```  1702 proof -
```
```  1703   def S \<equiv> "{x::real. \<exists>N. \<forall>n\<ge>N. x < X n}"
```
```  1704   then have mem_S: "\<And>N x. \<forall>n\<ge>N. x < X n \<Longrightarrow> x \<in> S" by auto
```
```  1705
```
```  1706   { fix N x assume N: "\<forall>n\<ge>N. X n < x"
```
```  1707   fix y::real assume "y \<in> S"
```
```  1708   hence "\<exists>M. \<forall>n\<ge>M. y < X n"
```
```  1709     by (simp add: S_def)
```
```  1710   then obtain M where "\<forall>n\<ge>M. y < X n" ..
```
```  1711   hence "y < X (max M N)" by simp
```
```  1712   also have "\<dots> < x" using N by simp
```
```  1713   finally have "y \<le> x"
```
```  1714     by (rule order_less_imp_le) }
```
```  1715   note bound_isUb = this
```
```  1716
```
```  1717   obtain N where "\<forall>m\<ge>N. \<forall>n\<ge>N. dist (X m) (X n) < 1"
```
```  1718     using X[THEN metric_CauchyD, OF zero_less_one] by auto
```
```  1719   hence N: "\<forall>n\<ge>N. dist (X n) (X N) < 1" by simp
```
```  1720   have [simp]: "S \<noteq> {}"
```
```  1721   proof (intro exI ex_in_conv[THEN iffD1])
```
```  1722     from N have "\<forall>n\<ge>N. X N - 1 < X n"
```
```  1723       by (simp add: abs_diff_less_iff dist_real_def)
```
```  1724     thus "X N - 1 \<in> S" by (rule mem_S)
```
```  1725   qed
```
```  1726   have [simp]: "bdd_above S"
```
```  1727   proof
```
```  1728     from N have "\<forall>n\<ge>N. X n < X N + 1"
```
```  1729       by (simp add: abs_diff_less_iff dist_real_def)
```
```  1730     thus "\<And>s. s \<in> S \<Longrightarrow>  s \<le> X N + 1"
```
```  1731       by (rule bound_isUb)
```
```  1732   qed
```
```  1733   have "X ----> Sup S"
```
```  1734   proof (rule metric_LIMSEQ_I)
```
```  1735   fix r::real assume "0 < r"
```
```  1736   hence r: "0 < r/2" by simp
```
```  1737   obtain N where "\<forall>n\<ge>N. \<forall>m\<ge>N. dist (X n) (X m) < r/2"
```
```  1738     using metric_CauchyD [OF X r] by auto
```
```  1739   hence "\<forall>n\<ge>N. dist (X n) (X N) < r/2" by simp
```
```  1740   hence N: "\<forall>n\<ge>N. X N - r/2 < X n \<and> X n < X N + r/2"
```
```  1741     by (simp only: dist_real_def abs_diff_less_iff)
```
```  1742
```
```  1743   from N have "\<forall>n\<ge>N. X N - r/2 < X n" by fast
```
```  1744   hence "X N - r/2 \<in> S" by (rule mem_S)
```
```  1745   hence 1: "X N - r/2 \<le> Sup S" by (simp add: cSup_upper)
```
```  1746
```
```  1747   from N have "\<forall>n\<ge>N. X n < X N + r/2" by fast
```
```  1748   from bound_isUb[OF this]
```
```  1749   have 2: "Sup S \<le> X N + r/2"
```
```  1750     by (intro cSup_least) simp_all
```
```  1751
```
```  1752   show "\<exists>N. \<forall>n\<ge>N. dist (X n) (Sup S) < r"
```
```  1753   proof (intro exI allI impI)
```
```  1754     fix n assume n: "N \<le> n"
```
```  1755     from N n have "X n < X N + r/2" and "X N - r/2 < X n" by simp+
```
```  1756     thus "dist (X n) (Sup S) < r" using 1 2
```
```  1757       by (simp add: abs_diff_less_iff dist_real_def)
```
```  1758   qed
```
```  1759   qed
```
```  1760   then show ?thesis unfolding convergent_def by auto
```
```  1761 qed
```
```  1762
```
```  1763 instance real :: complete_space
```
```  1764   by intro_classes (rule real_Cauchy_convergent)
```
```  1765
```
```  1766 class banach = real_normed_vector + complete_space
```
```  1767
```
```  1768 instance real :: banach by default
```
```  1769
```
```  1770 lemma tendsto_at_topI_sequentially:
```
```  1771   fixes f :: "real \<Rightarrow> 'b::first_countable_topology"
```
```  1772   assumes *: "\<And>X. filterlim X at_top sequentially \<Longrightarrow> (\<lambda>n. f (X n)) ----> y"
```
```  1773   shows "(f ---> y) at_top"
```
```  1774 proof -
```
```  1775   from nhds_countable[of y] guess A . note A = this
```
```  1776
```
```  1777   have "\<forall>m. \<exists>k. \<forall>x\<ge>k. f x \<in> A m"
```
```  1778   proof (rule ccontr)
```
```  1779     assume "\<not> (\<forall>m. \<exists>k. \<forall>x\<ge>k. f x \<in> A m)"
```
```  1780     then obtain m where "\<And>k. \<exists>x\<ge>k. f x \<notin> A m"
```
```  1781       by auto
```
```  1782     then have "\<exists>X. \<forall>n. (f (X n) \<notin> A m) \<and> max n (X n) + 1 \<le> X (Suc n)"
```
```  1783       by (intro dependent_nat_choice) (auto simp del: max.bounded_iff)
```
```  1784     then obtain X where X: "\<And>n. f (X n) \<notin> A m" "\<And>n. max n (X n) + 1 \<le> X (Suc n)"
```
```  1785       by auto
```
```  1786     { fix n have "1 \<le> n \<longrightarrow> real n \<le> X n"
```
```  1787         using X[of "n - 1"] by auto }
```
```  1788     then have "filterlim X at_top sequentially"
```
```  1789       by (force intro!: filterlim_at_top_mono[OF filterlim_real_sequentially]
```
```  1790                 simp: eventually_sequentially)
```
```  1791     from topological_tendstoD[OF *[OF this] A(2, 3), of m] X(1) show False
```
```  1792       by auto
```
```  1793   qed
```
```  1794   then obtain k where "\<And>m x. k m \<le> x \<Longrightarrow> f x \<in> A m"
```
```  1795     by metis
```
```  1796   then show ?thesis
```
```  1797     unfolding at_top_def A
```
```  1798     by (intro filterlim_base[where i=k]) auto
```
```  1799 qed
```
```  1800
```
```  1801 lemma tendsto_at_topI_sequentially_real:
```
```  1802   fixes f :: "real \<Rightarrow> real"
```
```  1803   assumes mono: "mono f"
```
```  1804   assumes limseq: "(\<lambda>n. f (real n)) ----> y"
```
```  1805   shows "(f ---> y) at_top"
```
```  1806 proof (rule tendstoI)
```
```  1807   fix e :: real assume "0 < e"
```
```  1808   with limseq obtain N :: nat where N: "\<And>n. N \<le> n \<Longrightarrow> \<bar>f (real n) - y\<bar> < e"
```
```  1809     by (auto simp: LIMSEQ_def dist_real_def)
```
```  1810   { fix x :: real
```
```  1811     obtain n where "x \<le> real_of_nat n"
```
```  1812       using ex_le_of_nat[of x] ..
```
```  1813     note monoD[OF mono this]
```
```  1814     also have "f (real_of_nat n) \<le> y"
```
```  1815       by (rule LIMSEQ_le_const[OF limseq])
```
```  1816          (auto intro: exI[of _ n] monoD[OF mono] simp: real_eq_of_nat[symmetric])
```
```  1817     finally have "f x \<le> y" . }
```
```  1818   note le = this
```
```  1819   have "eventually (\<lambda>x. real N \<le> x) at_top"
```
```  1820     by (rule eventually_ge_at_top)
```
```  1821   then show "eventually (\<lambda>x. dist (f x) y < e) at_top"
```
```  1822   proof eventually_elim
```
```  1823     fix x assume N': "real N \<le> x"
```
```  1824     with N[of N] le have "y - f (real N) < e" by auto
```
```  1825     moreover note monoD[OF mono N']
```
```  1826     ultimately show "dist (f x) y < e"
```
```  1827       using le[of x] by (auto simp: dist_real_def field_simps)
```
```  1828   qed
```
```  1829 qed
```
```  1830
```
```  1831 end
```
```  1832
```