NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu Oct 04 13:56:32 2012 +0200 (2012-10-04)
changeset 49699 1301ed115729
parent 49647 21ae8500d261
child 49738 1e1611fd32df
permissions -rw-r--r--
some documentation of show_markup;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10     . parallel terminal proofs ('by');
    11     . improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc.;
    12     . more efficient painting, improved reactivity;
    13     . more robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial
    14       comments, malformed symbols);
    15     . smarter handling of tracing messages (via tracing_limit);
    16     . more plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala;
    17     . uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows;
    18 
    19 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    20 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    21 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    22 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    23 
    24 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    25 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    26 
    27 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    28 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    29 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    30 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    31 dependencies properly.
    32 
    33 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    34 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    35 
    36 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    37 in old "ref" manual.
    38 
    39 
    40 *** Pure ***
    41 
    42 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    43 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    44 
    45 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    46 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    47 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    48 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    49 
    50 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    51 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    52 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    53 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    54 with some care where this is really required.
    55 
    56 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
    57 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
    58 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
    59 
    60   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
    61 
    62 
    63 *** HOL ***
    64 
    65 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalised properties of bounded
    66 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
    67 
    68 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
    69 to lattice type classes.
    70 
    71 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a option".
    72 
    73 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
    74 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
    75 
    76   - Renamed constants:
    77 
    78       prefix ~> prefixeq
    79       strict_prefix ~> prefix
    80 
    81     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
    82 
    83   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
    84     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
    85     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
    86     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    87 
    88   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
    89     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
    90 
    91   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
    92     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
    93     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
    94     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
    95 
    96   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
    97     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
    98 
    99       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
   100       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
   101       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
   102       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
   103       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
   104       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
   105       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
   106       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
   107       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
   108       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
   109       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
   110       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
   111       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
   112       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   113       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   114       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   115 
   116     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   117 
   118 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   119 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   120 non-free datatypes.
   121 
   122 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   123 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   124 
   125 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   126 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   127 
   128 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   129 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   130 
   131 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   132 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   133 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   134 
   135 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   136 expressions.
   137 
   138 * Quickcheck:
   139 
   140   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   141     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   142     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   143 
   144 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   145 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   146 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   147 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   148 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   149 
   150 * Sledgehammer:
   151 
   152   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   153     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   154   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   155   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   156   - Renamed options:
   157       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   158       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   159 
   160 
   161 *** Document preparation ***
   162 
   163 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   164 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   165 
   166 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   167 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   168 document/root.tex.
   169 
   170 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   171 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   172 
   173 
   174 *** ML ***
   175 
   176 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   177 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   178 necessarily printing visible text.
   179 
   180 
   181 *** System ***
   182 
   183 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   184 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   185 for home-made configurations.
   186 
   187 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   188 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   189 
   190 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   191 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   192 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   193 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   194 
   195 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   196 
   197 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   198 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   199 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   200 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   201 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   202 
   203 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   204 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   205 
   206   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   207 
   208 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   209 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   210 
   211 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   212 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   213 "isabelle usedir".
   214 
   215 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   216 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   217 version of Isabelle.
   218 
   219 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   220 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   221 configuration.
   222 
   223 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   224 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   225 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   226 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   227 bundled as Isabelle component.
   228 
   229 
   230 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   231 ------------------------------
   232 
   233 *** General ***
   234 
   235 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   236 
   237   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   238     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   239   - markup for bound variables
   240   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   241   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   242   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   243     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   244 
   245 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   246 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   247 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   248 
   249 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   250 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   251 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   252 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   253 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   254 
   255   context
   256     fixes x y z :: 'a
   257     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   258   begin
   259 
   260   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   261 
   262   end
   263 
   264   thm my_trans
   265 
   266 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   267 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   268 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   269 
   270 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   271 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   272 
   273 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   274 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   275 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   276 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   277 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   278 
   279 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   280 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   281 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   282 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   283 indices of schematic variables.
   284 
   285 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   286 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   287 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   288 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   289 etc. was exploited.
   290 
   291 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   292 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   293 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   294 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   295 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   296 of the material of that old tutorial.
   297 
   298 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   299 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   300 manual.
   301 
   302 
   303 *** Pure ***
   304 
   305 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   306 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   307 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   308 
   309 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   310 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   311 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   312 undocumented feature.)
   313 
   314 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   315 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   316 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   317 
   318   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   319 
   320   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   321     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   322 
   323 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   324 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   325 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   326 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   327 
   328 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   329 
   330     num ~> num_token
   331     xnum ~> xnum_token
   332     xstr ~> str_token
   333 
   334 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   335 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   336 position information via constraints).
   337 
   338 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   339 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   340 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   341 
   342 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   343 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   344 
   345 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   346 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   347 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   348 
   349 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   350 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   351 
   352 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   353 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   354 
   355   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   356 
   357 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   358 
   359 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   360 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   361 
   362 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   363 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   364 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   365 
   366 
   367 *** HOL ***
   368 
   369 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   370 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   371 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   372 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   373 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   374 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   375 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   376 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   377 possible.
   378 
   379 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   380 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   381 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   382 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   383 
   384 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   385 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   386 
   387 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   388 
   389 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   390 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   391 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   392 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   393 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   394 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   395 
   396   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   397     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   398 
   399   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   400     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   401     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   402 
   403   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   404     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   405 
   406   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   407     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   408     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   409 
   410   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   411     Redefine using other integer operations.
   412 
   413 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   414 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   415 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   416 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   417 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   418 
   419   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   420     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   421     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   422     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   423     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   424 
   425     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   426     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   427 
   428   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   429     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   430     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   431     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   432     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   433     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   434     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   435     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   436 
   437   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   438     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   439     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   440     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   441 
   442   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   443     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   444     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   445     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   446 
   447   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   448     from type nat to type int.
   449 
   450 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   451 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   452 
   453   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   454     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   455     type.  Example syntax:
   456 
   457     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   458       is List.insert
   459 
   460     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   461     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   462     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   463     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   464     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   465     by the package.
   466 
   467   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   468     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   469     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   470     code generation for each constant.
   471 
   472   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   473     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   474     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   475     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   476     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   477 
   478   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   479     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   480     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   481 
   482 * Quotient package:
   483 
   484   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   485     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   486 
   487   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   488     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   489 
   490   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   491     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   492     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   493 
   494   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   495     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   496 
   497 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   498 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   499 
   500 * Quickcheck:
   501 
   502   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   503     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   504     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   505     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   506     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   507 
   508     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   509     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   510     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   511 
   512     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   513     continues searching for genuine ones.
   514 
   515     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   516     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   517     show genuine counterexamples.
   518 
   519   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   520     value generators for a given type and operations.
   521 
   522     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   523     constructors of that type.
   524 
   525   - Support for multisets.
   526 
   527   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   528 
   529   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   530     conjectures in a locale context.
   531 
   532 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   533 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   534 
   535 * Sledgehammer:
   536   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   537     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   538   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   539   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   540     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   541   - Sped up the minimizer.
   542   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   543   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   544   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   545 
   546 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   547 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   548 
   549 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   550 
   551 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   552 
   553 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   554 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   555 
   556   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   557 
   558 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   559 a list and a nat.
   560 
   561 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   562 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   563 
   564 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   565 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   566 default.
   567 
   568 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   569 
   570   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   571 
   572 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   573 
   574 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   575 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   576 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   577 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   578 one_case.
   579 
   580 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   581 the result of the fact expression.
   582 
   583 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   584 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   585 of some relation theorems:
   586 
   587   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   588   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   589   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   590   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   591   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   592   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   593 
   594 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   595 
   596 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   597 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   598 
   599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   600 
   601 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   602 to match the constant's name:
   603 
   604   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   605   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   606   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   607   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   608   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   609   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   610   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   611   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   612   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   613   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   614   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   615   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   616   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   617   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   618   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   619   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   620   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   621   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   622   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   623   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   624   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   625   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   626   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   627   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   628 
   629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   630 
   631 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   632 and corresponding theorem names:
   633 
   634   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   635 
   636   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   637 
   638   - Renamed theorems:
   639 
   640     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   641     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   642     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   643     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   644     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   645     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   646     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   647     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   648     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   649     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   650     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   651     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   652     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   653     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   654     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   655     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   656     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   657     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   658     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   659     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   660     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   661     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   662     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   663 
   664     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   665 
   666     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   667 
   668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   669 
   670 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   671 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   672 
   673   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   674   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   675   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   676   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   677   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   678   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   679   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   680   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   681   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   682   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   683   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   684   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   685   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   686   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   687   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   688   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   689   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   690   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   691   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   692   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   693   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   694 
   695 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   696 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   697 
   698 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   699 
   700 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   701 
   702   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   703   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   704   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   705   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   706   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   707   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   708   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   709   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   710   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   711   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   712   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   713   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   714   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   715   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   716   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   717   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   718   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   719   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   720 
   721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   722 
   723 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   724 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   725 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   726 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   727 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   728 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   729 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   730 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   731 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   732 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   733 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   734 
   735 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   736 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   737 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   738 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   739 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   740 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   741 
   742 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   743 through option types.
   744 
   745 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   746 relations.
   747 
   748 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   749 
   750 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   751 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   752 
   753   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   754   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   755   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   756   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   757   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   758   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   759   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   760   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   761   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   762   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   763   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   764   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   765   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   766   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   767   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   768   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   769   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   770   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   771   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   772   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   773   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   774   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   775   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   776   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   777   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   778   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   779   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   780   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   781   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   782   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   783   zless_le ~> less_le
   784   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   785   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   786   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   787 
   788 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   789 
   790   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   791 
   792 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   793 
   794 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   795 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   796 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   797 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   799 
   800 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   801 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   802 
   803 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   804 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   805 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   806 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   807 follows:
   808 
   809   Operations:
   810   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   811   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   812   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   813   del -> rbt_del
   814   delete -> rbt_delete
   815   ins -> rbt_ins
   816   insert -> rbt_insert
   817   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   818   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   819   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   820   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   821   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   822   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   823   tree_less -> rbt_less
   824   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   825   union -> rbt_union
   826   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   827   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   828 
   829   Lemmas:
   830   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   831   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   832   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   833   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   834   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   835   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   836   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   837   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   838   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   839   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   840   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   841   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   842   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   843   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   844   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   845   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   846   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   847   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   848   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   849   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   850   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   851   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   852   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   853   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   854   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   855   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   856   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   857   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   858   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   859   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   860   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   861   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   862   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   863   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   864   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   865   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   866   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   867   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   868   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   869   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   870   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   871   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   872   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   873   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   874   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   875   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   876   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   877   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   878   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   879   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   880   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   881   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   882   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   883   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   884   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   885   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   886   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   887   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   888   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   889   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   890   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   891   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   892   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   893   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   894   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   895   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   896   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   897   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   898   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   899   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   900   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   901   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   902   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   903   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   904   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   905   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   906   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   907   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   908   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   909   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   910   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   911   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   912   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   913 
   914 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   915 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   916 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   917 
   918   Changed Operations:
   919   float_abs -> abs
   920   float_nprt -> nprt
   921   float_pprt -> pprt
   922   pow2 -> use powr
   923   round_down -> float_round_down
   924   round_up -> float_round_up
   925   scale -> exponent
   926 
   927   Removed Operations:
   928   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   929 
   930   Renamed Lemmas:
   931   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   932   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   933   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   934   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   935   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   936   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   937   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   938   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   939   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   940   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   941   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   942   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   943   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   944   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   945   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   946   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   947   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   948   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   949   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   950   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   951   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   952   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   953   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   954   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   955   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   956   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   957   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   958   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   959   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   960   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   961   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   962   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   963   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   964   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   965   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   966   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   967 
   968   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   969   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   970   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   971   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   972   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   973   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   974   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   975   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   976   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   977   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   978 
   979 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   980 association lists with distinct keys.
   981 
   982 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   983 annotated commands.
   984 
   985 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   986 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   987 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   988 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   989 
   990 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   991 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   992 instead.
   993 
   994   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   995   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   996   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   997   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   998   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   999   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1000   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1001   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1002   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1003   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1004   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1005   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1006   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1007   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1008   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1009   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1010   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1011   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1012   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1013   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1014   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1015   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1016   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1017   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1018   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1019   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1020   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1021   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1022   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1023   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1024   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1025   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1026   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1027   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1028   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1029   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1030   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1031   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1032   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1033   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1034   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1035 
  1036 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1037 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1038 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1039 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1040 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1041 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1042 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1043 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1044 
  1045 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1046 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1047 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1048 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1049 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1050 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1051 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1052 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1053 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1054 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1055 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1056 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1057 
  1058   Renamed constants:
  1059   measure -> emeasure
  1060   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1061   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1062   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1063   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1064 
  1065   Removed locales:
  1066   completeable_measure_space
  1067   finite_measure_space
  1068   finite_prob_space
  1069   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1070   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1071   finite_sigma_algebra
  1072   measure_space
  1073   pair_finite_prob_space
  1074   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1075   pair_finite_space
  1076   pair_sigma_algebra
  1077   product_sigma_algebra
  1078 
  1079   Removed constants:
  1080   conditional_space
  1081   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1082   image_space
  1083   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1084   pair_measure_generator
  1085   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1086   subvimage
  1087 
  1088   Replacement theorems:
  1089   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1090   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1091   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1092   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1093   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1094   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1095   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1096   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1097   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1098   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1099   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1100   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1101   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1102   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1103   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1104   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1105   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1106   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1107   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1108   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1109   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1110   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1111   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1112   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1113   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1114   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1115   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1116   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1117   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1118   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1119   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1120   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1121   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1122   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1123   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1124   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1125   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1126   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1127   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1128   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1129   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1130   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1131   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1132   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1133   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1134   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1135   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1136   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1137   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1138   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1139   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1140   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1141   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1142   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1143   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1144   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1145   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1146   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1147   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1148   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1149   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1150   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1151   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1152   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1153   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1154   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1155   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1156   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1157   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1158   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1159   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1160   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1161   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1162   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1163   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1164   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1165   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1166   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1167   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1168   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1169   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1170   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1171   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1172   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1173   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1174   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1175   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1176   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1177   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1178   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1179   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1180   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1181   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1182   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1183   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1184   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1185   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1186   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1187   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1188   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1189   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1190   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1191   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1192   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1193   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1194   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1195   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1196   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1197   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1198   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1199   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1200   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1201   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1202   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1203   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1204   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1205   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1206   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1207   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1208   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1209   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1210   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1211   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1212   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1213   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1214   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1215   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1216   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1217 
  1218 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1219 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1220 
  1221 
  1222 *** FOL ***
  1223 
  1224 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1225 
  1226 
  1227 *** ZF ***
  1228 
  1229 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1230 analysis.
  1231 
  1232 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1233 
  1234 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1235 
  1236 
  1237 *** ML ***
  1238 
  1239 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1240 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1241 
  1242 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1243 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1244 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1245 
  1246 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1247 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1248 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1249 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1250 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1251 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1252 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1253 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1254 
  1255 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1256 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1257 
  1258 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1259 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1260 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1261 
  1262 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1263 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1264 
  1265 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1266 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1267 context as well.
  1268 
  1269 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1270 
  1271   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1272   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1273   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1274   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1275   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1276   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1277   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1278   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1279   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1280   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1281   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1282   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1283 
  1284 
  1285 *** System ***
  1286 
  1287 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1288 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1289 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1290 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1291 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1292 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1293 the generic user home was intended.
  1294 
  1295 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1296 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1297 
  1298 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1299 (not just JRE).
  1300 
  1301 
  1302 
  1303 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1304 ------------------------------------
  1305 
  1306 *** General ***
  1307 
  1308 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1309 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1310 
  1311   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1312     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1313     files for checking).
  1314 
  1315   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1316     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1317     positions.
  1318 
  1319   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1320     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1321     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1322 
  1323   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1324     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1325     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1326 
  1327   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1328     cores.
  1329 
  1330   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1331     versions (garbage collection).
  1332 
  1333 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1334 including some remaining limitations.
  1335 
  1336 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1337 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1338 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1339 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1340 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1342 
  1343 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1344 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1345 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1346 
  1347 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1348 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1349 usedir option -Q.
  1350 
  1351 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1352 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1353 
  1354   long_names   ~> names_long
  1355   short_names  ~> names_short
  1356   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1357 
  1358 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1359 
  1360   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1361 
  1362 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1363 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1364 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1365 
  1366 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1367 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1368 
  1369 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1370   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1371   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1372   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1373     "Classical Reasoner".
  1374 
  1375 
  1376 *** HOL ***
  1377 
  1378 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1379 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1380 
  1381 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1382 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1383 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1384 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1385 class complete_linorder.
  1386 
  1387 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1388 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1389 
  1390 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1391 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1392 
  1393   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1394   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1395   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1396   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1397   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1398   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1399   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1400   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1401   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1402   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1403   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1404 
  1405 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1406 
  1407   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1408   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1409   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1410   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1411   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1412   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1413   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1414   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1415   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1416   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1417   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1418   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1419   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1420   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1421   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1422   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1423 
  1424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1425 
  1426 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1428 
  1429 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1430 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1431 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1432 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1433 
  1434 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1435 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1436 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1438 
  1439 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1440 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1441 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1442 
  1443 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1444 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1445 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1446 
  1447 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1448 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1449 
  1450 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1451 
  1452     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1453     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1454 
  1455 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1456 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1457 
  1458 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1459 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1460 
  1461 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1462 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1463 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1464 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1465 
  1466   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1467   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1468   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1469   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1470   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1471   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1472   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1473 
  1474 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1475 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1476 
  1477   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1478   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1479   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1480   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1481   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1482   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1483   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1484   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1485   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1486   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1487   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1488   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1489   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1490   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1491   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1492   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1493   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1494   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1495   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1496   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1497   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1498   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1499   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1500   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1501   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1502   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1503   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1504   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1505   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1506   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1507   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1508   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1509   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1510   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1511   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1512   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1513   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1514   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1515   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1516   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1517   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1518   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1519   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1520   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1521   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1522   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1523   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1524   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1525   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1526   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1527   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1528   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1529   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1530   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1531   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1532   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1533   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1534   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1535   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1536   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1537   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1538   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1539   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1540   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1541   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1542   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1543   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1544   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1545   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1546   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1547   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1548   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1549   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1550   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1551   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1552   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1553   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1554   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1555   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1556   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1557   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1558   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1559 
  1560 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1561 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1562 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1563 
  1564 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1565 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1566 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1567 
  1568 * Code generation:
  1569 
  1570   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1571     characters in the target language.
  1572 
  1573   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1574     instead.
  1575 
  1576   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1577 
  1578   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1579     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1580 
  1581       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1582 
  1583 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1586 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1587 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1588 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1589 syntax.
  1590 
  1591 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1592 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1593 
  1594 * Nitpick:
  1595   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1596   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1597   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1598     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1599 
  1600 * Sledgehammer:
  1601   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1602   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1603     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1604   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1605     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1606   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1607     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1608   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1609     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1610   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1611     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1612 
  1613 * Metis:
  1614   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1615   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1616     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1617 
  1618 * Command 'try':
  1619   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1620     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1621   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1622     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1623 
  1624 * Quickcheck:
  1625   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1626     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1627   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1628     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1629   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1630     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1631     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1632     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1633   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1634     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1635 
  1636 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1637 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1638 
  1639 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1640 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1641 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1642 
  1643 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1644 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1646 
  1647 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1648 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1649 
  1650 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1651 arithmetic.
  1652 
  1653 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1654 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1655 and lattice type classes.
  1656 
  1657 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1658 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1659 
  1660 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1661 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1662 
  1663 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1664 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1665 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1666 
  1667   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1668   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1669   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1670   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1671 
  1672 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1673 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1674 constants:
  1675 
  1676   type inat   ~> type enat
  1677   Fin         ~> enat
  1678   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1679   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1680   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1681 
  1682 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1683 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1686 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1687 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1688 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1689 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1690 
  1691 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1692 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1693 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1694 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1695 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1696 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1697 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1698 
  1699   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1700   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1701   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1702   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1703 
  1704 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1705 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1706 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1707 
  1708   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1709   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1710   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1711   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1712   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1713   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1714   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1715   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1716   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1717   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1718   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1719   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1720   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1721   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1722   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1723   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1724   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1725   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1726   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1727   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1728   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1729   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1730   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1731   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1732   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1733   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1734   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1735   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1736   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1737   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1738   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1739   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1740   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1741   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1742   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1743   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1744   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1745   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1746   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1747   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1748   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1749   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1750   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1751   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1752   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1753   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1754   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1755   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1756   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1757   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1758   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1759 
  1760 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1761   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1762   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1763   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1764   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1765     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1766 
  1767 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1768 
  1769   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1770   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1771   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1772   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1773   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1774   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1775   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1776   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1777   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1778   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1779   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1780   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1781   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1782   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1783   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1784   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1785   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1786   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1787   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1788   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1789   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1790   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1791   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1792   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1793   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1794 
  1795 
  1796 *** Document preparation ***
  1797 
  1798 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1799 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1800 same.
  1801 
  1802 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1803 result.
  1804 
  1805 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1806 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1807 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1808 
  1809 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1810 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1811 
  1812 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1813 like this:
  1814 
  1815   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1816   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1817 
  1818 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1819 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1820 layouts.
  1821 
  1822 
  1823 *** ML ***
  1824 
  1825 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1826 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1827 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1828 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1829 under external program control.
  1830 
  1831 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1832 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1833 
  1834 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1835 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1836 (better known as Proof General).
  1837 
  1838 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1839 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1840 
  1841 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1842 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1843 
  1844 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1845 (including quotes etc.).
  1846 
  1847 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1848 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1849 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1850 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1851 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1852 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1853 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1854 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1855 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1856 
  1857 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1858 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1859 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1860 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1861 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1862 
  1863 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1864 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1865 
  1866 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1867 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1868 
  1869 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1870 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1871 
  1872 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1873 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1874 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1875 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1876 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1877 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1878 proper Proof.context.
  1879 
  1880 
  1881 *** System ***
  1882 
  1883 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1884 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1885 
  1886 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1887 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1888 
  1889 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1890 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1891 
  1892   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1893   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1894   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1895   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1896   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1897 
  1898 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1899 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1900 
  1901 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1902 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1903 example:
  1904 
  1905   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1906 
  1907 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1908 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1909 
  1910 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1911 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1912 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1913 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1914 
  1915 
  1916 
  1917 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1918 ----------------------------------
  1919 
  1920 *** General ***
  1921 
  1922 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1923 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1924 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1925 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1926 like this:
  1927 
  1928   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1929 
  1930 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1931 
  1932 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1933 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1934 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1935 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1936 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1937 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1938 
  1939 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1940 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1941 the following package declarations:
  1942 
  1943   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1944   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1945 
  1946 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1947 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1948 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1949 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1950 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1951 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1952 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1953 
  1954 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1955 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1956 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1957 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1958 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1959 
  1960 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1961 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1962 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1963 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1964 
  1965 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1966 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1967 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1968 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1969 
  1970   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1971 
  1972   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1973   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1974   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1975   show_types                    show_types
  1976   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1977   show_consts                   show_consts
  1978   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1979 
  1980   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1981   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1982   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1983 
  1984   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1985   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1986 
  1987   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1988 
  1989   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1990   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1991   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1992   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1993   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1994 
  1995 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1996 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1997 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1998 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1999 
  2000 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2002 
  2003   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2004   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2005 
  2006 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2007 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2008 float_token.
  2009 
  2010 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2011 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2013 
  2014 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2015 DejaVu Sans.
  2016 
  2017 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2018 
  2019 
  2020 *** Pure ***
  2021 
  2022 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2023 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2024 time.
  2025 
  2026 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2027 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2028 
  2029 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2030 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2031 
  2032 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2033 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2034 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2035 command already provided this functionality.
  2036 
  2037 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2038 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2039 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2040 without interpretations.
  2041 
  2042 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2043 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2044 
  2045 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2046 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2047 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2048 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2049 
  2050 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2051 'definition' instead.
  2052 
  2053 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2054 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2055 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2056 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2057 
  2058 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2059 constructors.
  2060 
  2061 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2062 the local file system.
  2063 
  2064 
  2065 *** HOL ***
  2066 
  2067 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2068 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2069 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2070 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2071 
  2072   declare [[coercion f]]
  2073 
  2074 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2075 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2076 
  2077   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2078 
  2079 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2080 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2081 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2082 other theories like this:
  2083 
  2084   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2085 
  2086 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2087 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2088 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2089 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2090 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2091 for examples.
  2092 
  2093 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2094 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2095 
  2096 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2097 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2098 
  2099 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2100 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2101 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2102 
  2103 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2104 functorial structure of types.
  2105 
  2106 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2107 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2108 
  2109 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2110 languages.
  2111 
  2112 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2113 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2114 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2115 
  2116 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2117 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2118 
  2119 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2120 combinators any longer.
  2121 
  2122 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2123 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2124 
  2125 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2126 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2127 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2128 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2129 
  2130   record 'a foo = ...
  2131   ...
  2132   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2133 
  2134 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2135 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2137 
  2138 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2139 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2140 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2141 
  2142 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2143 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2144 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2145 
  2146 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2147 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2148 
  2149 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2150 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2151 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2152 independently.
  2153 
  2154 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2155 counter example search.
  2156 
  2157 * Sledgehammer:
  2158   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2159     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2160     sledgehammer").
  2161   - Renamed commands:
  2162     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2163     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2164     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2165     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2166   - Renamed options:
  2167     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2168     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2169     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2170     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2171     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2172 
  2173 * Nitpick:
  2174   - Renamed options:
  2175     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2176     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2177     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2178   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2179   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2180   - Added "whack" option.
  2181   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2182   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2183   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2184   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2185     higher cardinalities.
  2186   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2187 
  2188 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2189 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2190 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2191 
  2192     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2193 
  2194 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2195 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2196 
  2197 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2198 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2199 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2200 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2201 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2202 "smt_solver".
  2203 
  2204 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2205 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2206 
  2207 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2208 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2209 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2210 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2211 
  2212 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2213   - Renamed:
  2214     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2215     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2216     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2217   - Added:
  2218     smt_verbose
  2219     smt_random_seed
  2220     smt_datatypes
  2221     smt_infer_triggers
  2222     smt_monomorph_limit
  2223     cvc3_options
  2224     remote_cvc3_options
  2225     remote_z3_options
  2226     yices_options
  2227 
  2228 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2229 header.
  2230 
  2231 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2232 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2233 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2234 
  2235   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2236 
  2237 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2238 
  2239 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2240 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2241 
  2242 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2243 
  2244 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2245 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2246 
  2247 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2248 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2249 
  2250 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2251 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2252 
  2253 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2254 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2255 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2256 
  2257 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2258 
  2259 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2261 
  2262 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2263 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2264 
  2265 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2266 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2267 for congruent(2)).
  2268 
  2269 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2270 
  2271   types
  2272     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2273     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2274 
  2275   constants
  2276     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2277     True ~> HOL.True
  2278     False ~> HOL.False
  2279     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2280     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2281     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2282     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2283     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2284     The ~> HOL.The
  2285     All ~> HOL.All
  2286     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2287     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2288     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2289     If ~> HOL.If
  2290     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2291     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2292     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2293     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2294     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2295     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2296     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2297     op : ~> Set.member
  2298     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2299 
  2300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2301 
  2302 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2303 
  2304     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2305     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2306     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2307     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2308     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2309     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2310     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2311     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2312 
  2313 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2314 
  2315 * More stylized fact names:
  2316 
  2317   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2318   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2319   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2320   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2321 
  2322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2323 
  2324 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2325 
  2326   constants
  2327     null ~> List.null
  2328 
  2329   facts
  2330     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2331     null_empty ~> null_def
  2332 
  2333 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2334 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2335 generation.
  2336 
  2337 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2338 Haskell code.
  2339 
  2340 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2341 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2342 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2343 
  2344 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2345 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2346 
  2347 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2348 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2349 
  2350 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2351 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2352 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2353 
  2354 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2355 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2356 
  2357 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2358 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2359 
  2360 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2361 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2362 referred to by its qualified name.
  2363 
  2364   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2365   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2366   product ~>  Enum.product
  2367 
  2368 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2369 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2371 
  2372 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2373 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2374 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2375 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2376 
  2377 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2378 sort_key.
  2379 
  2380 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2382 
  2383 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2384 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2385 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2386 
  2387   types
  2388     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2389               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2390               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2391         (depends on your needs)
  2392 
  2393   constants
  2394      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2395      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2396      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2397 
  2398 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2399 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2400 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2401 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2402 
  2403 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2404 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2405 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2406 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2407 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2408 
  2409 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2410 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2411 
  2412 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2413 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2414 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2415 
  2416 
  2417 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2418 
  2419 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2420 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2421 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2422 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2423 compatibility.
  2424 
  2425 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2426 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2427 
  2428 
  2429 *** HOLCF ***
  2430 
  2431 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2432 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2433 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2434 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2435 
  2436 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2437 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2438 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2439 
  2440   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2441   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2442   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2443 
  2444 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2445 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2446 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2447 
  2448 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2449 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2450 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2451 domain definition now works:
  2452 
  2453   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2454 
  2455 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2456 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2457 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2458 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2459 
  2460   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2461     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2462 
  2463   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2464 
  2465 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2466 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2467 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2468 
  2469 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2470 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2471 
  2472 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2473 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2474 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2475 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2476 
  2477 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2478 
  2479 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2480 
  2481 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2482 
  2483 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2485 
  2486 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2487 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2488 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2489 
  2490 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2491 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2492 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2493 
  2494 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2495 still supported as an input translation.
  2496 
  2497 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2498 
  2499   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2500   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2501   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2502   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2503   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2504   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2505   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2506 
  2507 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2508 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2509 
  2510   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2511   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2512   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2513   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2514   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2515   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2516 
  2517 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2518 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2519 
  2520 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2521 
  2522   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2523   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2524   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2525   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2526 
  2527 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2528 
  2529 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2530 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2531 
  2532 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2533 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2534 
  2535   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2536   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2537   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2538   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2539   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2540   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2541   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2542   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2543   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2544   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2545   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2546   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2547   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2548   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2549   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2550   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2551   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2552   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2553   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2554   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2555 
  2556 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2557 
  2558   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2559   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2560   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2561   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2562   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2563   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2564   box_less             ~> box_below
  2565   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2566   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2567   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2568   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2569   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2570   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2571   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2572   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2573   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2574   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2575   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2576   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2577   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2578   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2579   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2580   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2581   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2582   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2583   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2584   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2585   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2586   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2587   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2588   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2589   up_less              ~> up_below
  2590   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2591   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2592   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2593   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2594   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2595   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2596   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2597   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2598   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2599   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2600   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2601   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2602   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2603 
  2604 
  2605 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2606 
  2607 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2608 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2609 
  2610 
  2611 *** ML ***
  2612 
  2613 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2614 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2615 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2616 
  2617 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2618 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2619 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2620 
  2621 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2622 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2623 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2624 
  2625 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2626 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2627 
  2628 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2629 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2630 
  2631 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2632 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2633 
  2634 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2635 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2636 
  2637 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2638 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2639 almost all situations.
  2640 
  2641 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2642 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2643 Isabelle/ML.
  2644 
  2645 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2646 meaning.
  2647 
  2648 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2649 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2650 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2651 
  2652 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2653 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2654 
  2655 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2656 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2657 
  2658 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2659 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2660 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2661 
  2662 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2663 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2664 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2665 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2666 configuration options.
  2667 
  2668 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2669 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2670 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2671 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2672 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2673 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2674 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2675 
  2676 
  2677 
  2678 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2679 ---------------------------------
  2680 
  2681 *** General ***
  2682 
  2683 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2684 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2685 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2686 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2687 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2688 their full internal name.
  2689 
  2690 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2691 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2692 Some hints on upgrading:
  2693 
  2694   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2695     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2696     which are independent of this issue.
  2697 
  2698   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2699     provides the following special forms:
  2700 
  2701       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2702       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2703       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2704 
  2705     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2706     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2707     extra variables".
  2708 
  2709     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2710     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2711     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2712     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2713     "logic".
  2714 
  2715   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2716     antiquotations:
  2717 
  2718       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2719       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2720       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2721       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2722 
  2723   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2724     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2725     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2726     antiquotations.
  2727 
  2728 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2729 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2730 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2731 diagnose syntax problems.
  2732 
  2733 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2734 
  2735 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2736 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2737 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2738 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2739 
  2740 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2741 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2742 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2743 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2746 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2747 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2748 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2749 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2752 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2753 
  2754 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2755 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2756 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2757 
  2758   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2759 
  2760 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2761 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2762 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2763 
  2764 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2765 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2767 
  2768 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2769 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2770 
  2771 
  2772 *** Pure ***
  2773 
  2774 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2775 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2776 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2777 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2778 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2779 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2780 inspect proof terms.
  2781 
  2782 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2783 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2784 are added internally.  For example:
  2785 
  2786   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2787 
  2788 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2789 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2790 
  2791 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2792 
  2793 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2794 'class' instead.
  2795 
  2796 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2797 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2799 
  2800 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2801 invariants.
  2802 
  2803 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2804 user space functionality any longer.
  2805 
  2806 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2807 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2809 
  2810 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2811 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2812 
  2813 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2814 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2815 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2816 
  2817 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2818 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2819 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2820 
  2821 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2822 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2823 
  2824 
  2825 *** HOL ***
  2826 
  2827 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2828 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2829 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2830 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2831 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2832 
  2833 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2834 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2835 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2836 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2837 
  2838   fun
  2839     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2840   where
  2841     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2842 
  2843   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2844     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2845 
  2846   quotient_definition
  2847     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2848 
  2849 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2850 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2851 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2852 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2853 
  2854 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2855 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2856 
  2857 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2858 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2859 
  2860 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2861 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2862 
  2863 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2864 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2865 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2866 
  2867 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2868 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2869 
  2870 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2871 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2872 
  2873 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2874 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2875 
  2876 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2877 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2878 
  2879 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2880 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2881 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2882 
  2883   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2884   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2885   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2886   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2887   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2888   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2889   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2890   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2891   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2892   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2893   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2894   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2895   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2896   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2897   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2898   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2899   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2900   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2901   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2902   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2903   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2904   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2905   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2906   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2907   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2908   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2909   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2910   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2911   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2912   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2913 
  2914 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2915 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2916 
  2917 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2918 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2919 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2920 
  2921 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2922 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2923 
  2924 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2925 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2926 
  2927 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2928 
  2929 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2930 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2931 
  2932 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2933 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2934 
  2935 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2936 
  2937 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2938 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2939 
  2940 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2941 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2942 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2943 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2944 
  2945 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2946   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2947   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2948   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2949 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2950 
  2951 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2952 lattices):
  2953 
  2954     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2955     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2956 
  2957     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2958 
  2959     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2960     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2961     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2962     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2963     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2964     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2965     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2966     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2967     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2968     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2969     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2970     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2971     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2972 
  2973     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2974     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2975     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2976     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2977     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2978     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2979     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2980     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2981     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2982     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2983     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2984     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2985     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2986     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2987     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2988     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2989     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2990     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2991 
  2992   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2993   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2994 
  2995     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2996     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2997     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2998     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2999     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3000 
  3001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3002 
  3003 * Refined field classes:
  3004   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3005     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3006     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3007   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3009 
  3010 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3011   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3012   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3013   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3014     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3015   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3016     equal_neg_zero.
  3017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018 
  3019 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3020 sets to lattices:
  3021 
  3022   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3023   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3024   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3025   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3026   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3027   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3028   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3029   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3030   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3031   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3032 
  3033 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3034 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3035 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3036 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3037 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3038 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3039 
  3040 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3041 multiset order:
  3042 
  3043   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3044     <= and <;
  3045   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3046     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3047     multiset_order;
  3048   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3049     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3050     generation;
  3051   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3052     if needed.
  3053 
  3054 Renamed:
  3055 
  3056   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3057   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3058   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3059 
  3060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3061 
  3062 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3063 
  3064 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3065 
  3066 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3067 
  3068 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3069 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3070 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3071 
  3072   Constants:
  3073   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3074   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3075   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3076   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3077   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3078   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3079   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3080   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3081   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3082   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3083   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3084   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3085   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3086 
  3087   Lemmas:
  3088   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3089   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3090   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3091   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3092   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3093   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3094   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3095   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3096   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3097   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3098   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3099   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3100   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3101 
  3102 * Sledgehammer:
  3103   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3104     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3105     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3106     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3107     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3108     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3109     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3110   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3111   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3112     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3113   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3114     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3115     is still experimental.)
  3116   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3117     full-typed mode.
  3118   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3119 
  3120 * Nitpick:
  3121   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3122   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3123   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3124     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3125   - Added support for quotient types.
  3126   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3127     constructs.
  3128   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3129     "termination" proofs).
  3130   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3131   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3132   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3133   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3134     record getters.
  3135   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3136   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3137   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3138   - Added "atoms" option.
  3139   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3140     problems.
  3141   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3142     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3143     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3144   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3145     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3146   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3147 
  3148 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3149   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3150   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3151   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3152   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3153   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3154   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3155   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3156   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3157   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3158 
  3159 
  3160 *** HOLCF ***
  3161 
  3162 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3163 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3164 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3167 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3168 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3169 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3170 
  3171 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3172 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3173 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3174 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3175 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3176 
  3177 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3178 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3179 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3180 
  3181 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3182 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3183 
  3184   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3185   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3186 
  3187 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3188 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3189 
  3190   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3191   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3192   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3193   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3194   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3195 
  3196 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3197 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3198 
  3199   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3200   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3201   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3202 
  3203 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3204 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3206 
  3207 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3208 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3209 
  3210 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3211 
  3212 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3213 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3214 
  3215 
  3216 *** ML ***
  3217 
  3218 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3219 
  3220     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3221     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3222 
  3223     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3224     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3225     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3226     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3227 
  3228     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3229     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3230     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3231 
  3232 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3233 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3234 
  3235 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3236 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3237 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3238 
  3239 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3240 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3241 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3242 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3243 
  3244 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3245 the context or even global references.
  3246 
  3247 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3248 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3249 
  3250 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3251 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3252 
  3253   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3254   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3255   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3256   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3257   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3258   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3259   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3260   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3261   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3262   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3263 
  3264 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3265 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3266 
  3267 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3268 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3269 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3270 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3271 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3272 
  3273 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3274 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3275 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3276 Theory_Data version.
  3277 
  3278 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3279 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3280 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3281 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3282 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3283 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3284 explicitly in rare situations.
  3285 
  3286 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3287 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3289 
  3290 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3291 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292 
  3293 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3294 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3295 quite rare).
  3296 
  3297 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3298 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3299 
  3300 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3301 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3302 terms.
  3303 
  3304 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3305 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3306 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3307 
  3308 
  3309 *** System ***
  3310 
  3311 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3312 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3313 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3314 
  3315 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3316 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3317 respectively.
  3318 
  3319 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3320 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3321 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3322 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3323 
  3324   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3325 
  3326 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3327 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3328 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3329 component.
  3330 
  3331 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3332 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3333 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3334 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3335 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3336 the user for manual installation.
  3337 
  3338 
  3339 
  3340 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3341 -------------------------------------
  3342 
  3343 *** General ***
  3344 
  3345 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3346 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3347 
  3348 
  3349 *** Pure ***
  3350 
  3351 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3352 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3353 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3354 
  3355 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3356 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3357 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3358 
  3359 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3360 interpretation.
  3361 
  3362 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3363 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3364 
  3365 
  3366 *** Document preparation ***
  3367 
  3368 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3369 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3370 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3371 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3372 
  3373 
  3374 *** HOL ***
  3375 
  3376 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3377 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3378 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3379 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3380 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3381 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3382 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3383 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3384 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3385 
  3386 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3387 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3388 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3389 
  3390 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3391 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3392 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3393 
  3394 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3395 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3396 
  3397 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3398 
  3399 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3400 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3401 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3402 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3403 
  3404 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3405 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3406 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3407 "mirabelle" utility.
  3408 
  3409 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3410 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3411 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3412 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3413 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3414 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3415 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3416 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3417 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3418 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3419 
  3420 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3421 procedure only.
  3422 
  3423 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3424 
  3425 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3426 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3427 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3428 that fail later.
  3429 
  3430 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3431 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3432 
  3433 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3434 the same method as the approximation method.
  3435 
  3436 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3437 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3438 series expansion.
  3439 
  3440 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3441 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3442 
  3443 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3444 reals.
  3445 
  3446 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3447 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3448 
  3449 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3450 fixpoint theorem.
  3451 
  3452 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3453   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3454     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3455   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3456     accordingly
  3457   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3458     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3459   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3460     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3461 
  3462 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3463 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3464 lattice.
  3465 
  3466 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3467 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3468 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3469 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3470 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3471 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3473 
  3474 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3475   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3476     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3477   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3478     le_inf_iff
  3479   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3480     sup_aci)
  3481   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3482   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3483   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3484     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3485     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3486     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3487     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3488     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3489     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3490     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3491     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3492     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3493     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3494   - authentic syntax for
  3495     Set.Pow
  3496     Set.image
  3497   - mere abbreviations:
  3498     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3499     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3500     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3501     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3502     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3503     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3504     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3505     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3506   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3507 
  3508 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3509 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3510 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3511 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3512 
  3513 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3514 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3515 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3516 
  3517 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3518 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3521 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3522 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3523 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3524 
  3525 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3526 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3527 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3528 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3529 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3530 
  3531 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3532 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3534 
  3535 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3536 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3537 
  3538 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3539 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3540 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3541 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3542 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3543 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3544 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3545 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3546 
  3547 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3548     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3549     code_post       replaces    code post
  3550     etc.
  3551   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3552 
  3553 * Renamed methods:
  3554     sizechange -> size_change
  3555     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3556   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3557 
  3558 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3559 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3560 
  3561 * Renamed theorems:
  3562     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3563     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3564     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3565     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3566     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3567   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3568 
  3569 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3571 
  3572 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3574 
  3575 
  3576 *** HOLCF ***
  3577 
  3578 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3579 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3580 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3581 
  3582 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3583 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3584 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3585 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3586 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3587 
  3588 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3589 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3590 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3591 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3592 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3593 
  3594 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3595 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3596 constructor are pre-configured.
  3597 
  3598 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3599 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3600 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3601 
  3602 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3603 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3604 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3605 as well.)
  3606 
  3607 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3608 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3609 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3610 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3611 examples.
  3612 
  3613 
  3614 *** ML ***
  3615 
  3616 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3617 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3618 
  3619 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3620 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3621 position, logical grouping etc.
  3622 
  3623 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3624 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3625 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3626 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3627 
  3628 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3629 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3630 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3631 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3632 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3633 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3634 
  3635 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3636 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3637 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3638 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3639 experiments with references.
  3640 
  3641 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3642 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3643 
  3644 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3645 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3646 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3647 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3648 
  3649 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3650 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3651 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3652 
  3653 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3654 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3655 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3656 
  3657 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3658 
  3659 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3661 
  3662 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3663 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3664 
  3665 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3666 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3667 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3668 
  3669 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3670 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3671 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3672 
  3673 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3674 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3675 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3677 
  3678 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3679 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3680 instead of global theory.
  3681 
  3682 
  3683 *** System ***
  3684 
  3685 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3686 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3687 usedir option -q.
  3688 
  3689 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3690 also the system manual.
  3691 
  3692 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3693 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3694 
  3695 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3696 this is always enabled.
  3697 
  3698 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3699 
  3700 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3701 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3702 currently supported on Linux only.
  3703 
  3704 
  3705 
  3706 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3707 --------------------------------
  3708 
  3709 *** General ***
  3710 
  3711 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3712 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3713 
  3714   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3715     "isatool."
  3716 
  3717   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3718     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3719 
  3720   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3721     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3722 
  3723 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3724 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3725 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3726 
  3727 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3728 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3729 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3730 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3731 via "isabelle emacs".
  3732 
  3733 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3734 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3735 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3736 
  3737 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3738 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3739 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3740 
  3741 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3742 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3743 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3744 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3745 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3746 
  3747 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3748 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3749 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3750 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3751 
  3752 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3753 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3754 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3755 
  3756 
  3757 *** Pure ***
  3758 
  3759 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3760 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3761 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3762 
  3763 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3764 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3765 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3766 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3767 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3768 
  3769 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3770 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3771 useful in locale declarations.
  3772 
  3773 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3774 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3775 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3776 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3777 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3778 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3779 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3780 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3781 no longer generated.
  3782 
  3783 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3784 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3785 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3786 
  3787 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3788 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3789 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3790 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3791 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3792 
  3793 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3795 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3796 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3797 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3798 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3799 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3800 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3801 
  3802 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3803 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3804 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3805 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3806 
  3807 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3808 
  3809 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3810 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3811 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3812 
  3813 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3814 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815 
  3816 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3817 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3818 in HOL, write
  3819 
  3820     class foo = ...
  3821 
  3822 instead of
  3823 
  3824     class foo = type + ...
  3825 
  3826 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3827 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3828 
  3829 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3830 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3831 
  3832 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3833 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3834 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3835 
  3836 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3837 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3838 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3839 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3840 directly in regular applications.
  3841 
  3842 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3843 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3844 
  3845 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3846 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3847 
  3848 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3849 theory context.
  3850 
  3851 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3852 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3853 
  3854 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3855 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3856 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3857 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3858 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3859 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3860 
  3861   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3862 
  3863 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3864 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3865 normalization.
  3866 
  3867 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3868 addressing etc.
  3869 
  3870 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3871 
  3872   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3873   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3874 
  3875 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3876 
  3877   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3878      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3879      parts of the code generator framework).
  3880 
  3881   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3882      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3883      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3884 
  3885 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3886 
  3887 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3888 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3891 patterns, e.g.
  3892 
  3893     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3894 
  3895 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3896 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3897 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3898 hyphen:
  3899 
  3900     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3901 
  3902 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3903 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3904 
  3905 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3906 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3907 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3908 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3909 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3910 higher-order unification.
  3911 
  3912 
  3913 *** Document preparation ***
  3914 
  3915 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3916 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3917 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3918 
  3919 
  3920 *** HOL ***
  3921 
  3922 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3923 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3924 
  3925 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3926 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3927 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3928 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3929 Main, as before.
  3930 
  3931 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3932 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3933 
  3934 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3935 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3936 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3937 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3938 
  3939 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3940 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3941 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3942 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3943 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3944 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3945 
  3946 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3947 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3948 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3949 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3950 
  3951 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3952 menu.
  3953 
  3954 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3955 (contains the empty clause).
  3956 
  3957 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3958 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3959 
  3960 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3961 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3962 
  3963 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3964 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3965 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3966 
  3967 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3968 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3969 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3970 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3971 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3972 
  3973 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3974 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3975 
  3976 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3977 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3978 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3979 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3980 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3981 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3982 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3983 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3984 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3985 
  3986 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3987 
  3988 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3989 
  3990 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3991 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3992 
  3993 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3994 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3995 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3996 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3997 
  3998 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3999 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4000 
  4001     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4002     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4003     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4004     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4005     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4006     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4007     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4008     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4009 
  4010 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4011 theory Set.
  4012 
  4013 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4014 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4015 
  4016 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4017 
  4018 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4019 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4020 
  4021 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4022 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4023 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4024 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4025 allowed. For examples see
  4026 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4027 
  4028 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4029 
  4030 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032 
  4033 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4034 structure:
  4035 
  4036     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4037     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4038     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4039     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4040     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4041     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4042     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4043     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4044     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4045     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4046     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4047     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4048     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4049     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4050     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4051     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4052     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4053     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4054     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4055     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4056     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4057     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4058     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4059     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4060     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4061     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4062     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4063     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4064     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4065     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4066     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4067     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4068     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4069 
  4070     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4071     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4072     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4073     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4074     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4075     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4076     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4077     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4078     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4079     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4080 
  4081     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4082     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4083     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4084     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4085     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4086     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4087 
  4088 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4089 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4090 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4091 
  4092 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4093 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4094 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4095 
  4096 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4097 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4098 
  4099 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4100 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4101 
  4102 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4103 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4104 proofs, e.g.
  4105 
  4106   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4107 
  4108 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4109 
  4110 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4111 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4112 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4113 
  4114 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4115 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4117 
  4118 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4119 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4120 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4122 
  4123 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4124 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4125 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4126 preorder_class.*.
  4127 
  4128 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4129 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4130 
  4131 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4132 
  4133   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4134 
  4135 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4136 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4137 fold_image.
  4138 
  4139 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4140 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4141 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4142 the former will disappear at some point.
  4143 
  4144 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4145 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4146 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4147 
  4148 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4149 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4150 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4151 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4152 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4153 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4154 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4155 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4156 
  4157 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4158 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4159 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4160 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4161 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4162 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4163 
  4164     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4165     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4166     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4167     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4168     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4169     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4170     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4171 
  4172 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4173 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4174 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4175 
  4176 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4177 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4178 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4179 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4180 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4181 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4182 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4183 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4184 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4185 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4186 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4187 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4188 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4189 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4190 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4191 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4192 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4193 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4194 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4195 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4196 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4197 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4198 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4199 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4200 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4201 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4202 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4203 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4204 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4205 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4206 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4207 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4208 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4209 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4210 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4211 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4212 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4213 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4214 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4215 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4216 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4217 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4218 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4219 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4220 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4221 
  4222 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4223 
  4224 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4225 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4226 
  4227 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4228 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4229 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4230 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4231 
  4232 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4233 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4234 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4235 theory RealVector.
  4236 
  4237 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4238 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4239 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4240 and inner products are included.
  4241 
  4242 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4243 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4244 supported.
  4245 
  4246 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4247 first diagonalization argument.
  4248 
  4249 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4250 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4251 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4252 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4253 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4254 
  4255     hide (open) const gcd
  4256     abbreviation gcd where
  4257       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4258     notation (output)
  4259       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4260 
  4261 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4262 
  4263 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4264 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4265 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4266 
  4267 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4268 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4269 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4270 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4271 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4272 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4273 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4274 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4275 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4276 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4277 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4278 cases.
  4279 
  4280 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4281 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4282 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4283 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4284 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4285 
  4286     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4287     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4288     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4289     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4290     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4291 
  4292 
  4293 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4294 
  4295 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4296 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4297 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4298 
  4299 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4300 
  4301 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4302 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4303 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4304 
  4305 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4306 
  4307 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4308 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4309 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4310 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4311 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4312 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4313 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4314 
  4315 
  4316 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4317 
  4318 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4319 
  4320 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4321 theory targets.
  4322 
  4323 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4324 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4325 'inductive' etc.
  4326 
  4327 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4328 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4329 
  4330 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4331 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4332 
  4333 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4334 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4335 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4336 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4337 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4338 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4339 the algorithm W:
  4340 
  4341  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4342  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4343          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4344 
  4345 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4346 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4347 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4348 
  4349 
  4350 *** HOLCF ***
  4351 
  4352 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4353 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4354 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4355 
  4356 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4357 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4358 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4359 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4360 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4361 
  4362 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4363 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4364 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4365 
  4366 
  4367 *** ZF ***
  4368 
  4369 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4370 
  4371 
  4372 *** ML ***
  4373 
  4374 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4375 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4376 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4377 5.2.1!
  4378 
  4379 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4380 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4381 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4382 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4383 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4384 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4385 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4386 
  4387 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4388 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4389 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4390 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4391 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4392 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4393 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4394 
  4395 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4396 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4397 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4398 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4399 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4400 
  4401 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4402 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4403 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4404 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4405 Method.add_method.
  4406 
  4407 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4408 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4409 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4410 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4411 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4412 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4413 
  4414 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4415 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4416 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4417 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4418 examples.
  4419 
  4420 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4421 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4422 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4423 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4424 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4425 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4426 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4427 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4428 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4429 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4430 
  4431 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4432 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4433 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4434 
  4435 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4436 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4437 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4438 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4439 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4440 resort for legacy applications.
  4441 
  4442 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4443 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4444 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4445 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4446 explicit runtime argument.
  4447 
  4448 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4449 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4450 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4451 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4452 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4453 
  4454 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4455 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4456 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4457 theory state.
  4458 
  4459 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4460 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4461 
  4462   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4463   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4464   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4465   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4466   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4467   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4468   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4469   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4470   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4471   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4472 
  4473 
  4474 *** System ***
  4475 
  4476 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4477 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4478 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4479 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4480 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4481 
  4482 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4483 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4484 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4485 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4486 
  4487 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4488 
  4489 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4490 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4491 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4492 prover operations.
  4493 
  4494 
  4495 
  4496 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4497 -------------------------------
  4498 
  4499 *** General ***
  4500 
  4501 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4502 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4503 
  4504 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4505 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4506 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4507 provides a proper context already.
  4508 
  4509 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4510 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4511 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4512 
  4513 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4514 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4515 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4516 swap theory imports.
  4517 
  4518 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4519 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4520 
  4521 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4522 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4523 white space without escapes.
  4524 
  4525 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4526 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4527 "foo_bar".
  4528 
  4529 
  4530 *** Pure ***
  4531 
  4532 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4533 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4534 
  4535 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4536 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4537 
  4538 (1) unused_thms
  4539      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4540 
  4541 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4542      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4543      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4544 
  4545 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4546      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4547      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4548      their ancestors.
  4549 
  4550 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4551 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4552 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4553 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4554 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4555 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4556 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4557 
  4558 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4559 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4560 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4561 
  4562 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4563 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4564 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4565 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4566 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4567 
  4568 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4569 
  4570 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4571 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4572 update of theories within ML code.
  4573 
  4574 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4575 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4576 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4577 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4578 
  4579 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4580 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4581 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4583 
  4584 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4585 
  4586 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4587 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4588 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4589 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4590 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4591 
  4592 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4593 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4594 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4595 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4596 situations.
  4597 
  4598 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4599 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4600 proof text.
  4601 
  4602 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4603 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4604 
  4605 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4606 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4607 predicates.
  4608 
  4609 
  4610 *** Document preparation ***
  4611 
  4612 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4613 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4614 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4615 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4616 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4617 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4618 
  4619 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4620 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4621 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4622 
  4623 
  4624 *** HOL ***
  4625 
  4626 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4627 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4628 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4629 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4630 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4631 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4632 
  4633 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4634 with multithreading.
  4635 
  4636 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4637 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4638 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4639 
  4640 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4641 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4642 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4643 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4644 
  4645 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4646 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4647 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4648 and makes them available separately.  See
  4649 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4650 
  4651 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4652 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4653 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4654 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4655 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4656 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4657 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4658 the declared rules.
  4659 
  4660 This setup also deals with rules like
  4661 
  4662   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4663 
  4664 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4665 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4666 
  4667 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4668 
  4669   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4670 
  4671   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4672     definitions on => and bool.
  4673 
  4674   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4675     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4676     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4677 
  4678       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4679       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4680       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4681       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4682       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4683       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4684       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4685       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4686 
  4687   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4688     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4689     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4690 
  4691   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4692     The proof pattern
  4693 
  4694       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4695       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4696 
  4697     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4698     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4699 
  4700       have "EX S. P S"
  4701       proof
  4702         show "P S" <...>
  4703       qed
  4704 
  4705   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4706     The proof pattern
  4707 
  4708       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4709       also have "S = T" <...>
  4710       finally have "P T" .
  4711 
  4712     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4713     must be replaced by something like
  4714 
  4715       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4716       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4717       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4718 
  4719   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4720     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4721 
  4722       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4723 
  4724     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4725     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4726     type of the form
  4727 
  4728       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4729 
  4730     rather than
  4731 
  4732       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4733 
  4734 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4735 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4736 
  4737 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4738 
  4739 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4740 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4741 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4742 
  4743 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4744 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4745 
  4746 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4747 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4748 
  4749 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4750 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4751 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4752 
  4753 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4754 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4755 
  4756   less_trans
  4757   less_linear
  4758   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4759   le_less_trans
  4760   less_le_trans
  4761   less_not_sym
  4762   less_asym
  4763 
  4764 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4765 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4766 and different variable names.
  4767 
  4768 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4769 
  4770 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4771 finite maps.
  4772 
  4773 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4774 
  4775 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4776 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4777 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4778 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4779 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4780 accordingly.
  4781 
  4782 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4783 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4784 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4785 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4786 
  4787 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4788 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4789 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4790 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4791 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4793 
  4794 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4795 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4796 
  4797 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4798 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4799 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4800 
  4801 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4802 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4803 
  4804 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4805 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4806 
  4807 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4808 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4809 
  4810 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4811 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4812 
  4813 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4814 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4815 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4816 
  4817 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4818 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4819 
  4820 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4821 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4822 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4823 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4824 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4825 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4828 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4829 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4830 
  4831 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4832 
  4833 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4834 
  4835 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4836 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4837 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4838 
  4839 
  4840 *** ZF ***
  4841 
  4842 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4843 same session:
  4844 
  4845   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4846   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4847   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4848   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4849   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4850   List      -> List_ZF
  4851   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4852 
  4853 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4854 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4855 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4856 
  4857 
  4858 *** ML ***
  4859 
  4860 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4861 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4862 
  4863 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4864 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4865 
  4866 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4867 
  4868 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4869 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4870 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4871 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4872 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4873 
  4874 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4875 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4876 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4877 
  4878 
  4879 *** System ***
  4880 
  4881 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4882 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4883 
  4884 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4885 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4886 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4887 
  4888 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4889 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4890 
  4891 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4892 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4893 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4894 
  4895 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4896 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4897 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4898 
  4899 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4900 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4901 
  4902 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4903 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4904 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4905 script.
  4906 
  4907 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4908 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4909 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4910 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4911 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4912 
  4913 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4914 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4915 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4916 
  4917 
  4918 
  4919 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4920 -----------------------------------
  4921 
  4922 *** General ***
  4923 
  4924 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4925 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4926 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4927 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4928 
  4929 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4930 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4931 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4932 
  4933 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4934 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4935 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4936 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4937 
  4938 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4939 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4940 quotes.
  4941 
  4942 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4943 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4944 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4945 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4946 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4947 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4948 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4949 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4950 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4951 
  4952 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4953 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4954 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4955 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4956 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4957 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4958 
  4959 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4960 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4961 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4962 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4963 
  4964 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4965 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4966 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4967 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4968 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4969 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4970 
  4971 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4972 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4973 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4974 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4975 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4976 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4977 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4978 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4979 
  4980 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4981 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4982 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4983 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4984 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4985 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4986 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4987 
  4988 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4989 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4990 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4991 
  4992 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4993 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4994 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4995 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4996 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4997 limit is imposed.
  4998 
  4999 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5000 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5001 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5002 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5003 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5004 and scalability.
  5005 
  5006 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5007 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5008 
  5009 
  5010 *** Document preparation ***
  5011 
  5012 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5013 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5014 current context.
  5015 
  5016 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5017 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5018 
  5019 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5020 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5021 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5022 
  5023 
  5024 *** Pure ***
  5025 
  5026 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5027 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5028 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5029 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5030 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5031 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5032 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5033 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5034 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5035 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5036 
  5037 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5038 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5039 sketch:
  5040 
  5041     internal compilation:
  5042         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5043     writing SML code to a file:
  5044         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5045     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5046         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5047     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5048         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5049 
  5050     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5051         method ``eval''
  5052 
  5053 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5054 
  5055 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5056 
  5057     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5058     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5059     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5060     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5061 
  5062 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5063 
  5064     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5065       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5066 
  5067     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5068       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5069 
  5070     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5071       {(target)}+
  5072         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5073 
  5074     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5075       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5076         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5077 
  5078 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5079 
  5080 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5081 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5082 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5083 codegen".
  5084 
  5085 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5086 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5087 annotations).
  5088 
  5089 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5090 syntax.
  5091 
  5092 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5093 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5094 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5095 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5096 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5097 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5098 
  5099 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5100 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5101 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5102 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5103 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5104 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5105 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5106 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5107 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5108 equations, see section "definitions".
  5109 
  5110 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5111 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5112 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5113 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5114 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5115 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5116 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5117 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5118 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5119 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5120 
  5121 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5122 configuration options:
  5123 
  5124   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5125   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5126   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5127   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5128   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5129   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5130   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5131   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5132   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5133 
  5134 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5135 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5136 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5137 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5138 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5139 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5140 order.
  5141 
  5142 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5143 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5144 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5145 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5146 context encountered later on.
  5147 
  5148 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5149 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5150 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5151 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5152 
  5153 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5154 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5155 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5156 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5157 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5158 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5159 
  5160 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5161 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5162 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5163 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5164 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5165 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5166 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5167 more permissive.
  5168 
  5169 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5170 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5171 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5172 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5173 maintainability of proof texts.
  5174 
  5175 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5176 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5177 
  5178   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5179   then guess x and y by clarify
  5180 
  5181 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5182 proof tools being involved here.
  5183 
  5184 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5185 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5186 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5187 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5188 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5189 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5190 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5191 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5192 
  5193 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5194 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5195 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5196 
  5197   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5198   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5199   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5200   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5201 
  5202 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5203 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5204 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5205 
  5206 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5207 both named and unnamed ones.
  5208 
  5209 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5210 
  5211   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5212 
  5213 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5214 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5215 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5216 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5217 
  5218 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5219 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5220 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5221 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5222 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5223 
  5224 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5225 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5226 
  5227 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5228 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5229 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5230 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5231 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5232 originally first one.
  5233 
  5234 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5235 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5236 expected.
  5237 
  5238 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5239 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5240 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5241 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5242 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5243 
  5244   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5245     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5246     obtains x where "P x"
  5247 
  5248   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5249     assumes "A & B"
  5250     obtains A and B
  5251 
  5252   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5253     assumes "A | B"
  5254     obtains
  5255       A
  5256     | B
  5257 
  5258 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5259 explicitly:
  5260 
  5261   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5262     obtains "~ thesis"
  5263 
  5264   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5265     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5266 
  5267 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5268 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5269 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5270 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5271 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5272 case_names).
  5273 
  5274 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5275 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5276 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5277 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5278 
  5279 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5280 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5281 top-level lemma.
  5282 
  5283 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5284 introduction rule (default "that").
  5285 
  5286 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5287 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5288 to occur.
  5289 
  5290 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5291 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5292 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5293 representations independently of name spaces.
  5294 
  5295 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5296 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5297 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5298 
  5299 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5300 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5301 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5302 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5303 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5304 current context.
  5305 
  5306 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5307 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5308 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5309 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5310 
  5311   axiomatization
  5312     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5313     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5314 
  5315   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5316   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5317 
  5318   abbreviation
  5319     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5320     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5321 
  5322 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5323 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5324 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5325 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5326 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5327 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5328 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5329 
  5330 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5331 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5332 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5333 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5334 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5335 
  5336 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5337 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5338 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5339 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5340 
  5341 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5342 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5343 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5344 
  5345   definition "K x _ = x"
  5346 
  5347   inductive conj for A B
  5348   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5349 
  5350 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5351 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5352 abbreviations on output.
  5353 
  5354 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5355 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5356 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5357 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5358 
  5359 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5360 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5361 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5362 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5363 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5364 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5365 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5366 
  5367 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5368 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5369 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5370 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5371 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5372 
  5373 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5374 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5375 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5376 
  5377 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5378 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5379 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5380 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5381 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5382 
  5383   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5384     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5385 
  5386 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5387 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5388 partial_order.
  5389 
  5390 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5391 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5392 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5393 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5394 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5395 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5396 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5397 examples.
  5398 
  5399 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5400 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5401 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5402 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5403 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5404 
  5405 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5406 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5407 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5408 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5409 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5410 
  5411   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5412   (induct set: foo bar)
  5413   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5414   (induct type: foo bar)
  5415 
  5416 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5417 new format.
  5418 
  5419 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5420 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5421 
  5422 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5423 considered a legacy feature.
  5424 
  5425 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5426 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5427 
  5428 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5429 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5430 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5431 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5432 
  5433 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5434 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5435 manipulating the claset.
  5436 
  5437 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5438 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5439 least one premise.
  5440 
  5441 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5442 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5443 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5444 rule steps.
  5445 
  5446 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5447 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5448 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5449 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5450 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5451 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5452 
  5453 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5454 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5455 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5456 
  5457 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5458 the graph browser tool.
  5459 
  5460 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5461 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5462 
  5463 
  5464 *** HOL ***
  5465 
  5466 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5467 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5468 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5469 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5470 multi-threading.
  5471 
  5472 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5473 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5474 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5475 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5476 work with multi-threading.
  5477 
  5478 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5479 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5480 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5481 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5482 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5483 
  5484 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5485 
  5486 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5487 equality.
  5488 
  5489 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5490 the new 'class' package:
  5491 
  5492     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5493     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5494     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5495     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5496     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5497     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5498     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5499     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5500     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5501     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5502     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5503     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5504     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5505     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5506     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5507     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5508     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5509     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5510     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5511     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5512 
  5513 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5514 
  5515 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5516 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5517 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5518 names.
  5519 
  5520 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5521 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5522 
  5523 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5524 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5525 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5526 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5527 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5528 
  5529 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5530 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5531 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5532 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5533 
  5534 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5535 
  5536 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5537 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5538 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5539 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5541 
  5542 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5543 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5544 
  5545 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5546 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5547 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5548 
  5549 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5550 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5551 
  5552 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5553 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5554 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5555 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5556 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5557 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5558 in the current context.
  5559 
  5560 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5561 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5563 
  5564 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5565 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5566 
  5567 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5568 
  5569     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5570     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5571 
  5572     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5573       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5574     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5575     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5576 
  5577     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5578     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5579 
  5580   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5581 
  5582     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5583     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5584     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5585     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5586     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5587     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5588     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5589     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5590     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5591     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5592     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5593     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5594     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5595     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5596     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5597     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5598     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5599     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5600     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5601     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5602     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5603     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5604     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5605     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5606     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5607     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5608     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5609     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5610     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5611     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5612     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5613     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5614     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5615     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5616     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5617 
  5618     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5619     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5620     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5621     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5622     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5623     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5624     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5625     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5626     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5627     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5628     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5629     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5630     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5631     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5632     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5633     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5634     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5635 
  5636     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5637     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5638     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5639     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5640     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5641     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5642     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5643     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5644     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5645     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5646     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5647     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5648     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5649     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5650     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5651     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5652     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5653     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5654     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5655     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5656     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5657     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5658     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5659     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5660     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5661     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5662     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5663     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5664 
  5665     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5666     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5667     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5668     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5669     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5670     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5671 
  5672     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5673     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5674     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5675     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5676 
  5677     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5678     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5679 
  5680     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5681     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5682 
  5683 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5684 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5685 
  5686 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5687 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5688 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5689 "*.size".
  5690 
  5691 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5693 
  5694 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5695 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5696 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5697 
  5698 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5699 
  5700 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5701 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5702 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5703 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5704 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5705 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5706 numerals on all operations.
  5707 
  5708 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5709 
  5710 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5711 
  5712 * Code generator library theories:
  5713   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5714     languages.
  5715   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5716     languages.
  5717   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5718     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5719   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5720   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5721     denominator).
  5722   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5723     representable by rational numbers.
  5724   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5725     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5726     includes Code_Integer.
  5727   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5728     target-language built-in integers.
  5729   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5730     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5731 
  5732 * New package for inductive predicates
  5733 
  5734   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5735 
  5736     inductive
  5737       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5738       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5739     where
  5740       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5741     | ...
  5742 
  5743   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5744 
  5745     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5746 
  5747     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5748     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5749 
  5750     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5751     intros
  5752       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5753       ...
  5754 
  5755   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5756   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5757 
  5758     inductive_set
  5759       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5760       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5761     where
  5762       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5763     | ...
  5764 
  5765   or
  5766 
  5767     inductive_set
  5768       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5769       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5770       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5771     where
  5772       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5773     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5774     | ...
  5775 
  5776   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5777 
  5778   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5779   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5780 
  5781   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5782 
  5783   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5784     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5785     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5786     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5787     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5788 
  5789   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5790     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5791     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5792     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5793     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5794     statements of the form
  5795 
  5796       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5797 
  5798     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5799     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5800 
  5801       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5802 
  5803   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5804 
  5805       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5806         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5807         ==> ... ==> P
  5808 
  5809     for predicates and
  5810 
  5811       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5812         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5813         ==> ... ==> P
  5814 
  5815     for sets rather than
  5816 
  5817       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5818         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5819         ==> ... ==> P
  5820 
  5821     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5822     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5823     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5824 
  5825   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5826     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5827     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5828 
  5829 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5830 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5831 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5832 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5833 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5834 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5835 
  5836 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5837 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5838 
  5839 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5840 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5841 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5842 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5843 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5844 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5845 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5846 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5847 variable.
  5848 
  5849 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5850 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5851 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5852 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5853   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5854   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5855 
  5856 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5857 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5858 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5859 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5860 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5861 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5862 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5863 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5864 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5865 
  5866 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5867 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5868 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5869 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5870 rat, etc.
  5871 
  5872 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5873 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5874 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5875 
  5876 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5877 
  5878 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5879 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5880 
  5881 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5882 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5883 
  5884 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5885 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5886 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5887 
  5888 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5889 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5890 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5891 
  5892 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5893 
  5894 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5895 
  5896 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5897 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5898 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5899 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5900 
  5901 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5902 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5903 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5904 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5905 
  5906 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5907 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5908 algebraic operations.
  5909 
  5910 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5912 
  5913 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5915 
  5916 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5917 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5918 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5919 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5920 adapted.
  5921 
  5922 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5923 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5924 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5925 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5926 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5927 
  5928 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5929 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5930 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5931 
  5932 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5933 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5934 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5935 
  5936 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5937 
  5938 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5939 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5940 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5941   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5942       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5943   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5944   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5945   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5946 
  5947 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5948 
  5949 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5950 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5951 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5952 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5953 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5954 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5955 
  5956 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5957 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5958 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5959 
  5960 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5961 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5962 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5963 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5964 
  5965 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5966 
  5967 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5968 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5969 
  5970 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5971 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5972 
  5973 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5974 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5975 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5976 
  5977 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5978 True/False.
  5979 
  5980 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5981 
  5982 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5983 
  5984 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5985 ``rule'' method.
  5986 
  5987 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5988 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5989 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5990 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5991 
  5992 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5993 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5994 
  5995 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5996 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5997 
  5998 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5999 Library.
  6000 
  6001 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6002 
  6003 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6004 as greatest fixed-point.
  6005 
  6006 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6007 association lists.
  6008 
  6009 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6010 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6011 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6012 
  6013 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6014 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6015 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6016 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6017 behavior.
  6018 
  6019 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6020 
  6021 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6022 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6023 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6024 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6025 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6026 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6027 
  6028 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6029 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6030 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6031 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6032 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6033 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6034 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6035 
  6036 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6037 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6038 
  6039 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6040 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6041 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6042 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6043 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6044 
  6045 
  6046 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6047 
  6048 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6049 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6050 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6051 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6053 
  6054 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6055 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6056 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6057 
  6058 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6059 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6060 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6061 
  6062 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6063 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6064 
  6065 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6066 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6067 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6069 
  6070   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6071   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6072   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6073   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6074   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6075   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6076   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6077   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6078   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6079   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6080   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6081   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6082   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6083   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6084   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6085 
  6086 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6087 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6088 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6089 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6090 
  6091   approx        <-- capprox
  6092   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6093   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6094   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6095   monad         <-- cmonad
  6096   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6097   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6098   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6099   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6100 
  6101 
  6102 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6103 
  6104 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6105 
  6106 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6108 
  6109 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6110 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6111 
  6112 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6113 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6114 of algebraic structures.
  6115 
  6116 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6117 
  6118 
  6119 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6120 
  6121 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6122 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6123 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6124 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6125 
  6126 
  6127 *** ML ***
  6128 
  6129 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6130 (even on SML/NJ).
  6131 
  6132 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6133 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6134 compile-time.  For example:
  6135 
  6136 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6137 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6138 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6139 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6140 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6141 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6142 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6143 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6144 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6145 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6146 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6147 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6148 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6149 ML {* @{context} *}
  6150 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6151 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6152 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6153 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6154 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6155 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6156 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6157 
  6158 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6159 
  6160 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6161 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6162 
  6163 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6164 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6165 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6166 
  6167 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6168 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6169 
  6170 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6171 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6172 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6173 
  6174 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6175 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6176 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6177 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6178 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6179 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6180 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6181 declarations and definitions.
  6182 
  6183 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6184 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6185 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6186 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6187 
  6188 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6189 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6190 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6191 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6192 
  6193 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6194 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6195 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6196 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6197 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6198 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6199 
  6200 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6201 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6202 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6203 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6204 attributes, methods, etc.
  6205 
  6206 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6207 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6208 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6209 fold_map combinators.
  6210 
  6211 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6212 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6213 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6214 derivation.
  6215 
  6216 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6217 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6218 achieve the old behaviour.
  6219 
  6220 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6221 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6222 statements.
  6223 
  6224 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6225 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6226 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6227 
  6228 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6229 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6230 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6231 
  6232   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6233   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6234   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6235 
  6236 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6237 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6238 
  6239 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6240 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
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