NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed Jan 09 12:22:09 2013 +0100 (2013-01-09)
changeset 50778 15dc91cf4750
parent 50772 6973b3f41334
child 50836 c95af99e003b
permissions -rw-r--r--
tune spelling;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
    42 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
    43 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
    44 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
    45 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
    46 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
    47 
    48 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    49 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    50 
    51 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    52 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    53 
    54 
    55 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    56 
    57 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    58 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    59 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    60 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    61 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    62 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    63 
    64 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    65 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    66 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    67 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    68 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    69 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    70 
    71 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
    72 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
    73 browser on demand.
    74 
    75 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    76 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    77 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    78 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    79 
    80 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    81 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    82 
    83 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
    84 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
    85 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    86 potentially infinite message streams.
    87 
    88 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    89 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    90 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    91 schemes.
    92 
    93 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    94 symbols.
    95 
    96 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.
    97 
    98 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
    99 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   100 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   101 
   102 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   103 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   104 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS.
   105 
   106 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   107 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   108 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   109 
   110 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   111 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   112 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   113 Isabelle distribution.
   114 
   115 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   116 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   117 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   118 
   119 
   120 *** Pure ***
   121 
   122 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   123 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   124 
   125 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   126 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   127 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   128 
   129 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   130 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   131 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   132 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   133 with some care where this is really required.
   134 
   135 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   136 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   137 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   138 
   139   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   140 
   141 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   142 a Hasse diagram.
   143 
   144 
   145 *** HOL ***
   146 
   147 * Sledgehammer:
   148 
   149   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   150     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   151   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   152   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   153   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   154   - Renamed options:
   155       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   156       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   157       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   158       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   159 
   160 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   161 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   162 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   163 
   164 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   165 expressions.
   166 
   167 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   168 pointfree expressions.
   169 
   170 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   171 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   172 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   173 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   175 
   176 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   177 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   178 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   179 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   180 accordingly.
   181 
   182 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   183 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   186 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   189 
   190 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   191 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   192 
   193 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   194 
   195 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   196 
   197   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   198   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   199 
   200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   201 
   202 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   203 
   204   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   205   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   206 
   207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   208 
   209 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   210 
   211   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   212     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   213     output f x converges to G.
   214 
   215   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   216     infinity (at_bot).
   217 
   218   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   219     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   220 
   221   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   222     at_top".
   223 
   224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   227 lattice type classes.
   228 
   229 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   230 
   231     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   232     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   233 
   234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   237 changes as follows.
   238 
   239   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   240 
   241       prefix ~> prefixeq
   242       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   243 
   244   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   245     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   246     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   247     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   248 
   249   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   250     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   251     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   252 
   253   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   254     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   255     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   256     Library/Prefix_Order.
   257 
   258   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   259     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   260 
   261       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   262       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   263       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   264       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   265       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   266       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   267       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   268       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   269       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   270       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   271       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   272       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   273       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   274       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   275       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   276       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   277 
   278 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   279 
   280 
   281 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   282 
   283 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   284 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   285 
   286 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   287 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   288 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   289 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   290 
   291   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   292   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   293   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   294   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   295   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   296   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   297   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   298   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   299   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   300   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   301 
   302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   303 
   304 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   305 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   306 Data").
   307 
   308 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   309 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   310 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   311 code.
   312 
   313 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   314 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   315 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   317 
   318 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   319 
   320 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   321 
   322 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   323 
   324   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   325   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   326 
   327 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   328 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   329 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   330 
   331   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   332 
   333     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   334     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   335     cart_base i  removed
   336     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   337 
   338   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   339 
   340   Renamed lemmas:
   341 
   342     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   343     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   344     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   345     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   346     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   347     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   348     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   349     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   350     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   351     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   352 
   353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   354 
   355 * HOL/Probability:
   356 
   357   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   358 
   359   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   360     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   361     (borel_measurable_induct).
   362 
   363   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   364     projective family).
   365 
   366 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   367 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   368 
   369 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   370 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   371 datatypes.
   372 
   373 
   374 *** Document preparation ***
   375 
   376 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   377 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   378 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   379 
   380 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   381 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   382 
   383 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   384 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   385 document/root.tex.
   386 
   387 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   388 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   389 
   390 
   391 *** ML ***
   392 
   393 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   394 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   395 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   396 
   397 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   398 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   399 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   400 
   401 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   402 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   403 necessarily printing visible text.
   404 
   405 
   406 *** System ***
   407 
   408 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   409 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   410 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   411 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   412 
   413 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   414 
   415 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   416 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   417 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   418 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   419 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   420 
   421 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   422 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   423 
   424   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   425 
   426 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   427 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   428 
   429 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   430 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   431 "isabelle usedir".
   432 
   433 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   434 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   435 
   436 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   438 
   439 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   440 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   441 version of Isabelle.
   442 
   443 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   444 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   445 
   446 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   447 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   448 for home-made settings.
   449 
   450 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   451 
   452 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   453 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   454 configuration.
   455 
   456 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   457 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   458 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   459 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   460 bundled as Isabelle component.
   461 
   462 
   463 
   464 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   465 ------------------------------
   466 
   467 *** General ***
   468 
   469 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   470 
   471   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   472     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   473   - markup for bound variables
   474   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   475   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   476   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   477     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   478 
   479 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   480 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   481 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   482 
   483 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   484 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   485 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   486 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   487 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   488 
   489   context
   490     fixes x y z :: 'a
   491     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   492   begin
   493 
   494   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   495 
   496   end
   497 
   498   thm my_trans
   499 
   500 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   501 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   502 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   503 
   504 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   505 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   506 
   507 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   508 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   509 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   510 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   511 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   512 
   513 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   514 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   515 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   516 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   517 indices of schematic variables.
   518 
   519 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   520 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   521 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   522 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   523 etc. was exploited.
   524 
   525 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   526 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   527 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   528 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   529 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   530 of the material of that old tutorial.
   531 
   532 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   533 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   534 manual.
   535 
   536 
   537 *** Pure ***
   538 
   539 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   540 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   541 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   542 
   543 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   544 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   545 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   546 undocumented feature.)
   547 
   548 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   549 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   550 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   551 
   552   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   553 
   554   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   555     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   556 
   557 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   558 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   559 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   560 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   561 
   562 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   563 
   564     num ~> num_token
   565     xnum ~> xnum_token
   566     xstr ~> str_token
   567 
   568 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   569 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   570 position information via constraints).
   571 
   572 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   573 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   574 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   575 
   576 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   577 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   578 
   579 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   580 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   581 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   582 
   583 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   584 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   585 
   586 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   587 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   588 
   589   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   590 
   591 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   592 
   593 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   594 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   595 
   596 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   597 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   598 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   599 
   600 
   601 *** HOL ***
   602 
   603 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   604 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   605 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   606 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   607 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   608 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   609 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   610 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   611 possible.
   612 
   613 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   614 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   615 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   616 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   617 
   618 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   619 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   620 
   621 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   622 
   623 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   624 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   625 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   626 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   627 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   628 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   629 
   630   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   631     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   632 
   633   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   634     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   635     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   636 
   637   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   638     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   639 
   640   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   641     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   642     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   643 
   644   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   645     Redefine using other integer operations.
   646 
   647 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   648 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   649 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   650 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   651 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   652 
   653   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   654     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   655     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   656     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   657     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   658 
   659     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   660     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   661 
   662   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   663     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   664     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   665     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   666     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   667     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   668     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   669     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   670 
   671   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   672     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   673     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   674     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   675 
   676   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   677     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   678     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   679     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   680 
   681   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   682     from type nat to type int.
   683 
   684 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   685 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   686 
   687   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   688     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   689     type.  Example syntax:
   690 
   691     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   692       is List.insert
   693 
   694     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   695     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   696     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   697     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   698     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   699     by the package.
   700 
   701   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   702     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   703     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   704     code generation for each constant.
   705 
   706   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   707     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   708     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   709     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   710     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   711 
   712   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   713     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   714     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   715 
   716 * Quotient package:
   717 
   718   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   719     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   720 
   721   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   722     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   723 
   724   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   725     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   726     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   727 
   728   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   729     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   730 
   731 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   732 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   733 
   734 * Quickcheck:
   735 
   736   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   737     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   738     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   739     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   740     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   741 
   742     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   743     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   744     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   745 
   746     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   747     continues searching for genuine ones.
   748 
   749     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   750     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   751     show genuine counterexamples.
   752 
   753   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   754     value generators for a given type and operations.
   755 
   756     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   757     constructors of that type.
   758 
   759   - Support for multisets.
   760 
   761   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   762 
   763   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   764     conjectures in a locale context.
   765 
   766 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   767 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   768 
   769 * Sledgehammer:
   770   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   771     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   772   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   773   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   774     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   775   - Sped up the minimizer.
   776   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   777   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   778   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   779 
   780 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   781 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   782 
   783 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   784 
   785 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   786 
   787 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   788 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   789 
   790   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   791 
   792 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   793 a list and a nat.
   794 
   795 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   796 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   797 
   798 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   799 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   800 default.
   801 
   802 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   803 
   804   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   805 
   806 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   807 
   808 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   809 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   810 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   811 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   812 one_case.
   813 
   814 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   815 the result of the fact expression.
   816 
   817 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   818 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   819 of some relation theorems:
   820 
   821   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   822   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   823   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   824   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   825   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   826   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   827 
   828 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   829 
   830 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   831 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   832 
   833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   834 
   835 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   836 to match the constant's name:
   837 
   838   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   839   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   840   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   841   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   842   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   843   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   844   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   845   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   846   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   847   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   848   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   849   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   850   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   851   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   852   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   853   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   854   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   855   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   856   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   857   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   858   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   859   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   860   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   861   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   862 
   863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   864 
   865 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   866 and corresponding theorem names:
   867 
   868   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   869 
   870   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   871 
   872   - Renamed theorems:
   873 
   874     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   875     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   876     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   877     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   878     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   879     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   880     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   881     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   882     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   883     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   884     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   885     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   886     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   887     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   888     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   889     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   890     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   891     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   892     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   893     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   894     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   895     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   896     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   897 
   898     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   899 
   900     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   901 
   902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   903 
   904 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   905 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   906 
   907   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   908   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   909   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   910   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   911   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   912   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   913   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   914   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   915   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   916   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   917   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   918   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   919   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   920   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   921   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   922   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   923   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   924   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   925   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   926   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   927   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   928 
   929 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   930 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   931 
   932 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   933 
   934 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   935 
   936   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   937   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   938   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   939   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   940   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   941   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   942   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   943   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   944   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   945   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   946   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   947   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   948   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   949   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   950   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   951   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   952   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   953   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   954 
   955 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   956 
   957 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   958 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   959 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   960 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   961 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   962 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   963 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   964 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   965 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   966 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   967 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   968 
   969 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   970 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   971 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   972 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   973 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   974 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   975 
   976 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   977 through option types.
   978 
   979 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   980 relations.
   981 
   982 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   983 
   984 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   985 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   986 
   987   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   988   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   989   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   990   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   991   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   992   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   993   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   994   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   995   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   996   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   997   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   998   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   999   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1000   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1001   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1002   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1003   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1004   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1005   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1006   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1007   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1008   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1009   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1010   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1011   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1012   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1013   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1014   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1015   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1016   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1017   zless_le ~> less_le
  1018   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1019   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1020   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1021 
  1022 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1023 
  1024   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1025 
  1026 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1027 
  1028 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1029 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1030 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1031 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1033 
  1034 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1035 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1036 
  1037 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1038 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1039 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1040 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1041 follows:
  1042 
  1043   Operations:
  1044   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1045   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1046   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1047   del -> rbt_del
  1048   delete -> rbt_delete
  1049   ins -> rbt_ins
  1050   insert -> rbt_insert
  1051   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1052   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1053   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1054   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1055   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1056   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1057   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1058   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1059   union -> rbt_union
  1060   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1061   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1062 
  1063   Lemmas:
  1064   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1065   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1066   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1067   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1068   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1069   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1070   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1071   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1072   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1073   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1074   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1075   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1076   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1077   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1078   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1079   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1080   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1081   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1082   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1083   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1084   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1085   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1086   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1087   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1088   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1089   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1090   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1091   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1092   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1093   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1094   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1095   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1096   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1097   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1098   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1099   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1100   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1101   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1102   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1103   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1104   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1105   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1106   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1107   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1108   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1109   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1110   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1111   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1112   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1113   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1114   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1115   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1116   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1117   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1118   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1119   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1120   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1121   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1122   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1123   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1124   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1125   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1126   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1127   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1128   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1129   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1130   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1131   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1132   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1133   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1134   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1135   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1136   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1137   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1138   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1139   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1140   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1141   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1142   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1143   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1144   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1145   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1146   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1147 
  1148 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1149 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1150 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1151 
  1152   Changed Operations:
  1153   float_abs -> abs
  1154   float_nprt -> nprt
  1155   float_pprt -> pprt
  1156   pow2 -> use powr
  1157   round_down -> float_round_down
  1158   round_up -> float_round_up
  1159   scale -> exponent
  1160 
  1161   Removed Operations:
  1162   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1163 
  1164   Renamed Lemmas:
  1165   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1166   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1167   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1168   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1169   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1170   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1171   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1172   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1173   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1174   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1175   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1176   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1177   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1178   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1179   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1180   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1181   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1182   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1183   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1184   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1185   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1186   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1187   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1188   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1189   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1190   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1191   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1192   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1193   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1194   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1195   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1196   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1197   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1198   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1199   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1200   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1201 
  1202   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1203   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1204   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1205   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1206   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1207   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1208   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1209   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1210   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1211   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1212 
  1213 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1214 association lists with distinct keys.
  1215 
  1216 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1217 annotated commands.
  1218 
  1219 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1220 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1221 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1222 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1223 
  1224 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1225 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1226 instead.
  1227 
  1228   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1229   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1230   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1231   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1232   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1233   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1234   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1235   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1236   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1237   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1238   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1239   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1240   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1241   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1242   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1243   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1244   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1245   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1246   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1247   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1248   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1249   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1250   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1251   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1252   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1253   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1254   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1255   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1256   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1257   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1258   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1259   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1260   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1261   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1262   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1263   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1264   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1265   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1266   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1267   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1268   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1269 
  1270 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1271 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1272 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1273 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1274 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1275 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1276 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1277 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1278 
  1279 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1280 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1281 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1282 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1283 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1284 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1285 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1286 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1287 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1288 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1289 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1290 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1291 
  1292   Renamed constants:
  1293   measure -> emeasure
  1294   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1295   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1296   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1297   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1298 
  1299   Removed locales:
  1300   completeable_measure_space
  1301   finite_measure_space
  1302   finite_prob_space
  1303   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1304   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1305   finite_sigma_algebra
  1306   measure_space
  1307   pair_finite_prob_space
  1308   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1309   pair_finite_space
  1310   pair_sigma_algebra
  1311   product_sigma_algebra
  1312 
  1313   Removed constants:
  1314   conditional_space
  1315   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1316   image_space
  1317   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1318   pair_measure_generator
  1319   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1320   subvimage
  1321 
  1322   Replacement theorems:
  1323   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1324   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1325   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1326   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1327   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1328   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1329   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1330   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1331   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1332   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1333   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1334   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1335   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1336   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1337   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1338   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1339   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1340   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1341   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1342   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1343   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1344   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1345   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1346   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1347   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1348   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1349   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1350   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1351   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1352   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1353   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1354   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1355   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1356   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1357   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1358   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1359   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1360   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1361   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1362   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1363   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1364   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1365   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1366   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1367   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1368   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1369   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1370   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1371   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1372   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1373   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1374   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1375   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1376   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1377   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1378   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1379   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1380   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1381   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1382   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1383   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1384   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1385   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1386   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1387   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1388   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1389   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1390   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1391   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1392   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1393   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1394   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1395   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1396   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1397   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1398   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1399   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1400   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1401   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1402   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1403   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1404   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1405   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1406   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1407   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1408   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1409   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1410   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1411   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1412   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1413   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1414   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1415   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1416   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1417   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1418   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1419   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1420   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1421   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1422   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1423   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1424   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1425   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1426   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1427   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1428   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1429   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1430   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1431   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1432   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1433   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1434   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1435   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1436   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1437   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1438   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1439   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1440   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1441   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1442   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1443   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1444   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1445   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1446   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1447   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1448   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1449   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1450   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1451 
  1452 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1453 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1454 
  1455 
  1456 *** FOL ***
  1457 
  1458 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1459 
  1460 
  1461 *** ZF ***
  1462 
  1463 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1464 analysis.
  1465 
  1466 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1467 
  1468 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1469 
  1470 
  1471 *** ML ***
  1472 
  1473 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1474 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1475 
  1476 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1477 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1478 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1479 
  1480 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1481 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1482 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1483 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1484 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1485 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1486 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1487 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1488 
  1489 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1490 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1491 
  1492 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1493 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1494 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1495 
  1496 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1497 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1498 
  1499 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1500 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1501 context as well.
  1502 
  1503 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1504 
  1505   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1506   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1507   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1508   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1509   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1510   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1511   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1512   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1513   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1514   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1515   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1516   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1517 
  1518 
  1519 *** System ***
  1520 
  1521 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1522 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1523 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1524 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1525 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1526 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1527 the generic user home was intended.
  1528 
  1529 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1530 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1531 
  1532 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1533 (not just JRE).
  1534 
  1535 
  1536 
  1537 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1538 ------------------------------------
  1539 
  1540 *** General ***
  1541 
  1542 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1543 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1544 
  1545   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1546     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1547     files for checking).
  1548 
  1549   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1550     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1551     positions.
  1552 
  1553   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1554     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1555     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1556 
  1557   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1558     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1559     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1560 
  1561   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1562     cores.
  1563 
  1564   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1565     versions (garbage collection).
  1566 
  1567 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1568 including some remaining limitations.
  1569 
  1570 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1571 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1572 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1573 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1574 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1576 
  1577 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1578 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1579 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1580 
  1581 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1582 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1583 usedir option -Q.
  1584 
  1585 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1586 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1587 
  1588   long_names   ~> names_long
  1589   short_names  ~> names_short
  1590   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1591 
  1592 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1593 
  1594   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1595 
  1596 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1597 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1598 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1599 
  1600 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1601 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1602 
  1603 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1604   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1605   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1606   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1607     "Classical Reasoner".
  1608 
  1609 
  1610 *** HOL ***
  1611 
  1612 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1613 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1614 
  1615 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1616 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1617 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1618 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1619 class complete_linorder.
  1620 
  1621 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1622 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1623 
  1624 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1625 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1626 
  1627   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1628   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1629   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1630   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1631   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1632   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1633   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1634   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1635   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1636   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1637   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1638 
  1639 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1640 
  1641   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1642   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1643   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1644   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1645   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1646   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1647   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1648   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1649   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1650   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1651   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1652   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1653   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1654   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1655   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1656   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1657 
  1658 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1659 
  1660 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1662 
  1663 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1664 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1665 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1666 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1667 
  1668 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1669 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1670 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1671 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1672 
  1673 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1674 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1675 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1676 
  1677 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1678 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1679 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1680 
  1681 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1682 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1683 
  1684 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1685 
  1686     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1687     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1688 
  1689 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1690 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1691 
  1692 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1693 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1694 
  1695 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1696 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1697 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1698 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1699 
  1700   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1701   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1702   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1703   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1704   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1705   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1706   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1707 
  1708 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1709 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1710 
  1711   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1712   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1713   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1714   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1715   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1716   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1717   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1718   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1719   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1720   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1721   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1722   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1723   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1724   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1725   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1726   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1727   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1728   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1729   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1730   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1731   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1732   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1733   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1734   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1735   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1736   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1737   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1738   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1739   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1740   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1741   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1742   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1743   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1744   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1745   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1746   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1747   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1748   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1749   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1750   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1751   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1752   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1753   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1754   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1755   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1756   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1757   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1758   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1759   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1760   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1761   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1762   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1763   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1764   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1765   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1766   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1767   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1768   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1769   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1770   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1771   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1772   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1773   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1774   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1775   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1776   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1777   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1778   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1779   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1780   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1781   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1782   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1783   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1784   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1785   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1786   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1787   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1788   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1789   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1790   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1791   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1792   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1793 
  1794 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1795 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1796 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1797 
  1798 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1799 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1800 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1801 
  1802 * Code generation:
  1803 
  1804   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1805     characters in the target language.
  1806 
  1807   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1808     instead.
  1809 
  1810   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1811 
  1812   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1813     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1814 
  1815       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1816 
  1817 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1818 
  1819 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1820 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1821 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1822 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1823 syntax.
  1824 
  1825 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1826 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1827 
  1828 * Nitpick:
  1829   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1830   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1831   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1832     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1833 
  1834 * Sledgehammer:
  1835   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1836   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1837     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1838   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1839     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1840   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1841     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1842   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1843     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1844   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1845     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1846 
  1847 * Metis:
  1848   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1849   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1850     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1851 
  1852 * Command 'try':
  1853   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1854     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1855   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1856     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1857 
  1858 * Quickcheck:
  1859   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1860     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1861   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1862     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1863   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1864     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1865     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1866     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1867   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1868     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1869 
  1870 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1871 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1872 
  1873 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1874 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1875 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1876 
  1877 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1878 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1880 
  1881 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1882 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1883 
  1884 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1885 arithmetic.
  1886 
  1887 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1888 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1889 and lattice type classes.
  1890 
  1891 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1892 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1893 
  1894 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1895 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1896 
  1897 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1898 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1899 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1900 
  1901   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1902   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1903   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1904   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1905 
  1906 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1907 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1908 constants:
  1909 
  1910   type inat   ~> type enat
  1911   Fin         ~> enat
  1912   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1913   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1914   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1915 
  1916 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1917 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1918 
  1919 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1920 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1921 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1922 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1923 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1924 
  1925 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1926 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1927 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1928 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1929 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1930 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1931 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1932 
  1933   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1934   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1935   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1936   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1937 
  1938 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1939 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1940 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1941 
  1942   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1943   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1944   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1945   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1946   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1947   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1948   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1949   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1950   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1951   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1952   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1953   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1954   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1955   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1956   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1957   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1958   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1959   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1960   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1961   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1962   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1963   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1964   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1965   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1966   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1967   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1968   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1969   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1970   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1971   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1972   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1973   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1974   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1975   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1976   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1977   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1978   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1979   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1980   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1981   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1982   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1983   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1984   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1985   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1986   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1987   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1988   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1989   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1990   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1991   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1992   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1993 
  1994 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1995   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1996   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1997   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1998   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1999     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2000 
  2001 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2002 
  2003   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2004   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2005   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2006   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2007   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2008   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2009   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2010   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2011   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2012   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2013   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2014   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2015   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2016   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2017   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2018   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2019   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2020   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2021   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2022   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2023   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2024   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2025   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2026   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2027   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2028 
  2029 
  2030 *** Document preparation ***
  2031 
  2032 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2033 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2034 same.
  2035 
  2036 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2037 result.
  2038 
  2039 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2040 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2041 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2042 
  2043 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2044 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2045 
  2046 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2047 like this:
  2048 
  2049   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2050   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2051 
  2052 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2053 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2054 layouts.
  2055 
  2056 
  2057 *** ML ***
  2058 
  2059 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2060 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2061 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2062 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2063 under external program control.
  2064 
  2065 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2066 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2067 
  2068 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2069 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2070 (better known as Proof General).
  2071 
  2072 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2073 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2074 
  2075 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2076 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2077 
  2078 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2079 (including quotes etc.).
  2080 
  2081 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2082 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2083 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2084 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2085 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2086 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2087 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2088 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2089 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2090 
  2091 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2092 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2093 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2094 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2095 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2096 
  2097 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2098 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2099 
  2100 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2101 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2102 
  2103 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2104 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2105 
  2106 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2107 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2108 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2109 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2110 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2111 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2112 proper Proof.context.
  2113 
  2114 
  2115 *** System ***
  2116 
  2117 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2118 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2119 
  2120 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2121 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2122 
  2123 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2124 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2125 
  2126   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2127   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2128   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2129   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2130   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2131 
  2132 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2133 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2134 
  2135 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2136 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2137 example:
  2138 
  2139   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2140 
  2141 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2142 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2143 
  2144 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2145 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2146 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2147 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2148 
  2149 
  2150 
  2151 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2152 ----------------------------------
  2153 
  2154 *** General ***
  2155 
  2156 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2157 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2158 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2159 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2160 like this:
  2161 
  2162   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2163 
  2164 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2165 
  2166 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2167 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2168 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2169 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2170 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2171 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2172 
  2173 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2174 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2175 the following package declarations:
  2176 
  2177   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2178   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2179 
  2180 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2181 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2182 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2183 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2184 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2185 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2186 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2187 
  2188 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2189 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2190 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2191 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2192 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2193 
  2194 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2195 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2196 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2197 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2198 
  2199 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2200 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2201 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2202 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2203 
  2204   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2205 
  2206   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2207   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2208   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2209   show_types                    show_types
  2210   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2211   show_consts                   show_consts
  2212   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2213 
  2214   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2215   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2216   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2217 
  2218   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2219   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2220 
  2221   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2222 
  2223   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2224   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2225   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2226   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2227   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2228 
  2229 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2230 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2231 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2232 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2233 
  2234 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2236 
  2237   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2238   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2239 
  2240 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2241 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2242 float_token.
  2243 
  2244 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2245 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2247 
  2248 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2249 DejaVu Sans.
  2250 
  2251 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2252 
  2253 
  2254 *** Pure ***
  2255 
  2256 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2257 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2258 time.
  2259 
  2260 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2261 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2262 
  2263 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2264 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2265 
  2266 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2267 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2268 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2269 command already provided this functionality.
  2270 
  2271 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2272 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2273 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2274 without interpretations.
  2275 
  2276 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2277 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2278 
  2279 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2280 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2281 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2282 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2283 
  2284 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2285 'definition' instead.
  2286 
  2287 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2288 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2289 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2290 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2291 
  2292 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2293 constructors.
  2294 
  2295 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2296 the local file system.
  2297 
  2298 
  2299 *** HOL ***
  2300 
  2301 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2302 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2303 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2304 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2305 
  2306   declare [[coercion f]]
  2307 
  2308 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2309 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2310 
  2311   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2312 
  2313 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2314 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2315 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2316 other theories like this:
  2317 
  2318   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2319 
  2320 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2321 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2322 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2323 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2324 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2325 for examples.
  2326 
  2327 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2328 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2329 
  2330 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2331 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2332 
  2333 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2334 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2335 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2336 
  2337 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2338 functorial structure of types.
  2339 
  2340 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2341 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2342 
  2343 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2344 languages.
  2345 
  2346 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2347 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2349 
  2350 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2351 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2352 
  2353 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2354 combinators any longer.
  2355 
  2356 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2357 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2358 
  2359 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2360 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2361 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2362 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2363 
  2364   record 'a foo = ...
  2365   ...
  2366   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2367 
  2368 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2369 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2371 
  2372 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2373 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2374 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2375 
  2376 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2377 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2378 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2379 
  2380 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2381 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2382 
  2383 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2384 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2385 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2386 independently.
  2387 
  2388 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2389 counter example search.
  2390 
  2391 * Sledgehammer:
  2392   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2393     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2394     sledgehammer").
  2395   - Renamed commands:
  2396     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2397     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2398     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2399     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2400   - Renamed options:
  2401     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2402     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2403     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2404     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2405     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2406 
  2407 * Nitpick:
  2408   - Renamed options:
  2409     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2410     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2411     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2412   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2413   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2414   - Added "whack" option.
  2415   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2416   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2417   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2418   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2419     higher cardinalities.
  2420   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2421 
  2422 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2423 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2424 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2425 
  2426     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2427 
  2428 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2429 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2430 
  2431 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2432 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2433 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2434 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2435 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2436 "smt_solver".
  2437 
  2438 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2439 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2440 
  2441 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2442 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2443 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2444 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2445 
  2446 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2447   - Renamed:
  2448     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2449     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2450     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2451   - Added:
  2452     smt_verbose
  2453     smt_random_seed
  2454     smt_datatypes
  2455     smt_infer_triggers
  2456     smt_monomorph_limit
  2457     cvc3_options
  2458     remote_cvc3_options
  2459     remote_z3_options
  2460     yices_options
  2461 
  2462 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2463 header.
  2464 
  2465 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2466 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2467 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2468 
  2469   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2470 
  2471 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2472 
  2473 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2474 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2475 
  2476 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2477 
  2478 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2479 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2480 
  2481 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2482 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2483 
  2484 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2485 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2486 
  2487 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2488 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2489 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2490 
  2491 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2492 
  2493 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2495 
  2496 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2497 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2498 
  2499 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2500 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2501 for congruent(2)).
  2502 
  2503 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2504 
  2505   types
  2506     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2507     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2508 
  2509   constants
  2510     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2511     True ~> HOL.True
  2512     False ~> HOL.False
  2513     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2514     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2515     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2516     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2517     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2518     The ~> HOL.The
  2519     All ~> HOL.All
  2520     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2521     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2522     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2523     If ~> HOL.If
  2524     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2525     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2526     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2527     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2528     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2529     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2530     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2531     op : ~> Set.member
  2532     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2533 
  2534 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2535 
  2536 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2537 
  2538     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2539     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2540     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2541     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2542     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2543     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2544     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2545     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2546 
  2547 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2548 
  2549 * More stylized fact names:
  2550 
  2551   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2552   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2553   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2554   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2555 
  2556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2557 
  2558 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2559 
  2560   constants
  2561     null ~> List.null
  2562 
  2563   facts
  2564     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2565     null_empty ~> null_def
  2566 
  2567 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2568 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2569 generation.
  2570 
  2571 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2572 Haskell code.
  2573 
  2574 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2575 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2576 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2577 
  2578 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2579 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2580 
  2581 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2582 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2583 
  2584 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2585 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2586 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2587 
  2588 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2589 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2590 
  2591 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2592 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2593 
  2594 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2595 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2596 referred to by its qualified name.
  2597 
  2598   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2599   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2600   product ~>  Enum.product
  2601 
  2602 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2603 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2605 
  2606 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2607 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2608 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2609 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2610 
  2611 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2612 sort_key.
  2613 
  2614 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2616 
  2617 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2618 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2619 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2620 
  2621   types
  2622     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2623               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2624               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2625         (depends on your needs)
  2626 
  2627   constants
  2628      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2629      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2630      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2631 
  2632 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2633 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2634 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2635 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2636 
  2637 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2638 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2639 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2640 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2641 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2642 
  2643 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2645 
  2646 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2647 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2648 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2649 
  2650 
  2651 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2652 
  2653 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2654 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2655 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2656 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2657 compatibility.
  2658 
  2659 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2660 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2661 
  2662 
  2663 *** HOLCF ***
  2664 
  2665 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2666 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2667 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2669 
  2670 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2671 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2672 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2673 
  2674   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2675   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2676   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2677 
  2678 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2679 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2680 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2681 
  2682 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2683 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2684 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2685 domain definition now works:
  2686 
  2687   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2688 
  2689 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2690 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2691 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2692 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2693 
  2694   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2695     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2696 
  2697   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2698 
  2699 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2700 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2701 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2702 
  2703 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2704 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2705 
  2706 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2707 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2708 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2709 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2710 
  2711 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2712 
  2713 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2714 
  2715 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2716 
  2717 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2718 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2719 
  2720 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2721 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2722 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2723 
  2724 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2725 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2726 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2727 
  2728 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2729 still supported as an input translation.
  2730 
  2731 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2732 
  2733   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2734   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2735   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2736   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2737   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2738   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2739   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2740 
  2741 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2742 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2743 
  2744   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2745   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2746   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2747   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2748   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2749   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2750 
  2751 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2752 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2753 
  2754 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2755 
  2756   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2757   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2758   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2759   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2760 
  2761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2762 
  2763 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2764 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2765 
  2766 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2767 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2768 
  2769   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2770   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2771   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2772   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2773   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2774   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2775   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2776   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2777   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2778   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2779   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2780   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2781   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2782   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2783   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2784   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2785   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2786   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2787   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2788   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2789 
  2790 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2791 
  2792   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2793   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2794   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2795   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2796   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2797   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2798   box_less             ~> box_below
  2799   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2800   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2801   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2802   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2803   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2804   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2805   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2806   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2807   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2808   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2809   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2810   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2811   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2812   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2813   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2814   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2815   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2816   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2817   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2818   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2819   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2820   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2821   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2822   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2823   up_less              ~> up_below
  2824   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2825   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2826   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2827   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2828   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2829   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2830   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2831   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2832   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2833   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2834   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2835   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2836   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2837 
  2838 
  2839 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2840 
  2841 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2842 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2843 
  2844 
  2845 *** ML ***
  2846 
  2847 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2848 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2849 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2850 
  2851 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2852 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2853 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2854 
  2855 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2856 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2857 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2858 
  2859 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2860 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2861 
  2862 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2863 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2864 
  2865 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2866 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2867 
  2868 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2869 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2870 
  2871 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2872 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2873 almost all situations.
  2874 
  2875 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2876 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2877 Isabelle/ML.
  2878 
  2879 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2880 meaning.
  2881 
  2882 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2883 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2884 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2885 
  2886 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2887 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2888 
  2889 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2890 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2891 
  2892 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2893 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2894 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2895 
  2896 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2897 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2898 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2899 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2900 configuration options.
  2901 
  2902 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2903 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2904 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2905 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2906 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2907 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2908 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2909 
  2910 
  2911 
  2912 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2913 ---------------------------------
  2914 
  2915 *** General ***
  2916 
  2917 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2918 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2919 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2920 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2921 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2922 their full internal name.
  2923 
  2924 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2925 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2926 Some hints on upgrading:
  2927 
  2928   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2929     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2930     which are independent of this issue.
  2931 
  2932   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2933     provides the following special forms:
  2934 
  2935       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2936       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2937       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2938 
  2939     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2940     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2941     extra variables".
  2942 
  2943     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2944     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2945     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2946     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2947     "logic".
  2948 
  2949   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2950     antiquotations:
  2951 
  2952       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2953       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2954       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2955       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2956 
  2957   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2958     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2959     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2960     antiquotations.
  2961 
  2962 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2963 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2964 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2965 diagnose syntax problems.
  2966 
  2967 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2968 
  2969 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2970 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2971 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2972 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2973 
  2974 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2975 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2976 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2977 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2978 
  2979 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2980 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2981 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2982 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2983 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2984 
  2985 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2986 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2987 
  2988 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2989 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2990 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2991 
  2992   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2993 
  2994 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2995 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2996 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2997 
  2998 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2999 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3000 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001 
  3002 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3003 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3004 
  3005 
  3006 *** Pure ***
  3007 
  3008 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3009 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3010 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3011 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3012 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3013 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3014 inspect proof terms.
  3015 
  3016 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3017 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3018 are added internally.  For example:
  3019 
  3020   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3021 
  3022 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3023 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3024 
  3025 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3026 
  3027 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3028 'class' instead.
  3029 
  3030 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3031 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3033 
  3034 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3035 invariants.
  3036 
  3037 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3038 user space functionality any longer.
  3039 
  3040 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3041 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3042 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3043 
  3044 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3045 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3046 
  3047 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3048 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3049 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3050 
  3051 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3052 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3053 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3054 
  3055 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3056 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3057 
  3058 
  3059 *** HOL ***
  3060 
  3061 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3062 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3063 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3064 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3065 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3066 
  3067 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3068 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3069 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3070 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3071 
  3072   fun
  3073     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3074   where
  3075     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3076 
  3077   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3078     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3079 
  3080   quotient_definition
  3081     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3082 
  3083 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3084 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3085 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3086 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3087 
  3088 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3089 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3090 
  3091 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3092 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3093 
  3094 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3095 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3096 
  3097 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3098 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3099 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3100 
  3101 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3102 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3103 
  3104 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3105 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3106 
  3107 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3108 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3109 
  3110 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3111 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3112 
  3113 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3114 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3115 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3116 
  3117   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3118   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3119   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3120   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3121   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3122   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3123   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3124   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3125   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3126   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3127   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3128   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3129   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3130   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3131   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3132   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3133   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3134   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3135   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3136   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3137   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3138   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3139   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3140   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3141   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3142   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3143   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3144   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3145   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3146   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3147 
  3148 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3149 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3150 
  3151 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3152 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3153 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3154 
  3155 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3156 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3157 
  3158 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3159 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160 
  3161 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3162 
  3163 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3164 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3167 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3168 
  3169 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3170 
  3171 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3172 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3173 
  3174 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3175 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3176 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3177 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3178 
  3179 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3180   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3181   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3182   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3184 
  3185 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3186 lattices):
  3187 
  3188     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3189     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3190 
  3191     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3192 
  3193     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3194     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3195     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3196     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3197     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3198     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3199     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3200     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3201     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3202     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3203     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3204     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3205     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3206 
  3207     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3208     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3209     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3210     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3211     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3212     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3213     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3214     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3215     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3216     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3217     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3218     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3219     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3220     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3221     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3222     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3223     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3224     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3225 
  3226   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3227   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3228 
  3229     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3230     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3231     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3232     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3233     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3234 
  3235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3236 
  3237 * Refined field classes:
  3238   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3239     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3240     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3241   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3245   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3246   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3247   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3248     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3249   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3250     equal_neg_zero.
  3251 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3252 
  3253 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3254 sets to lattices:
  3255 
  3256   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3257   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3258   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3259   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3260   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3261   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3262   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3263   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3264   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3265   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3266 
  3267 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3268 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3269 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3270 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3271 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3272 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273 
  3274 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3275 multiset order:
  3276 
  3277   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3278     <= and <;
  3279   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3280     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3281     multiset_order;
  3282   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3283     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3284     generation;
  3285   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3286     if needed.
  3287 
  3288 Renamed:
  3289 
  3290   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3291   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3292   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3293 
  3294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3295 
  3296 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3297 
  3298 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3299 
  3300 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3301 
  3302 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3303 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3304 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3305 
  3306   Constants:
  3307   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3308   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3309   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3310   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3311   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3312   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3313   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3314   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3315   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3316   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3317   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3318   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3319   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3320 
  3321   Lemmas:
  3322   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3323   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3324   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3325   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3326   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3327   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3328   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3329   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3330   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3331   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3332   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3333   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3334   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3335 
  3336 * Sledgehammer:
  3337   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3338     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3339     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3340     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3341     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3342     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3343     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3344   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3345   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3346     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3347   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3348     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3349     is still experimental.)
  3350   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3351     full-typed mode.
  3352   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3353 
  3354 * Nitpick:
  3355   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3356   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3357   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3358     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3359   - Added support for quotient types.
  3360   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3361     constructs.
  3362   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3363     "termination" proofs).
  3364   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3365   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3366   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3367   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3368     record getters.
  3369   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3370   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3371   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3372   - Added "atoms" option.
  3373   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3374     problems.
  3375   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3376     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3377     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3379     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3380   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3381 
  3382 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3383   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3384   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3385   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3386   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3387   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3388   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3389   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3390   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3391   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3392 
  3393 
  3394 *** HOLCF ***
  3395 
  3396 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3397 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3398 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3399 
  3400 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3401 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3402 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3403 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404 
  3405 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3406 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3407 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3408 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3409 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410 
  3411 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3412 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3413 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3414 
  3415 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3416 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3417 
  3418   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3419   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3420 
  3421 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3422 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3423 
  3424   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3425   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3426   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3427   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3428   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3429 
  3430 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3431 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3434   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3435   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3436 
  3437 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3438 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440 
  3441 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3442 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443 
  3444 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3445 
  3446 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3447 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3448 
  3449 
  3450 *** ML ***
  3451 
  3452 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3453 
  3454     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3455     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3456 
  3457     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3458     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3459     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3460     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3461 
  3462     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3463     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3464     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3465 
  3466 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3467 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3468 
  3469 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3470 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3471 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3472 
  3473 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3474 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3475 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3476 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3477 
  3478 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3479 the context or even global references.
  3480 
  3481 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3482 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3483 
  3484 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3485 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3486 
  3487   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3488   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3489   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3490   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3491   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3492   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3493   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3494   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3495   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3496   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3497 
  3498 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3499 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3500 
  3501 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3502 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3503 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3504 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3505 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3506 
  3507 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3508 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3509 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3510 Theory_Data version.
  3511 
  3512 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3513 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3514 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3515 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3516 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3517 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3518 explicitly in rare situations.
  3519 
  3520 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3521 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3525 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3526 
  3527 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3528 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3529 quite rare).
  3530 
  3531 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3532 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3533 
  3534 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3535 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3536 terms.
  3537 
  3538 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3539 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3540 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3541 
  3542 
  3543 *** System ***
  3544 
  3545 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3546 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3547 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3548 
  3549 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3550 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3551 respectively.
  3552 
  3553 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3554 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3555 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3556 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3557 
  3558   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3559 
  3560 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3561 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3562 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3563 component.
  3564 
  3565 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3566 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3567 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3568 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3569 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3570 the user for manual installation.
  3571 
  3572 
  3573 
  3574 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3575 -------------------------------------
  3576 
  3577 *** General ***
  3578 
  3579 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3580 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3581 
  3582 
  3583 *** Pure ***
  3584 
  3585 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3586 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3587 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3588 
  3589 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3590 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3591 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3592 
  3593 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3594 interpretation.
  3595 
  3596 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3597 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3598 
  3599 
  3600 *** Document preparation ***
  3601 
  3602 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3603 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3604 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3605 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3606 
  3607 
  3608 *** HOL ***
  3609 
  3610 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3611 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3612 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3613 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3614 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3615 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3616 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3617 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3618 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3619 
  3620 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3621 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3622 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3623 
  3624 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3625 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3626 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3627 
  3628 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3629 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3630 
  3631 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3632 
  3633 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3634 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3635 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3636 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3637 
  3638 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3639 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3640 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3641 "mirabelle" utility.
  3642 
  3643 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3644 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3645 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3646 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3647 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3648 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3649 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3650 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3651 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3652 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3653 
  3654 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3655 procedure only.
  3656 
  3657 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3658 
  3659 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3660 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3661 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3662 that fail later.
  3663 
  3664 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3665 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3666 
  3667 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3668 the same method as the approximation method.
  3669 
  3670 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3671 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3672 series expansion.
  3673 
  3674 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3675 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3676 
  3677 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3678 reals.
  3679 
  3680 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3681 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3682 
  3683 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3684 fixpoint theorem.
  3685 
  3686 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3687   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3688     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3689   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3690     accordingly
  3691   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3692     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3693   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3694     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3695 
  3696 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3697 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3698 lattice.
  3699 
  3700 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3701 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3702 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3703 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3704 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3705 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3707 
  3708 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3709   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3710     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3711   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3712     le_inf_iff
  3713   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3714     sup_aci)
  3715   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3716   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3717   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3718     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3719     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3720     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3721     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3722     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3723     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3724     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3725     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3726     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3727     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3728   - authentic syntax for
  3729     Set.Pow
  3730     Set.image
  3731   - mere abbreviations:
  3732     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3733     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3734     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3735     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3736     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3737     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3738     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3739     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3740   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3741 
  3742 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3743 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3744 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3745 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3746 
  3747 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3748 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3749 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3750 
  3751 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3752 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3753 
  3754 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3755 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3756 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3757 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3758 
  3759 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3760 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3761 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3762 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3763 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3764 
  3765 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3766 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3768 
  3769 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3770 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3771 
  3772 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3773 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3774 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3775 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3776 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3777 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3778 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3779 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3780 
  3781 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3782     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3783     code_post       replaces    code post
  3784     etc.
  3785   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3786 
  3787 * Renamed methods:
  3788     sizechange -> size_change
  3789     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3790   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3791 
  3792 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3793 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3794 
  3795 * Renamed theorems:
  3796     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3797     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3798     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3799     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3800     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3801   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3802 
  3803 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3804 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3805 
  3806 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3807 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3808 
  3809 
  3810 *** HOLCF ***
  3811 
  3812 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3813 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3814 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3815 
  3816 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3817 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3818 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3819 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3820 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3821 
  3822 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3823 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3824 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3825 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3826 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3827 
  3828 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3829 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3830 constructor are pre-configured.
  3831 
  3832 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3833 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3834 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3835 
  3836 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3837 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3838 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3839 as well.)
  3840 
  3841 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3842 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3843 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3844 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3845 examples.
  3846 
  3847 
  3848 *** ML ***
  3849 
  3850 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3851 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3852 
  3853 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3854 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3855 position, logical grouping etc.
  3856 
  3857 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3858 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3859 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3860 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3861 
  3862 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3863 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3864 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3865 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3866 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3867 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3868 
  3869 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3870 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3871 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3872 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3873 experiments with references.
  3874 
  3875 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3876 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3877 
  3878 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3879 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3880 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3881 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3882 
  3883 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3884 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3885 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3886 
  3887 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3888 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3889 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3890 
  3891 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3892 
  3893 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3895 
  3896 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3897 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3898 
  3899 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3900 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3901 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3902 
  3903 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3904 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3905 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3906 
  3907 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3908 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3909 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3910 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3911 
  3912 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3913 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3914 instead of global theory.
  3915 
  3916 
  3917 *** System ***
  3918 
  3919 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3920 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3921 usedir option -q.
  3922 
  3923 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3924 also the system manual.
  3925 
  3926 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3927 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3928 
  3929 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3930 this is always enabled.
  3931 
  3932 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3933 
  3934 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3935 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3936 currently supported on Linux only.
  3937 
  3938 
  3939 
  3940 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3941 --------------------------------
  3942 
  3943 *** General ***
  3944 
  3945 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3946 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3947 
  3948   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3949     "isatool."
  3950 
  3951   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3952     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3953 
  3954   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3955     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3956 
  3957 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3958 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3959 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3960 
  3961 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3962 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3963 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3964 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3965 via "isabelle emacs".
  3966 
  3967 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3968 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3969 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3970 
  3971 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3972 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3973 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3974 
  3975 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3976 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3977 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3978 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3979 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3980 
  3981 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3982 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3983 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3984 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3985 
  3986 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3987 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3988 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3989 
  3990 
  3991 *** Pure ***
  3992 
  3993 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3994 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3995 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3996 
  3997 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3998 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3999 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4000 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4001 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4002 
  4003 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4004 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4005 useful in locale declarations.
  4006 
  4007 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4008 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4009 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4010 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4011 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4012 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4013 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4014 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4015 no longer generated.
  4016 
  4017 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4018 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4019 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4020 
  4021 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4022 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4023 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4024 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4025 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4026 
  4027 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4028 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4029 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4030 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4031 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4032 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4033 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4034 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4035 
  4036 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4037 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4038 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4039 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4040 
  4041 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4042 
  4043 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4044 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4045 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4046 
  4047 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4048 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4049 
  4050 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4051 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4052 in HOL, write
  4053 
  4054     class foo = ...
  4055 
  4056 instead of
  4057 
  4058     class foo = type + ...
  4059 
  4060 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4061 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4062 
  4063 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4064 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4065 
  4066 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4067 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4068 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4069 
  4070 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4071 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4072 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4073 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4074 directly in regular applications.
  4075 
  4076 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4077 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4078 
  4079 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4080 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4081 
  4082 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4083 theory context.
  4084 
  4085 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4086 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4087 
  4088 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4089 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4090 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4091 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4092 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4093 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4094 
  4095   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4096 
  4097 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4098 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4099 normalization.
  4100 
  4101 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4102 addressing etc.
  4103 
  4104 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4105 
  4106   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4107   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4108 
  4109 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4110 
  4111   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4112      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4113      parts of the code generator framework).
  4114 
  4115   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4116      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4117      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4118 
  4119 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4120 
  4121 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4122 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4123 
  4124 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4125 patterns, e.g.
  4126 
  4127     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4128 
  4129 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4130 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4131 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4132 hyphen:
  4133 
  4134     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4135 
  4136 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4137 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4138 
  4139 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4140 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4141 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4142 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4143 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4144 higher-order unification.
  4145 
  4146 
  4147 *** Document preparation ***
  4148 
  4149 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4150 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4151 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4152 
  4153 
  4154 *** HOL ***
  4155 
  4156 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4157 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4158 
  4159 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4160 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4161 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4162 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4163 Main, as before.
  4164 
  4165 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4166 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4167 
  4168 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4169 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4170 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4171 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4172 
  4173 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4174 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4175 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4176 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4177 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4178 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4179 
  4180 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4181 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4182 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4183 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4184 
  4185 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4186 menu.
  4187 
  4188 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4189 (contains the empty clause).
  4190 
  4191 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4192 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4193 
  4194 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4195 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4196 
  4197 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4198 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4199 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4200 
  4201 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4202 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4203 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4204 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4205 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4206 
  4207 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4208 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4209 
  4210 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4211 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4212 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4213 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4214 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4215 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4216 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4217 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4218 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4219 
  4220 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4221 
  4222 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4223 
  4224 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4225 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4226 
  4227 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4228 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4229 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4230 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4231 
  4232 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4233 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4234 
  4235     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4236     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4237     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4238     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4239     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4240     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4241     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4242     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4243 
  4244 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4245 theory Set.
  4246 
  4247 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4248 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4249 
  4250 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4251 
  4252 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4253 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4254 
  4255 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4256 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4257 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4258 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4259 allowed. For examples see
  4260 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4261 
  4262 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4263 
  4264 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4265 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4266 
  4267 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4268 structure:
  4269 
  4270     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4271     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4272     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4273     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4274     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4275     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4276     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4277     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4278     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4279     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4280     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4281     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4282     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4283     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4284     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4285     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4286     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4287     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4288     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4289     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4290     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4291     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4292     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4293     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4294     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4295     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4296     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4297     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4298     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4299     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4300     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4301     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4302     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4303 
  4304     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4305     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4306     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4307     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4308     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4309     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4310     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4311     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4312     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4313     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4314 
  4315     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4316     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4317     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4318     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4319     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4320     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4321 
  4322 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4323 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4324 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4325 
  4326 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4327 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4328 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4329 
  4330 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4331 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4332 
  4333 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4334 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4335 
  4336 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4337 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4338 proofs, e.g.
  4339 
  4340   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4341 
  4342 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4343 
  4344 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4345 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4346 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4347 
  4348 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4349 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4351 
  4352 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4353 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4354 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4356 
  4357 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4358 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4359 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4360 preorder_class.*.
  4361 
  4362 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4363 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4364 
  4365 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4366 
  4367   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4368 
  4369 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4370 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4371 fold_image.
  4372 
  4373 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4374 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4375 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4376 the former will disappear at some point.
  4377 
  4378 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4379 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4380 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4381 
  4382 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4383 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4384 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4385 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4386 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4387 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4388 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4389 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4390 
  4391 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4392 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4393 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4394 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4395 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4396 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4397 
  4398     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4399     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4400     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4401     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4402     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4403     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4404     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4405 
  4406 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4407 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4408 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4409 
  4410 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4411 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4412 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4413 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4414 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4415 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4416 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4417 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4418 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4419 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4420 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4421 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4422 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4423 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4424 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4425 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4426 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4427 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4428 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4429 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4430 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4431 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4432 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4433 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4434 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4435 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4436 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4437 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4438 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4439 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4440 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4441 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4442 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4443 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4444 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4445 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4446 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4447 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4448 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4449 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4450 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4451 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4452 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4453 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4454 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4455 
  4456 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4457 
  4458 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4459 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4460 
  4461 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4462 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4463 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4464 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4465 
  4466 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4467 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4468 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4469 theory RealVector.
  4470 
  4471 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4472 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4473 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4474 and inner products are included.
  4475 
  4476 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4477 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4478 supported.
  4479 
  4480 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4481 first diagonalization argument.
  4482 
  4483 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4484 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4485 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4486 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4487 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4488 
  4489     hide (open) const gcd
  4490     abbreviation gcd where
  4491       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4492     notation (output)
  4493       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4494 
  4495 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4496 
  4497 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4498 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4499 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4500 
  4501 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4502 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4503 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4504 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4505 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4506 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4507 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4508 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4509 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4510 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4511 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4512 cases.
  4513 
  4514 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4515 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4516 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4517 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4518 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4519 
  4520     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4521     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4522     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4523     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4524     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4525 
  4526 
  4527 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4528 
  4529 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4530 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4531 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4532 
  4533 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4534 
  4535 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4536 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4537 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4538 
  4539 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4540 
  4541 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4542 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4543 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4544 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4545 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4546 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4547 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4548 
  4549 
  4550 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4551 
  4552 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4553 
  4554 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4555 theory targets.
  4556 
  4557 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4558 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4559 'inductive' etc.
  4560 
  4561 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4562 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4563 
  4564 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4565 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4566 
  4567 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4568 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4569 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4570 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4571 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4572 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4573 the algorithm W:
  4574 
  4575  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4576  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4577          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4578 
  4579 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4580 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4581 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4582 
  4583 
  4584 *** HOLCF ***
  4585 
  4586 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4587 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4588 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4589 
  4590 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4591 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4592 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4593 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4594 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4595 
  4596 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4597 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4598 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4599 
  4600 
  4601 *** ZF ***
  4602 
  4603 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4604 
  4605 
  4606 *** ML ***
  4607 
  4608 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4609 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4610 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4611 5.2.1!
  4612 
  4613 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4614 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4615 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4616 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4617 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4618 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4619 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4620 
  4621 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4622 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4623 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4624 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4625 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4626 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4627 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4628 
  4629 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4630 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4631 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4632 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4633 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4634 
  4635 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4636 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4637 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4638 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4639 Method.add_method.
  4640 
  4641 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4642 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4643 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4644 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4645 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4646 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4647 
  4648 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4649 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4650 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4651 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4652 examples.
  4653 
  4654 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4655 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4656 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4657 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4658 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4659 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4660 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4661 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4662 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4663 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4664 
  4665 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4666 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4667 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4668 
  4669 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4670 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4671 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4672 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4673 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4674 resort for legacy applications.
  4675 
  4676 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4677 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4678 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4679 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4680 explicit runtime argument.
  4681 
  4682 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4683 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4684 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4685 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4686 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4687 
  4688 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4689 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4690 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4691 theory state.
  4692 
  4693 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4694 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4695 
  4696   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4697   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4698   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4699   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4700   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4701   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4702   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4703   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4704   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4705   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4706 
  4707 
  4708 *** System ***
  4709 
  4710 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4711 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4712 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4713 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4714 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4715 
  4716 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4717 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4718 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4719 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4720 
  4721 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4722 
  4723 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4724 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4725 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4726 prover operations.
  4727 
  4728 
  4729 
  4730 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4731 -------------------------------
  4732 
  4733 *** General ***
  4734 
  4735 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4736 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4737 
  4738 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4739 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4740 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4741 provides a proper context already.
  4742 
  4743 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4744 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4745 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4746 
  4747 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4748 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4749 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4750 swap theory imports.
  4751 
  4752 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4753 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4754 
  4755 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4756 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4757 white space without escapes.
  4758 
  4759 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4760 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4761 "foo_bar".
  4762 
  4763 
  4764 *** Pure ***
  4765 
  4766 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4767 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4768 
  4769 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4770 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4771 
  4772 (1) unused_thms
  4773      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4774 
  4775 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4776      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4777      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4778 
  4779 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4780      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4781      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4782      their ancestors.
  4783 
  4784 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4785 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4786 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4787 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4788 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4789 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4790 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4791 
  4792 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4793 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4794 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4795 
  4796 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4797 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4798 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4799 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4800 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4801 
  4802 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4803 
  4804 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4805 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4806 update of theories within ML code.
  4807 
  4808 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4809 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4810 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4811 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4812 
  4813 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4814 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4815 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4816 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4817 
  4818 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4819 
  4820 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4821 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4822 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4823 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4824 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4825 
  4826 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4827 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4828 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4829 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4830 situations.
  4831 
  4832 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4833 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4834 proof text.
  4835 
  4836 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4837 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4838 
  4839 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4840 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4841 predicates.
  4842 
  4843 
  4844 *** Document preparation ***
  4845 
  4846 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4847 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4848 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4849 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4850 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4851 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4852 
  4853 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4854 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4855 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4856 
  4857 
  4858 *** HOL ***
  4859 
  4860 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4861 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4862 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4863 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4864 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4865 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4866 
  4867 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4868 with multithreading.
  4869 
  4870 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4871 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4872 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4873 
  4874 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4875 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4876 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4877 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4878 
  4879 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4880 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4881 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4882 and makes them available separately.  See
  4883 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4884 
  4885 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4886 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4887 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4888 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4889 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4890 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4891 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4892 the declared rules.
  4893 
  4894 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4895 
  4896   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4897 
  4898 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4899 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4900 
  4901 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4902 
  4903   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4904 
  4905   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4906     definitions on => and bool.
  4907 
  4908   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4909     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4910     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4911 
  4912       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4913       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4914       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4915       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4916       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4917       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4918       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4919       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4920 
  4921   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4922     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4923     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4924 
  4925   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4926     The proof pattern
  4927 
  4928       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4929       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4930 
  4931     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4932     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4933 
  4934       have "EX S. P S"
  4935       proof
  4936         show "P S" <...>
  4937       qed
  4938 
  4939   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4940     The proof pattern
  4941 
  4942       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4943       also have "S = T" <...>
  4944       finally have "P T" .
  4945 
  4946     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4947     must be replaced by something like
  4948 
  4949       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4950       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4951       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4952 
  4953   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4954     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4955 
  4956       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4957 
  4958     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4959     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4960     type of the form
  4961 
  4962       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4963 
  4964     rather than
  4965 
  4966       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4967 
  4968 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4969 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4970 
  4971 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4972 
  4973 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4974 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4976 
  4977 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4978 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4979 
  4980 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4981 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4982 
  4983 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4984 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4985 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4986 
  4987 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4988 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4989 
  4990   less_trans
  4991   less_linear
  4992   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4993   le_less_trans
  4994   less_le_trans
  4995   less_not_sym
  4996   less_asym
  4997 
  4998 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4999 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5000 and different variable names.
  5001 
  5002 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5003 
  5004 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5005 finite maps.
  5006 
  5007 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5008 
  5009 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5010 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5011 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5012 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5013 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5014 accordingly.
  5015 
  5016 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5017 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5018 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5019 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5020 
  5021 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5022 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5023 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5024 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5025 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5027 
  5028 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5029 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5030 
  5031 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5032 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5033 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5034 
  5035 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5036 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5037 
  5038 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5039 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5040 
  5041 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5042 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5043 
  5044 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5045 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5046 
  5047 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5048 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5050 
  5051 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5052 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5053 
  5054 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5055 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5056 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5057 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5058 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5059 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5060 
  5061 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5062 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5063 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5064 
  5065 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5066 
  5067 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5068 
  5069 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5070 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5071 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5072 
  5073 
  5074 *** ZF ***
  5075 
  5076 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5077 same session:
  5078 
  5079   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5080   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5081   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5082   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5083   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5084   List      -> List_ZF
  5085   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5086 
  5087 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5088 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5089 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5090 
  5091 
  5092 *** ML ***
  5093 
  5094 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5095 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5096 
  5097 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5098 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5099 
  5100 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5101 
  5102 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5103 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5104 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5105 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5106 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5107 
  5108 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5109 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5110 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5111 
  5112 
  5113 *** System ***
  5114 
  5115 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5116 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5117 
  5118 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5119 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5120 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5121 
  5122 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5123 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5124 
  5125 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5126 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5127 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5128 
  5129 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5130 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5131 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5132 
  5133 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5134 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5135 
  5136 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5137 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5138 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5139 script.
  5140 
  5141 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5142 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5143 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5144 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5145 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5146 
  5147 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5148 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5149 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5150 
  5151 
  5152 
  5153 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5154 -----------------------------------
  5155 
  5156 *** General ***
  5157 
  5158 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5159 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5160 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5161 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5162 
  5163 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5164 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5165 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5166 
  5167 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5168 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5169 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5170 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5171 
  5172 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5173 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5174 quotes.
  5175 
  5176 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5177 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5178 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5179 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5180 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5181 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5182 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5183 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5184 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5185 
  5186 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5187 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5188 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5189 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5190 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5191 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5192 
  5193 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5194 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5195 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5196 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5197 
  5198 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5199 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5200 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5201 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5202 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5203 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5204 
  5205 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5206 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5207 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5208 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5209 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5210 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5211 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5212 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5213 
  5214 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5215 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5216 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5217 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5218 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5219 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5220 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5221 
  5222 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5223 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5224 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5225 
  5226 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5227 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5228 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5229 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5230 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5231 limit is imposed.
  5232 
  5233 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5234 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5235 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5236 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5237 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5238 and scalability.
  5239 
  5240 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5241 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5242 
  5243 
  5244 *** Document preparation ***
  5245 
  5246 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5247 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5248 current context.
  5249 
  5250 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5251 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5252 
  5253 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5254 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5255 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5256 
  5257 
  5258 *** Pure ***
  5259 
  5260 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5261 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5262 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5263 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5264 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5265 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5266 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5267 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5268 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5269 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5270 
  5271 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5272 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5273 sketch:
  5274 
  5275     internal compilation:
  5276         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5277     writing SML code to a file:
  5278         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5279     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5280         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5281     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5282         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5283 
  5284     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5285         method ``eval''
  5286 
  5287 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5288 
  5289 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5290 
  5291     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5292     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5293     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5294     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5295 
  5296 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5297 
  5298     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5299       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5300 
  5301     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5302       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5303 
  5304     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5305       {(target)}+
  5306         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5307 
  5308     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5309       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5310         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5311 
  5312 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5313 
  5314 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5315 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5316 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5317 codegen".
  5318 
  5319 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5320 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5321 annotations).
  5322 
  5323 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5324 syntax.
  5325 
  5326 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5327 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5328 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5329 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5330 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5331 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5332 
  5333 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5334 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5335 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5336 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5337 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5338 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5339 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5340 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5341 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5342 equations, see section "definitions".
  5343 
  5344 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5345 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5346 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5347 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5348 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5349 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5350 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5351 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5352 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5353 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5354 
  5355 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5356 configuration options:
  5357 
  5358   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5359   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5360   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5361   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5362   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5363   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5364   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5365   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5366   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5367 
  5368 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5369 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5370 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5371 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5372 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5373 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5374 order.
  5375 
  5376 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5377 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5378 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5379 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5380 context encountered later on.
  5381 
  5382 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5383 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5384 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5385 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5386 
  5387 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5388 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5389 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5390 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5391 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5392 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5393 
  5394 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5395 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5396 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5397 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5398 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5399 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5400 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5401 more permissive.
  5402 
  5403 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5404 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5405 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5406 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5407 maintainability of proof texts.
  5408 
  5409 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5410 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5411 
  5412   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5413   then guess x and y by clarify
  5414 
  5415 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5416 proof tools being involved here.
  5417 
  5418 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5419 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5420 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5421 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5422 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5423 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5424 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5425 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5426 
  5427 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5428 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5429 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5430 
  5431   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5432   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5433   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5434   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5435 
  5436 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5437 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5438 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5439 
  5440 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5441 both named and unnamed ones.
  5442 
  5443 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5444 
  5445   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5446 
  5447 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5448 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5449 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5450 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5451 
  5452 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5453 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5454 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5455 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5456 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5457 
  5458 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5459 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5460 
  5461 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5462 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5463 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5464 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5465 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5466 originally first one.
  5467 
  5468 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5469 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5470 expected.
  5471 
  5472 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5473 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5474 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5475 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5476 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5477 
  5478   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5479     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5480     obtains x where "P x"
  5481 
  5482   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5483     assumes "A & B"
  5484     obtains A and B
  5485 
  5486   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5487     assumes "A | B"
  5488     obtains
  5489       A
  5490     | B
  5491 
  5492 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5493 explicitly:
  5494 
  5495   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5496     obtains "~ thesis"
  5497 
  5498   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5499     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5500 
  5501 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5502 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5503 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5504 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5505 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5506 case_names).
  5507 
  5508 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5509 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5510 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5511 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5512 
  5513 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5514 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5515 top-level lemma.
  5516 
  5517 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5518 introduction rule (default "that").
  5519 
  5520 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5521 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5522 to occur.
  5523 
  5524 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5525 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5526 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5527 representations independently of name spaces.
  5528 
  5529 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5530 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5531 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5532 
  5533 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5534 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5535 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5536 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5537 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5538 current context.
  5539 
  5540 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5541 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5542 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5543 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5544 
  5545   axiomatization
  5546     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5547     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5548 
  5549   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5550   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5551 
  5552   abbreviation
  5553     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5554     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5555 
  5556 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5557 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5558 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5559 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5560 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5561 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5562 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5563 
  5564 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5565 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5566 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5567 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5568 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5569 
  5570 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5571 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5572 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5573 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5574 
  5575 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5576 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5577 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5578 
  5579   definition "K x _ = x"
  5580 
  5581   inductive conj for A B
  5582   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5583 
  5584 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5585 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5586 abbreviations on output.
  5587 
  5588 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5589 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5590 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5591 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5592 
  5593 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5594 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5595 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5596 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5597 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5598 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5599 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5600 
  5601 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5602 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5603 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5604 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5605 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5606 
  5607 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5608 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5609 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5610 
  5611 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5612 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5613 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5614 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5615 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5616 
  5617   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5618     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5619 
  5620 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5621 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5622 partial_order.
  5623 
  5624 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5625 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5626 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5627 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5628 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5629 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5630 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5631 examples.
  5632 
  5633 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5634 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5635 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5636 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5637 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5638 
  5639 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5640 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5641 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5642 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5643 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5644 
  5645   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5646   (induct set: foo bar)
  5647   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5648   (induct type: foo bar)
  5649 
  5650 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5651 new format.
  5652 
  5653 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5654 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5655 
  5656 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5657 considered a legacy feature.
  5658 
  5659 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5660 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5661 
  5662 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5663 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5664 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5665 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5666   
  5667 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5668 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5669 manipulating the claset.
  5670 
  5671 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5672 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5673 least one premise.
  5674 
  5675 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5676 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5677 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5678 rule steps.
  5679 
  5680 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5681 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5682 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5683 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5684 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5685 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5686 
  5687 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5688 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5689 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5690 
  5691 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5692 the graph browser tool.
  5693 
  5694 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5695 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5696 
  5697 
  5698 *** HOL ***
  5699 
  5700 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5701 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5702 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5703 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5704 multi-threading.
  5705   
  5706 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5707 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5708 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5709 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5710 work with multi-threading.
  5711 
  5712 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5713 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5714 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5715 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5716 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5717 
  5718 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5719 
  5720 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5721 equality.
  5722 
  5723 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5724 the new 'class' package:
  5725 
  5726     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5727     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5728     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5729     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5730     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5731     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5732     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5733     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5734     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5735     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5736     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5737     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5738     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5739     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5740     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5741     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5742     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5743     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5744     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5745     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5746 
  5747 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5748 
  5749 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5750 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5751 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5752 names.
  5753 
  5754 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5755 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5756 
  5757 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5758 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5759 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5760 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5761 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5762 
  5763 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5764 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5765 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5766 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5767 
  5768 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5769 
  5770 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5771 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5772 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5773 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5775 
  5776 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5777 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5778 
  5779 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5780 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5781 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5782 
  5783 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5784 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5785 
  5786 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5787 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5788 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5789 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5790 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5791 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5792 in the current context.
  5793 
  5794 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5795 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5797 
  5798 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5799 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5800 
  5801 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5802 
  5803     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5804     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5805 
  5806     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5807       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5808     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5809     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5810 
  5811     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5812     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5813 
  5814   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5815 
  5816     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5817     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5818     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5819     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5820     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5821     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5822     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5823     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5824     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5825     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5826     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5827     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5828     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5829     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5830     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5831     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5832     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5833     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5834     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5835     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5836     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5837     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5838     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5839     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5840     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5841     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5842     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5843     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5844     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5845     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5846     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5847     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5848     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5849     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5850     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5851 
  5852     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5853     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5854     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5855     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5856     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5857     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5858     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5859     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5860     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5861     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5862     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5863     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5864     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5865     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5866     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5867     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5868     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5869 
  5870     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5871     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5872     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5873     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5874     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5875     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5876     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5877     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5878     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5879     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5880     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5881     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5882     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5883     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5884     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5885     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5886     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5887     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5888     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5889     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5890     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5891     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5892     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5893     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5894     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5895     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5896     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5897     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5898 
  5899     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5900     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5901     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5902     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5903     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5904     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5905 
  5906     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5907     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5908     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5909     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5910 
  5911     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5912     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5913 
  5914     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5915     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5916 
  5917 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5918 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5919 
  5920 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5921 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5922 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5923 "*.size".
  5924 
  5925 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5927 
  5928 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5929 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5930 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5931 
  5932 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5933 
  5934 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5935 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5936 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5937 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5938 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5939 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5940 numerals on all operations.
  5941 
  5942 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5943 
  5944 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5945 
  5946 * Code generator library theories:
  5947   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5948     languages.
  5949   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5950     languages.
  5951   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5952     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5953   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5954   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5955     denominator).
  5956   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5957     representable by rational numbers.
  5958   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5959     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5960     includes Code_Integer.
  5961   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5962     target-language built-in integers.
  5963   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5964     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5965 
  5966 * New package for inductive predicates
  5967 
  5968   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5969 
  5970     inductive
  5971       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5972       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5973     where
  5974       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5975     | ...
  5976 
  5977   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5978 
  5979     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5980 
  5981     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5982     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5983 
  5984     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5985     intros
  5986       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5987       ...
  5988 
  5989   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5990   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5991 
  5992     inductive_set
  5993       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5994       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5995     where
  5996       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5997     | ...
  5998 
  5999   or
  6000 
  6001     inductive_set
  6002       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6003       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6004       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6005     where
  6006       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6007     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6008     | ...
  6009 
  6010   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  6011 
  6012   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  6013   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  6014 
  6015   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6016 
  6017   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6018     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6019     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6020     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6021     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6022 
  6023   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6024     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6025     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6026     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6027     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6028     statements of the form
  6029 
  6030       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6031 
  6032     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6033     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6034 
  6035       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6036 
  6037   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6038 
  6039       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6040         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6041         ==> ... ==> P
  6042 
  6043     for predicates and
  6044 
  6045       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6046         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6047         ==> ... ==> P
  6048 
  6049     for sets rather than
  6050 
  6051       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6052         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6053         ==> ... ==> P
  6054 
  6055     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6056     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6057     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6058 
  6059   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6060     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6061     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6062 
  6063 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6064 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6065 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6066 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6067 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6068 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6069 
  6070 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6071 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6072 
  6073 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6074 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6075 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6076 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6077 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6078 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6079 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6080 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6081 variable.
  6082 
  6083 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6084 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6085 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6086 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6087   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6088   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6089 
  6090 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6091 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6092 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6093 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6094 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6095 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6096 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6097 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6098 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6099 
  6100 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6101 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6102 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6103 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6104 rat, etc.
  6105 
  6106 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6107 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6108 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6109 
  6110 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6111 
  6112 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6113 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6114 
  6115 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6116 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6117 
  6118 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6119 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6120 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6121 
  6122 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6123 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6125 
  6126 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6127 
  6128 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6129 
  6130 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6131 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6132 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6133 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6134 
  6135 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6136 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6137 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6138 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6139 
  6140 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6141 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6142 algebraic operations.
  6143 
  6144 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6146 
  6147 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6149 
  6150 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6151 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6152 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6153 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6154 adapted.
  6155  
  6156 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6157 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6158 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6159 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6160 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6161 
  6162 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6163 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6164 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6165 
  6166 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6167 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6168 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6169 
  6170 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6171 
  6172 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6173 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6174 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6175   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6176       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6177   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6178   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6179   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6180 
  6181 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6182 
  6183 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6184 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6185 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6186 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6187 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6188 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6189 
  6190 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6191 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6192 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6193 
  6194 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6195 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6196 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6198 
  6199 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6200 
  6201 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6202 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6203 
  6204 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6205 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6206 
  6207 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6208 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6209 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6210 
  6211 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6212 True/False.
  6213 
  6214 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6215 
  6216 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6217 
  6218 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6219 ``rule'' method.
  6220 
  6221 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6222 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6223 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6224 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6225 
  6226 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6227 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6228 
  6229 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6230 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6231 
  6232 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6233 Library.
  6234 
  6235 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6236 
  6237 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6238 as greatest fixed-point.
  6239 
  6240 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6241 association lists.
  6242 
  6243 * Method "evalu