NEWS
author wenzelm
Mon Feb 10 22:08:18 2014 +0100 (2014-02-10)
changeset 55385 169e12bbf9a3
parent 55316 885500f4aa6a
child 55425 7a3e78ee813b
permissions -rw-r--r--
discontinued axiomatic 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities';
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.
    25 
    26 
    27 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    28 
    29 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    30 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    31 
    32 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    33 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    34 
    35 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    36 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    37 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    38 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    39 
    40 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    41 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    42 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    43 
    44 
    45 *** Pure ***
    46 
    47 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    48 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    49 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    50 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    51 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    52 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    53 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    54 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    55 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    56 
    57 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    58 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    59 instantiated theorem.
    60 
    61 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    62 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    63 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    64 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    65 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    66 
    67   attribute_setup standard =
    68     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    69 
    70 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    71 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    72 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    73 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    74 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    75 
    76 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    77 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    78 differently).
    79 
    80 
    81 *** HOL ***
    82 
    83 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
    84 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    85 
    86 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
    87   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
    88   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
    89   "Main".
    90   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    91   Theory renamings:
    92     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
    93     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
    94     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
    95     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
    96     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
    97     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
    98     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
    99     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   100     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   101     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   102     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   103     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   104     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   105     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   106     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   107     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   108     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   109     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   110     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   111     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   112     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   113     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   114   New theories:
   115     List_Prefix.thy (split from Library/Sublist.thy)
   116     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   117     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   118     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   119     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   120     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   121   Discontinued theory:
   122     BNF/BNF.thy
   123     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   124 
   125 * New theory:
   126     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   127 
   128 * Theory reorganizations:
   129   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   130 
   131 * Sledgehammer:
   132   - New option:
   133       smt_proofs
   134   - Renamed options:
   135       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   136       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   137     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   138 
   139 * Metis:
   140   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   141     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   142 
   143 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   144 
   145 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   146 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   147 
   148 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   149 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   150 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   151 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   152 
   153 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155 
   156 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   157 with the given constants.
   158 
   159 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   160 
   161 Fact consolidations:
   162     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   163     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   164     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   165     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   166     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   167     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   168     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   169     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   170     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   171     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   172     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   173     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   174     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   175     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   176     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   177     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   178     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   179     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   180     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   181     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   182     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   183     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   184     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   185     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   186     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   187     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   188     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   189     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   190     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   191     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   192     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   193     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   194     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   195     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   196     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   197     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   198     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   199     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   200     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   201     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   202 
   203 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   204 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   205 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   206 
   207 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   208 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   209 
   210 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   211 
   212 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   213 
   214 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216 
   217 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   219 
   220 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   221 operations on records.
   222 
   223 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   227     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   229 
   230 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   231     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   232     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   234 
   235 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   236   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   237   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   238   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   239     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   240   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   241     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   242   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   243 INCOMPATBILITY.
   244 
   245 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   246     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   247     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   248     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   249     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   251 
   252 * Fact name consolidation:
   253     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   254     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   255     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   256     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   257     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259 
   260 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   261 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   262 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   263 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   264 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   265 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   266 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   267 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   268 
   269 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   270 
   271 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   272 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   273 
   274 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   275 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   276 
   277 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   278 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   279 or the brute way with
   280 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   281 
   282 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   283 
   284 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   285 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   286 
   287 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   288 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   289 
   290 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   291 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   292 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   293 INCOMPATIBILITY
   294 
   295 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   296 
   297 * Nitpick:
   298   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   299     infinite values.
   300 
   301 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   302   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   303   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   304     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   305     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   306     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   307     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   308     intervals.
   309 
   310 
   311 *** ML ***
   312 
   313 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   314 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   315 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   316 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   317 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   318 of schematic variables.
   319 
   320 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   321 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   323 formal context.
   324 
   325 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   326 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   327 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   328 actually belongs to it).
   329 
   330 
   331 *** System ***
   332 
   333 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   334 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   335 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   336 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   337 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   338 
   339 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   340 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   341 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   342 
   343 
   344 
   345 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   346 -------------------------------------
   347 
   348 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   349 
   350 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   351 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   352 
   353 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   354 after edits surrounding the command location.
   355 
   356 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   357 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   358 e.g. out-of-memory).
   359 
   360 
   361 *** System ***
   362 
   363 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   364 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   365 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   366 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   367 
   368 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   369 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   370 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   371 
   372 
   373 
   374 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   375 -------------------------------------
   376 
   377 *** General ***
   378 
   379 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   380 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   381 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   382 
   383 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   384 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   385 
   386 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   387 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   388 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   389 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   390 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   391 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   392 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   393 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   394 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   395 syntax.
   396 
   397 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   398 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   399 
   400 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   401 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   402 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   403 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   404 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   405 
   406 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   408 
   409 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   410 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   411 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   412 
   413 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   414 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   415 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   416 
   417 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   418 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   419 
   420 
   421 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   422 
   423 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   424 Documentation panel.
   425 
   426 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   427 documentation.
   428 
   429 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   430 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   431 
   432 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   433 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   434 normal editing and checking process.
   435 
   436 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   437 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   438 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   439 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   440 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   441 
   442 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   443 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   444 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   445 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   446 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   447 
   448 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   449 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   450 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   451 
   452 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   453 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   454 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   455 to resolve conflict.
   456 
   457 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   458 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   459 
   460 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   461 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   462 such command executions while editing.
   463 
   464 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   465 document content.
   466 
   467 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   468 toplevel theorem statements.
   469 
   470 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   471 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   472 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   473 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   474 
   475 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   476 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   477 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   478 
   479 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   480 / Global Options / Appearance".
   481 
   482 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   483 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   484 
   485 
   486 *** Pure ***
   487 
   488 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   489 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   490 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   491 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   492 details.
   493 
   494 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   495 
   496 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   497 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   498 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   499 
   500 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   502 
   503 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   504 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   505 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   506 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   507 
   508 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   509 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   510 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   511 
   512 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   513 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   514 
   515 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   516 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   517 situations.
   518 
   519 
   520 *** HOL ***
   521 
   522 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   523 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   525 
   526 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   527 
   528 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   529 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   530 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   531 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   532 
   533   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   534 
   535 * Code generator:
   536   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   537     'code_instance'.
   538   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   539     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   540 
   541 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   542 examples.
   543 
   544 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   545 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   546 to distinguish both when desired.
   547 
   548 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   549 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   550 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   551 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   552 
   553 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   554 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   555 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   556 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   557 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   558 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   559 
   560 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   561 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   562 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   563 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   564 
   565 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   566 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   567 
   568 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   569 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   570 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   571 
   572 * Lifting:
   573   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   574     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   575       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   576       transfer rules
   577     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   578       correspondence relation can be generated
   579     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   580       parametricity
   581     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   582   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   583   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   584     copies
   585   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   586     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   587     anonymous context)
   588   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   589     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   590   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   591     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   592   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   593     INCOMPATIBILITY
   594 
   595 * Transfer:
   596   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   597     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   598   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   599   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   600     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   601   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   602 
   603 * Reification and reflection:
   604   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   605     "Reification".
   606   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   607   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   608 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   609 
   610 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   611   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   612     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   613     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   614   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   615     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   616   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   617     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   618     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   619     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   620     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   621     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   622     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   623     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   624   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   625     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   626   - Fact renames:
   627       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   628       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   630 
   631 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   632 
   633 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   634 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   635 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   637 
   638 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   639 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   640 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   641 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   642 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   643 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   644 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   645 lemmas.
   646 
   647 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   648 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   649 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   650 
   651 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   652 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   653 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   654 
   655 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   656 top and bottom elements.
   657 
   658 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   659 
   660 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   661 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   662 
   663  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   664    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   665    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   666 
   667  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   668    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   669    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   670 
   671    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   672    arbitrary filter.
   673 
   674  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   675    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   676    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   677    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   678    on a compact set.
   679 
   680  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   681    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   682    linear_continuum_topology).
   683 
   684  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   685    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   686    on all sequences converging to x.
   687 
   688  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   689    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   690    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   691    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   692    left or right.
   693 
   694  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   695 
   696      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   697 
   698  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   699    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   700 
   701  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   702    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   703    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   704    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   705    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   706    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   707 
   708  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   709 
   710    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   711 
   712    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   713      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   714 
   715    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   716 
   717    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   718      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   719 
   720    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   721 
   722    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   723 
   724  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   725 
   726 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   727 
   728 * Nitpick:
   729   - Added option "spy"
   730   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   731 
   732 * Sledgehammer:
   733   - Renamed option:
   734       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   735     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   736   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   737   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   738   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   739 
   740 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   741 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   742 
   743 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   744   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   745   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   746     generated code.
   747   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   748   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   749   - Fact renames:
   750     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   751     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   752     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   753 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   754 
   755 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   756 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   757 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   758 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   759 
   760 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   761 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   762 
   763 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   764 
   765 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   766 
   767     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   768     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   769 
   770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 
   772 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   773 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   774 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   775 
   776 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   777 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   778 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   779 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   780 
   781 * HOL-BNF:
   782   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   783     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   784     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   785     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   786   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   787     coinduct).
   788   - Renamed keywords:
   789     data ~> datatype_new
   790     codata ~> codatatype
   791     bnf_def ~> bnf
   792   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   793     discs ~> disc
   794     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   795     map_id' ~> map_id
   796     sels ~> sel
   797     set_map' ~> set_map
   798     sets ~> set
   799 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   800 
   801 
   802 *** ML ***
   803 
   804 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   805 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   806 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   807 Examples.thy in particular.
   808 
   809 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   810 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   811 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   812 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   813 
   814 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   815 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   816 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   817 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   818 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   819 
   820 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   821 
   822     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   823     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   824 
   825 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   826 
   827 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   828 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   829 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   830 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   831 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   832 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   833 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   834 
   835 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   836 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   837 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   838 clasets separately from the context.
   839 
   840 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   841 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   842 
   843 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   844 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   845 
   846 
   847 *** System ***
   848 
   849 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   850 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   851 
   852 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   853 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   854 
   855 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   856 settings variable.
   857 
   858 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   859 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   860 always pdf.
   861 
   862 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   863 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   864 
   865 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   866 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   867 
   868 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   869 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   870 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   871 
   872 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   873 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   874 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   875 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   876 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   877 for HTML presentation of theories.
   878 
   879 
   880 
   881 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   882 -----------------------------------
   883 
   884 *** General ***
   885 
   886 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   887 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   888 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   889 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   890 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   891 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   892 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   893 
   894 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   895 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   896 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   897 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   898 
   899 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   900 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   901 
   902 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   903 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   904 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   905 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   906 dependencies properly.
   907 
   908 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   909 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   910 
   911 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   912 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   913 
   914 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   915 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   916 and "class ... context ...".
   917 
   918 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   919 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   920 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   921 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   922 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   923 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   924 
   925 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   926 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   927 
   928 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   929 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   930 
   931 
   932 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   933 
   934 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   935 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   936 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   937 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   938 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   939 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   940 
   941 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   942 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   943 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   944 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   945 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   946 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   947 
   948 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   949 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   950 browser on demand.
   951 
   952 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   953 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   954 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   955 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   956 
   957 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   958 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   959 
   960 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   961 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   962 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   963 potentially infinite message streams.
   964 
   965 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   966 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   967 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   968 schemes.
   969 
   970 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   971 symbols.
   972 
   973 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   974 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   975 
   976 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   977 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   978 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   979 
   980 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   981 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   982 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   983 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   984 
   985 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   986 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   987 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   988 
   989 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   990 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   991 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   992 Isabelle distribution.
   993 
   994 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   995 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   996 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   997 
   998 
   999 *** Pure ***
  1000 
  1001 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1002 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1003 
  1004 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1005 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1006 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1007 
  1008 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1009 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1010 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1011 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1012 with some care where this is really required.
  1013 
  1014 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1015 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1016 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1017 
  1018   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1019 
  1020 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1021 a Hasse diagram.
  1022 
  1023 
  1024 *** HOL ***
  1025 
  1026 * Sledgehammer:
  1027 
  1028   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1029     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1030   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1031   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1032   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1033   - Renamed options:
  1034       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1035       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1036       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1037       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1038 
  1039 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1040 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1041 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1042 
  1043 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1044 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1045 
  1046 * Lifting:
  1047   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1048   - quot_del attribute
  1049   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1050 
  1051 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1052 expressions.
  1053 
  1054 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1055 pointfree expressions.
  1056 
  1057 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1058 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1059 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1060 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1062 
  1063 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1064 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1065 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1066 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1067 accordingly.
  1068 
  1069 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1070 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1071 
  1072 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1073 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1074 
  1075 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1076 
  1077 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1078 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1079 
  1080 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1081 
  1082 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1083 
  1084   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1085   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1086 
  1087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1088 
  1089 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1090 
  1091   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1092   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1093 
  1094 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1095 
  1096 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1097 
  1098   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1099     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1100     output f x converges to G.
  1101 
  1102   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1103     infinity (at_bot).
  1104 
  1105   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1106     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1107 
  1108   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1109     at_top".
  1110 
  1111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1112 
  1113 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1114 lattice type classes.
  1115 
  1116 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1117 
  1118     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1119     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1120 
  1121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1122 
  1123 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1124 changes as follows.
  1125 
  1126   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1127 
  1128       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1129       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1130 
  1131   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1132     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1133     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1134     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1135 
  1136   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1137     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1138     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1139 
  1140   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1141     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1142     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1143     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1144 
  1145   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1146     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1147 
  1148       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1149       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1150       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1151       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1152       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1153       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1154       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1155       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1156       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1157       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1158       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1159       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1160       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1161       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1162       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1163       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1164 
  1165 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1166 
  1167 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1168 
  1169 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1170 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1171 
  1172 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1173 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1174 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1175 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1176 
  1177   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1178   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1179   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1180   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1181   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1182   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1183   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1184   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1185   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1186   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1187 
  1188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1189 
  1190 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1191 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1192 Data").
  1193 
  1194 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1195 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1196 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1197 code.
  1198 
  1199 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1200 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1201 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1203 
  1204 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1205 
  1206 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1207 
  1208 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1209 
  1210   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1211   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1212 
  1213 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1214 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1215 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1216 
  1217   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1218 
  1219     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1220     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1221     cart_base i  removed
  1222     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1223 
  1224   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1225 
  1226   Renamed lemmas:
  1227 
  1228     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1229     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1230     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1231     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1232     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1233     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1234     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1235     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1236     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1237     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1238 
  1239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1240 
  1241 * HOL/Probability:
  1242 
  1243   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1244 
  1245   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1246     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1247     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1248 
  1249   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1250     projective family).
  1251 
  1252 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1253 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1254 
  1255 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1256 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1257 datatypes.
  1258 
  1259 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1260 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1261 
  1262 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1263 trees for the code generator.
  1264 
  1265 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1266 Lifting/Transfer.
  1267 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1268 
  1269 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1270 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1271 
  1272 
  1273 *** Document preparation ***
  1274 
  1275 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1276 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1277 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1278 
  1279 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1280 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1281 
  1282 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1283 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1284 document/root.tex.
  1285 
  1286 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1287 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1288 
  1289 
  1290 *** ML ***
  1291 
  1292 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1293 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1294 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1295 
  1296 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1297 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1298 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1299 
  1300 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1301 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1302 necessarily printing visible text.
  1303 
  1304 
  1305 *** System ***
  1306 
  1307 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1308 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1309 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1310 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1311 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1312 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1313 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1314 
  1315 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1316 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1317 
  1318   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1319 
  1320 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1321 
  1322 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1323 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1324 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1325 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1326 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1327 
  1328 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1329 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1330 
  1331 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1332 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1333 
  1334 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1336 
  1337 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1338 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1339 version of Isabelle.
  1340 
  1341 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1342 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1343 
  1344 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1345 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1346 for home-made settings.
  1347 
  1348 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1349 
  1350 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1351 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1352 configuration.
  1353 
  1354 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1355 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1356 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1357 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1358 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1359 
  1360 
  1361 
  1362 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1363 ------------------------------
  1364 
  1365 *** General ***
  1366 
  1367 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1368 
  1369   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1370     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1371   - markup for bound variables
  1372   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1373   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1374   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1375     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1376 
  1377 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1378 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1379 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1380 
  1381 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1382 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1383 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1384 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1385 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1386 
  1387   context
  1388     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1389     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1390   begin
  1391 
  1392   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1393 
  1394   end
  1395 
  1396   thm my_trans
  1397 
  1398 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1399 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1400 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1401 
  1402 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1403 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1404 
  1405 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1406 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1407 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1408 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1409 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1410 
  1411 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1412 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1413 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1414 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1415 indices of schematic variables.
  1416 
  1417 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1418 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1419 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1420 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1421 etc. was exploited.
  1422 
  1423 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1424 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1425 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1426 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1427 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1428 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1429 
  1430 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1431 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1432 manual.
  1433 
  1434 
  1435 *** Pure ***
  1436 
  1437 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1438 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1439 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1440 
  1441 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1442 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1443 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1444 undocumented feature.)
  1445 
  1446 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1447 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1448 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1449 
  1450   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1451 
  1452   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1453     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1454 
  1455 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1456 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1457 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1458 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1459 
  1460 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1461 
  1462     num ~> num_token
  1463     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1464     xstr ~> str_token
  1465 
  1466 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1467 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1468 position information via constraints).
  1469 
  1470 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1471 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1472 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1473 
  1474 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1475 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1476 
  1477 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1478 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1479 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1480 
  1481 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1482 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483 
  1484 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1485 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1486 
  1487   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1488 
  1489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1490 
  1491 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1492 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1493 
  1494 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1495 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1496 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1497 
  1498 
  1499 *** HOL ***
  1500 
  1501 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1502 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1503 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1504 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1505 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1506 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1507 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1508 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1509 possible.
  1510 
  1511 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1512 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1513 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1514 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1515 
  1516 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1517 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1518 
  1519 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1520 
  1521 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1522 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1523 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1524 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1525 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1526 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1527 
  1528   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1529     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1530 
  1531   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1532     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1533     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1534 
  1535   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1536     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1537 
  1538   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1539     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1540     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1541 
  1542   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1543     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1544 
  1545 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1546 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1547 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1548 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1549 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1550 
  1551   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1552     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1553     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1554     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1555     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1556 
  1557     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1558     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1559 
  1560   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1561     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1562     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1563     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1564     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1565     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1566     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1567     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1568 
  1569   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1570     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1571     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1572     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1573 
  1574   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1575     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1576     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1577     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1578 
  1579   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1580     from type nat to type int.
  1581 
  1582 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1583 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1584 
  1585   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1586     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1587     type.  Example syntax:
  1588 
  1589     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1590       is List.insert
  1591 
  1592     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1593     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1594     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1595     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1596     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1597     by the package.
  1598 
  1599   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1600     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1601     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1602     code generation for each constant.
  1603 
  1604   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1605     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1606     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1607     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1608     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1609 
  1610   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1611     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1612     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1613 
  1614 * Quotient package:
  1615 
  1616   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1617     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1618 
  1619   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1620     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1621 
  1622   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1623     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1624     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1625 
  1626   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1627     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1628 
  1629 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1630 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1631 
  1632 * Quickcheck:
  1633 
  1634   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1635     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1636     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1637     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1638     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1639 
  1640     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1641     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1642     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1643 
  1644     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1645     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1646 
  1647     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1648     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1649     show genuine counterexamples.
  1650 
  1651   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1652     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1653 
  1654     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1655     constructors of that type.
  1656 
  1657   - Support for multisets.
  1658 
  1659   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1660 
  1661   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1662     conjectures in a locale context.
  1663 
  1664 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1665 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1666 
  1667 * Sledgehammer:
  1668   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1669     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1670   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1671   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1672     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1673   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1674   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1675   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1676   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1677 
  1678 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1679 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1680 
  1681 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1682 
  1683 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1686 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1687 
  1688   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1689 
  1690 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1691 a list and a nat.
  1692 
  1693 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1694 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1695 
  1696 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1697 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1698 default.
  1699 
  1700 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1701 
  1702   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1703 
  1704 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1705 
  1706 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1707 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1708 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1709 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1710 one_case.
  1711 
  1712 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1713 the result of the fact expression.
  1714 
  1715 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1716 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1717 of some relation theorems:
  1718 
  1719   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1720   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1721   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1722   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1723   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1724   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1725 
  1726 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1727 
  1728 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1729 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1730 
  1731 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1732 
  1733 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1734 to match the constant's name:
  1735 
  1736   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1737   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1738   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1739   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1740   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1741   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1742   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1743   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1744   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1745   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1746   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1747   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1748   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1749   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1750   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1751   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1752   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1753   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1754   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1755   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1756   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1757   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1758   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1759   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1760 
  1761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1762 
  1763 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1764 and corresponding theorem names:
  1765 
  1766   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1767 
  1768   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1769 
  1770   - Renamed theorems:
  1771 
  1772     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1773     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1774     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1775     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1776     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1777     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1778     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1779     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1780     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1781     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1782     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1783     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1784     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1785     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1786     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1787     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1788     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1789     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1790     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1791     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1792     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1793     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1794     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1795 
  1796     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1797 
  1798     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1799 
  1800 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1801 
  1802 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1803 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1804 
  1805   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1806   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1807   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1808   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1809   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1810   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1811   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1812   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1813   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1814   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1815   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1816   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1817   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1818   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1819   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1820   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1821   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1822   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1823   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1824   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1825   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1826 
  1827 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1828 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1829 
  1830 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1831 
  1832 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1833 
  1834   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1835   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1836   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1837   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1838   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1839   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1840   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1841   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1842   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1843   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1844   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1845   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1846   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1847   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1848   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1849   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1850   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1851   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1852 
  1853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1854 
  1855 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1856 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1857 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1858 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1859 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1860 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1861 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1862 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1863 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1864 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1865 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1866 
  1867 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1868 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1869 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1870 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1871 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1872 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1873 
  1874 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1875 through option types.
  1876 
  1877 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1878 relations.
  1879 
  1880 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1881 
  1882 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1883 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1884 
  1885   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1886   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1887   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1888   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1889   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1890   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1891   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1892   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1893   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1894   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1895   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1896   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1897   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1898   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1899   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1900   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1901   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1902   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1903   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1904   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1905   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1906   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1907   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1908   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1909   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1910   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1911   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1912   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1913   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1914   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1915   zless_le ~> less_le
  1916   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1917   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1918   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1919 
  1920 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1921 
  1922   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1923 
  1924 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1925 
  1926 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1927 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1928 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1929 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1931 
  1932 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1933 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1934 
  1935 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1936 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1937 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1938 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1939 follows:
  1940 
  1941   Operations:
  1942   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1943   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1944   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1945   del -> rbt_del
  1946   delete -> rbt_delete
  1947   ins -> rbt_ins
  1948   insert -> rbt_insert
  1949   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1950   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1951   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1952   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1953   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1954   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1955   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1956   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1957   union -> rbt_union
  1958   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1959   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1960 
  1961   Lemmas:
  1962   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1963   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1964   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1965   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1966   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1967   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1968   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1969   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1970   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1971   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1972   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1973   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1974   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1975   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1976   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1977   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1978   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1979   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1980   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1981   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1982   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1983   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1984   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1985   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1986   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1987   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1988   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1989   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1990   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1991   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1992   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1993   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1994   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1995   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1996   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1997   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1998   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1999   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2000   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2001   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2002   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2003   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2004   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2005   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2006   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2007   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2008   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2009   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2010   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2011   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2012   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2013   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2014   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2015   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2016   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2017   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2018   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2019   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2020   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2021   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2022   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2023   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2024   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2025   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2026   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2027   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2028   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2029   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2030   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2031   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2032   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2033   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2034   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2035   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2036   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2037   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2038   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2039   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2040   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2041   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2042   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2043   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2044   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2045 
  2046 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2047 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2048 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2049 
  2050   Changed Operations:
  2051   float_abs -> abs
  2052   float_nprt -> nprt
  2053   float_pprt -> pprt
  2054   pow2 -> use powr
  2055   round_down -> float_round_down
  2056   round_up -> float_round_up
  2057   scale -> exponent
  2058 
  2059   Removed Operations:
  2060   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2061 
  2062   Renamed Lemmas:
  2063   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2064   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2065   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2066   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2067   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2068   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2069   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2070   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2071   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2072   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2073   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2074   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2075   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2076   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2077   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2078   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2079   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2080   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2081   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2082   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2083   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2084   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2085   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2086   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2087   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2088   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2089   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2090   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2091   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2092   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2093   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2094   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2095   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2096   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2097   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2098   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2099 
  2100   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2101   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2102   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2103   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2104   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2105   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2106   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2107   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2108   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2109   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2110 
  2111 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2112 association lists with distinct keys.
  2113 
  2114 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2115 annotated commands.
  2116 
  2117 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2118 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2119 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2120 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2121 
  2122 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2123 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2124 instead.
  2125 
  2126   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2127   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2128   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2129   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2130   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2131   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2132   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2133   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2134   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2135   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2136   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2137   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2138   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2139   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2140   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2141   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2142   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2143   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2144   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2145   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2146   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2147   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2148   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2149   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2150   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2151   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2152   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2153   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2154   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2155   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2156   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2157   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2158   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2159   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2160   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2161   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2162   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2163   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2164   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2165   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2166   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2167 
  2168 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2169 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2170 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2171 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2172 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2173 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2174 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2175 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2176 
  2177 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2178 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2179 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2180 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2181 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2182 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2183 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2184 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2185 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2186 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2187 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2188 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2189 
  2190   Renamed constants:
  2191   measure -> emeasure
  2192   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2193   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2194   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2195   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2196 
  2197   Removed locales:
  2198   completeable_measure_space
  2199   finite_measure_space
  2200   finite_prob_space
  2201   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2202   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2203   finite_sigma_algebra
  2204   measure_space
  2205   pair_finite_prob_space
  2206   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2207   pair_finite_space
  2208   pair_sigma_algebra
  2209   product_sigma_algebra
  2210 
  2211   Removed constants:
  2212   conditional_space
  2213   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2214   image_space
  2215   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2216   pair_measure_generator
  2217   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2218   subvimage
  2219 
  2220   Replacement theorems:
  2221   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2222   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2223   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2224   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2225   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2226   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2227   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2228   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2229   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2230   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2231   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2232   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2233   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2234   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2235   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2236   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2237   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2238   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2239   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2240   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2241   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2242   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2243   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2244   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2245   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2246   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2247   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2248   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2249   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2250   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2251   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2252   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2253   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2254   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2255   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2256   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2257   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2258   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2259   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2260   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2261   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2262   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2263   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2264   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2265   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2266   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2267   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2268   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2269   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2270   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2271   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2272   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2273   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2274   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2275   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2276   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2277   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2278   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2279   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2280   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2281   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2282   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2283   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2284   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2285   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2286   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2287   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2288   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2289   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2290   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2291   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2292   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2293   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2294   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2295   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2296   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2297   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2298   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2299   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2300   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2301   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2302   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2303   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2304   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2305   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2306   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2307   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2308   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2309   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2310   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2311   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2312   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2313   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2314   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2315   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2316   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2317   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2318   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2319   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2320   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2321   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2322   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2323   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2324   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2325   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2326   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2327   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2328   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2329   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2330   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2331   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2332   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2333   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2334   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2335   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2336   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2337   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2338   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2339   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2340   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2341   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2342   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2343   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2344   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2345   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2346   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2347   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2348   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2349 
  2350 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2351 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2352 
  2353 
  2354 *** FOL ***
  2355 
  2356 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2357 
  2358 
  2359 *** ZF ***
  2360 
  2361 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2362 analysis.
  2363 
  2364 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2365 
  2366 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2367 
  2368 
  2369 *** ML ***
  2370 
  2371 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2372 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2373 
  2374 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2375 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2376 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2377 
  2378 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2379 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2380 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2381 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2382 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2383 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2384 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2385 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2386 
  2387 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2388 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2389 
  2390 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2391 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2392 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2393 
  2394 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2395 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2396 
  2397 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2398 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2399 context as well.
  2400 
  2401 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2402 
  2403   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2404   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2405   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2406   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2407   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2408   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2409   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2410   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2411   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2412   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2413   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2414   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2415 
  2416 
  2417 *** System ***
  2418 
  2419 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2420 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2421 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2422 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2423 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2424 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2425 the generic user home was intended.
  2426 
  2427 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2428 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2429 
  2430 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2431 (not just JRE).
  2432 
  2433 
  2434 
  2435 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2436 ------------------------------------
  2437 
  2438 *** General ***
  2439 
  2440 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2441 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2442 
  2443   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2444     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2445     files for checking).
  2446 
  2447   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2448     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2449     positions.
  2450 
  2451   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2452     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2453     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2454 
  2455   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2456     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2457     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2458 
  2459   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2460     cores.
  2461 
  2462   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2463     versions (garbage collection).
  2464 
  2465 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2466 including some remaining limitations.
  2467 
  2468 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2469 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2470 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2471 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2472 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2473 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2474 
  2475 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2476 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2477 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2478 
  2479 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2480 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2481 usedir option -Q.
  2482 
  2483 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2484 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2485 
  2486   long_names   ~> names_long
  2487   short_names  ~> names_short
  2488   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2489 
  2490 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2491 
  2492   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2493 
  2494 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2495 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2496 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2497 
  2498 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2499 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2500 
  2501 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2502   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2503   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2504   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2505     "Classical Reasoner".
  2506 
  2507 
  2508 *** HOL ***
  2509 
  2510 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2511 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2512 
  2513 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2514 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2515 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2516 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2517 class complete_linorder.
  2518 
  2519 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2520 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2521 
  2522 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2523 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2524 
  2525   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2526   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2527   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2528   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2529   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2530   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2531   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2532   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2533   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2534   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2535   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2536 
  2537 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2538 
  2539   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2540   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2541   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2542   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2543   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2544   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2545   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2546   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2547   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2548   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2549   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2550   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2551   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2552   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2553   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2554   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2555 
  2556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2557 
  2558 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2559 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2560 
  2561 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2562 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2563 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2564 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2565 
  2566 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2567 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2568 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2570 
  2571 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2572 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2573 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2574 
  2575 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2576 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2577 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2578 
  2579 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2580 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2581 
  2582 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2583 
  2584     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2585     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2586 
  2587 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2588 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2589 
  2590 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2591 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2592 
  2593 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2594 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2595 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2596 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2597 
  2598   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2599   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2600   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2601   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2602   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2603   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2604   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2605 
  2606 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2607 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2608 
  2609   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2610   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2611   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2612   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2613   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2614   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2615   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2616   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2617   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2618   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2619   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2620   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2621   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2622   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2623   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2624   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2625   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2626   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2627   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2628   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2629   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2630   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2631   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2632   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2633   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2634   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2635   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2636   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2637   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2638   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2639   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2640   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2641   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2642   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2643   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2644   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2645   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2646   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2647   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2648   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2649   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2650   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2651   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2652   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2653   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2654   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2655   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2656   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2657   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2658   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2659   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2660   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2661   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2662   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2663   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2664   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2665   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2666   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2667   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2668   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2669   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2670   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2671   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2672   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2673   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2674   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2675   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2676   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2677   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2678   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2679   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2680   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2681   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2682   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2683   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2684   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2685   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2686   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2687   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2688   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2689   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2690   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2691 
  2692 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2693 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2694 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2695 
  2696 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2697 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2698 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2699 
  2700 * Code generation:
  2701 
  2702   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2703     characters in the target language.
  2704 
  2705   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2706     instead.
  2707 
  2708   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2709 
  2710   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2711     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2712 
  2713       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2714 
  2715 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2716 
  2717 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2718 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2719 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2720 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2721 syntax.
  2722 
  2723 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2724 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2725 
  2726 * Nitpick:
  2727   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2728   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2729   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2730     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2731 
  2732 * Sledgehammer:
  2733   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2734   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2735     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2736   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2737     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2738   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2739     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2740   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2741     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2742   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2743     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745 * Metis:
  2746   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2748     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2749 
  2750 * Command 'try':
  2751   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2752     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2753   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2754     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2755 
  2756 * Quickcheck:
  2757   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2758     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2759   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2760     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2761   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2762     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2763     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2764     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2765   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2766     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2767 
  2768 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2769 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2770 
  2771 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2772 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2773 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2774 
  2775 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2776 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2777 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2778 
  2779 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2780 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2781 
  2782 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2783 arithmetic.
  2784 
  2785 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2786 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2787 and lattice type classes.
  2788 
  2789 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2790 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2791 
  2792 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2793 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2794 
  2795 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2796 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2797 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2798 
  2799   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2800   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2801   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2802   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2803 
  2804 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2805 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2806 constants:
  2807 
  2808   type inat   ~> type enat
  2809   Fin         ~> enat
  2810   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2811   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2812   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2813 
  2814 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2815 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2816 
  2817 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2818 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2819 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2820 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2821 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2822 
  2823 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2824 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2825 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2826 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2827 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2828 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2829 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2830 
  2831   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2832   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2833   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2834   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2835 
  2836 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2837 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2838 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2839 
  2840   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2841   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2842   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2843   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2844   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2845   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2846   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2847   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2848   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2849   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2850   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2851   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2852   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2853   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2854   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2855   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2856   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2857   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2858   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2859   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2860   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2861   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2862   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2863   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2864   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2865   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2866   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2867   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2868   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2869   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2870   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2871   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2872   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2873   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2874   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2875   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2876   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2877   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2878   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2879   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2880   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2881   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2882   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2883   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2884   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2885   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2886   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2887   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2888   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2889   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2890   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2891 
  2892 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2893   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2894   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2895   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2896   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2897     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2898 
  2899 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2900 
  2901   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2902   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2903   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2904   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2905   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2906   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2907   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2908   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2909   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2910   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2911   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2912   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2913   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2914   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2915   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2916   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2917   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2918   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2919   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2920   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2921   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2922   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2923   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2924   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2925   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2926 
  2927 
  2928 *** Document preparation ***
  2929 
  2930 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2931 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2932 same.
  2933 
  2934 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2935 result.
  2936 
  2937 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2938 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2939 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2940 
  2941 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2942 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2943 
  2944 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2945 like this:
  2946 
  2947   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2948   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2949 
  2950 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2951 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2952 layouts.
  2953 
  2954 
  2955 *** ML ***
  2956 
  2957 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2958 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2959 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2960 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2961 under external program control.
  2962 
  2963 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2964 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2965 
  2966 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2967 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2968 (better known as Proof General).
  2969 
  2970 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2971 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2972 
  2973 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2974 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2975 
  2976 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2977 (including quotes etc.).
  2978 
  2979 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2980 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2981 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2982 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2983 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2984 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2985 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2986 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2987 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2988 
  2989 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2990 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2991 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2992 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2993 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2994 
  2995 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2996 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2997 
  2998 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2999 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3000 
  3001 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3002 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3003 
  3004 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3005 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3006 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3007 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3008 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3009 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3010 proper Proof.context.
  3011 
  3012 
  3013 *** System ***
  3014 
  3015 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3016 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3017 
  3018 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3019 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3020 
  3021 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3022 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3023 
  3024   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3025   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3026   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3027   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3028   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3029 
  3030 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3031 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3032 
  3033 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3034 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3035 example:
  3036 
  3037   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3038 
  3039 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3040 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3041 
  3042 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3043 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3044 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3045 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3046 
  3047 
  3048 
  3049 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3050 ----------------------------------
  3051 
  3052 *** General ***
  3053 
  3054 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3055 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3056 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3057 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3058 like this:
  3059 
  3060   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3061 
  3062 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3063 
  3064 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3065 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3066 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3067 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3068 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3069 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3070 
  3071 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3072 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3073 the following package declarations:
  3074 
  3075   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3076   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3077 
  3078 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3079 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3080 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3081 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3082 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3083 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3084 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3085 
  3086 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3087 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3088 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3089 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3090 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3091 
  3092 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3093 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3094 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3095 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3096 
  3097 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3098 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3099 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3100 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3101 
  3102   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3103 
  3104   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3105   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3106   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3107   show_types                    show_types
  3108   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3109   show_consts                   show_consts
  3110   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3111 
  3112   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3113   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3114   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3115 
  3116   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3117   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3118 
  3119   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3120 
  3121   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3122   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3123   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3124   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3125   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3126 
  3127 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3128 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3129 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3130 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3131 
  3132 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3134 
  3135   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3136   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3137 
  3138 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3139 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3140 float_token.
  3141 
  3142 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3143 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3145 
  3146 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3147 DejaVu Sans.
  3148 
  3149 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3150 
  3151 
  3152 *** Pure ***
  3153 
  3154 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3155 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3156 time.
  3157 
  3158 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3159 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160 
  3161 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3162 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3163 
  3164 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3165 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3166 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3167 command already provided this functionality.
  3168 
  3169 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3170 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3171 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3172 without interpretations.
  3173 
  3174 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3175 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3176 
  3177 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3178 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3179 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3180 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3181 
  3182 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3183 'definition' instead.
  3184 
  3185 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3186 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3187 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3188 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3189 
  3190 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3191 constructors.
  3192 
  3193 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3194 the local file system.
  3195 
  3196 
  3197 *** HOL ***
  3198 
  3199 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3200 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3201 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3202 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3203 
  3204   declare [[coercion f]]
  3205 
  3206 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3207 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3208 
  3209   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3210 
  3211 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3212 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3213 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3214 other theories like this:
  3215 
  3216   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3217 
  3218 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3219 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3220 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3221 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3222 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3223 for examples.
  3224 
  3225 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3226 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3227 
  3228 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3229 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3230 
  3231 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3232 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3233 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3234 
  3235 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3236 functorial structure of types.
  3237 
  3238 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3239 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3240 
  3241 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3242 languages.
  3243 
  3244 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3245 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3247 
  3248 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3249 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3250 
  3251 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3252 combinators any longer.
  3253 
  3254 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3255 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3256 
  3257 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3258 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3259 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3260 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3261 
  3262   record 'a foo = ...
  3263   ...
  3264   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3265 
  3266 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3267 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3268 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269 
  3270 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3271 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3272 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3273 
  3274 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3275 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3276 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3277 
  3278 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3279 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3280 
  3281 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3282 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3283 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3284 independently.
  3285 
  3286 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3287 counter example search.
  3288 
  3289 * Sledgehammer:
  3290   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3291     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3292     sledgehammer").
  3293   - Renamed commands:
  3294     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3295     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3296     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3297     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3298   - Renamed options:
  3299     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3300     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3301     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3302     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3303     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3304 
  3305 * Nitpick:
  3306   - Renamed options:
  3307     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3308     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3309     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3310   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3311   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3312   - Added "whack" option.
  3313   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3314   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3315   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3316   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3317     higher cardinalities.
  3318   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3319 
  3320 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3321 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3322 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3323 
  3324     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3325 
  3326 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3327 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3328 
  3329 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3330 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3331 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3332 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3333 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3334 "smt_solver".
  3335 
  3336 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3337 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3338 
  3339 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3340 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3341 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3342 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3343 
  3344 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3345   - Renamed:
  3346     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3347     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3348     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3349   - Added:
  3350     smt_verbose
  3351     smt_random_seed
  3352     smt_datatypes
  3353     smt_infer_triggers
  3354     smt_monomorph_limit
  3355     cvc3_options
  3356     remote_cvc3_options
  3357     remote_z3_options
  3358     yices_options
  3359 
  3360 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3361 header.
  3362 
  3363 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3364 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3365 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3366 
  3367   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3368 
  3369 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3372 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3373 
  3374 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3375 
  3376 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3377 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378 
  3379 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3380 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3381 
  3382 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3383 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3384 
  3385 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3386 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3387 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3388 
  3389 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3390 
  3391 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3393 
  3394 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3395 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396 
  3397 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3398 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3399 for congruent(2)).
  3400 
  3401 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3402 
  3403   types
  3404     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3405     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3406 
  3407   constants
  3408     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3409     True ~> HOL.True
  3410     False ~> HOL.False
  3411     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3412     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3413     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3414     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3415     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3416     The ~> HOL.The
  3417     All ~> HOL.All
  3418     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3419     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3420     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3421     If ~> HOL.If
  3422     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3423     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3424     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3425     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3426     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3427     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3428     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3429     op : ~> Set.member
  3430     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3431 
  3432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3433 
  3434 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3435 
  3436     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3437     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3438     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3439     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3440     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3441     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3442     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3443     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3444 
  3445 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3446 
  3447 * More stylized fact names:
  3448 
  3449   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3450   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3451   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3452   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3453 
  3454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3455 
  3456 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3457 
  3458   constants
  3459     null ~> List.null
  3460 
  3461   facts
  3462     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3463     null_empty ~> null_def
  3464 
  3465 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3466 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3467 generation.
  3468 
  3469 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3470 Haskell code.
  3471 
  3472 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3473 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3474 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3475 
  3476 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3477 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3478 
  3479 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3480 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3481 
  3482 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3483 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3484 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3485 
  3486 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3487 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3488 
  3489 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3490 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3491 
  3492 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3493 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3494 referred to by its qualified name.
  3495 
  3496   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3497   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3498   product ~>  Enum.product
  3499 
  3500 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3501 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3503 
  3504 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3505 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3506 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3510 sort_key.
  3511 
  3512 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3514 
  3515 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3516 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3517 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3518 
  3519   types
  3520     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3521               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3522               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3523         (depends on your needs)
  3524 
  3525   constants
  3526      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3527      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3528      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3529 
  3530 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3531 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3532 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3533 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3534 
  3535 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3536 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3537 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3538 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3539 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3543 
  3544 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3545 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3546 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3547 
  3548 
  3549 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3550 
  3551 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3552 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3553 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3554 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3555 compatibility.
  3556 
  3557 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3558 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3559 
  3560 
  3561 *** HOLCF ***
  3562 
  3563 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3564 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3565 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3567 
  3568 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3569 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3570 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3571 
  3572   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3573   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3574   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3575 
  3576 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3577 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3578 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3579 
  3580 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3581 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3582 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3583 domain definition now works:
  3584 
  3585   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3586 
  3587 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3588 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3589 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3590 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3591 
  3592   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3593     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3594 
  3595   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3596 
  3597 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3598 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3599 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3600 
  3601 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3602 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3603 
  3604 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3605 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3606 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3607 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3608 
  3609 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3610 
  3611 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3612 
  3613 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3614 
  3615 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3617 
  3618 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3619 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3620 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3621 
  3622 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3623 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3624 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3625 
  3626 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3627 still supported as an input translation.
  3628 
  3629 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3630 
  3631   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3632   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3633   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3634   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3635   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3636   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3637   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3638 
  3639 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3640 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3641 
  3642   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3643   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3644   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3645   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3646   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3647   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3648 
  3649 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3650 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3651 
  3652 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3653 
  3654   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3655   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3656   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3657   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3658 
  3659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3660 
  3661 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3662 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3663 
  3664 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3665 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3666 
  3667   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3668   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3669   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3670   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3671   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3672   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3673   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3674   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3675   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3676   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3677   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3678   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3679   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3680   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3681   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3682   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3683   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3684   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3685   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3686   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3687 
  3688 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3689 
  3690   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3691   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3692   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3693   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3694   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3695   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3696   box_less             ~> box_below
  3697   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3698   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3699   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3700   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3701   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3702   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3703   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3704   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3705   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3706   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3707   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3708   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3709   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3710   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3711   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3712   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3713   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3714   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3715   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3716   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3717   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3718   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3719   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3720   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3721   up_less              ~> up_below
  3722   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3723   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3724   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3725   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3726   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3727   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3728   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3729   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3730   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3731   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3732   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3733   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3734   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3735 
  3736 
  3737 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3738 
  3739 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3740 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3741 
  3742 
  3743 *** ML ***
  3744 
  3745 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3746 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3747 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3748 
  3749 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3750 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3751 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3752 
  3753 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3754 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3755 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3756 
  3757 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3758 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3759 
  3760 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3761 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3762 
  3763 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3764 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3765 
  3766 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3767 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3768 
  3769 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3770 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3771 almost all situations.
  3772 
  3773 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3774 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3775 Isabelle/ML.
  3776 
  3777 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3778 meaning.
  3779 
  3780 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3781 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3782 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3783 
  3784 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3785 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3786 
  3787 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3788 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3789 
  3790 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3791 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3792 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3793 
  3794 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3795 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3796 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3797 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3798 configuration options.
  3799 
  3800 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3801 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3802 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3803 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3804 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3805 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3806 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3807 
  3808 
  3809 
  3810 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3811 ---------------------------------
  3812 
  3813 *** General ***
  3814 
  3815 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3816 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3817 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3818 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3819 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3820 their full internal name.
  3821 
  3822 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3823 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3824 Some hints on upgrading:
  3825 
  3826   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3827     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3828     which are independent of this issue.
  3829 
  3830   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3831     provides the following special forms:
  3832 
  3833       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3834       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3835       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3836 
  3837     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3838     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3839     extra variables".
  3840 
  3841     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3842     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3843     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3844     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3845     "logic".
  3846 
  3847   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3848     antiquotations:
  3849 
  3850       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3851       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3852       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3853       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3854 
  3855   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3856     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3857     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3858     antiquotations.
  3859 
  3860 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3861 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3862 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3863 diagnose syntax problems.
  3864 
  3865 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3866 
  3867 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3868 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3869 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3870 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3871 
  3872 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3873 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3874 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3875 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3876 
  3877 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3878 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3879 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3880 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3881 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3882 
  3883 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3884 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3885 
  3886 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3887 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3888 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3889 
  3890   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3891 
  3892 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3893 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3894 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3895 
  3896 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3897 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3898 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3899 
  3900 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3901 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3902 
  3903 
  3904 *** Pure ***
  3905 
  3906 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3907 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3908 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3909 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3910 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3911 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3912 inspect proof terms.
  3913 
  3914 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3915 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3916 are added internally.  For example:
  3917 
  3918   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3919 
  3920 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3921 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3922 
  3923 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3924 
  3925 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3926 'class' instead.
  3927 
  3928 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3929 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3931 
  3932 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3933 invariants.
  3934 
  3935 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3936 user space functionality any longer.
  3937 
  3938 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3939 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3940 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3941 
  3942 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3943 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3944 
  3945 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3946 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3947 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3948 
  3949 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3950 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3951 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3952 
  3953 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3954 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955 
  3956 
  3957 *** HOL ***
  3958 
  3959 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3960 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3961 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3962 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3963 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3964 
  3965 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3966 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3967 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3968 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3969 
  3970   fun
  3971     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3972   where
  3973     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3974 
  3975   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3976     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3977 
  3978   quotient_definition
  3979     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3980 
  3981 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3982 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3983 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3984 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3985 
  3986 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3987 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3988 
  3989 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3990 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3991 
  3992 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3994 
  3995 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3996 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3997 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3998 
  3999 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4000 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4001 
  4002 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4004 
  4005 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4006 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4007 
  4008 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4009 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4010 
  4011 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4012 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4013 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4014 
  4015   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4016   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4017   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4018   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4019   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4020   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4021   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4022   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4023   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4024   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4025   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4026   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4027   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4028   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4029   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4030   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4031   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4032   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4033   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4034   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4035   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4036   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4037   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4038   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4039   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4040   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4041   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4042   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4043   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4044   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4045 
  4046 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4047 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4048 
  4049 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4050 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4051 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4052 
  4053 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4054 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4055 
  4056 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4057 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4058 
  4059 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4060 
  4061 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4062 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4063 
  4064 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4065 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4066 
  4067 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4068 
  4069 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4070 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4071 
  4072 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4073 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4074 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4075 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4078   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4079   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4080   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4081 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4082 
  4083 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4084 lattices):
  4085 
  4086     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4087     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4088 
  4089     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4090 
  4091     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4092     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4093     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4094     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4095     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4096     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4097     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4098     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4099     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4100     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4101     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4102     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4103     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4104 
  4105     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4106     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4107     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4108     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4109     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4110     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4111     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4112     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4113     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4114     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4115     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4116     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4117     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4118     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4119     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4120     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4121     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4122     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4123 
  4124   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4125   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4126 
  4127     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4128     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4129     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4130     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4131     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4132 
  4133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4134 
  4135 * Refined field classes:
  4136   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4137     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4138     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4139   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4141 
  4142 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4143   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4144   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4145   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4146     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4147   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4148     equal_neg_zero.
  4149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4150 
  4151 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4152 sets to lattices:
  4153 
  4154   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4155   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4156   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4157   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4158   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4159   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4160   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4161   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4162   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4163   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4164 
  4165 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4166 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4167 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4168 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4169 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4170 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4171 
  4172 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4173 multiset order:
  4174 
  4175   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4176     <= and <;
  4177   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4178     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4179     multiset_order;
  4180   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4181     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4182     generation;
  4183   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4184     if needed.
  4185 
  4186 Renamed:
  4187 
  4188   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4189   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4190   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4191 
  4192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4193 
  4194 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4195 
  4196 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4197 
  4198 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4199 
  4200 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4201 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4202 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4203 
  4204   Constants:
  4205   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4206   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4207   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4208   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4209   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4210   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4211   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4212   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4213   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4214   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4215   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4216   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4217   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4218 
  4219   Lemmas:
  4220   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4221   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4222   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4223   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4224   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4225   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4226   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4227   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4228   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4229   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4230   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4231   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4232   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4233 
  4234 * Sledgehammer:
  4235   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4236     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4237     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4238     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4239     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4240     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4241     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4242   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4243   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4244     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4245   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4246     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4247     is still experimental.)
  4248   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4249     full-typed mode.
  4250   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4251 
  4252 * Nitpick:
  4253   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4254   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4255   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4256     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4257   - Added support for quotient types.
  4258   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4259     constructs.
  4260   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4261     "termination" proofs).
  4262   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4263   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4264   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4265   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4266     record getters.
  4267   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4268   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4269   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4270   - Added "atoms" option.
  4271   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4272     problems.
  4273   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4274     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4275     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4276   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4277     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4278   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4279 
  4280 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4281   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4282   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4283   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4284   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4285   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4286   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4287   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4288   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4289   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4290 
  4291 
  4292 *** HOLCF ***
  4293 
  4294 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4295 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4296 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4297 
  4298 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4299 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4300 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4301 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4302 
  4303 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4304 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4305 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4306 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4307 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4308 
  4309 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4310 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4311 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4312 
  4313 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4314 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4315 
  4316   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4317   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4318 
  4319 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4320 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4321 
  4322   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4323   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4324   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4325   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4326   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4327 
  4328 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4329 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4330 
  4331   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4332   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4333   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4334 
  4335 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4336 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4338 
  4339 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4340 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4341 
  4342 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4343 
  4344 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4345 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4346 
  4347 
  4348 *** ML ***
  4349 
  4350 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4351 
  4352     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4353     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4354 
  4355     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4356     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4357     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4358     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4359 
  4360     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4361     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4362     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4363 
  4364 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4365 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4366 
  4367 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4368 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4369 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4370 
  4371 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4372 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4373 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4374 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4375 
  4376 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4377 the context or even global references.
  4378 
  4379 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4380 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4381 
  4382 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4383 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4384 
  4385   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4386   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4387   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4388   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4389   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4390   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4391   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4392   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4393   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4394   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4395 
  4396 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4397 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4398 
  4399 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4400 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4401 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4402 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4403 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4404 
  4405 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4406 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4407 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4408 Theory_Data version.
  4409 
  4410 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4411 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4412 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4413 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4414 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4415 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4416 explicitly in rare situations.
  4417 
  4418 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4419 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4420 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4421 
  4422 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4423 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4424 
  4425 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4426 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4427 quite rare).
  4428 
  4429 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4430 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4431 
  4432 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4433 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4434 terms.
  4435 
  4436 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4437 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4438 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4439 
  4440 
  4441 *** System ***
  4442 
  4443 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4444 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4445 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4446 
  4447 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4448 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4449 respectively.
  4450 
  4451 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4452 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4453 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4454 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4455 
  4456   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4457 
  4458 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4459 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4460 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4461 component.
  4462 
  4463 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4464 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4465 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4466 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4467 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4468 the user for manual installation.
  4469 
  4470 
  4471 
  4472 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4473 -------------------------------------
  4474 
  4475 *** General ***
  4476 
  4477 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4478 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4479 
  4480 
  4481 *** Pure ***
  4482 
  4483 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4484 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4485 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4486 
  4487 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4488 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4489 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4490 
  4491 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4492 interpretation.
  4493 
  4494 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4495 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4496 
  4497 
  4498 *** Document preparation ***
  4499 
  4500 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4501 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4502 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4503 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4504 
  4505 
  4506 *** HOL ***
  4507 
  4508 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4509 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4510 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4511 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4512 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4513 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4514 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4515 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4516 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4517 
  4518 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4519 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4520 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4521 
  4522 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4523 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4524 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4525 
  4526 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4527 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4528 
  4529 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4530 
  4531 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4532 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4533 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4534 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4535 
  4536 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4537 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4538 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4539 "mirabelle" utility.
  4540 
  4541 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4542 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4543 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4544 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4545 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4546 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4547 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4548 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4549 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4550 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4551 
  4552 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4553 procedure only.
  4554 
  4555 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4556 
  4557 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4558 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4559 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4560 that fail later.
  4561 
  4562 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4563 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4564 
  4565 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4566 the same method as the approximation method.
  4567 
  4568 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4569 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4570 series expansion.
  4571 
  4572 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4573 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4574 
  4575 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4576 reals.
  4577 
  4578 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4579 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4580 
  4581 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4582 fixpoint theorem.
  4583 
  4584 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4585   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4586     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4587   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4588     accordingly
  4589   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4590     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4591   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4592     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4593 
  4594 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4595 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4596 lattice.
  4597 
  4598 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4599 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4600 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4601 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4602 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4603 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4605 
  4606 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4607   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4608     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4609   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4610     le_inf_iff
  4611   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4612     sup_aci)
  4613   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4614   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4615   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4616     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4617     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4618     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4619     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4620     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4621     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4622     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4623     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4624     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4625     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4626   - authentic syntax for
  4627     Set.Pow
  4628     Set.image
  4629   - mere abbreviations:
  4630     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4631     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4632     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4633     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4634     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4635     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4636     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4637     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4638   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4639 
  4640 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4641 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4642 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4643 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4644 
  4645 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4646 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4647 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4650 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4651 
  4652 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4653 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4654 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4655 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4656 
  4657 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4658 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4659 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4660 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4661 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4662 
  4663 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4664 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4666 
  4667 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4668 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4669 
  4670 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4671 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4672 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4673 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4674 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4675 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4676 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4677 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4678 
  4679 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4680     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4681     code_post       replaces    code post
  4682     etc.
  4683   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4684 
  4685 * Renamed methods:
  4686     sizechange -> size_change
  4687     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4688   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4689 
  4690 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4691 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4692 
  4693 * Renamed theorems:
  4694     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4695     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4696     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4697     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4698     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4699   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4700 
  4701 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4703 
  4704 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4706 
  4707 
  4708 *** HOLCF ***
  4709 
  4710 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4711 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4712 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4713 
  4714 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4715 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4716 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4717 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4718 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4719 
  4720 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4721 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4722 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4723 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4724 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4725 
  4726 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4727 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4728 constructor are pre-configured.
  4729 
  4730 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4731 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4732 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4733 
  4734 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4735 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4736 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4737 as well.)
  4738 
  4739 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4740 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4741 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4742 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4743 examples.
  4744 
  4745 
  4746 *** ML ***
  4747 
  4748 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4749 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4750 
  4751 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4752 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4753 position, logical grouping etc.
  4754 
  4755 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4756 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4757 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4758 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4759 
  4760 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4761 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4762 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4763 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4764 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4765 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4766 
  4767 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4768 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4769 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4770 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4771 experiments with references.
  4772 
  4773 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4774 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4775 
  4776 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4777 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4778 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4779 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4780 
  4781 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4782 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4783 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4784 
  4785 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4786 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4787 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4788 
  4789 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4790 
  4791 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4793 
  4794 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4795 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4796 
  4797 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4798 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4799 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4800 
  4801 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4802 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4803 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4804 
  4805 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4806 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4807 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4809 
  4810 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4811 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4812 instead of global theory.
  4813 
  4814 
  4815 *** System ***
  4816 
  4817 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4818 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4819 usedir option -q.
  4820 
  4821 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4822 also the system manual.
  4823 
  4824 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4825 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4826 
  4827 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4828 this is always enabled.
  4829 
  4830 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4831 
  4832 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4833 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4834 currently supported on Linux only.
  4835 
  4836 
  4837 
  4838 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4839 --------------------------------
  4840 
  4841 *** General ***
  4842 
  4843 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4844 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4845 
  4846   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4847     "isatool."
  4848 
  4849   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4850     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4851 
  4852   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4853     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4854 
  4855 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4856 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4857 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4858 
  4859 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4860 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4861 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4862 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4863 via "isabelle emacs".
  4864 
  4865 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4866 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4867 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4868 
  4869 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4870 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4871 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4872 
  4873 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4874 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4875 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4876 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4877 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4878 
  4879 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4880 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4881 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4882 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4883 
  4884 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4885 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4886 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4887 
  4888 
  4889 *** Pure ***
  4890 
  4891 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4892 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4893 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4894 
  4895 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4896 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4897 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4898 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4899 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4900 
  4901 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4902 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4903 useful in locale declarations.
  4904 
  4905 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4906 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4907 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4908 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4909 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4910 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4911 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4912 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4913 no longer generated.
  4914 
  4915 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4916 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4917 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4918 
  4919 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4920 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4921 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4922 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4923 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4924 
  4925 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4926 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4927 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4928 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4929 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4930 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4931 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4932 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4933 
  4934 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4935 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4936 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4937 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4938 
  4939 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4940 
  4941 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4942 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4943 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4944 
  4945 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4946 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4947 
  4948 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4949 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4950 in HOL, write
  4951 
  4952     class foo = ...
  4953 
  4954 instead of
  4955 
  4956     class foo = type + ...
  4957 
  4958 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4959 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4960 
  4961 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4962 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4963 
  4964 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4965 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4966 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4967 
  4968 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4969 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4970 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4971 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4972 directly in regular applications.
  4973 
  4974 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4975 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4976 
  4977 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4978 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4979 
  4980 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4981 theory context.
  4982 
  4983 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4984 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4985 
  4986 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4987 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4988 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4989 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4990 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4991 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4992 
  4993   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4994 
  4995 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4996 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4997 normalization.
  4998 
  4999 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5000 addressing etc.
  5001 
  5002 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5003 
  5004   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5005   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5006 
  5007 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5008 
  5009   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5010      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5011      parts of the code generator framework).
  5012 
  5013   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5014      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5015      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5016 
  5017 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5018 
  5019 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5020 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5021 
  5022 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5023 patterns, e.g.
  5024 
  5025     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5026 
  5027 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5028 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5029 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5030 hyphen:
  5031 
  5032     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5033 
  5034 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5035 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5036 
  5037 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5038 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5039 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5040 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5041 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5042 higher-order unification.
  5043 
  5044 
  5045 *** Document preparation ***
  5046 
  5047 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5048 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5049 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5050 
  5051 
  5052 *** HOL ***
  5053 
  5054 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5055 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5056 
  5057 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5058 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5059 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5060 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5061 Main, as before.
  5062 
  5063 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5064 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5065 
  5066 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5067 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5068 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5069 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5070 
  5071 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5072 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5073 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5074 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5075 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5076 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5077 
  5078 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5079 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5080 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5081 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5082 
  5083 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5084 menu.
  5085 
  5086 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5087 (contains the empty clause).
  5088 
  5089 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5090 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5091 
  5092 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5093 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5094 
  5095 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5096 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5097 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5098 
  5099 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5100 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5101 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5102 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5103 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5104 
  5105 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5106 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5107 
  5108 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5109 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5110 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5111 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5112 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5113 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5114 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5115 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5116 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5117 
  5118 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5119 
  5120 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5121 
  5122 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5123 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5124 
  5125 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5126 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5127 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5128 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5129 
  5130 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5131 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5132 
  5133     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5134     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5135     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5136     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5137     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5138     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5139     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5140     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5141 
  5142 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5143 theory Set.
  5144 
  5145 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5146 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5147 
  5148 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5149 
  5150 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5151 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5152 
  5153 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5154 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5155 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5156 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5157 allowed. For examples see
  5158 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5159 
  5160 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5161 
  5162 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5163 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5164 
  5165 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5166 structure:
  5167 
  5168     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5169     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5170     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5171     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5172     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5173     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5174     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5175     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5176     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5177     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5178     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5179     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5180     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5181     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5182     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5183     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5184     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5185     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5186     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5187     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5188     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5189     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5190     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5191     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5192     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5193     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5194     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5195     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5196     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5197     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5198     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5199     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5200     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5201 
  5202     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5203     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5204     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5205     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5206     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5207     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5208     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5209     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5210     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5211     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5212 
  5213     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5214     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5215     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5216     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5217     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5218     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5219 
  5220 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5221 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5222 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5223 
  5224 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5225 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5226 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5227 
  5228 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5229 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5230 
  5231 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5232 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5233 
  5234 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5235 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5236 proofs, e.g.
  5237 
  5238   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5239 
  5240 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5241 
  5242 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5243 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5244 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5245 
  5246 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5247 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5248 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5249 
  5250 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5251 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5252 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5254 
  5255 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5256 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5257 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5258 preorder_class.*.
  5259 
  5260 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5261 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5262 
  5263 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5264 
  5265   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5266 
  5267 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5268 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5269 fold_image.
  5270 
  5271 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5272 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5273 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5274 the former will disappear at some point.
  5275 
  5276 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5277 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5278 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5279 
  5280 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5281 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5282 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5283 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5284 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5285 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5286 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5287 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5288 
  5289 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5290 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5291 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5292 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5293 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5294 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5295 
  5296     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5297     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5298     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5299     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5300     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5301     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5302     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5303 
  5304 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5305 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5306 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5307 
  5308 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5309 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5310 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5311 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5312 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5313 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5314 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5315 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5316 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5317 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5318 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5319 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5320 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5321 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5322 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5323 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5324 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5325 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5326 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5327 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5328 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5329 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5330 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5331 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5332 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5333 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5334 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5335 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5336 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5337 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5338 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5339 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5340 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5341 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5342 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5343 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5344 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5345 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5346 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5347 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5348 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5349 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5350 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5351 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5352 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5353 
  5354 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5355 
  5356 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5357 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5358 
  5359 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5360 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5361 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5362 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5363 
  5364 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5365 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5366 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5367 theory RealVector.
  5368 
  5369 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5370 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5371 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5372 and inner products are included.
  5373 
  5374 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5375 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5376 supported.
  5377 
  5378 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5379 first diagonalization argument.
  5380 
  5381 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5382 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5383 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5384 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5385 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5386 
  5387     hide (open) const gcd
  5388     abbreviation gcd where
  5389       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5390     notation (output)
  5391       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5392 
  5393 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5394 
  5395 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5396 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5397 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5398 
  5399 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5400 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5401 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5402 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5403 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5404 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5405 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5406 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5407 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5408 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5409 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5410 cases.
  5411 
  5412 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5413 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5414 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5415 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5416 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5417 
  5418     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5419     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5420     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5421     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5422     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5423 
  5424 
  5425 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5426 
  5427 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5428 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5429 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5430 
  5431 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5432 
  5433 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5434 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5435 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5436 
  5437 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5438 
  5439 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5440 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5441 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5442 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5443 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5444 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5445 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5446 
  5447 
  5448 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5449 
  5450 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5451 
  5452 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5453 theory targets.
  5454 
  5455 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5456 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5457 'inductive' etc.
  5458 
  5459 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5460 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5461 
  5462 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5463 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5464 
  5465 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5466 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5467 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5468 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5469 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5470 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5471 the algorithm W:
  5472 
  5473  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5474  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5475          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5476 
  5477 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5478 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5479 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5480 
  5481 
  5482 *** HOLCF ***
  5483 
  5484 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5485 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5486 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5487 
  5488 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5489 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5490 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5491 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5492 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5493 
  5494 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5495 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5496 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5497 
  5498 
  5499 *** ZF ***
  5500 
  5501 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5502 
  5503 
  5504 *** ML ***
  5505 
  5506 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5507 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5508 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5509 5.2.1!
  5510 
  5511 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5512 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5513 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5514 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5515 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5516 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5517 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5518 
  5519 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5520 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5521 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5522 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5523 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5524 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5525 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5526 
  5527 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5528 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5529 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5530 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5531 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5532 
  5533 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5534 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5535 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5536 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5537 Method.add_method.
  5538 
  5539 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5540 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5541 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5542 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5543 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5544 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5545 
  5546 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5547 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5548 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5549 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5550 examples.
  5551 
  5552 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5553 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5554 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5555 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5556 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5557 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5558 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5559 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5560 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5561 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5562 
  5563 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5564 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5565 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5566 
  5567 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5568 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5569 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5570 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5571 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5572 resort for legacy applications.
  5573 
  5574 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5575 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5576 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5577 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5578 explicit runtime argument.
  5579 
  5580 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5581 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5582 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5583 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5584 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5585 
  5586 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5587 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5588 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5589 theory state.
  5590 
  5591 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5592 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5593 
  5594   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5595   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5596   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5597   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5598   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5599   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5600   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5601   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5602   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5603   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5604 
  5605 
  5606 *** System ***
  5607 
  5608 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5609 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5610 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5611 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5612 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5613 
  5614 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5615 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5616 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5617 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5618 
  5619 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5620 
  5621 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5622 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5623 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5624 prover operations.
  5625 
  5626 
  5627 
  5628 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5629 -------------------------------
  5630 
  5631 *** General ***
  5632 
  5633 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5634 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5635 
  5636 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5637 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5638 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5639 provides a proper context already.
  5640 
  5641 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5642 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5643 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5644 
  5645 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5646 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5647 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5648 swap theory imports.
  5649 
  5650 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5651 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5652 
  5653 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5654 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5655 white space without escapes.
  5656 
  5657 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5658 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5659 "foo_bar".
  5660 
  5661 
  5662 *** Pure ***
  5663 
  5664 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5665 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5666 
  5667 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5668 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5669 
  5670 (1) unused_thms
  5671      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5672 
  5673 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5674      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5675      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5676 
  5677 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5678      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5679      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5680      their ancestors.
  5681 
  5682 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5683 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5684 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5685 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5686 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5687 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5688 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5689 
  5690 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5691 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5692 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5693 
  5694 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5695 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5696 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5697 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5698 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5699 
  5700 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5701 
  5702 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5703 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5704 update of theories within ML code.
  5705 
  5706 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5707 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5708 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5709 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5710 
  5711 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5712 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5713 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5715 
  5716 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5717 
  5718 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5719 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5720 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5721 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5722 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5723 
  5724 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5725 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5726 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5727 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5728 situations.
  5729 
  5730 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5731 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5732 proof text.
  5733 
  5734 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5735 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5736 
  5737 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5738 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5739 predicates.
  5740 
  5741 
  5742 *** Document preparation ***
  5743 
  5744 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5745 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5746 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5747 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5748 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5749 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5750 
  5751 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5752 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5753 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5754 
  5755 
  5756 *** HOL ***
  5757 
  5758 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5759 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5760 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5761 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5762 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5763 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5764 
  5765 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5766 with multithreading.
  5767 
  5768 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5769 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5770 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5771 
  5772 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5773 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5774 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5775 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5776 
  5777 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5778 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5779 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5780 and makes them available separately.  See
  5781 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5782 
  5783 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5784 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5785 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5786 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5787 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5788 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5789 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5790 the declared rules.
  5791 
  5792 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5793 
  5794   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5795 
  5796 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5797 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5798 
  5799 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5800 
  5801   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5802 
  5803   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5804     definitions on => and bool.
  5805 
  5806   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5807     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5808     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5809 
  5810       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5811       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5812       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5813       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5814       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5815       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5816       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5817       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5818 
  5819   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5820     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5821     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5822 
  5823   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5824     The proof pattern
  5825 
  5826       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5827       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5828 
  5829     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5830     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5831 
  5832       have "EX S. P S"
  5833       proof
  5834         show "P S" <...>
  5835       qed
  5836 
  5837   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5838     The proof pattern
  5839 
  5840       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5841       also have "S = T" <...>
  5842       finally have "P T" .
  5843 
  5844     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5845     must be replaced by something like
  5846 
  5847       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5848       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5849       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5850 
  5851   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5852     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5853 
  5854       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5855 
  5856     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5857     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5858     type of the form
  5859 
  5860       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5861 
  5862     rather than
  5863 
  5864       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5865 
  5866 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5867 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5868 
  5869 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5870 
  5871 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5872 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5874 
  5875 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5876 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5877 
  5878 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5879 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5880 
  5881 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5882 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5883 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5884 
  5885 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5886 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5887 
  5888   less_trans
  5889   less_linear
  5890   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5891   le_less_trans
  5892   less_le_trans
  5893   less_not_sym
  5894   less_asym
  5895 
  5896 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5897 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5898 and different variable names.
  5899 
  5900 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5901 
  5902 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5903 finite maps.
  5904 
  5905 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5906 
  5907 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5908 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5909 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5910 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5911 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5912 accordingly.
  5913 
  5914 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5915 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5916 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5917 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5918 
  5919 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5920 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5921 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5922 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5923 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5925 
  5926 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5927 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5928 
  5929 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5930 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5931 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5932 
  5933 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5935 
  5936 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5937 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5938 
  5939 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5940 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5941 
  5942 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5943 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5944 
  5945 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5946 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5947 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5948 
  5949 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5950 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5951 
  5952 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5953 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5954 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5955 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5956 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5957 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5958 
  5959 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5960 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5961 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5962 
  5963 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5964 
  5965 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5966 
  5967 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5968 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5969 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5970 
  5971 
  5972 *** ZF ***
  5973 
  5974 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5975 same session:
  5976 
  5977   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5978   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5979   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5980   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5981   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5982   List      -> List_ZF
  5983   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5984 
  5985 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5986 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5987 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5988 
  5989 
  5990 *** ML ***
  5991 
  5992 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5993 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5994 
  5995 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5996 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5997 
  5998 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5999 
  6000 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6001 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6002 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6003 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6004 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6005 
  6006 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6007 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6008 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6009 
  6010 
  6011 *** System ***
  6012 
  6013 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6014 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6015 
  6016 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6017 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6018 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6019 
  6020 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6021 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6022 
  6023 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6024 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6025 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6026 
  6027 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6028 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6029 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6030 
  6031 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6032 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6033 
  6034 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6035 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6036 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6037 script.
  6038 
  6039 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6040 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6041 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6042 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6043 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6044 
  6045 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6046 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6047 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6048 
  6049 
  6050 
  6051 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6052 -----------------------------------
  6053 
  6054 *** General ***
  6055 
  6056 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6057 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6058 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6059 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6060 
  6061 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6062 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6063 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6064 
  6065 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6066 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6067 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6068 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6069 
  6070 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6071 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6072 quotes.
  6073 
  6074 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6075 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6076 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6077 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6078 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6079 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6080 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6081 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6082 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6083 
  6084 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6085 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6086 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6087 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6088 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6089 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6090 
  6091 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6092 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6093 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6094 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6095 
  6096 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6097 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6098 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6099 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6100 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6101 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6102 
  6103 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6104 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6105 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6106 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6107 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6108 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6109 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6110 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6111 
  6112 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6113 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6114 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6115 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6116 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6117 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6118 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6119 
  6120 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6121 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6122 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6123 
  6124 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6125 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6126 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6127 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6128 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6129 limit is imposed.
  6130 
  6131 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6132 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6133 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6134 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6135 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6136 and scalability.
  6137 
  6138 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6139 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6140 
  6141 
  6142 *** Document preparation ***
  6143 
  6144 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6145 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6146 current context.
  6147 
  6148 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6149 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6150 
  6151 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6152 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6153 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6154 
  6155 
  6156 *** Pure ***
  6157 
  6158 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6159 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6160 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6161 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6162 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6163 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6164 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6165 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6166 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6167 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6168 
  6169 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6170 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6171 sketch:
  6172 
  6173     internal compilation:
  6174         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6175     writing SML code to a file:
  6176         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6177     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6178         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6179     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6180         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6181 
  6182     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6183         method ``eval''
  6184 
  6185 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6186 
  6187 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6188 
  6189     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6190     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6191     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6192     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6193 
  6194 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6195 
  6196     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6197       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6198 
  6199     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6200       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6201 
  6202     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6203       {(target)}+
  6204         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6205 
  6206     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6207       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6208         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6209 
  6210 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6211 
  6212 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6213 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6214 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6215 codegen".
  6216 
  6217 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6218 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6219 annotations).
  6220 
  6221 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6222 syntax.
  6223 
  6224 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6225 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6226 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6227 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6228 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6229 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6230 
  6231 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6232 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6233 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6234 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6235 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6236 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6237 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6238 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6239 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6240 equations, see section "definitions".
  6241 
  6242 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6243 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6244 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6245 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6246 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6247 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6248 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6249 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6250 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6251 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6252 
  6253 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6254 configuration options:
  6255 
  6256   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6257   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6258   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6259   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6260   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6261   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6262   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6263   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6264   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6265 
  6266 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6267