NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri May 17 20:53:28 2013 +0200 (2013-05-17)
changeset 52060 179236c82c2a
parent 52059 2f970c7f722b
child 52116 abf9fcfa65cf
permissions -rw-r--r--
renamed 'print_configs' to 'print_options';
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    10 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    11 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    12 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    13 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    14 
    15 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    16 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    17 
    18 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
    19 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
    20 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation, with its
    21 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs, has been discontinued.
    22 The default chapter is "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for HTML
    23 presentation of theories.
    24 
    25 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    26 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    27 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    28 
    29 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    30 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    31 
    32 
    33 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    34 
    35 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    36 timing information.
    37 
    38 * Option to skip over proofs, using implicit 'sorry' internally.
    39 
    40 
    41 *** Pure ***
    42 
    43 * Target-sensitive commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale'.
    44 Particulary, 'interpretation' now allows for non-persistent
    45 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks.
    46 See "isar-ref" manual for details.
    47 
    48 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
    49 
    50 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
    51 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
    52 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
    53 
    54 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
    55 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    56 
    57 
    58 *** HOL ***
    59 
    60 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check
    61   phase rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators
    62   is separated from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
    63   "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
    64 
    65   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
    66 
    67 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
    68 
    69 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
    70   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
    71     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
    72     This is now identity on infinite sets.
    73   - Locales (Ā»mini packagesĀ«) for fundamental definitions with
    74     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
    75   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
    76     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
    77     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
    78     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
    79     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
    80     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
    81     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
    82     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly. 
    83   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
    84     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
    85   - Fact renames:
    86       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
    87       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
    88 
    89 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    90 
    91 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
    92 
    93 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.
    94 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    95 
    96 * Discontinued obsolete src/HOL/IsaMakefile (considered legacy since
    97 Isabelle2013).  Use "isabelle build" to operate on Isabelle sessions.
    98 
    99 * Numeric types mapped by default to target language numerals:
   100 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces
   101 former code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   102 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   103 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in ML).
   104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   105 
   106 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   107 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   108 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on
   109 code generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   110 
   111 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a complete
   112   lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and bottom elements.
   113   Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and extended reals.
   114   Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation of
   115   conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   116   conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from Inf_...
   117   to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice lemmas.
   118 
   119   Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of conditionally-complete
   120   lattices and inner dense linorders which have more than one element.
   121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without top
   124   and bottom elements.
   125 
   126 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   127 
   128 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   129   HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   130 
   131  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and linear_continuum_topology.
   132    Allows to generalize theorems about limits and order.
   133    Instances are reals and extended reals.
   134 
   135  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   136    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.
   137    "isCont" is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   138 
   139    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an arbitrary
   140    filter.
   141 
   142  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma
   143    to prove compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   144    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a continuous
   145    function is continuous, when the function is continuous on a compact set.
   146 
   147  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   148    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   149    linear_continuum_topology).
   150 
   151  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   152    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and on
   153    all sequences converging to x.
   154 
   155  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved theorems
   156    from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the definition of DERIV on
   157    FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV which are restricted to sets,
   158    i.e. to represent derivatives from left or right.
   159 
   160  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   161 
   162      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   163 
   164  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   165    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   166 
   167  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros, continuous_intros,
   168    continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems in tendsto_intros (or
   169    FDERIV_intros) are also available as tendsto_eq_intros (or
   170    FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side is replaced by a congruence
   171    rule. This allows to apply them as intro rules and then proving
   172    equivalence by the simplifier.
   173 
   174  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   175 
   176    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   177 
   178    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   179      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   180 
   181    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   182 
   183    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces, Real_Vector_Spaces, and
   184      Limits
   185 
   186    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   187 
   188    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   189 
   190  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   191 
   192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   195 
   196     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   197     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   198 
   199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   200 
   201 * Sledgehammer:
   202 
   203   - Renamed option:
   204       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   205 
   206 
   207 *** HOL-Algebra ***
   208 
   209 * Discontinued theories src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and .../poly.
   210 Existing theories should be based on src/HOL/Library/Polynomial
   211 instead.  The latter provides integration with HOL's type classes for
   212 rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 
   215 *** ML ***
   216 
   217 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   218 
   219     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   220     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   221 
   222 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   223 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   224 
   225 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   226 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   227 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   228 clasets separately from the context.
   229 
   230 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   231 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   232 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   233 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   234 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   235 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   236 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   237 
   238 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   239 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   240 
   241 
   242 *** System ***
   243 
   244 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   245 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   246 
   247 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   248 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   249 
   250 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   251 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   252 
   253 
   254 
   255 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   256 -----------------------------------
   257 
   258 *** General ***
   259 
   260 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   261 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   262 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   263 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   264 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   265 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   266 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   267 
   268 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   269 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   270 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   271 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   272 
   273 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   274 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   275 
   276 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   277 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   278 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   279 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   280 dependencies properly.
   281 
   282 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   283 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   284 
   285 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   286 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   287 
   288 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   289 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   290 and "class ... context ...".
   291 
   292 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   293 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   294 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   295 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   296 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   297 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   298 
   299 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   300 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   301 
   302 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   303 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   304 
   305 
   306 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   307 
   308 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   309 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   310 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   311 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   312 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   313 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   314 
   315 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   316 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   317 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   318 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   319 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   320 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   321 
   322 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   323 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   324 browser on demand.
   325 
   326 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   327 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   328 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   329 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   330 
   331 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   332 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   333 
   334 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   335 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   336 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   337 potentially infinite message streams.
   338 
   339 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   340 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   341 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   342 schemes.
   343 
   344 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   345 symbols.
   346 
   347 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   348 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   349 
   350 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   351 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   352 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   353 
   354 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   355 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   356 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   357 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   358 
   359 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   360 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   361 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   362 
   363 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   364 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   365 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   366 Isabelle distribution.
   367 
   368 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   369 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   370 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   371 
   372 
   373 *** Pure ***
   374 
   375 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   376 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   377 
   378 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   379 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   380 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   381 
   382 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   383 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   384 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   385 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   386 with some care where this is really required.
   387 
   388 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   389 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   390 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   391 
   392   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   393 
   394 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   395 a Hasse diagram.
   396 
   397 
   398 *** HOL ***
   399 
   400 * Sledgehammer:
   401 
   402   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   403     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   404   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   405   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   406   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   407   - Renamed options:
   408       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   409       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   410       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   411       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   412 
   413 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   414 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   415 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   416 
   417 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   418 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   419 
   420 * Lifting:
   421   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   422   - quot_del attribute
   423   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   424 
   425 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   426 expressions.
   427 
   428 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   429 pointfree expressions.
   430 
   431 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   432 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   433 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   434 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   436 
   437 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   438 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   439 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   440 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   441 accordingly.
   442 
   443 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   444 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   445 
   446 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   447 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   448 
   449 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   450 
   451 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   452 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   453 
   454 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   455 
   456 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   457 
   458   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   459   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   460 
   461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   462 
   463 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   464 
   465   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   466   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   467 
   468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   469 
   470 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   471 
   472   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   473     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   474     output f x converges to G.
   475 
   476   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   477     infinity (at_bot).
   478 
   479   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   480     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   481 
   482   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   483     at_top".
   484 
   485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   486 
   487 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   488 lattice type classes.
   489 
   490 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   491 
   492     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   493     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   494 
   495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   496 
   497 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   498 changes as follows.
   499 
   500   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   501 
   502       prefix ~> prefixeq
   503       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   504 
   505   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   506     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   507     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   508     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   509 
   510   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   511     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   512     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   513 
   514   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   515     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   516     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   517     Library/Prefix_Order.
   518 
   519   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   520     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   521 
   522       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   523       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   524       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   525       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   526       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   527       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   528       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   529       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   530       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   531       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   532       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   533       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   534       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   535       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   536       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   537       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   538 
   539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   540 
   541 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   542 
   543 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   544 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   545 
   546 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   547 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   548 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   549 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   550 
   551   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   552   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   553   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   554   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   555   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   556   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   557   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   558   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   559   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   560   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   561 
   562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   563 
   564 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   565 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   566 Data").
   567 
   568 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   569 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   570 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   571 code.
   572 
   573 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   574 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   575 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   577 
   578 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   579 
   580 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   581 
   582 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   583 
   584   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   585   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   586 
   587 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   588 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   589 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   590 
   591   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   592 
   593     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   594     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   595     cart_base i  removed
   596     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   597 
   598   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   599 
   600   Renamed lemmas:
   601 
   602     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   603     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   604     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   605     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   606     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   607     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   608     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   609     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   610     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   611     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   612 
   613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   614 
   615 * HOL/Probability:
   616 
   617   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   618 
   619   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   620     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   621     (borel_measurable_induct).
   622 
   623   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   624     projective family).
   625 
   626 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   627 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   628 
   629 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   630 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   631 datatypes.
   632 
   633 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   634 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   635 
   636 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   637 trees for the code generator.
   638 
   639 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   640 Lifting/Transfer.
   641 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   642 
   643 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   645 
   646 
   647 *** Document preparation ***
   648 
   649 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   650 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   651 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   652 
   653 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   654 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   655 
   656 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   657 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   658 document/root.tex.
   659 
   660 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   661 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   662 
   663 
   664 *** ML ***
   665 
   666 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   667 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   668 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   669 
   670 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   671 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   672 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   673 
   674 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   675 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   676 necessarily printing visible text.
   677 
   678 
   679 *** System ***
   680 
   681 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   682 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   683 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   684 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   685 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   686 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   687 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   688 
   689 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   690 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   691 
   692   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   693 
   694 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   695 
   696 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   697 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   698 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   699 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   700 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   701 
   702 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   703 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   704 
   705 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   706 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   707 
   708 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   710 
   711 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   712 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   713 version of Isabelle.
   714 
   715 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   716 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   717 
   718 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   719 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   720 for home-made settings.
   721 
   722 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   723 
   724 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   725 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   726 configuration.
   727 
   728 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   729 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   730 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   731 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   732 bundled as Isabelle component.
   733 
   734 
   735 
   736 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   737 ------------------------------
   738 
   739 *** General ***
   740 
   741 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   742 
   743   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   744     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   745   - markup for bound variables
   746   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   747   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   748   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   749     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   750 
   751 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   752 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   753 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   754 
   755 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   756 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   757 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   758 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   759 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   760 
   761   context
   762     fixes x y z :: 'a
   763     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   764   begin
   765 
   766   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   767 
   768   end
   769 
   770   thm my_trans
   771 
   772 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   773 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   774 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   775 
   776 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   777 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   778 
   779 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   780 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   781 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   782 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   783 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   784 
   785 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   786 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   787 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   788 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   789 indices of schematic variables.
   790 
   791 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   792 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   793 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   794 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   795 etc. was exploited.
   796 
   797 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   798 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   799 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   800 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   801 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   802 of the material of that old tutorial.
   803 
   804 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   805 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   806 manual.
   807 
   808 
   809 *** Pure ***
   810 
   811 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   812 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   813 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   814 
   815 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   816 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   817 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   818 undocumented feature.)
   819 
   820 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   821 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   822 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   823 
   824   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   825 
   826   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   827     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   828 
   829 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   830 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   831 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   832 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   833 
   834 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   835 
   836     num ~> num_token
   837     xnum ~> xnum_token
   838     xstr ~> str_token
   839 
   840 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   841 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   842 position information via constraints).
   843 
   844 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   845 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   846 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   847 
   848 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   849 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   850 
   851 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   852 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   853 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   854 
   855 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   856 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   857 
   858 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   859 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   860 
   861   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   862 
   863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   864 
   865 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   866 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   867 
   868 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   869 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   870 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   871 
   872 
   873 *** HOL ***
   874 
   875 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   876 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   877 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   878 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   879 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   880 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   881 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   882 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   883 possible.
   884 
   885 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   886 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   887 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   888 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   889 
   890 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   891 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   892 
   893 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   894 
   895 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   896 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   897 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   898 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   899 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   900 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   901 
   902   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   903     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   904 
   905   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   906     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   907     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   908 
   909   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   910     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   911 
   912   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   913     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   914     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   915 
   916   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   917     Redefine using other integer operations.
   918 
   919 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   920 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   921 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   922 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   923 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   924 
   925   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   926     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   927     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   928     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   929     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   930 
   931     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   932     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   933 
   934   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   935     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   936     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   937     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   938     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   939     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   940     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   941     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   942 
   943   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   944     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   945     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   946     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   947 
   948   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   949     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   950     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   951     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   952 
   953   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   954     from type nat to type int.
   955 
   956 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   957 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   958 
   959   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   960     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   961     type.  Example syntax:
   962 
   963     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   964       is List.insert
   965 
   966     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   967     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   968     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   969     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   970     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   971     by the package.
   972 
   973   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   974     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   975     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   976     code generation for each constant.
   977 
   978   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   979     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   980     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   981     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   982     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   983 
   984   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   985     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   986     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   987 
   988 * Quotient package:
   989 
   990   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   991     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   992 
   993   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   994     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   995 
   996   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   997     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   998     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   999 
  1000   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1001     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1002 
  1003 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1004 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1005 
  1006 * Quickcheck:
  1007 
  1008   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1009     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1010     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1011     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1012     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1013 
  1014     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1015     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1016     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1017 
  1018     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1019     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1020 
  1021     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1022     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1023     show genuine counterexamples.
  1024 
  1025   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1026     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1027 
  1028     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1029     constructors of that type.
  1030 
  1031   - Support for multisets.
  1032 
  1033   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1034 
  1035   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1036     conjectures in a locale context.
  1037 
  1038 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1039 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1040 
  1041 * Sledgehammer:
  1042   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1043     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1044   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1045   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1046     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1047   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1048   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1049   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1050   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1051 
  1052 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1053 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1054 
  1055 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1056 
  1057 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1058 
  1059 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1060 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1061 
  1062   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1063 
  1064 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1065 a list and a nat.
  1066 
  1067 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1068 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1069 
  1070 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1071 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1072 default.
  1073 
  1074 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1075 
  1076   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1077 
  1078 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1079 
  1080 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1081 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1082 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1083 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1084 one_case.
  1085 
  1086 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1087 the result of the fact expression.
  1088 
  1089 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1090 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1091 of some relation theorems:
  1092 
  1093   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1094   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1095   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1096   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1097   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1098   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1099 
  1100 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1101 
  1102 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1103 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1104 
  1105 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1106 
  1107 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1108 to match the constant's name:
  1109 
  1110   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1111   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1112   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1113   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1114   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1115   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1116   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1117   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1118   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1119   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1120   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1121   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1122   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1123   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1124   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1125   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1126   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1127   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1128   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1129   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1130   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1131   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1132   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1133   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1134 
  1135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1136 
  1137 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1138 and corresponding theorem names:
  1139 
  1140   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1141 
  1142   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1143 
  1144   - Renamed theorems:
  1145 
  1146     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1147     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1148     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1149     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1150     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1151     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1152     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1153     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1154     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1155     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1156     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1157     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1158     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1159     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1160     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1161     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1162     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1163     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1164     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1165     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1166     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1167     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1168     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1169 
  1170     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1171 
  1172     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1173 
  1174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1175 
  1176 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1177 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1178 
  1179   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1180   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1181   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1182   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1183   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1184   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1185   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1186   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1187   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1188   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1189   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1190   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1191   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1192   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1193   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1194   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1195   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1196   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1197   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1198   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1199   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1200 
  1201 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1202 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1203 
  1204 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1205 
  1206 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1207 
  1208   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1209   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1210   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1211   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1212   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1213   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1214   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1215   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1216   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1217   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1218   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1219   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1220   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1221   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1222   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1223   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1224   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1225   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1226 
  1227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1228 
  1229 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1230 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1231 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1232 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1233 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1234 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1235 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1236 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1237 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1238 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1239 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1240 
  1241 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1242 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1243 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1244 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1245 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1246 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1247 
  1248 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1249 through option types.
  1250 
  1251 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1252 relations.
  1253 
  1254 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1255 
  1256 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1257 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1258 
  1259   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1260   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1261   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1262   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1263   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1264   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1265   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1266   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1267   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1268   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1269   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1270   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1271   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1272   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1273   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1274   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1275   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1276   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1277   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1278   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1279   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1280   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1281   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1282   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1283   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1284   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1285   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1286   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1287   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1288   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1289   zless_le ~> less_le
  1290   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1291   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1292   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1293 
  1294 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1295 
  1296   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1297 
  1298 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1299 
  1300 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1301 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1302 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1303 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1305 
  1306 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1307 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1308 
  1309 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1310 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1311 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1312 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1313 follows:
  1314 
  1315   Operations:
  1316   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1317   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1318   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1319   del -> rbt_del
  1320   delete -> rbt_delete
  1321   ins -> rbt_ins
  1322   insert -> rbt_insert
  1323   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1324   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1325   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1326   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1327   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1328   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1329   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1330   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1331   union -> rbt_union
  1332   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1333   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1334 
  1335   Lemmas:
  1336   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1337   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1338   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1339   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1340   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1341   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1342   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1343   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1344   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1345   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1346   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1347   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1348   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1349   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1350   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1351   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1352   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1353   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1354   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1355   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1356   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1357   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1358   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1359   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1360   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1361   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1362   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1363   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1364   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1365   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1366   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1367   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1368   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1369   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1370   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1371   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1372   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1373   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1374   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1375   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1376   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1377   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1378   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1379   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1380   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1381   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1382   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1383   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1384   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1385   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1386   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1387   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1388   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1389   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1390   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1391   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1392   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1393   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1394   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1395   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1396   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1397   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1398   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1399   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1400   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1401   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1402   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1403   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1404   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1405   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1406   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1407   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1408   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1409   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1410   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1411   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1412   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1413   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1414   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1415   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1416   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1417   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1418   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1419 
  1420 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1421 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1422 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1423 
  1424   Changed Operations:
  1425   float_abs -> abs
  1426   float_nprt -> nprt
  1427   float_pprt -> pprt
  1428   pow2 -> use powr
  1429   round_down -> float_round_down
  1430   round_up -> float_round_up
  1431   scale -> exponent
  1432 
  1433   Removed Operations:
  1434   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1435 
  1436   Renamed Lemmas:
  1437   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1438   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1439   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1440   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1441   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1442   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1443   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1444   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1445   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1446   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1447   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1448   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1449   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1450   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1451   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1452   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1453   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1454   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1455   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1456   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1457   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1458   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1459   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1460   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1461   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1462   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1463   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1464   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1465   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1466   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1467   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1468   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1469   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1470   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1471   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1472   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1473 
  1474   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1475   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1476   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1477   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1478   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1479   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1480   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1481   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1482   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1483   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1484 
  1485 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1486 association lists with distinct keys.
  1487 
  1488 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1489 annotated commands.
  1490 
  1491 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1492 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1493 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1494 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1495 
  1496 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1497 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1498 instead.
  1499 
  1500   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1501   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1502   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1503   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1504   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1505   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1506   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1507   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1508   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1509   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1510   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1511   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1512   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1513   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1514   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1515   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1516   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1517   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1518   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1519   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1520   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1521   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1522   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1523   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1524   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1525   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1526   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1527   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1528   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1529   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1530   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1531   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1532   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1533   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1534   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1535   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1536   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1537   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1538   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1539   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1540   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1541 
  1542 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1543 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1544 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1545 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1546 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1547 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1548 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1549 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1550 
  1551 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1552 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1553 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1554 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1555 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1556 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1557 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1558 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1559 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1560 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1561 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1562 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1563 
  1564   Renamed constants:
  1565   measure -> emeasure
  1566   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1567   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1568   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1569   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1570 
  1571   Removed locales:
  1572   completeable_measure_space
  1573   finite_measure_space
  1574   finite_prob_space
  1575   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1576   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1577   finite_sigma_algebra
  1578   measure_space
  1579   pair_finite_prob_space
  1580   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1581   pair_finite_space
  1582   pair_sigma_algebra
  1583   product_sigma_algebra
  1584 
  1585   Removed constants:
  1586   conditional_space
  1587   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1588   image_space
  1589   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1590   pair_measure_generator
  1591   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1592   subvimage
  1593 
  1594   Replacement theorems:
  1595   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1596   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1597   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1598   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1599   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1600   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1601   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1602   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1603   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1604   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1605   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1606   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1607   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1608   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1609   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1610   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1611   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1612   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1613   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1614   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1615   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1616   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1617   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1618   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1619   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1620   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1621   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1622   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1623   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1624   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1625   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1626   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1627   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1628   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1629   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1630   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1631   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1632   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1633   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1634   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1635   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1636   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1637   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1638   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1639   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1640   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1641   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1642   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1643   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1644   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1645   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1646   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1647   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1648   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1649   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1650   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1651   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1652   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1653   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1654   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1655   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1656   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1657   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1658   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1659   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1660   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1661   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1662   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1663   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1664   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1665   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1666   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1667   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1668   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1669   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1670   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1671   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1672   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1673   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1674   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1675   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1676   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1677   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1678   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1679   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1680   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1681   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1682   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1683   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1684   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1685   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1686   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1687   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1688   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1689   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1690   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1691   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1692   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1693   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1694   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1695   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1696   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1697   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1698   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1699   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1700   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1701   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1702   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1703   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1704   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1705   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1706   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1707   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1708   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1709   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1710   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1711   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1712   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1713   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1714   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1715   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1716   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1717   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1718   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1719   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1720   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1721   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1722   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1723 
  1724 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1725 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1726 
  1727 
  1728 *** FOL ***
  1729 
  1730 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1731 
  1732 
  1733 *** ZF ***
  1734 
  1735 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1736 analysis.
  1737 
  1738 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1739 
  1740 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1741 
  1742 
  1743 *** ML ***
  1744 
  1745 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1746 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1747 
  1748 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1749 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1750 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1751 
  1752 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1753 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1754 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1755 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1756 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1757 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1758 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1759 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1760 
  1761 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1762 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1763 
  1764 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1765 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1766 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1767 
  1768 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1769 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1770 
  1771 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1772 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1773 context as well.
  1774 
  1775 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1776 
  1777   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1778   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1779   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1780   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1781   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1782   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1783   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1784   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1785   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1786   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1787   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1788   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1789 
  1790 
  1791 *** System ***
  1792 
  1793 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1794 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1795 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1796 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1797 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1798 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1799 the generic user home was intended.
  1800 
  1801 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1802 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1803 
  1804 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1805 (not just JRE).
  1806 
  1807 
  1808 
  1809 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1810 ------------------------------------
  1811 
  1812 *** General ***
  1813 
  1814 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1815 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1816 
  1817   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1818     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1819     files for checking).
  1820 
  1821   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1822     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1823     positions.
  1824 
  1825   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1826     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1827     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1828 
  1829   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1830     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1831     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1832 
  1833   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1834     cores.
  1835 
  1836   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1837     versions (garbage collection).
  1838 
  1839 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1840 including some remaining limitations.
  1841 
  1842 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1843 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1844 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1845 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1846 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1848 
  1849 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1850 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1851 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1852 
  1853 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1854 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1855 usedir option -Q.
  1856 
  1857 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1858 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1859 
  1860   long_names   ~> names_long
  1861   short_names  ~> names_short
  1862   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1863 
  1864 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1865 
  1866   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1867 
  1868 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1869 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1870 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1871 
  1872 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1873 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1874 
  1875 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1876   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1877   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1878   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1879     "Classical Reasoner".
  1880 
  1881 
  1882 *** HOL ***
  1883 
  1884 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1885 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1886 
  1887 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1888 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1889 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1890 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1891 class complete_linorder.
  1892 
  1893 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1894 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1895 
  1896 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1897 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1898 
  1899   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1900   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1901   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1902   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1903   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1904   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1905   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1906   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1907   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1908   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1909   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1910 
  1911 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1912 
  1913   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1914   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1915   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1916   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1917   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1918   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1919   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1920   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1921   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1922   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1923   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1924   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1925   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1926   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1927   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1928   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1929 
  1930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1931 
  1932 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1934 
  1935 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1936 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1937 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1938 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1939 
  1940 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1941 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1942 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1943 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1944 
  1945 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1946 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1947 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1948 
  1949 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1950 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1951 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1952 
  1953 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1954 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1955 
  1956 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1957 
  1958     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1959     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1960 
  1961 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1962 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1963 
  1964 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1965 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1966 
  1967 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1968 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1969 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1970 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1971 
  1972   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1973   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1974   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1975   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1976   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1977   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1978   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1979 
  1980 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1981 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1982 
  1983   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1984   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1985   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1986   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1987   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1988   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1989   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1990   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1991   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1992   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1993   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1994   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1995   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1996   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1997   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1998   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1999   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2000   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2001   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2002   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2003   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2004   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2005   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2006   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2007   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2008   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2009   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2010   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2011   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2012   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2013   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2014   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2015   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2016   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2017   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2018   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2019   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2020   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2021   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2022   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2023   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2024   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2025   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2026   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2027   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2028   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2029   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2030   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2031   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2032   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2033   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2034   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2035   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2036   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2037   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2038   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2039   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2040   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2041   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2042   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2043   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2044   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2045   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2046   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2047   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2048   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2049   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2050   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2051   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2052   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2053   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2054   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2055   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2056   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2057   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2058   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2059   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2060   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2061   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2062   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2063   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2064   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2065 
  2066 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2067 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2068 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2069 
  2070 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2071 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2072 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2073 
  2074 * Code generation:
  2075 
  2076   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2077     characters in the target language.
  2078 
  2079   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2080     instead.
  2081 
  2082   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2083 
  2084   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2085     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2086 
  2087       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2088 
  2089 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2090 
  2091 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2092 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2093 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2094 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2095 syntax.
  2096 
  2097 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2098 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2099 
  2100 * Nitpick:
  2101   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2102   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2103   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2104     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2105 
  2106 * Sledgehammer:
  2107   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2108   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2109     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2110   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2111     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2112   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2113     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2114   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2115     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2116   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2117     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2118 
  2119 * Metis:
  2120   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2121   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2122     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2123 
  2124 * Command 'try':
  2125   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2126     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2127   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2128     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2129 
  2130 * Quickcheck:
  2131   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2132     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2133   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2134     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2135   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2136     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2137     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2138     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2139   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2140     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2141 
  2142 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2143 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2144 
  2145 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2146 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2147 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2148 
  2149 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2150 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2151 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2152 
  2153 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2154 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2155 
  2156 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2157 arithmetic.
  2158 
  2159 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2160 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2161 and lattice type classes.
  2162 
  2163 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2164 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2165 
  2166 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2167 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2168 
  2169 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2170 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2171 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2172 
  2173   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2174   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2175   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2176   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2177 
  2178 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2179 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2180 constants:
  2181 
  2182   type inat   ~> type enat
  2183   Fin         ~> enat
  2184   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2185   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2186   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2187 
  2188 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2189 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2190 
  2191 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2192 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2193 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2194 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2195 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2196 
  2197 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2198 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2199 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2200 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2201 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2202 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2203 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2204 
  2205   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2206   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2207   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2208   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2209 
  2210 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2211 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2212 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2213 
  2214   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2215   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2216   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2217   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2218   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2219   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2220   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2221   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2222   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2223   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2224   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2225   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2226   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2227   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2228   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2229   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2230   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2231   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2232   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2233   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2234   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2235   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2236   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2237   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2238   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2239   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2240   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2241   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2242   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2243   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2244   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2245   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2246   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2247   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2248   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2249   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2250   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2251   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2252   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2253   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2254   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2255   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2256   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2257   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2258   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2259   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2260   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2261   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2262   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2263   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2264   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2265 
  2266 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2267   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2268   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2269   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2270   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2271     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2272 
  2273 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2274 
  2275   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2276   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2277   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2278   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2279   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2280   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2281   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2282   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2283   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2284   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2285   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2286   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2287   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2288   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2289   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2290   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2291   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2292   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2293   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2294   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2295   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2296   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2297   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2298   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2299   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2300 
  2301 
  2302 *** Document preparation ***
  2303 
  2304 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2305 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2306 same.
  2307 
  2308 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2309 result.
  2310 
  2311 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2312 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2313 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2314 
  2315 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2316 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2317 
  2318 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2319 like this:
  2320 
  2321   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2322   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2323 
  2324 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2325 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2326 layouts.
  2327 
  2328 
  2329 *** ML ***
  2330 
  2331 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2332 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2333 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2334 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2335 under external program control.
  2336 
  2337 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2338 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2339 
  2340 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2341 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2342 (better known as Proof General).
  2343 
  2344 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2345 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2346 
  2347 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2348 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2349 
  2350 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2351 (including quotes etc.).
  2352 
  2353 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2354 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2355 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2356 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2357 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2358 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2359 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2360 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2361 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2362 
  2363 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2364 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2365 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2366 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2367 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2368 
  2369 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2370 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2371 
  2372 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2373 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2374 
  2375 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2376 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2377 
  2378 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2379 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2380 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2381 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2382 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2383 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2384 proper Proof.context.
  2385 
  2386 
  2387 *** System ***
  2388 
  2389 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2390 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2391 
  2392 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2393 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2394 
  2395 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2396 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2397 
  2398   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2399   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2400   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2401   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2402   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2403 
  2404 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2405 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2406 
  2407 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2408 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2409 example:
  2410 
  2411   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2412 
  2413 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2414 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2415 
  2416 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2417 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2418 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2419 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2420 
  2421 
  2422 
  2423 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2424 ----------------------------------
  2425 
  2426 *** General ***
  2427 
  2428 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2429 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2430 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2431 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2432 like this:
  2433 
  2434   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2435 
  2436 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2437 
  2438 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2439 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2440 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2441 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2442 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2443 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2444 
  2445 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2446 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2447 the following package declarations:
  2448 
  2449   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2450   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2451 
  2452 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2453 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2454 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2455 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2456 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2457 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2458 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2459 
  2460 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2461 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2462 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2463 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2464 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2465 
  2466 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2467 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2468 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2469 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2470 
  2471 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2472 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2473 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2474 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2475 
  2476   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2477 
  2478   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2479   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2480   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2481   show_types                    show_types
  2482   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2483   show_consts                   show_consts
  2484   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2485 
  2486   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2487   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2488   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2489 
  2490   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2491   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2492 
  2493   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2494 
  2495   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2496   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2497   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2498   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2499   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2500 
  2501 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2502 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2503 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2504 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2505 
  2506 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2508 
  2509   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2510   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2511 
  2512 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2513 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2514 float_token.
  2515 
  2516 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2517 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2519 
  2520 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2521 DejaVu Sans.
  2522 
  2523 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2524 
  2525 
  2526 *** Pure ***
  2527 
  2528 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2529 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2530 time.
  2531 
  2532 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2533 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2534 
  2535 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2536 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2537 
  2538 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2539 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2540 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2541 command already provided this functionality.
  2542 
  2543 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2544 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2545 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2546 without interpretations.
  2547 
  2548 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2549 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2550 
  2551 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2552 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2553 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2554 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2555 
  2556 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2557 'definition' instead.
  2558 
  2559 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2560 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2561 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2562 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2563 
  2564 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2565 constructors.
  2566 
  2567 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2568 the local file system.
  2569 
  2570 
  2571 *** HOL ***
  2572 
  2573 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2574 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2575 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2576 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2577 
  2578   declare [[coercion f]]
  2579 
  2580 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2581 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2582 
  2583   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2584 
  2585 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2586 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2587 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2588 other theories like this:
  2589 
  2590   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2591 
  2592 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2593 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2594 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2595 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2596 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2597 for examples.
  2598 
  2599 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2600 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2601 
  2602 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2603 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2604 
  2605 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2606 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2607 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2608 
  2609 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2610 functorial structure of types.
  2611 
  2612 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2613 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2614 
  2615 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2616 languages.
  2617 
  2618 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2619 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2620 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2621 
  2622 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2623 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2624 
  2625 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2626 combinators any longer.
  2627 
  2628 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2629 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2630 
  2631 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2632 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2633 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2634 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2635 
  2636   record 'a foo = ...
  2637   ...
  2638   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2639 
  2640 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2641 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2643 
  2644 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2645 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2646 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2647 
  2648 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2649 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2650 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2651 
  2652 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2653 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2654 
  2655 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2656 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2657 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2658 independently.
  2659 
  2660 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2661 counter example search.
  2662 
  2663 * Sledgehammer:
  2664   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2665     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2666     sledgehammer").
  2667   - Renamed commands:
  2668     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2669     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2670     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2671     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2672   - Renamed options:
  2673     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2674     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2675     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2676     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2677     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2678 
  2679 * Nitpick:
  2680   - Renamed options:
  2681     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2682     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2683     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2684   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2685   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2686   - Added "whack" option.
  2687   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2688   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2689   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2690   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2691     higher cardinalities.
  2692   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2693 
  2694 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2695 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2696 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2697 
  2698     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2699 
  2700 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2701 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2702 
  2703 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2704 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2705 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2706 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2707 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2708 "smt_solver".
  2709 
  2710 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2711 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2712 
  2713 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2714 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2715 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2716 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2717 
  2718 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2719   - Renamed:
  2720     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2721     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2722     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2723   - Added:
  2724     smt_verbose
  2725     smt_random_seed
  2726     smt_datatypes
  2727     smt_infer_triggers
  2728     smt_monomorph_limit
  2729     cvc3_options
  2730     remote_cvc3_options
  2731     remote_z3_options
  2732     yices_options
  2733 
  2734 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2735 header.
  2736 
  2737 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2738 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2739 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2740 
  2741   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2742 
  2743 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2746 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747 
  2748 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2749 
  2750 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2751 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2752 
  2753 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2754 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2755 
  2756 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2757 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2758 
  2759 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2760 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2761 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2762 
  2763 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2764 
  2765 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2767 
  2768 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2769 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2770 
  2771 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2772 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2773 for congruent(2)).
  2774 
  2775 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2776 
  2777   types
  2778     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2779     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2780 
  2781   constants
  2782     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2783     True ~> HOL.True
  2784     False ~> HOL.False
  2785     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2786     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2787     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2788     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2789     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2790     The ~> HOL.The
  2791     All ~> HOL.All
  2792     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2793     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2794     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2795     If ~> HOL.If
  2796     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2797     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2798     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2799     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2800     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2801     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2802     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2803     op : ~> Set.member
  2804     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2805 
  2806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2807 
  2808 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2809 
  2810     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2811     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2812     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2813     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2814     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2815     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2816     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2817     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2818 
  2819 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2820 
  2821 * More stylized fact names:
  2822 
  2823   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2824   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2825   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2826   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2827 
  2828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2829 
  2830 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2831 
  2832   constants
  2833     null ~> List.null
  2834 
  2835   facts
  2836     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2837     null_empty ~> null_def
  2838 
  2839 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2840 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2841 generation.
  2842 
  2843 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2844 Haskell code.
  2845 
  2846 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2847 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2848 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2849 
  2850 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2851 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2852 
  2853 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2854 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2855 
  2856 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2857 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2858 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2859 
  2860 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2861 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2862 
  2863 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2865 
  2866 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2867 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2868 referred to by its qualified name.
  2869 
  2870   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2871   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2872   product ~>  Enum.product
  2873 
  2874 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2875 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2877 
  2878 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2879 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2880 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2881 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2882 
  2883 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2884 sort_key.
  2885 
  2886 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2887 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2888 
  2889 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2890 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2891 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2892 
  2893   types
  2894     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2895               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2896               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2897         (depends on your needs)
  2898 
  2899   constants
  2900      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2901      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2902      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2903 
  2904 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2905 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2906 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2907 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2908 
  2909 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2910 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2911 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2912 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2913 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2914 
  2915 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2917 
  2918 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2919 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2920 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2921 
  2922 
  2923 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2924 
  2925 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2926 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2927 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2928 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2929 compatibility.
  2930 
  2931 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2932 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2933 
  2934 
  2935 *** HOLCF ***
  2936 
  2937 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2938 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2939 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2940 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2941 
  2942 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2943 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2944 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2945 
  2946   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2947   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2948   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2949 
  2950 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2951 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2952 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2953 
  2954 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2955 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2956 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2957 domain definition now works:
  2958 
  2959   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2960 
  2961 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2962 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2963 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2964 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2965 
  2966   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2967     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2968 
  2969   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2970 
  2971 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2972 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2973 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2974 
  2975 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2976 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2977 
  2978 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2979 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2980 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2981 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2982 
  2983 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2984 
  2985 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2986 
  2987 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2988 
  2989 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2990 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2991 
  2992 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2993 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2994 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2995 
  2996 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2997 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2998 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2999 
  3000 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3001 still supported as an input translation.
  3002 
  3003 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3004 
  3005   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3006   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3007   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3008   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3009   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3010   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3011   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3012 
  3013 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3014 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3015 
  3016   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3017   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3018   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3019   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3020   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3021   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3022 
  3023 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3024 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3025 
  3026 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3027 
  3028   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3029   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3030   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3031   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3032 
  3033 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3034 
  3035 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3036 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3037 
  3038 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3039 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3040 
  3041   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3042   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3043   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3044   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3045   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3046   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3047   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3048   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3049   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3050   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3051   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3052   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3053   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3054   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3055   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3056   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3057   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3058   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3059   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3060   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3061 
  3062 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3063 
  3064   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3065   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3066   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3067   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3068   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3069   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3070   box_less             ~> box_below
  3071   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3072   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3073   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3074   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3075   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3076   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3077   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3078   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3079   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3080   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3081   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3082   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3083   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3084   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3085   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3086   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3087   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3088   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3089   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3090   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3091   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3092   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3093   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3094   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3095   up_less              ~> up_below
  3096   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3097   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3098   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3099   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3100   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3101   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3102   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3103   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3104   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3105   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3106   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3107   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3108   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3109 
  3110 
  3111 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3112 
  3113 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3114 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3115 
  3116 
  3117 *** ML ***
  3118 
  3119 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3120 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3121 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3122 
  3123 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3124 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3125 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3126 
  3127 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3128 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3129 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3130 
  3131 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3132 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3133 
  3134 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3135 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3136 
  3137 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3138 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3139 
  3140 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3141 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3142 
  3143 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3144 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3145 almost all situations.
  3146 
  3147 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3148 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3149 Isabelle/ML.
  3150 
  3151 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3152 meaning.
  3153 
  3154 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3155 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3156 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3157 
  3158 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3159 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3160 
  3161 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3162 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3163 
  3164 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3165 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3166 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3167 
  3168 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3169 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3170 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3171 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3172 configuration options.
  3173 
  3174 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3175 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3176 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3177 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3178 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3179 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3180 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3181 
  3182 
  3183 
  3184 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3185 ---------------------------------
  3186 
  3187 *** General ***
  3188 
  3189 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3190 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3191 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3192 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3193 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3194 their full internal name.
  3195 
  3196 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3197 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3198 Some hints on upgrading:
  3199 
  3200   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3201     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3202     which are independent of this issue.
  3203 
  3204   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3205     provides the following special forms:
  3206 
  3207       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3208       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3209       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3210 
  3211     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3212     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3213     extra variables".
  3214 
  3215     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3216     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3217     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3218     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3219     "logic".
  3220 
  3221   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3222     antiquotations:
  3223 
  3224       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3225       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3226       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3227       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3228 
  3229   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3230     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3231     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3232     antiquotations.
  3233 
  3234 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3235 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3236 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3237 diagnose syntax problems.
  3238 
  3239 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3240 
  3241 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3242 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3243 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3244 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3245 
  3246 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3247 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3248 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3249 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3250 
  3251 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3252 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3253 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3254 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3255 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256 
  3257 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3258 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3259 
  3260 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3261 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3262 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3263 
  3264   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3265 
  3266 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3267 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3268 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3269 
  3270 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3271 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273 
  3274 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3275 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3276 
  3277 
  3278 *** Pure ***
  3279 
  3280 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3281 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3282 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3283 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3284 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3285 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3286 inspect proof terms.
  3287 
  3288 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3289 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3290 are added internally.  For example:
  3291 
  3292   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3293 
  3294 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3295 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3296 
  3297 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3298 
  3299 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3300 'class' instead.
  3301 
  3302 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3303 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3305 
  3306 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3307 invariants.
  3308 
  3309 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3310 user space functionality any longer.
  3311 
  3312 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3313 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315 
  3316 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3317 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3318 
  3319 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3320 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3321 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3322 
  3323 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3324 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3325 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3326 
  3327 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3328 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3329 
  3330 
  3331 *** HOL ***
  3332 
  3333 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3334 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3335 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3336 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3337 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3338 
  3339 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3340 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3341 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3342 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3343 
  3344   fun
  3345     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3346   where
  3347     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3348 
  3349   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3350     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3351 
  3352   quotient_definition
  3353     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3354 
  3355 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3356 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3357 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3358 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3359 
  3360 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3361 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3362 
  3363 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3364 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3365 
  3366 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3367 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3368 
  3369 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3370 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3371 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3372 
  3373 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3374 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3375 
  3376 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378 
  3379 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3381 
  3382 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3383 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3384 
  3385 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3386 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3387 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3388 
  3389   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3390   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3391   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3392   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3393   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3394   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3395   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3396   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3397   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3398   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3399   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3400   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3401   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3402   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3403   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3404   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3405   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3406   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3407   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3408   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3409   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3410   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3411   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3412   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3413   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3414   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3415   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3416   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3417   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3418   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3419 
  3420 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3421 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3422 
  3423 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3424 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3425 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3426 
  3427 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3428 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3429 
  3430 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3431 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3434 
  3435 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3436 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3439 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440 
  3441 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3442 
  3443 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3444 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3445 
  3446 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3447 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3448 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3449 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450 
  3451 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3452   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3453   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3454   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456 
  3457 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3458 lattices):
  3459 
  3460     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3461     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3462 
  3463     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3464 
  3465     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3466     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3467     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3468     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3469     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3470     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3471     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3472     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3473     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3474     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3475     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3476     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3477     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3478 
  3479     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3480     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3481     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3482     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3483     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3484     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3485     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3486     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3487     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3488     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3489     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3490     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3491     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3492     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3493     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3494     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3495     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3496     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3497 
  3498   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3499   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3500 
  3501     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3502     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3503     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3504     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3505     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3506 
  3507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * Refined field classes:
  3510   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3511     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3512     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3513   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3515 
  3516 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3517   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3518   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3519   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3520     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3521   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3522     equal_neg_zero.
  3523 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3524 
  3525 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3526 sets to lattices:
  3527 
  3528   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3529   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3530   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3531   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3532   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3533   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3534   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3535   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3536   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3537   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3538 
  3539 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3540 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3541 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3542 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3543 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3544 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3547 multiset order:
  3548 
  3549   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3550     <= and <;
  3551   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3552     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3553     multiset_order;
  3554   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3555     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3556     generation;
  3557   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3558     if needed.
  3559 
  3560 Renamed:
  3561 
  3562   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3563   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3564   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3565 
  3566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3567 
  3568 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3569 
  3570 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3571 
  3572 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3573 
  3574 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3575 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3576 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3577 
  3578   Constants:
  3579   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3580   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3581   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3582   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3583   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3584   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3585   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3586   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3587   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3588   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3589   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3590   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3591   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3592 
  3593   Lemmas:
  3594   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3595   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3596   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3597   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3598   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3599   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3600   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3601   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3602   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3603   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3604   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3605   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3606   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3607 
  3608 * Sledgehammer:
  3609   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3610     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3611     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3612     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3613     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3614     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3615     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3616   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3617   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3618     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3619   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3620     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3621     is still experimental.)
  3622   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3623     full-typed mode.
  3624   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3625 
  3626 * Nitpick:
  3627   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3628   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3629   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3630     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3631   - Added support for quotient types.
  3632   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3633     constructs.
  3634   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3635     "termination" proofs).
  3636   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3637   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3638   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3639   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3640     record getters.
  3641   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3642   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3643   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3644   - Added "atoms" option.
  3645   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3646     problems.
  3647   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3648     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3649     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3650   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3651     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3652   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3653 
  3654 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3655   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3656   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3657   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3658   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3659   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3660   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3661   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3662   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3663   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3664 
  3665 
  3666 *** HOLCF ***
  3667 
  3668 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3669 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3670 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3671 
  3672 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3673 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3674 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3675 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3676 
  3677 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3678 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3679 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3680 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3681 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3682 
  3683 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3684 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3685 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3686 
  3687 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3688 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3689 
  3690   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3691   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3692 
  3693 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3694 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3695 
  3696   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3697   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3698   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3699   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3700   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3701 
  3702 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3703 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3704 
  3705   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3706   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3707   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3708 
  3709 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3710 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712 
  3713 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3714 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3715 
  3716 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3717 
  3718 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3719 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3720 
  3721 
  3722 *** ML ***
  3723 
  3724 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3725 
  3726     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3727     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3728 
  3729     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3730     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3731     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3732     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3733 
  3734     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3735     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3736     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3737 
  3738 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3739 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3740 
  3741 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3742 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3743 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3744 
  3745 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3746 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3747 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3748 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3749 
  3750 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3751 the context or even global references.
  3752 
  3753 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3754 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3755 
  3756 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3757 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3758 
  3759   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3760   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3761   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3762   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3763   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3764   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3765   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3766   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3767   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3768   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3769 
  3770 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3771 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3772 
  3773 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3774 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3775 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3776 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3777 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3778 
  3779 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3780 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3781 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3782 Theory_Data version.
  3783 
  3784 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3785 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3786 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3787 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3788 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3789 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3790 explicitly in rare situations.
  3791 
  3792 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3793 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3794 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3795 
  3796 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3797 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3798 
  3799 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3800 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3801 quite rare).
  3802 
  3803 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3804 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3805 
  3806 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3807 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3808 terms.
  3809 
  3810 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3811 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3812 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3813 
  3814 
  3815 *** System ***
  3816 
  3817 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3818 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3819 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3820 
  3821 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3822 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3823 respectively.
  3824 
  3825 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3826 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3827 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3828 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3829 
  3830   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3831 
  3832 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3833 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3834 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3835 component.
  3836 
  3837 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3838 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3839 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3840 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3841 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3842 the user for manual installation.
  3843 
  3844 
  3845 
  3846 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3847 -------------------------------------
  3848 
  3849 *** General ***
  3850 
  3851 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3852 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3853 
  3854 
  3855 *** Pure ***
  3856 
  3857 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3858 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3859 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3860 
  3861 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3862 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3863 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3864 
  3865 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3866 interpretation.
  3867 
  3868 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3869 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3870 
  3871 
  3872 *** Document preparation ***
  3873 
  3874 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3875 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3876 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3877 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3878 
  3879 
  3880 *** HOL ***
  3881 
  3882 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3883 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3884 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3885 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3886 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3887 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3888 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3889 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3890 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3891 
  3892 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3893 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3894 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3895 
  3896 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3897 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3898 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3899 
  3900 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3901 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3902 
  3903 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3904 
  3905 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3906 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3907 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3908 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3909 
  3910 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3911 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3912 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3913 "mirabelle" utility.
  3914 
  3915 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3916 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3917 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3918 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3919 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3920 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3921 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3922 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3923 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3924 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3925 
  3926 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3927 procedure only.
  3928 
  3929 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3930 
  3931 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3932 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3933 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3934 that fail later.
  3935 
  3936 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3937 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3938 
  3939 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3940 the same method as the approximation method.
  3941 
  3942 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3943 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3944 series expansion.
  3945 
  3946 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3947 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3948 
  3949 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3950 reals.
  3951 
  3952 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3953 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3954 
  3955 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3956 fixpoint theorem.
  3957 
  3958 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3959   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3960     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3961   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3962     accordingly
  3963   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3964     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3965   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3966     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3967 
  3968 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3969 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3970 lattice.
  3971 
  3972 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3973 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3974 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3975 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3976 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3977 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3979 
  3980 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3981   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3982     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3983   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3984     le_inf_iff
  3985   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3986     sup_aci)
  3987   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3988   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3989   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3990     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3991     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3992     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3993     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3994     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3995     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3996     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3997     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3998     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3999     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4000   - authentic syntax for
  4001     Set.Pow
  4002     Set.image
  4003   - mere abbreviations:
  4004     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4005     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4006     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4007     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4008     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4009     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4010     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4011     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4012   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4013 
  4014 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4015 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4016 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4017 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4018 
  4019 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4020 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4021 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022 
  4023 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4024 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4025 
  4026 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4027 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4028 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4029 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4030 
  4031 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4032 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4033 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4034 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4035 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4036 
  4037 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4038 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4039 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4040 
  4041 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4042 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4043 
  4044 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4045 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4046 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4047 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4048 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4049 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4050 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4052 
  4053 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4054     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4055     code_post       replaces    code post
  4056     etc.
  4057   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4058 
  4059 * Renamed methods:
  4060     sizechange -> size_change
  4061     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4062   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4063 
  4064 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4065 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4066 
  4067 * Renamed theorems:
  4068     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4069     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4070     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4071     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4072     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4073   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4074 
  4075 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4077 
  4078 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4079 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4080 
  4081 
  4082 *** HOLCF ***
  4083 
  4084 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4085 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4086 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4087 
  4088 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4089 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4090 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4091 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4092 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4093 
  4094 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4095 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4096 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4097 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4098 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4099 
  4100 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4101 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4102 constructor are pre-configured.
  4103 
  4104 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4105 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4106 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4107 
  4108 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4109 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4110 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4111 as well.)
  4112 
  4113 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4114 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4115 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4116 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4117 examples.
  4118 
  4119 
  4120 *** ML ***
  4121 
  4122 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4123 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4124 
  4125 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4126 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4127 position, logical grouping etc.
  4128 
  4129 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4130 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4131 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4132 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4133 
  4134 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4135 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4136 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4137 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4138 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4139 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4140 
  4141 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4142 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4143 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4144 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4145 experiments with references.
  4146 
  4147 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4148 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4149 
  4150 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4151 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4152 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4153 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4154 
  4155 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4156 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4157 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4158 
  4159 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4160 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4161 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4162 
  4163 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4164 
  4165 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4167 
  4168 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4169 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4170 
  4171 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4172 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4173 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4174 
  4175 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4176 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4177 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4178 
  4179 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4180 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4181 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4183 
  4184 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4185 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4186 instead of global theory.
  4187 
  4188 
  4189 *** System ***
  4190 
  4191 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4192 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4193 usedir option -q.
  4194 
  4195 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4196 also the system manual.
  4197 
  4198 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4199 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4200 
  4201 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4202 this is always enabled.
  4203 
  4204 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4205 
  4206 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4207 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4208 currently supported on Linux only.
  4209 
  4210 
  4211 
  4212 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4213 --------------------------------
  4214 
  4215 *** General ***
  4216 
  4217 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4218 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4219 
  4220   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4221     "isatool."
  4222 
  4223   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4224     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4225 
  4226   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4227     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4228 
  4229 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4230 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4231 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4232 
  4233 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4234 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4235 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4236 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4237 via "isabelle emacs".
  4238 
  4239 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4240 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4241 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4242 
  4243 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4244 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4245 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4246 
  4247 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4248 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4249 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4250 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4251 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4252 
  4253 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4254 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4255 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4256 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4257 
  4258 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4259 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4260 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4261 
  4262 
  4263 *** Pure ***
  4264 
  4265 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4266 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4267 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4268 
  4269 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4270 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4271 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4272 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4273 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4274 
  4275 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4276 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4277 useful in locale declarations.
  4278 
  4279 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4280 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4281 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4282 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4283 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4284 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4285 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4286 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4287 no longer generated.
  4288 
  4289 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4290 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4291 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4292 
  4293 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4294 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4295 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4296 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4297 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4298 
  4299 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4300 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4301 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4302 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4303 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4304 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4305 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4306 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4307 
  4308 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4309 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4310 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4311 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4312 
  4313 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4314 
  4315 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4316 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4317 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4318 
  4319 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4320 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4321 
  4322 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4323 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4324 in HOL, write
  4325 
  4326     class foo = ...
  4327 
  4328 instead of
  4329 
  4330     class foo = type + ...
  4331 
  4332 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4333 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4334 
  4335 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4336 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4337 
  4338 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4339 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4340 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4341 
  4342 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4343 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4344 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4345 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4346 directly in regular applications.
  4347 
  4348 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4349 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4350 
  4351 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4352 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4353 
  4354 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4355 theory context.
  4356 
  4357 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4358 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4359 
  4360 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4361 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4362 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4363 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4364 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4365 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4366 
  4367   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4368 
  4369 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4370 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4371 normalization.
  4372 
  4373 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4374 addressing etc.
  4375 
  4376 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4377 
  4378   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4379   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4380 
  4381 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4382 
  4383   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4384      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4385      parts of the code generator framework).
  4386 
  4387   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4388      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4389      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4390 
  4391 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4392 
  4393 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4394 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4395 
  4396 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4397 patterns, e.g.
  4398 
  4399     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4400 
  4401 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4402 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4403 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4404 hyphen:
  4405 
  4406     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4407 
  4408 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4409 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4410 
  4411 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4412 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4413 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4414 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4415 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4416 higher-order unification.
  4417 
  4418 
  4419 *** Document preparation ***
  4420 
  4421 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4422 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4423 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4424 
  4425 
  4426 *** HOL ***
  4427 
  4428 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4429 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4430 
  4431 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4432 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4433 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4434 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4435 Main, as before.
  4436 
  4437 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4438 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4439 
  4440 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4441 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4442 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4443 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4444 
  4445 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4446 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4447 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4448 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4449 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4450 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4451 
  4452 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4453 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4454 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4455 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4456 
  4457 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4458 menu.
  4459 
  4460 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4461 (contains the empty clause).
  4462 
  4463 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4464 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4465 
  4466 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4467 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4468 
  4469 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4470 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4471 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4472 
  4473 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4474 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4475 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4476 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4477 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4478 
  4479 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4480 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4481 
  4482 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4483 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4484 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4485 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4486 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4487 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4488 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4489 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4490 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4491 
  4492 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4493 
  4494 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4495 
  4496 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4497 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4498 
  4499 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4500 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4501 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4502 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4503 
  4504 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4505 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4506 
  4507     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4508     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4509     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4510     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4511     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4512     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4513     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4514     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4515 
  4516 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4517 theory Set.
  4518 
  4519 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4520 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4521 
  4522 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4523 
  4524 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4525 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4526 
  4527 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4528 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4529 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4530 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4531 allowed. For examples see
  4532 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4533 
  4534 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4535 
  4536 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4537 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4538 
  4539 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4540 structure:
  4541 
  4542     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4543     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4544     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4545     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4546     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4547     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4548     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4549     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4550     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4551     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4552     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4553     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4554     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4555     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4556     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4557     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4558     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4559     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4560     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4561     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4562     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4563     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4564     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4565     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4566     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4567     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4568     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4569     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4570     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4571     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4572     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4573     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4574     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4575 
  4576     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4577     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4578     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4579     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4580     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4581     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4582     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4583     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4584     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4585     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4586 
  4587     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4588     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4589     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4590     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4591     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4592     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4593 
  4594 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4595 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4596 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4597 
  4598 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4599 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4600 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4601 
  4602 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4603 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4604 
  4605 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4606 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4607 
  4608 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4609 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4610 proofs, e.g.
  4611 
  4612   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4613 
  4614 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4615 
  4616 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4617 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4618 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4619 
  4620 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4621 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4623 
  4624 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4625 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4626 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4627 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4628 
  4629 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4630 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4631 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4632 preorder_class.*.
  4633 
  4634 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4635 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4636 
  4637 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4638 
  4639   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4640 
  4641 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4642 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4643 fold_image.
  4644 
  4645 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4646 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4647 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4648 the former will disappear at some point.
  4649 
  4650 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4651 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4652 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4653 
  4654 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4655 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4656 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4657 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4658 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4659 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4660 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4661 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4662 
  4663 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4664 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4665 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4666 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4667 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4668 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4669 
  4670     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4671     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4672     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4673     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4674     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4675     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4676     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4677 
  4678 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4679 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4680 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4681 
  4682 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4683 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4684 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4685 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4686 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4687 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4688 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4689 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4690 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4691 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4692 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4693 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4694 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4695 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4696 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4697 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4698 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4699 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4700 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4701 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4702 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4703 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4704 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4705 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4706 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4707 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4708 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4709 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4710 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4711 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4712 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4713 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4714 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4715 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4716 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4717 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4718 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4719 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4720 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4721 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4722 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4723 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4724 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4725 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4726 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4727 
  4728 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4729 
  4730 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4731 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4732 
  4733 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4734 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4735 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4736 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4737 
  4738 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4739 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4740 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4741 theory RealVector.
  4742 
  4743 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4744 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4745 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4746 and inner products are included.
  4747 
  4748 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4749 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4750 supported.
  4751 
  4752 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4753 first diagonalization argument.
  4754 
  4755 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4756 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4757 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4758 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4759 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4760 
  4761     hide (open) const gcd
  4762     abbreviation gcd where
  4763       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4764     notation (output)
  4765       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4766 
  4767 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4768 
  4769 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4770 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4771 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4772 
  4773 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4774 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4775 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4776 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4777 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4778 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4779 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4780 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4781 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4782 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4783 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4784 cases.
  4785 
  4786 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4787 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4788 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4789 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4790 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4791 
  4792     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4793     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4794     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4795     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4796     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4797 
  4798 
  4799 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4800 
  4801 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4802 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4803 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4804 
  4805 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4806 
  4807 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4808 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4809 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4810 
  4811 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4812 
  4813 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4814 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4815 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4816 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4817 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4818 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4819 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4820 
  4821 
  4822 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4823 
  4824 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4825 
  4826 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4827 theory targets.
  4828 
  4829 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4830 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4831 'inductive' etc.
  4832 
  4833 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4834 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4835 
  4836 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4837 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4838 
  4839 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4840 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4841 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4842 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4843 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4844 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4845 the algorithm W:
  4846 
  4847  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4848  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4849          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4850 
  4851 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4852 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4853 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4854 
  4855 
  4856 *** HOLCF ***
  4857 
  4858 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4859 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4860 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4861 
  4862 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4863 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4864 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4865 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4866 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4867 
  4868 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4869 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4870 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4871 
  4872 
  4873 *** ZF ***
  4874 
  4875 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4876 
  4877 
  4878 *** ML ***
  4879 
  4880 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4881 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4882 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4883 5.2.1!
  4884 
  4885 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4886 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4887 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4888 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4889 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4890 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4891 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4892 
  4893 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4894 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4895 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4896 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4897 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4898 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4899 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4900 
  4901 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4902 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4903 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4904 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4905 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4906 
  4907 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4908 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4909 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4910 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4911 Method.add_method.
  4912 
  4913 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4914 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4915 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4916 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4917 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4918 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4919 
  4920 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4921 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4922 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4923 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4924 examples.
  4925 
  4926 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4927 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4928 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4929 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4930 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4931 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4932 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4933 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4934 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4935 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4936 
  4937 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4938 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4939 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4940 
  4941 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4942 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4943 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4944 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4945 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4946 resort for legacy applications.
  4947 
  4948 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4949 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4950 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4951 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4952 explicit runtime argument.
  4953 
  4954 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4955 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4956 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4957 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4958 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4959 
  4960 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4961 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4962 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4963 theory state.
  4964 
  4965 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4966 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4967 
  4968   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4969   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4970   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4971   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4972   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4973   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4974   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4975   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4976   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4977   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4978 
  4979 
  4980 *** System ***
  4981 
  4982 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4983 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4984 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4985 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4986 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4987 
  4988 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4989 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4990 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4991 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4992 
  4993 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4994 
  4995 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4996 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4997 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4998 prover operations.
  4999 
  5000 
  5001 
  5002 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5003 -------------------------------
  5004 
  5005 *** General ***
  5006 
  5007 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5008 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5009 
  5010 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5011 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5012 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5013 provides a proper context already.
  5014 
  5015 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5016 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5017 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5018 
  5019 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5020 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5021 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5022 swap theory imports.
  5023 
  5024 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5025 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5026 
  5027 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5028 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5029 white space without escapes.
  5030 
  5031 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5032 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5033 "foo_bar".
  5034 
  5035 
  5036 *** Pure ***
  5037 
  5038 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5039 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5040 
  5041 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5042 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5043 
  5044 (1) unused_thms
  5045      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5046 
  5047 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5048      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5049      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5050 
  5051 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5052      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5053      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5054      their ancestors.
  5055 
  5056 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5057 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5058 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5059 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5060 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5061 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5062 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5063 
  5064 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5065 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5066 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5067 
  5068 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5069 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5070 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5071 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5072 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5073 
  5074 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5075 
  5076 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5077 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5078 update of theories within ML code.
  5079 
  5080 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5081 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5082 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5083 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5084 
  5085 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5086 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5087 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5088 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5089 
  5090 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5091 
  5092 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5093 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5094 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5095 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5096 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5097 
  5098 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5099 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5100 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5101 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5102 situations.
  5103 
  5104 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5105 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5106 proof text.
  5107 
  5108 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5109 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5110 
  5111 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5112 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5113 predicates.
  5114 
  5115 
  5116 *** Document preparation ***
  5117 
  5118 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5119 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5120 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5121 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5122 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5123 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5124 
  5125 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5126 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5127 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5128 
  5129 
  5130 *** HOL ***
  5131 
  5132 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5133 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5134 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5135 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5136 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5137 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5138 
  5139 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5140 with multithreading.
  5141 
  5142 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5143 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5144 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5145 
  5146 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5147 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5148 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5149 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5150 
  5151 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5152 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5153 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5154 and makes them available separately.  See
  5155 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5156 
  5157 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5158 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5159 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5160 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5161 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5162 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5163 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5164 the declared rules.
  5165 
  5166 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5167 
  5168   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5169 
  5170 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5171 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5172 
  5173 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5174 
  5175   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5176 
  5177   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5178     definitions on => and bool.
  5179 
  5180   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5181     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5182     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5183 
  5184       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5185       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5186       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5187       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5188       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5189       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5190       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5191       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5192 
  5193   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5194     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5195     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5196 
  5197   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5198     The proof pattern
  5199 
  5200       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5201       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5202 
  5203     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5204     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5205 
  5206       have "EX S. P S"
  5207       proof
  5208         show "P S" <...>
  5209       qed
  5210 
  5211   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5212     The proof pattern
  5213 
  5214       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5215       also have "S = T" <...>
  5216       finally have "P T" .
  5217 
  5218     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5219     must be replaced by something like
  5220 
  5221       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5222       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5223       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5224 
  5225   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5226     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5227 
  5228       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5229 
  5230     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5231     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5232     type of the form
  5233 
  5234       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5235 
  5236     rather than
  5237 
  5238       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5239 
  5240 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5241 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5242 
  5243 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5244 
  5245 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5246 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5248 
  5249 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5250 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5251 
  5252 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5253 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5254 
  5255 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5256 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5257 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5258 
  5259 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5260 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5261 
  5262   less_trans
  5263   less_linear
  5264   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5265   le_less_trans
  5266   less_le_trans
  5267   less_not_sym
  5268   less_asym
  5269 
  5270 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5271 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5272 and different variable names.
  5273 
  5274 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5275 
  5276 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5277 finite maps.
  5278 
  5279 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5280 
  5281 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5282 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5283 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5284 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5285 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5286 accordingly.
  5287 
  5288 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5289 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5290 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5291 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5292 
  5293 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5294 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5295 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5296 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5297 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5299 
  5300 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5301 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5302 
  5303 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5304 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5305 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5306 
  5307 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5309 
  5310 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5311 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5312 
  5313 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5314 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5315 
  5316 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5317 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5318 
  5319 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5320 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5322 
  5323 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5324 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5325 
  5326 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5327 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5328 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5329 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5330 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5331 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5332 
  5333 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5334 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5335 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5336 
  5337 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5338 
  5339 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5340 
  5341 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5342 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5343 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5344 
  5345 
  5346 *** ZF ***
  5347 
  5348 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5349 same session:
  5350 
  5351   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5352   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5353   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5354   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5355   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5356   List      -> List_ZF
  5357   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5358 
  5359 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5360 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5361 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5362 
  5363 
  5364 *** ML ***
  5365 
  5366 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5367 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5368 
  5369 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5370 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5371 
  5372 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5373 
  5374 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5375 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5376 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5377 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5378 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5379 
  5380 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5381 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5382 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5383 
  5384 
  5385 *** System ***
  5386 
  5387 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5388 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5389 
  5390 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5391 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5392 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5393 
  5394 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5395 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5396 
  5397 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5398 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5399 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5400 
  5401 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5402 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5403 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5404 
  5405 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5406 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5407 
  5408 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5409 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5410 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5411 script.
  5412 
  5413 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5414 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5415 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5416 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5417 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5418 
  5419 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5420 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5421 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5422 
  5423 
  5424 
  5425 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5426 -----------------------------------
  5427 
  5428 *** General ***
  5429 
  5430 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5431 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5432 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5433 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5434 
  5435 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5436 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5437 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5438 
  5439 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5440 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5441 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5442 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5443 
  5444 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5445 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5446 quotes.
  5447 
  5448 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5449 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5450 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5451 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5452 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5453 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5454 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5455 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5456 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5457 
  5458 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5459 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5460 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5461 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5462 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5463 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5464 
  5465 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5466 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5467 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5468 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5469 
  5470 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5471 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5472 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5473 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5474 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5475 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5476 
  5477 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5478 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5479 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5480 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5481 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5482 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5483 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5484 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5485 
  5486 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5487 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5488 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5489 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5490 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5491 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5492 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5493 
  5494 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5495 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5496 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5497 
  5498 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5499 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5500 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5501 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5502 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5503 limit is imposed.
  5504 
  5505 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5506 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5507 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5508 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5509 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5510 and scalability.
  5511 
  5512 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5513 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5514 
  5515 
  5516 *** Document preparation ***
  5517 
  5518 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5519 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5520 current context.
  5521 
  5522 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5523 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5524 
  5525 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5526 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5527 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5528 
  5529 
  5530 *** Pure ***
  5531 
  5532 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5533 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5534 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5535 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5536 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5537 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5538 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5539 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5540 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5541 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5542 
  5543 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5544 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5545 sketch:
  5546 
  5547     internal compilation:
  5548         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5549     writing SML code to a file:
  5550         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5551     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5552         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5553     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5554         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5555 
  5556     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5557         method ``eval''
  5558 
  5559 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5560 
  5561 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5562 
  5563     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5564     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5565     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5566     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5567 
  5568 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5569 
  5570     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5571       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5572 
  5573     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5574       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5575 
  5576     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5577       {(target)}+
  5578         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5579 
  5580     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5581       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5582         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5583 
  5584 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5585 
  5586 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5587 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5588 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5589 codegen".
  5590 
  5591 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5592 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5593 annotations).
  5594 
  5595 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5596 syntax.
  5597 
  5598 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5599 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5600 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5601 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5602 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5603 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5604 
  5605 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5606 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5607 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5608 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5609 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5610 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5611 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5612 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5613 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5614 equations, see section "definitions".
  5615 
  5616 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5617 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5618 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5619 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5620 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5621 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5622 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5623 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5624 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5625 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5626 
  5627 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5628 configuration options:
  5629 
  5630   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5631   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5632   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5633   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5634   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5635   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5636   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5637   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5638   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5639 
  5640 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5641 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5642 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5643 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5644 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5645 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5646 order.
  5647 
  5648 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5649 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5650 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5651 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5652 context encountered later on.
  5653 
  5654 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5655 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5656 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5657 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5658 
  5659 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5660 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5661 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5662 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5663 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5664 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5665 
  5666 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5667 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5668 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5669 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5670 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5671 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5672 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5673 more permissive.
  5674 
  5675 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5676 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5677 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5678 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5679 maintainability of proof texts.
  5680 
  5681 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5682 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5683 
  5684   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5685   then guess x and y by clarify
  5686 
  5687 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5688 proof tools being involved here.
  5689 
  5690 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5691 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5692 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5693 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5694 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5695 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5696 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5697 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5698 
  5699 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5700 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5701 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5702 
  5703   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5704   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5705   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5706   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5707 
  5708 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5709 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5710 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5711 
  5712 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5713 both named and unnamed ones.
  5714 
  5715 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5716 
  5717   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5718 
  5719 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5720 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5721 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5722 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5723 
  5724 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5725 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5726 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5727 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5728 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5729 
  5730 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5731 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5732 
  5733 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5734 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5735 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5736 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5737 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5738 originally first one.
  5739 
  5740 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5741 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5742 expected.
  5743 
  5744 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5745 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5746 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5747 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5748 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5749 
  5750   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5751     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5752     obtains x where "P x"
  5753 
  5754   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5755     assumes "A & B"
  5756     obtains A and B
  5757 
  5758   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5759     assumes "A | B"
  5760     obtains
  5761       A
  5762     | B
  5763 
  5764 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5765 explicitly:
  5766 
  5767   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5768     obtains "~ thesis"
  5769 
  5770   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5771     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5772 
  5773 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5774 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5775 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5776 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5777 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5778 case_names).
  5779 
  5780 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5781 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5782 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5783 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5784 
  5785 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5786 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5787 top-level lemma.
  5788 
  5789 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5790 introduction rule (default "that").
  5791 
  5792 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5793 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5794 to occur.
  5795 
  5796 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5797 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5798 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5799 representations independently of name spaces.
  5800 
  5801 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5802 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5803 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5804 
  5805 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5806 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5807 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5808 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5809 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5810 current context.
  5811 
  5812 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5813 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5814 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5815 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5816 
  5817   axiomatization
  5818     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5819     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5820 
  5821   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5822   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5823 
  5824   abbreviation
  5825     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5826     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5827 
  5828 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5829 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5830 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5831 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5832 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5833 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5834 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5835 
  5836 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5837 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5838 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5839 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5840 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5841 
  5842 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5843 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5844 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5845 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5846 
  5847 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5848 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5849 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5850 
  5851   definition "K x _ = x"
  5852 
  5853   inductive conj for A B
  5854   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5855 
  5856 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5857 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5858 abbreviations on output.
  5859 
  5860 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5861 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5862 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5863 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5864 
  5865 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5866 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5867 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5868 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5869 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5870 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5871 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5872 
  5873 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5874 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5875 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5876 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5877 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5878 
  5879 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5880 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5881 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5882 
  5883 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5884 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5885 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5886 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5887 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5888 
  5889   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5890     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5891 
  5892 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5893 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5894 partial_order.
  5895 
  5896 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5897 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5898 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5899 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5900 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5901 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5902 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5903 examples.
  5904 
  5905 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5906 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5907 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5908 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5909 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5910 
  5911 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5912 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5913 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5914 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5915 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5916 
  5917   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5918   (induct set: foo bar)
  5919   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5920   (induct type: foo bar)
  5921 
  5922 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5923 new format.
  5924 
  5925 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5926 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5927 
  5928 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5929 considered a legacy feature.
  5930 
  5931 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5932 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5933 
  5934 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5935 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5936 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5937 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5938   
  5939 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5940 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5941 manipulating the claset.
  5942 
  5943 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5944 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5945 least one premise.
  5946 
  5947 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5948 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5949 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5950 rule steps.
  5951 
  5952 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5953 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5954 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5955 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5956 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5957 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5958 
  5959 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5960 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5961 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5962 
  5963 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5964 the graph browser tool.
  5965 
  5966 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5967 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5968 
  5969 
  5970 *** HOL ***
  5971 
  5972 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5973 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5974 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5975 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5976 multi-threading.
  5977   
  5978 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5979 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5980 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5981 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5982 work with multi-threading.
  5983 
  5984 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5985 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5986 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5987 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5988 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5989 
  5990 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5991 
  5992 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5993 equality.
  5994 
  5995 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5996 the new 'class' package:
  5997 
  5998     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5999     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  6000     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  6001     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  6002     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  6003     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  6004     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  6005     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  6006     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  6007     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  6008     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  6009     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  6010     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  6011     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  6012     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  6013     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  6014     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  6015     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  6016     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  6017     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  6018 
  6019 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  6020 
  6021 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  6022 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  6023 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  6024 names.
  6025 
  6026 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  6027 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  6028 
  6029 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  6030 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  6031 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  6032 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  6033 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  6034 
  6035 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  6036 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  6037 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  6038 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  6039 
  6040 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  6041 
  6042 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  6043 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  6044 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  6045 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  6046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6047 
  6048 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  6049 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6050 
  6051 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  6052 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  6053 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6054 
  6055 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  6056 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  6057 
  6058 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  6059 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  6060 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  6061 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  6062 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  6063 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  6064 in the current context.
  6065 
  6066 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  6067 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  6068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6069 
  6070 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  6071 with new class dense_linear_order.
  6072 
  6073 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  6074 
  6075     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  6076     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  6077 
  6078     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  6079       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  6080     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  6081     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  6082 
  6083     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  6084     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  6085 
  6086   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  6087 
  6088     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  6089     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  6090     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  6091     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  6092     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  6093     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  6094     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  6095     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  6096     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  6097     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  6098     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  6099     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  6100     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  6101     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  6102     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  6103     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  6104     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  6105     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  6106     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  6107     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  6108     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  6109     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  6110     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  6111     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  6112     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  6113     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  6114     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  6115     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  6116     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  6117     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  6118     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  6119     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  6120     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  6121     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  6122     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  6123 
  6124     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  6125     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  6126     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  6127     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  6128     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  6129     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  6130     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  6131     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  6132     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  6133     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  6134     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  6135     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  6136     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  6137     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  6138     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  6139     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  6140     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  6141 
  6142     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  6143     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  6144     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  6145     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  6146     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  6147     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  6148     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  6149     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  6150     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  6151     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  6152     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  6153     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  6154     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  6155     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  6156     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  6157     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  6158     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  6159     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  6160     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  6161     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  6162     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  6163     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  6164     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  6165     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  6166     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  6167     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  6168     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  6169     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  6170 
  6171     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  6172     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  6173     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  6174     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  6175     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  6176     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  6177 
  6178     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  6179     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  6180     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  6181     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  6182 
  6183     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  6184     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  6185 
  6186     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  6187     join_max                ~> sup_max
  6188 
  6189 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  6190 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  6191 
  6192 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  6193 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  6194 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  6195 "*.size".
  6196 
  6197 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  6198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6199 
  6200 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  6201 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  6202 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6203 
  6204 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6205 
  6206 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  6207 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  6208 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  6209 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  6210 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  6211 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  6212 numerals on all operations.
  6213 
  6214 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  6215 
  6216 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  6217 
  6218 * Code generator library theories:
  6219   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  6220     languages.
  6221   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  6222     languages.
  6223   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  6224     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  6225   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  6226   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  6227     denominator).
  6228   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  6229     representable by rational numbers.
  6230   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  6231     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  6232     includes Code_Integer.
  6233   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  6234     target-language built-in integers.
  6235   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  6236     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  6237 
  6238 * New package for inductive predicates
  6239 
  6240   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  6241 
  6242     inductive
  6243       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6244       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6245     where
  6246       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6247     | ...
  6248 
  6249   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  6250 
  6251     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"