NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu Jul 24 16:21:50 2014 +0200 (2014-07-24)
changeset 57650 17d7f5d96328
parent 57637 eeb2d50ec71f
child 57693 8ccc4875fe4f
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned spelling;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
     5 ---------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    10 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    11 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    12 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    13 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    14 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    15 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    16 some examples.
    17 
    18 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
    19 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
    20 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
    21 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
    22 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
    23 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
    24 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
    25 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
    26 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
    27 
    28 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    29 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    30 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    31 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    32 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    33 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    34 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    35 proof tools.
    36 
    37 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    38 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    39 supports input via ` (backquote).
    40 
    41 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    42 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    43 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    44 
    45 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    46 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    47 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
    48 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    49 
    50 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
    51 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    52 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
    53 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    54 
    55 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    56 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    57 
    58 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    59 not check existence within the file-system.
    60 
    61 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
    62 isar-ref, jedit, system.
    63 
    64 
    65 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    66 
    67 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
    68 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
    69 buffer.
    70 
    71 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
    72 to PIDE hyperlinks.
    73 
    74 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    75 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    76 
    77 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    78 auxiliary ML files.
    79 
    80 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
    81 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
    82 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
    83 
    84 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
    85 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
    86 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
    87 
    88 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
    89 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
    90 caret".
    91 
    92 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
    93 completion popup and context-menu.
    94 
    95 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
    96 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
    97 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
    98 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
    99 
   100 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   101 to highlight text via regular expression.
   102 
   103 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   104 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   105 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   106 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   107 
   108 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   109 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   110 
   111 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   112 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   113 
   114 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   115 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   116 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   117 
   118 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
   119 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
   120 within the context.
   121 
   122 
   123 *** Pure ***
   124 
   125 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   126 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   127 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   128 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
   129 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
   130 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
   131 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   132 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
   133 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
   134 
   135 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   136 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   137 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   138 renaming needs to be applied:
   139 
   140   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   141   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   142   all            ~>  Pure.all
   143   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   144   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   145 
   146 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   147 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   148 old constants:
   149 
   150 setup {*
   151   fn thy => thy
   152     |> Sign.root_path
   153     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   154     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   155     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   156     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   157 *}
   158 
   159 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   160 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   161 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   162 
   163 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   164 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   165 instantiated theorem.
   166 
   167 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   168 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   169 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   170 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   171 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   172 
   173   attribute_setup standard =
   174     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   175 
   176 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   177 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   178 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   179 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   180 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   181 
   182 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   183 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   184 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
   185 
   186 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   187 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   188 
   189 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
   190 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   191 
   192 
   193 *** HOL ***
   194 
   195 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
   196 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   197 
   198 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   200 
   201 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
   202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   203 
   204 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
   205 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   209 
   210 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   211 with the given constants.
   212 
   213 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   214 operations on records.
   215 
   216 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
   217 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   218 
   219 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   220 
   221 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   222 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   223 
   224 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
   227 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
   228 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
   229 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
   230 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   231 
   232 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   233 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   234 
   235 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
   236   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
   237   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
   238   part of theory "Main".
   239 
   240   Theory renamings:
   241     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   242     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   243     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   244     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   245     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   246     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   247     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   248     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   249     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   250     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   251     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   252     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   253     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   254     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   255     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   256     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   257     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   258     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   259     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   260     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   261     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   262     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   263 
   264   New theories:
   265     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   266     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   267     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   268     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   269     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   270 
   271   Discontinued theories:
   272     BNF/BNF.thy
   273     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   274 
   275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * New (co)datatype package:
   278   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
   279   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
   280     "size") as required by 'fun'.
   281   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
   282     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
   283   - Renamed commands:
   284       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   285       primrec_new ~> primrec
   286       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   287     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   288   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   289     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   290     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   291   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
   292     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
   293     using "prim(co)rec".
   294     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   295   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
   296     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   297     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   299     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   300     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   301     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   302 
   303 * Old datatype package:
   304   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
   305     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
   306     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   307   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
   308     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
   309     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   310 
   311 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
   312   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
   313   BNF-based datatype package.
   314 
   315   Renamed constants:
   316     Option.set ~> set_option
   317     Option.map ~> map_option
   318     option_rel ~> rel_option
   319 
   320   Renamed theorems:
   321     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   322     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   323     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   324     option.recs ~> option.rec
   325     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   326     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   327     map.simps ~> list.map
   328     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   329     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   330     the.simps ~> option.sel
   331 
   332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   333 
   334 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   335     sum_map ~> map_sum
   336     map_pair ~> map_prod
   337     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   338     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   339     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   340     set_rel ~> rel_set
   341     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   342     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
   343     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   344     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   345 
   346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   347 
   348 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
   349 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
   350 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
   351 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
   352 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
   353 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
   354 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   355 
   356 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
   357 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
   358 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
   359 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
   360 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   361 
   362 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   363 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   364 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   365 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   366 
   367 * Sledgehammer:
   368   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   369   - MaSh overhaul:
   370     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
   371       Python and increase performance and reliability.
   372     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
   373       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
   374       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
   375       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
   376   - New option:
   377       smt_proofs
   378   - Renamed options:
   379       isar_compress ~> compress
   380       isar_try0 ~> try0
   381 
   382 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   383 
   384 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   385 
   386 * Nitpick:
   387   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
   388     take infinite values.
   389   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
   390     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
   391   - Removed "std" option.
   392   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   393     "hide_types".
   394 
   395 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
   396 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   397 
   398 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   399 
   400 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   401   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   402   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
   403     SUP instead uniformly.
   404   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   405     or SUP and Sup.
   406   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   407   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   408   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
   409     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
   410     INT_cong, SUP_cong
   411 
   412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   413 
   414 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
   415 
   416 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   417 
   418   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   419   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   420   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   421   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   422 
   423 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   424 
   425 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
   426 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
   427 
   428 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
   429 
   430     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
   431     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
   432     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
   433     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
   434     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
   435     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
   436     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
   437     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
   438     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
   439     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
   440     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
   441     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
   442     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
   443     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
   444     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
   445     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
   446     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
   447     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
   448     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
   449     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
   450     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
   451     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
   452     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
   453     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
   454     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
   455     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
   456     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
   457     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
   458     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
   459     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
   460     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
   461     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
   462     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
   463     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
   464     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
   465     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
   466     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
   467     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
   468     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
   469     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
   470     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
   471     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
   472     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
   473     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
   474     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
   475     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
   476     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
   477     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
   478     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
   479     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
   480     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
   481     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
   482     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
   483     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
   484     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
   485     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
   486     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
   487     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
   488     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
   489 
   490   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
   491   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
   492   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
   493     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
   494 
   495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   496 
   497 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   498 
   499   Fact consolidations:
   500     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   501     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   502     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   503     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   504     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   505     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   506     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   507     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   508     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   509     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   510     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   511     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   512     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   513     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   514     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   515     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   516     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   517     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   518     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   519     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   520     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   521     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   522     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   523     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   524     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   525     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   526     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   527     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   528     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   529     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   530     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   531     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   532     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   533     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   534     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   535     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   536     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   537     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   538     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   539     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   540 
   541 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   542 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   543 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   544 
   545 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
   546 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   547 
   548 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   549 
   550 INCOMPATBILITY.
   551 
   552 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
   553 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   554 
   555 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   557 
   558 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   559     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   560 
   561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   562 
   563 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
   564   consolidation:
   565     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   566     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   567 
   568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   569 
   570 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   571   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   572   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   573   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   574     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   575   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   576     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   577   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   578 
   579 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   580 
   581 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
   582 
   583     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
   584     add_commute ~> add.commute
   585     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
   586     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
   587     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
   588     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
   589     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
   590     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
   591     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
   592     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
   593     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
   594     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
   595     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
   596 
   597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   598 
   599 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
   600 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
   601 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
   602 
   603 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   604     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   605     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   606     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   607     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   608 
   609 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   610 
   611 * Fact name consolidation:
   612     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   613     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   614     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   615     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   616     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   617 
   618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   619 
   620 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   621 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   622 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   623 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   624 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   625 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
   626 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
   627 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   628 
   629 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   630 
   631 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   632 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   633 
   634 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   635 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   636 
   637 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   638 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   639 or the brute way with
   640 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   641 
   642 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
   643 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
   644 stating boundedness of sets.
   645 
   646 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
   647 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
   648 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   649 
   650 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   651   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   652   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   653   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   654   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   655   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   656   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   657   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   658   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   659   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   660   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   661   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   662 
   663   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   664 
   665   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   666 
   667     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   668     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
   669     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
   670     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
   671     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   672 
   673 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   674 
   675 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   676   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   677 
   678   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   679 
   680   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   681 
   682   - removed constant isDiff
   683 
   684   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
   685     input syntax.
   686 
   687   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
   688 
   689   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   690 
   691   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   692 
   693   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   694 
   695   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
   696     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
   697     has_vector_derivative.
   698 
   699   - Other renamings:
   700     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   701     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   702     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   703     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   704     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   705     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   706     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   707 
   708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   709 
   710 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
   711 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
   712 in continuous_intros.
   713 
   714 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
   715 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
   716 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   717 
   718 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
   719 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
   720 especially removes
   721 
   722     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   723 
   724 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   725     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   726 
   727 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   728 
   729   Renamings:
   730     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   731     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   732     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   733     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   734     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   735     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   736     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   737     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   738     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   739     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   740     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   741     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   742 
   743     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   744     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   745     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   746 
   747   Removed theorems:
   748     complex_zero_def
   749     complex_add_def
   750     complex_minus_def
   751     complex_diff_def
   752     complex_one_def
   753     complex_mult_def
   754     complex_inverse_def
   755     complex_scaleR_def
   756 
   757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   758 
   759 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   760 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   761 
   762 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
   763 
   764 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
   765 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
   766 
   767 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
   768 
   769 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 
   772 * HOL-Word:
   773   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
   774     of "word_arith_wis".
   775   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   776     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   777     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   778 
   779 * HOL-Number_Theory:
   780   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
   781   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
   782   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
   783     (except the AFP)
   784 
   785 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   786 
   787 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   788   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
   789   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
   790     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
   791   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   792     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   793     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   794     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   795     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
   796     intervals.
   797   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
   798     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
   799     - renamed theorems:
   800         interval ~> box
   801         mem_interval ~> mem_box
   802         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
   803         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
   804         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
   805         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
   806         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
   807         subset_interval ~> subset_box
   808         open_interval ~> open_box
   809         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
   810         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
   811         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
   812         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
   813         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
   814         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
   815         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
   816         convex_box ~> convex_prod
   817         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
   818         convex_interval ~> convex_box
   819         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
   820         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
   821         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
   822         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
   823         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
   824         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
   825         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
   826         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
   827         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
   828         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
   829         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
   830         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
   831         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
   832         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
   833 
   834     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
   835         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
   836         has_integral + has_integral_real
   837         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
   838         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
   839         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
   840         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
   841         integral_const + integral_const_real
   842         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
   843         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
   844         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
   845         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
   846         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
   847         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
   848         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
   849         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
   850         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
   851         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
   852 
   853   - renamed theorems:
   854     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   855     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   856     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   857 
   858 * HOL-Probability:
   859   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
   860     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   861 
   862     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   863     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   864     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   865     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   866     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   867     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   868     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   869     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   870     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   871     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   872     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   873     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   874     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   875     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   876     integral_indicator          ~>
   877          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   878     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   879     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   880     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   881 
   882     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   883          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   884 
   885     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   886          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   887 
   888     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   889          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   890 
   891     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   892          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   893          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   894 
   895     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   896          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   897 
   898     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   899          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   900 
   901     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   902          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   903          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   904 
   905     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   906          positive_integral_real_affine
   907 
   908     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   909          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   910 
   911     The following theorems where removed:
   912 
   913     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   914     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   915     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   916     lebesgue_integral_multc
   917     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   918     integral_cmul_indicator
   919     integral_real
   920 
   921   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
   922 
   923     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
   924       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
   925 
   926     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
   927 
   928   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
   929     distributed random variables.
   930 
   931 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
   932 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
   933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   934 
   935 
   936 *** Scala ***
   937 
   938 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   939 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   940 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   941 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   942 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   943 
   944 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
   945 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   946 
   947 
   948 *** ML ***
   949 
   950 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   951 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   952 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   953 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   954 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   955 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   956 
   957 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   958 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   959 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   960 actually belongs to it).
   961 
   962 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   963 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   964 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   965 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   966 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   967 of schematic variables.
   968 
   969 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   970 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   971 
   972 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   973 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
   974 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   975 
   976 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   977 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   978 
   979 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   980 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   981 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   983 
   984 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   985 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   986 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   987 formal context.
   988 
   989 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   990 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   991 
   992 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   993 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   994 
   995 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   996 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   997 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   998 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   999 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  1000 
  1001 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  1002 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  1003 purposes.
  1004 
  1005 
  1006 *** System ***
  1007 
  1008 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  1009 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  1010 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  1011 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  1012 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  1013 
  1014 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  1015 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  1016 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  1017 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  1018 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  1019 settings variable.
  1020 
  1021 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  1022 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  1023 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  1024 
  1025 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  1026 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  1027 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  1028 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  1029 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  1030 
  1031 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  1032 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  1033 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  1034 
  1035 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  1036 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  1037 
  1038 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  1039 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  1040 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  1041 
  1042 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  1043 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  1044 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  1045 processing is started.
  1046 
  1047 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  1048 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  1049 
  1050 
  1051 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  1052 -------------------------------------
  1053 
  1054 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1055 
  1056 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  1057 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  1058 
  1059 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  1060 after edits surrounding the command location.
  1061 
  1062 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  1063 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  1064 e.g. out-of-memory).
  1065 
  1066 
  1067 *** System ***
  1068 
  1069 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  1070 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  1071 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  1072 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  1073 
  1074 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  1075 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  1076 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  1077 
  1078 
  1079 
  1080 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  1081 -------------------------------------
  1082 
  1083 *** General ***
  1084 
  1085 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  1086 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  1087 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1088 
  1089 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  1090 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1091 
  1092 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  1093 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  1094 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  1095 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  1096 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  1097 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  1098 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  1099 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  1100 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  1101 syntax.
  1102 
  1103 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  1104 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1105 
  1106 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  1107 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  1108 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  1109 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  1110 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  1111 
  1112 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  1113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  1116 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  1117 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  1118 
  1119 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  1120 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  1121 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  1122 
  1123 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  1124 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  1125 
  1126 
  1127 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1128 
  1129 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  1130 Documentation panel.
  1131 
  1132 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  1133 documentation.
  1134 
  1135 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  1136 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  1137 
  1138 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  1139 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  1140 normal editing and checking process.
  1141 
  1142 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  1143 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1144 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1145 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1146 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1147 
  1148 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1149 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1150 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1151 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1152 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1153 
  1154 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1155 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1156 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1157 
  1158 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1159 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1160 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1161 to resolve conflict.
  1162 
  1163 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1164 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1165 
  1166 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1167 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1168 such command executions while editing.
  1169 
  1170 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1171 document content.
  1172 
  1173 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1174 toplevel theorem statements.
  1175 
  1176 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1177 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1178 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1179 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1180 
  1181 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1182 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1183 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1184 
  1185 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1186 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1187 
  1188 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1189 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1190 
  1191 
  1192 *** Pure ***
  1193 
  1194 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1195 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1196 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1197 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1198 details.
  1199 
  1200 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1201 
  1202 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1203 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1204 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1205 
  1206 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1208 
  1209 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1210 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1211 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1212 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1213 
  1214 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1215 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1216 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1217 
  1218 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1219 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1220 
  1221 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1222 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1223 situations.
  1224 
  1225 
  1226 *** HOL ***
  1227 
  1228 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1229 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1231 
  1232 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1233 
  1234 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1235 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1236 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1237 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1238 
  1239   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1240 
  1241 * Code generator:
  1242   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1243     'code_instance'.
  1244   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1245     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1246 
  1247 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1248 examples.
  1249 
  1250 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1251 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1252 to distinguish both when desired.
  1253 
  1254 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1255 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1256 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1257 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1258 
  1259 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1260 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1261 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1262 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1263 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1264 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1265 
  1266 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1267 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1268 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1269 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1270 
  1271 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1272 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1273 
  1274 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1275 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1276 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1277 
  1278 * Lifting:
  1279   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1280     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1281       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1282       transfer rules
  1283     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1284       correspondence relation can be generated
  1285     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1286       parametricity
  1287     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1288   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1289   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1290     copies
  1291   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1292     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1293     anonymous context)
  1294   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1295     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1296   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1297     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1298   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1299     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1300 
  1301 * Transfer:
  1302   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1303     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1304   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1305   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1306     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1307   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1308 
  1309 * Reification and reflection:
  1310   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1311     "Reification".
  1312   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1313   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1315 
  1316 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1317   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1318     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1319     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1320   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1321     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1322   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1323     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1324     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1325     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1326     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1327     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1328     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1329     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1330   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1331     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1332   - Fact renames:
  1333       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1334       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1336 
  1337 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1338 
  1339 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1340 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1341 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1342 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1343 
  1344 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1345 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1346 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1347 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1348 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1349 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1350 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1351 lemmas.
  1352 
  1353 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1354 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1355 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1356 
  1357 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1358 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1359 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1360 
  1361 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1362 top and bottom elements.
  1363 
  1364 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1365 
  1366 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1367 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1368 
  1369  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1370    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1371    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1372 
  1373  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1374    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1375    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1376 
  1377    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1378    arbitrary filter.
  1379 
  1380  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1381    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1382    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1383    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1384    on a compact set.
  1385 
  1386  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1387    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1388    linear_continuum_topology).
  1389 
  1390  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1391    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1392    on all sequences converging to x.
  1393 
  1394  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1395    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1396    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1397    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1398    left or right.
  1399 
  1400  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1401 
  1402      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1403 
  1404  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1405    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1406 
  1407  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1408    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1409    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1410    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1411    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1412    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1413 
  1414  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1415 
  1416    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1417 
  1418    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1419      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1420 
  1421    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1422 
  1423    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1424      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1425 
  1426    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1427 
  1428    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1429 
  1430  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1431 
  1432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1433 
  1434 * Nitpick:
  1435   - Added option "spy".
  1436   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1437 
  1438 * Sledgehammer:
  1439   - Renamed option:
  1440       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1441     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1442   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1443   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1444   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1445 
  1446 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1447 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1448 
  1449 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1450   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1451   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1452     generated code.
  1453   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1454   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1455   - Fact renames:
  1456     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1457     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1458     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1459 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1460 
  1461 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1462 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1463 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1464 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1465 
  1466 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1467 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1468 
  1469 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1470 
  1471 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1472 
  1473     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1474     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1475 
  1476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1477 
  1478 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1479 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1480 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1481 
  1482 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1483 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1484 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1485 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1486 
  1487 * HOL-BNF:
  1488   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1489     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1490     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1491     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1492   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1493     coinduct).
  1494   - Renamed keywords:
  1495     data ~> datatype_new
  1496     codata ~> codatatype
  1497     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1498   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1499     discs ~> disc
  1500     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1501     map_id' ~> map_id
  1502     sels ~> sel
  1503     set_map' ~> set_map
  1504     sets ~> set
  1505 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1506 
  1507 
  1508 *** ML ***
  1509 
  1510 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1511 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1512 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1513 Examples.thy in particular.
  1514 
  1515 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1516 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1517 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1518 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1519 
  1520 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1521 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1522 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1523 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1525 
  1526 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1527 
  1528     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1529     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1530 
  1531 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1532 
  1533 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1534 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1535 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1536 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1537 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1538 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1539 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1540 
  1541 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1542 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1543 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1544 clasets separately from the context.
  1545 
  1546 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1547 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1548 
  1549 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1550 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1551 
  1552 
  1553 *** System ***
  1554 
  1555 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1556 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1557 
  1558 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1559 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1560 
  1561 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1562 settings variable.
  1563 
  1564 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1565 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1566 always pdf.
  1567 
  1568 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1569 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1570 
  1571 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1572 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1573 
  1574 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1575 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1576 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1577 
  1578 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1579 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1580 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1581 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1582 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1583 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1584 
  1585 
  1586 
  1587 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1588 -----------------------------------
  1589 
  1590 *** General ***
  1591 
  1592 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1593 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1594 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1595 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1596 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1597 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1598 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1599 
  1600 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1601 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1602 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1603 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1604 
  1605 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1606 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1607 
  1608 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1609 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1610 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1611 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1612 dependencies properly.
  1613 
  1614 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1615 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1616 
  1617 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1618 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1619 
  1620 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1621 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1622 and "class ... context ...".
  1623 
  1624 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1625 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1626 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1627 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1628 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1629 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1630 
  1631 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1632 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1633 
  1634 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1635 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1636 
  1637 
  1638 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1639 
  1640 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1641 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1642 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1643 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1644 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1645 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1646 
  1647 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1648 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1649 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1650 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1651 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1652 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1653 
  1654 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1655 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1656 browser on demand.
  1657 
  1658 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1659 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1660 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1661 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1662 
  1663 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1664 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1665 
  1666 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1667 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1668 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1669 potentially infinite message streams.
  1670 
  1671 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1672 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1673 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1674 schemes.
  1675 
  1676 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1677 symbols.
  1678 
  1679 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1680 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1681 
  1682 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1683 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1684 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1685 
  1686 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1687 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1688 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1689 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1690 
  1691 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1692 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1693 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1694 
  1695 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1696 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1697 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1698 Isabelle distribution.
  1699 
  1700 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1701 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1702 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1703 
  1704 
  1705 *** Pure ***
  1706 
  1707 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1708 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1709 
  1710 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1711 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1712 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1713 
  1714 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1715 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1716 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1717 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1718 with some care where this is really required.
  1719 
  1720 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1721 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1722 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1723 
  1724   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1725 
  1726 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1727 a Hasse diagram.
  1728 
  1729 
  1730 *** HOL ***
  1731 
  1732 * Sledgehammer:
  1733 
  1734   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1735     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1736   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1737   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1738   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1739   - Renamed options:
  1740       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1741       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1742       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1743       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1744 
  1745 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1746 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1747 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1748 
  1749 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1751 
  1752 * Lifting:
  1753   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1754   - quot_del attribute
  1755   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1756 
  1757 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1758 expressions.
  1759 
  1760 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1761 pointfree expressions.
  1762 
  1763 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1764 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1765 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1766 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1768 
  1769 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1770 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1771 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1772 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1773 accordingly.
  1774 
  1775 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1776 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1777 
  1778 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1779 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1780 
  1781 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1782 
  1783 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1784 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1785 
  1786 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1787 
  1788 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1789 
  1790   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1791   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1792 
  1793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1794 
  1795 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1796 
  1797   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1798   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1799 
  1800 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1801 
  1802 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1803 
  1804   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1805     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1806     output f x converges to G.
  1807 
  1808   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1809     infinity (at_bot).
  1810 
  1811   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1812     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1813 
  1814   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1815     at_top".
  1816 
  1817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1818 
  1819 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1820 lattice type classes.
  1821 
  1822 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1823 
  1824     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1825     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1826 
  1827 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1828 
  1829 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1830 changes as follows.
  1831 
  1832   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1833 
  1834       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1835       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1836 
  1837   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1838     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1839     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1840     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1841 
  1842   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1843     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1844     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1845 
  1846   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1847     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1848     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1849     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1850 
  1851   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1852     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1853 
  1854       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1855       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1856       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1857       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1858       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1859       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1860       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1861       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1862       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1863       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1864       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1865       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1866       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1867       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1868       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1869       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1870 
  1871 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1872 
  1873 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1874 
  1875 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1876 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1877 
  1878 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1879 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1880 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1881 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1882 
  1883   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1884   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1885   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1886   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1887   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1888   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1889   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1890   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1891   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1892   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1893 
  1894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1895 
  1896 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1897 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1898 Data").
  1899 
  1900 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1901 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1902 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1903 code.
  1904 
  1905 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1906 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1907 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1908 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1909 
  1910 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1911 
  1912 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1913 
  1914 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1915 
  1916   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1917   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1918 
  1919 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1920 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1921 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1922 
  1923   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1924 
  1925     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1926     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1927     cart_base i  removed
  1928     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1929 
  1930   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1931 
  1932   Renamed lemmas:
  1933 
  1934     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1935     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1936     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1937     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1938     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1939     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1940     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1941     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1942     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1943     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1944 
  1945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1946 
  1947 * HOL/Probability:
  1948 
  1949   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1950 
  1951   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1952     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1953     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1954 
  1955   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1956     projective family).
  1957 
  1958 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1959 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1960 
  1961 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1962 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1963 datatypes.
  1964 
  1965 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1966 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1967 
  1968 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1969 trees for the code generator.
  1970 
  1971 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1972 Lifting/Transfer.
  1973 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1974 
  1975 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1976 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1977 
  1978 
  1979 *** Document preparation ***
  1980 
  1981 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1982 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1983 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1984 
  1985 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1986 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1987 
  1988 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1989 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1990 document/root.tex.
  1991 
  1992 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1993 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1994 
  1995 
  1996 *** ML ***
  1997 
  1998 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1999 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  2000 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  2001 
  2002 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  2003 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  2004 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  2005 
  2006 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  2007 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  2008 necessarily printing visible text.
  2009 
  2010 
  2011 *** System ***
  2012 
  2013 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  2014 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  2015 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  2016 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  2017 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  2018 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  2019 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  2020 
  2021 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  2022 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  2023 
  2024   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  2025 
  2026 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  2027 
  2028 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  2029 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  2030 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  2031 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  2032 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  2033 
  2034 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  2035 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  2036 
  2037 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  2038 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  2039 
  2040 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  2041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2042 
  2043 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  2044 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  2045 version of Isabelle.
  2046 
  2047 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  2048 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  2049 
  2050 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  2051 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2052 for home-made settings.
  2053 
  2054 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  2055 
  2056 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  2057 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  2058 configuration.
  2059 
  2060 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  2061 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  2062 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  2063 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  2064 bundled as Isabelle component.
  2065 
  2066 
  2067 
  2068 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  2069 ------------------------------
  2070 
  2071 *** General ***
  2072 
  2073 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  2074 
  2075   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  2076     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  2077   - markup for bound variables
  2078   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  2079   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  2080   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  2081     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  2082 
  2083 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  2084 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  2085 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  2086 
  2087 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  2088 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  2089 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  2090 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  2091 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  2092 
  2093   context
  2094     fixes x y z :: 'a
  2095     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  2096   begin
  2097 
  2098   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  2099 
  2100   end
  2101 
  2102   thm my_trans
  2103 
  2104 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  2105 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  2106 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  2107 
  2108 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  2109 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  2110 
  2111 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  2112 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  2113 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  2114 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  2115 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  2116 
  2117 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  2118 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  2119 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  2120 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  2121 indices of schematic variables.
  2122 
  2123 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  2124 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  2125 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2126 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  2127 etc. was exploited.
  2128 
  2129 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  2130 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  2131 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  2132 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  2133 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  2134 of the material of that old tutorial.
  2135 
  2136 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  2137 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  2138 manual.
  2139 
  2140 
  2141 *** Pure ***
  2142 
  2143 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2144 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2145 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2146 
  2147 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2148 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2149 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2150 undocumented feature.)
  2151 
  2152 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2153 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2154 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2155 
  2156   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2157 
  2158   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2159     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2160 
  2161 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2162 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2163 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2164 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2165 
  2166 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2167 
  2168     num ~> num_token
  2169     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2170     xstr ~> str_token
  2171 
  2172 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2173 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2174 position information via constraints).
  2175 
  2176 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2177 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2178 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2179 
  2180 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2181 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2182 
  2183 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2184 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2185 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2186 
  2187 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2188 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2189 
  2190 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2191 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2192 
  2193   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2194 
  2195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2196 
  2197 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2198 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2199 
  2200 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2201 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2202 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2203 
  2204 
  2205 *** HOL ***
  2206 
  2207 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2208 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2209 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2210 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2211 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2212 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2213 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2214 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2215 possible.
  2216 
  2217 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2218 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2219 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2220 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2221 
  2222 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2223 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2224 
  2225 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2226 
  2227 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2228 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2229 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2230 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2231 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2232 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2233 
  2234   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2235     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2236 
  2237   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2238     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2239     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2240 
  2241   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2242     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2243 
  2244   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2245     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2246     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2247 
  2248   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2249     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2250 
  2251 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2252 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2253 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2254 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2255 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2256 
  2257   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2258     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2259     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2260     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2261     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2262 
  2263     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2264     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2265 
  2266   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2267     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2268     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2269     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2270     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2271     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2272     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2273     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2274 
  2275   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2276     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2277     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2278     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2279 
  2280   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2281     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2282     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2283     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2284 
  2285   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2286     from type nat to type int.
  2287 
  2288 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2289 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2290 
  2291   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2292     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2293     type.  Example syntax:
  2294 
  2295     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2296       is List.insert
  2297 
  2298     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2299     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2300     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2301     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2302     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2303     by the package.
  2304 
  2305   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2306     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2307     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2308     code generation for each constant.
  2309 
  2310   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2311     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2312     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2313     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2314     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2315 
  2316   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2317     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2318     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2319 
  2320 * Quotient package:
  2321 
  2322   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2323     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2324 
  2325   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2326     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2327 
  2328   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2329     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2330     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2331 
  2332   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2333     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2334 
  2335 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2336 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2337 
  2338 * Quickcheck:
  2339 
  2340   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2341     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2342     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2343     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2344     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2345 
  2346     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2347     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2348     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2349 
  2350     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2351     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2352 
  2353     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2354     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2355     show genuine counterexamples.
  2356 
  2357   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2358     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2359 
  2360     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2361     constructors of that type.
  2362 
  2363   - Support for multisets.
  2364 
  2365   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2366 
  2367   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2368     conjectures in a locale context.
  2369 
  2370 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2371 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2372 
  2373 * Sledgehammer:
  2374   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2375     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2376   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2377   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2378     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2379   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2380   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2381   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2382   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2383 
  2384 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2385 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2386 
  2387 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2388 
  2389 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2390 
  2391 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2392 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2393 
  2394   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2395 
  2396 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2397 a list and a nat.
  2398 
  2399 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2400 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2401 
  2402 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2403 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2404 default.
  2405 
  2406 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2407 
  2408   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2409 
  2410 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2411 
  2412 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2413 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2414 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2415 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2416 one_case.
  2417 
  2418 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2419 the result of the fact expression.
  2420 
  2421 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2422 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2423 of some relation theorems:
  2424 
  2425   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2426   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2427   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2428   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2429   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2430   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2431 
  2432 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2433 
  2434 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2435 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2436 
  2437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2438 
  2439 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2440 to match the constant's name:
  2441 
  2442   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2443   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2444   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2445   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2446   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2447   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2448   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2449   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2450   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2451   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2452   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2453   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2454   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2455   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2456   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2457   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2458   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2459   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2460   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2461   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2462   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2463   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2464   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2465   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2466 
  2467 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2468 
  2469 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2470 and corresponding theorem names:
  2471 
  2472   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2473 
  2474   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2475 
  2476   - Renamed theorems:
  2477 
  2478     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2479     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2480     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2481     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2482     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2483     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2484     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2485     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2486     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2487     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2488     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2489     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2490     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2491     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2492     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2493     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2494     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2495     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2496     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2497     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2498     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2499     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2500     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2501 
  2502     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2503 
  2504     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2505 
  2506 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2507 
  2508 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2509 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2510 
  2511   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2512   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2513   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2514   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2515   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2516   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2517   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2518   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2519   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2520   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2521   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2522   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2523   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2524   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2525   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2526   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2527   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2528   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2529   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2530   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2531   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2532 
  2533 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2534 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2535 
  2536 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2537 
  2538 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2539 
  2540   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2541   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2542   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2543   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2544   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2545   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2546   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2547   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2548   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2549   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2550   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2551   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2552   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2553   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2554   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2555   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2556   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2557   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2558 
  2559 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2560 
  2561 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2562 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2563 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2564 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2565 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2566 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2567 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2568 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2569 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2570 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2571 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2572 
  2573 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2574 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2575 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2576 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2577 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2578 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2579 
  2580 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2581 through option types.
  2582 
  2583 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2584 relations.
  2585 
  2586 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2587 
  2588 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2589 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2590 
  2591   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2592   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2593   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2594   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2595   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2596   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2597   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2598   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2599   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2600   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2601   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2602   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2603   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2604   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2605   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2606   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2607   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2608   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2609   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2610   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2611   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2612   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2613   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2614   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2615   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2616   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2617   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2618   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2619   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2620   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2621   zless_le ~> less_le
  2622   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2623   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2624   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2625 
  2626 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2627 
  2628   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2629 
  2630 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2631 
  2632 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2633 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2634 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2635 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2637 
  2638 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2639 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2640 
  2641 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2642 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2643 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2644 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2645 follows:
  2646 
  2647   Operations:
  2648   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2649   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2650   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2651   del -> rbt_del
  2652   delete -> rbt_delete
  2653   ins -> rbt_ins
  2654   insert -> rbt_insert
  2655   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2656   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2657   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2658   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2659   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2660   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2661   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2662   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2663   union -> rbt_union
  2664   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2665   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2666 
  2667   Lemmas:
  2668   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2669   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2670   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2671   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2672   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2673   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2674   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2675   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2676   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2677   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2678   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2679   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2680   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2681   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2682   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2683   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2684   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2685   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2686   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2687   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2688   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2689   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2690   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2691   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2692   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2693   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2694   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2695   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2696   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2697   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2698   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2699   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2700   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2701   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2702   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2703   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2704   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2705   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2706   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2707   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2708   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2709   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2710   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2711   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2712   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2713   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2714   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2715   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2716   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2717   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2718   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2719   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2720   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2721   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2722   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2723   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2724   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2725   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2726   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2727   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2728   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2729   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2730   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2731   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2732   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2733   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2734   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2735   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2736   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2737   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2738   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2739   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2740   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2741   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2742   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2743   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2744   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2745   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2746   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2747   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2748   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2749   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2750   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2751 
  2752 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2753 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2754 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2755 
  2756   Changed Operations:
  2757   float_abs -> abs
  2758   float_nprt -> nprt
  2759   float_pprt -> pprt
  2760   pow2 -> use powr
  2761   round_down -> float_round_down
  2762   round_up -> float_round_up
  2763   scale -> exponent
  2764 
  2765   Removed Operations:
  2766   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2767 
  2768   Renamed Lemmas:
  2769   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2770   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2771   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2772   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2773   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2774   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2775   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2776   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2777   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2778   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2779   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2780   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2781   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2782   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2783   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2784   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2785   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2786   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2787   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2788   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2789   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2790   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2791   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2792   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2793   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2794   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2795   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2796   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2797   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2798   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2799   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2800   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2801   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2802   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2803   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2804   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2805 
  2806   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2807   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2808   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2809   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2810   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2811   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2812   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2813   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2814   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2815   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2816 
  2817 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2818 association lists with distinct keys.
  2819 
  2820 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2821 annotated commands.
  2822 
  2823 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2824 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2825 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2826 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2827 
  2828 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2829 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2830 instead.
  2831 
  2832   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2833   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2834   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2835   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2836   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2837   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2838   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2839   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2840   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2841   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2842   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2843   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2844   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2845   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2846   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2847   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2848   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2849   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2850   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2851   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2852   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2853   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2854   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2855   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2856   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2857   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2858   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2859   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2860   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2861   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2862   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2863   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2864   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2865   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2866   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2867   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2868   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2869   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2870   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2871   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2872   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2873 
  2874 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2875 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2876 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2877 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2878 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2879 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2880 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2881 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2882 
  2883 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2884 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2885 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2886 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2887 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2888 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2889 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2890 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2891 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2892 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2893 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2894 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2895 
  2896   Renamed constants:
  2897   measure -> emeasure
  2898   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2899   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2900   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2901   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2902 
  2903   Removed locales:
  2904   completeable_measure_space
  2905   finite_measure_space
  2906   finite_prob_space
  2907   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2908   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2909   finite_sigma_algebra
  2910   measure_space
  2911   pair_finite_prob_space
  2912   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2913   pair_finite_space
  2914   pair_sigma_algebra
  2915   product_sigma_algebra
  2916 
  2917   Removed constants:
  2918   conditional_space
  2919   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2920   image_space
  2921   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2922   pair_measure_generator
  2923   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2924   subvimage
  2925 
  2926   Replacement theorems:
  2927   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2928   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2929   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2930   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2931   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2932   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2933   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2934   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2935   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2936   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2937   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2938   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2939   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2940   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2941   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2942   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2943   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2944   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2945   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2946   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2947   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2948   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2949   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2950   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2951   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2952   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2953   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2954   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2955   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2956   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2957   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2958   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2959   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2960   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2961   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2962   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2963   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2964   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2965   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2966   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2967   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2968   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2969   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2970   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2971   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2972   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2973   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2974   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2975   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2976   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2977   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2978   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2979   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2980   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2981   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2982   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2983   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2984   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2985   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2986   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2987   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2988   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2989   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2990   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2991   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2992   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2993   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2994   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2995   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2996   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2997   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2998   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2999   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  3000   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  3001   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3002   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  3003   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  3004   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  3005   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  3006   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3007   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3008   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3009   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3010   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  3011   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  3012   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  3013   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  3014   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  3015   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  3016   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  3017   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  3018   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  3019   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  3020   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  3021   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  3022   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  3023   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  3024   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  3025   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  3026   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  3027   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  3028   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  3029   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  3030   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  3031   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  3032   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  3033   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3034   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  3035   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  3036   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  3037   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  3038   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  3039   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  3040   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  3041   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  3042   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  3043   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  3044   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  3045   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3046   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  3047   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3048   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  3049   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  3050   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  3051   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  3052   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  3053   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  3054   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  3055 
  3056 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  3057 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  3058 
  3059 
  3060 *** FOL ***
  3061 
  3062 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  3063 
  3064 
  3065 *** ZF ***
  3066 
  3067 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  3068 analysis.
  3069 
  3070 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  3071 
  3072 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3073 
  3074 
  3075 *** ML ***
  3076 
  3077 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  3078 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  3079 
  3080 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  3081 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  3082 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  3083 
  3084 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  3085 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  3086 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  3087 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  3088 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  3089 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  3090 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  3091 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  3092 
  3093 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  3094 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  3095 
  3096 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  3097 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  3098 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  3099 
  3100 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3101 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102 
  3103 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  3104 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  3105 context as well.
  3106 
  3107 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  3108 
  3109   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  3110   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  3111   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  3112   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  3113   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  3114   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  3115   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  3116   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  3117   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  3118   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  3119   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  3120   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  3121 
  3122 
  3123 *** System ***
  3124 
  3125 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  3126 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  3127 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  3128 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  3129 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  3130 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  3131 the generic user home was intended.
  3132 
  3133 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  3134 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  3135 
  3136 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  3137 (not just JRE).
  3138 
  3139 
  3140 
  3141 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  3142 ------------------------------------
  3143 
  3144 *** General ***
  3145 
  3146 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3147 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3148 
  3149   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3150     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3151     files for checking).
  3152 
  3153   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3154     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3155     positions.
  3156 
  3157   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3158     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3159     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3160 
  3161   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3162     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3163     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3164 
  3165   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3166     cores.
  3167 
  3168   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3169     versions (garbage collection).
  3170 
  3171 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3172 including some remaining limitations.
  3173 
  3174 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3175 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3176 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3177 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3178 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3179 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3180 
  3181 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3182 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3183 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3184 
  3185 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3186 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3187 usedir option -Q.
  3188 
  3189 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3190 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3191 
  3192   long_names   ~> names_long
  3193   short_names  ~> names_short
  3194   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3195 
  3196 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3197 
  3198   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3199 
  3200 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3201 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3202 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3203 
  3204 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3205 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3206 
  3207 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3208   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3209   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3210   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3211     "Classical Reasoner".
  3212 
  3213 
  3214 *** HOL ***
  3215 
  3216 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3217 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3218 
  3219 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3220 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3221 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3222 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3223 class complete_linorder.
  3224 
  3225 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3226 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3227 
  3228 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3229 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3230 
  3231   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3232   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3233   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3234   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3235   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3236   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3237   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3238   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3239   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3240   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3241   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3242 
  3243 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3244 
  3245   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3246   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3247   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3248   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3249   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3250   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3251   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3252   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3253   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3254   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3255   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3256   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3257   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3258   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3259   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3260   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3261 
  3262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3263 
  3264 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3265 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3268 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3269 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3270 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3271 
  3272 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3273 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3274 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3276 
  3277 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3278 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3279 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3280 
  3281 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3282 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3283 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3286 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3287 
  3288 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3289 
  3290     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3291     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3292 
  3293 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3294 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3295 
  3296 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3297 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3298 
  3299 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3300 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3301 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3302 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303 
  3304   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3305   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3306   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3307   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3308   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3309   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3310   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3311 
  3312 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3313 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3314 
  3315   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3316   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3317   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3318   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3319   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3320   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3321   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3322   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3323   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3324   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3325   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3326   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3327   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3328   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3329   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3330   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3331   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3332   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3333   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3334   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3335   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3336   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3337   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3338   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3339   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3340   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3341   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3342   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3343   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3344   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3345   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3346   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3347   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3348   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3349   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3350   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3351   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3352   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3353   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3354   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3355   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3356   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3357   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3358   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3359   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3360   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3361   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3362   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3363   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3364   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3365   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3366   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3367   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3368   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3369   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3370   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3371   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3372   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3373   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3374   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3375   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3376   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3377   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3378   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3379   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3380   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3381   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3382   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3383   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3384   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3385   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3386   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3387   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3388   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3389   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3390   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3391   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3392   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3393   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3394   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3395   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3396   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3397 
  3398 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3399 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3400 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3401 
  3402 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3403 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3404 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3405 
  3406 * Code generation:
  3407 
  3408   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3409     characters in the target language.
  3410 
  3411   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3412     instead.
  3413 
  3414   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3415 
  3416   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3417     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3418 
  3419       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3420 
  3421 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422 
  3423 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3424 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3425 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3426 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3427 syntax.
  3428 
  3429 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3430 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3431 
  3432 * Nitpick:
  3433   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3434   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3435   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3436     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * Sledgehammer:
  3439   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3440   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3441     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3442   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3443     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3444   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3445     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3446   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3447     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3448   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3449     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450 
  3451 * Metis:
  3452   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3453   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3454     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3455 
  3456 * Command 'try':
  3457   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3458     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3459   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3460     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3461 
  3462 * Quickcheck:
  3463   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3464     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3465   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3466     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3467   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3468     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3469     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3470     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3471   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3472     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3473 
  3474 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3475 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3476 
  3477 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3478 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3479 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3480 
  3481 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3482 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3484 
  3485 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3486 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3487 
  3488 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3489 arithmetic.
  3490 
  3491 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3492 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3493 and lattice type classes.
  3494 
  3495 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3496 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3497 
  3498 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3499 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3500 
  3501 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3502 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3503 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3504 
  3505   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3506   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3507   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3508   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3509 
  3510 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3511 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3512 constants:
  3513 
  3514   type inat   ~> type enat
  3515   Fin         ~> enat
  3516   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3517   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3518   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3519 
  3520 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3521 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3522 
  3523 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3524 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3525 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3526 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3527 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3528 
  3529 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3530 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3531 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3532 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3533 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3534 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3535 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3536 
  3537   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3538   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3539   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3540   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3541 
  3542 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3543 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3544 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3547   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3548   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3549   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3550   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3551   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3552   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3553   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3554   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3555   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3556   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3557   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3558   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3559   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3560   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3561   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3562   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3563   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3564   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3565   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3566   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3567   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3568   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3569   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3570   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3571   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3572   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3573   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3574   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3575   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3576   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3577   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3578   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3579   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3580   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3581   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3582   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3583   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3584   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3585   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3586   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3587   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3588   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3589   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3590   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3591   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3592   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3593   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3594   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3595   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3596   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3597 
  3598 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3599   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3600   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3601   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3602   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3603     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3604 
  3605 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3606 
  3607   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3608   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3609   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3610   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3611   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3612   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3613   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3614   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3615   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3616   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3617   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3618   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3619   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3620   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3621   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3622   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3623   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3624   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3625   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3626   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3627   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3628   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3629   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3630   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3631   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3632 
  3633 
  3634 *** Document preparation ***
  3635 
  3636 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3637 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3638 same.
  3639 
  3640 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3641 result.
  3642 
  3643 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3644 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3645 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3646 
  3647 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3648 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3649 
  3650 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3651 like this:
  3652 
  3653   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3654   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3655 
  3656 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3657 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3658 layouts.
  3659 
  3660 
  3661 *** ML ***
  3662 
  3663 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3664 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3665 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3666 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3667 under external program control.
  3668 
  3669 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3670 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3671 
  3672 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3673 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3674 (better known as Proof General).
  3675 
  3676 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3677 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3678 
  3679 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3680 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3681 
  3682 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3683 (including quotes etc.).
  3684 
  3685 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3686 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3687 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3688 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3689 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3690 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3691 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3692 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3693 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3694 
  3695 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3696 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3697 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3698 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3699 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3700 
  3701 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3702 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3703 
  3704 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3705 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3706 
  3707 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3708 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3709 
  3710 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3711 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3712 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3713 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3714 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3715 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3716 proper Proof.context.
  3717 
  3718 
  3719 *** System ***
  3720 
  3721 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3722 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3723 
  3724 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3725 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3726 
  3727 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3728 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3729 
  3730   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3731   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3732   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3733   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3734   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3735 
  3736 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3737 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3738 
  3739 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3740 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3741 example:
  3742 
  3743   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3744 
  3745 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3746 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3747 
  3748 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3749 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3750 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3751 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3752 
  3753 
  3754 
  3755 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3756 ----------------------------------
  3757 
  3758 *** General ***
  3759 
  3760 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3761 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3762 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3763 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3764 like this:
  3765 
  3766   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3767 
  3768 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3769 
  3770 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3771 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3772 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3773 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3774 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3775 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3776 
  3777 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3778 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3779 the following package declarations:
  3780 
  3781   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3782   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3783 
  3784 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3785 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3786 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3787 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3788 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3789 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3790 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3791 
  3792 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3793 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3794 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3795 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3796 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3797 
  3798 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3799 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3800 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3801 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3802 
  3803 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3804 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3805 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3806 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3807 
  3808   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3809 
  3810   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3811   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3812   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3813   show_types                    show_types
  3814   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3815   show_consts                   show_consts
  3816   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3817 
  3818   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3819   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3820   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3821 
  3822   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3823   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3824 
  3825   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3826 
  3827   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3828   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3829   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3830   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3831   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3832 
  3833 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3834 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3835 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3836 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3837 
  3838 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3840 
  3841   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3842   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3843 
  3844 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3845 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3846 float_token.
  3847 
  3848 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3849 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3851 
  3852 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3853 DejaVu Sans.
  3854 
  3855 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3856 
  3857 
  3858 *** Pure ***
  3859 
  3860 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3861 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3862 time.
  3863 
  3864 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3865 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3866 
  3867 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3868 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3869 
  3870 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3871 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3872 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3873 command already provided this functionality.
  3874 
  3875 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3876 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3877 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3878 without interpretations.
  3879 
  3880 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3881 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3882 
  3883 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3884 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3885 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3886 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3887 
  3888 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3889 'definition' instead.
  3890 
  3891 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3892 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3893 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3894 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3895 
  3896 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3897 constructors.
  3898 
  3899 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3900 the local file system.
  3901 
  3902 
  3903 *** HOL ***
  3904 
  3905 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3906 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3907 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3908 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3909 
  3910   declare [[coercion f]]
  3911 
  3912 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3913 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3914 
  3915   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3916 
  3917 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3918 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3919 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3920 other theories like this:
  3921 
  3922   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3923 
  3924 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3925 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3926 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3927 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3928 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3929 for examples.
  3930 
  3931 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3932 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3933 
  3934 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3935 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3936 
  3937 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3938 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3939 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3940 
  3941 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3942 functorial structure of types.
  3943 
  3944 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3945 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3946 
  3947 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3948 languages.
  3949 
  3950 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3951 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3953 
  3954 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3955 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956 
  3957 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3958 combinators any longer.
  3959 
  3960 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3961 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3962 
  3963 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3964 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3965 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3966 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3967 
  3968   record 'a foo = ...
  3969   ...
  3970   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3971 
  3972 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3973 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3974 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3975 
  3976 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3977 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3978 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3979 
  3980 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3981 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3982 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3983 
  3984 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3985 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3988 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3989 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3990 independently.
  3991 
  3992 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3993 counter example search.
  3994 
  3995 * Sledgehammer:
  3996   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3997     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3998     sledgehammer").
  3999   - Renamed commands:
  4000     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  4001     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  4002     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  4003     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4004   - Renamed options:
  4005     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  4006     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  4007     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  4008     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  4009     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4010 
  4011 * Nitpick:
  4012   - Renamed options:
  4013     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  4014     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  4015     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4016   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  4017   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  4018   - Added "whack" option.
  4019   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  4020   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  4021   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  4022   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  4023     higher cardinalities.
  4024   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  4025 
  4026 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  4027 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  4028 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  4029 
  4030     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  4031 
  4032 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  4033 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  4034 
  4035 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  4036 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  4037 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  4038 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  4039 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  4040 "smt_solver".
  4041 
  4042 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  4043 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  4044 
  4045 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  4046 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  4047 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  4048 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4049 
  4050 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  4051   - Renamed:
  4052     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  4053     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  4054     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4055   - Added:
  4056     smt_verbose
  4057     smt_random_seed
  4058     smt_datatypes
  4059     smt_infer_triggers
  4060     smt_monomorph_limit
  4061     cvc3_options
  4062     remote_cvc3_options
  4063     remote_z3_options
  4064     yices_options
  4065 
  4066 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  4067 header.
  4068 
  4069 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  4070 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  4071 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  4072 
  4073   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  4074 
  4075 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  4078 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4079 
  4080 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4081 
  4082 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  4083 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084 
  4085 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  4086 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  4087 
  4088 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  4089 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4090 
  4091 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  4092 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  4093 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094 
  4095 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4096 
  4097 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  4098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  4101 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4102 
  4103 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  4104 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  4105 for congruent(2)).
  4106 
  4107 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  4108 
  4109   types
  4110     bool ~> HOL.bool
  4111     nat ~> Nat.nat
  4112 
  4113   constants
  4114     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  4115     True ~> HOL.True
  4116     False ~> HOL.False
  4117     op & ~> HOL.conj
  4118     op | ~> HOL.disj
  4119     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  4120     op = ~> HOL.eq
  4121     Not ~> HOL.Not
  4122     The ~> HOL.The
  4123     All ~> HOL.All
  4124     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  4125     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  4126     Let ~> HOL.Let
  4127     If ~> HOL.If
  4128     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  4129     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  4130     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  4131     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  4132     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  4133     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  4134     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  4135     op : ~> Set.member
  4136     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  4137 
  4138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4139 
  4140 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  4141 
  4142     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  4143     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4144     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4145     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4146     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4147     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4148     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4149     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4150 
  4151 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4152 
  4153 * More stylized fact names:
  4154 
  4155   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4156   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4157   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4158   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4159 
  4160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4161 
  4162 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4163 
  4164   constants
  4165     null ~> List.null
  4166 
  4167   facts
  4168     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4169     null_empty ~> null_def
  4170 
  4171 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4172 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4173 generation.
  4174 
  4175 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4176 Haskell code.
  4177 
  4178 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4179 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4180 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4181 
  4182 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4183 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4184 
  4185 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4186 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4187 
  4188 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4189 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4190 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4191 
  4192 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4193 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4194 
  4195 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4197 
  4198 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4199 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4200 referred to by its qualified name.
  4201 
  4202   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4203   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4204   product ~>  Enum.product
  4205 
  4206 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4207 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4209 
  4210 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4211 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4212 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4214 
  4215 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4216 sort_key.
  4217 
  4218 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4220 
  4221 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4222 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4223 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4224 
  4225   types
  4226     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4227               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4228               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4229         (depends on your needs)
  4230 
  4231   constants
  4232      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4233      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4234      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4235 
  4236 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4237 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4238 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4239 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4240 
  4241 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4242 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4243 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4244 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4245 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4246 
  4247 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4248 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4249 
  4250 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4251 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4252 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4253 
  4254 
  4255 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4256 
  4257 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4258 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4259 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4260 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4261 compatibility.
  4262 
  4263 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4264 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4265 
  4266 
  4267 *** HOLCF ***
  4268 
  4269 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4270 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4271 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4273 
  4274 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4275 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4276 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4277 
  4278   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4279   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4280   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4281 
  4282 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4283 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4284 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4285 
  4286 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4287 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4288 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4289 domain definition now works:
  4290 
  4291   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4292 
  4293 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4294 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4295 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4296 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4297 
  4298   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4299     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4300 
  4301   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4302 
  4303 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4304 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4305 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4306 
  4307 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4308 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4309 
  4310 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4311 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4312 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4313 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4314 
  4315 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4316 
  4317 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4318 
  4319 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4320 
  4321 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4323 
  4324 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4325 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4326 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4327 
  4328 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4329 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4330 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4331 
  4332 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4333 still supported as an input translation.
  4334 
  4335 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4336 
  4337   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4338   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4339   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4340   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4341   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4342   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4343   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4344 
  4345 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4346 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4347 
  4348   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4349   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4350   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4351   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4352   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4353   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4354 
  4355 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4356 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4357 
  4358 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4359 
  4360   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4361   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4362   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4363   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4364 
  4365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4366 
  4367 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4368 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369 
  4370 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4371 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4372 
  4373   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4374   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4375   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4376   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4377   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4378   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4379   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4380   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4381   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4382   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4383   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4384   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4385   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4386   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4387   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4388   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4389   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4390   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4391   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4392   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4393 
  4394 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4395 
  4396   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4397   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4398   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4399   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4400   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4401   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4402   box_less             ~> box_below
  4403   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4404   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4405   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4406   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4407   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4408   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4409   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4410   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4411   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4412   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4413   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4414   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4415   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4416   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4417   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4418   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4419   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4420   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4421   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4422   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4423   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4424   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4425   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4426   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4427   up_less              ~> up_below
  4428   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4429   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4430   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4431   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4432   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4433   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4434   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4435   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4436   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4437   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4438   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4439   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4440   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4441 
  4442 
  4443 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4444 
  4445 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4446 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4447 
  4448 
  4449 *** ML ***
  4450 
  4451 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4452 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4453 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4454 
  4455 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4456 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4457 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4458 
  4459 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4460 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4461 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4462 
  4463 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4464 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4465 
  4466 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4467 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4468 
  4469 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4470 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4471 
  4472 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4473 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4474 
  4475 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4476 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4477 almost all situations.
  4478 
  4479 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4480 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4481 Isabelle/ML.
  4482 
  4483 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4484 meaning.
  4485 
  4486 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4487 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4488 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4489 
  4490 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4491 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4492 
  4493 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4494 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4495 
  4496 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4497 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4498 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4499 
  4500 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4501 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4502 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4503 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4504 configuration options.
  4505 
  4506 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4507 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4508 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4509 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4510 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4511 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4512 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4513 
  4514 
  4515 
  4516 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4517 ---------------------------------
  4518 
  4519 *** General ***
  4520 
  4521 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4522 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4523 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4524 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4525 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4526 their full internal name.
  4527 
  4528 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4529 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4530 Some hints on upgrading:
  4531 
  4532   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4533     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4534     which are independent of this issue.
  4535 
  4536   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4537     provides the following special forms:
  4538 
  4539       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4540       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4541       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4542 
  4543     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4544     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4545     extra variables".
  4546 
  4547     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4548     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4549     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4550     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4551     "logic".
  4552 
  4553   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4554     antiquotations:
  4555 
  4556       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4557       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4558       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4559       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4560 
  4561   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4562     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4563     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4564     antiquotations.
  4565 
  4566 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4567 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4568 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4569 diagnose syntax problems.
  4570 
  4571 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4572 
  4573 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4574 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4575 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4576 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4577 
  4578 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4579 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4580 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4581 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4582 
  4583 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4584 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4585 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4586 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4587 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4588 
  4589 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4590 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4591 
  4592 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4593 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4594 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4595 
  4596   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4597 
  4598 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4599 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4600 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4601 
  4602 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4603 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4605 
  4606 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4607 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4608 
  4609 
  4610 *** Pure ***
  4611 
  4612 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4613 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4614 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4615 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4616 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4617 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4618 inspect proof terms.
  4619 
  4620 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4621 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4622 are added internally.  For example:
  4623 
  4624   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4625 
  4626 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4627 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4628 
  4629 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4630 
  4631 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4632 'class' instead.
  4633 
  4634 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4635 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4637 
  4638 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4639 invariants.
  4640 
  4641 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4642 user space functionality any longer.
  4643 
  4644 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4645 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4647 
  4648 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4649 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4650 
  4651 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4652 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4653 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4654 
  4655 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4656 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4657 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4658 
  4659 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4660 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4661 
  4662 
  4663 *** HOL ***
  4664 
  4665 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4666 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4667 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4668 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4669 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4670 
  4671 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4672 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4673 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4674 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4675 
  4676   fun
  4677     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4678   where
  4679     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4680 
  4681   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4682     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4683 
  4684   quotient_definition
  4685     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4686 
  4687 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4688 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4689 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4690 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4691 
  4692 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4693 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4694 
  4695 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4696 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4697 
  4698 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4700 
  4701 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4702 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4703 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4704 
  4705 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4706 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4707 
  4708 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4710 
  4711 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4713 
  4714 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4715 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4716 
  4717 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4718 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4719 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4720 
  4721   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4722   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4723   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4724   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4725   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4726   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4727   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4728   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4729   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4730   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4731   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4732   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4733   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4734   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4735   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4736   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4737   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4738   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4739   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4740   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4741   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4742   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4743   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4744   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4745   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4746   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4747   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4748   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4749   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4750   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4751 
  4752 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4753 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4754 
  4755 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4756 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4757 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4758 
  4759 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4760 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4761 
  4762 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4763 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4764 
  4765 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4766 
  4767 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4768 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4769 
  4770 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4771 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4772 
  4773 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4774 
  4775 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4776 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4777 
  4778 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4779 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4780 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4781 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4782 
  4783 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4784   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4785   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4786   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4788 
  4789 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4790 lattices):
  4791 
  4792     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4793     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4794 
  4795     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4796 
  4797     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4798     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4799     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4800     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4801     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4802     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4803     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4804     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4805     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4806     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4807     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4808     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4809     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4810 
  4811     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4812     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4813     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4814     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4815     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4816     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4817     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4818     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4819     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4820     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4821     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4822     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4823     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4824     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4825     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4826     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4827     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4828     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4829 
  4830   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4831   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4832 
  4833     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4834     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4835     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4836     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4837     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4838 
  4839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4840 
  4841 * Refined field classes:
  4842   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4843     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4844     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4845   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4846 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4847 
  4848 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4849   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4850   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4851   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4852     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4853   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4854     equal_neg_zero.
  4855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4856 
  4857 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4858 sets to lattices:
  4859 
  4860   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4861   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4862   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4863   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4864   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4865   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4866   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4867   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4868   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4869   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4870 
  4871 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4872 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4873 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4874 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4875 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4876 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4877 
  4878 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4879 multiset order:
  4880 
  4881   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4882     <= and <;
  4883   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4884     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4885     multiset_order;
  4886   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4887     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4888     generation;
  4889   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4890     if needed.
  4891 
  4892 Renamed:
  4893 
  4894   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4895   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4896   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4897 
  4898 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4899 
  4900 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4901 
  4902 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4903 
  4904 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4905 
  4906 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4907 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4908 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4909 
  4910   Constants:
  4911   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4912   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4913   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4914   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4915   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4916   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4917   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4918   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4919   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4920   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4921   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4922   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4923   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4924 
  4925   Lemmas:
  4926   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4927   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4928   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4929   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4930   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4931   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4932   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4933   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4934   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4935   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4936   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4937   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4938   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4939 
  4940 * Sledgehammer:
  4941   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4942     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4943     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4944     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4945     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4946     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4947     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4948   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4949   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4950     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4951   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4952     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4953     is still experimental.)
  4954   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4955     full-typed mode.
  4956   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4957 
  4958 * Nitpick:
  4959   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4960   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4961   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4962     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4963   - Added support for quotient types.
  4964   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4965     constructs.
  4966   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4967     "termination" proofs).
  4968   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4969   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4970   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4971   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4972     record getters.
  4973   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4974   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4975   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4976   - Added "atoms" option.
  4977   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4978     problems.
  4979   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4980     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4981     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4982   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4983     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4984   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4985 
  4986 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4987   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4988   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4989   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4990   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4991   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4992   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4993   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4994   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4995   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4996 
  4997 
  4998 *** HOLCF ***
  4999 
  5000 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  5001 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  5002 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5003 
  5004 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  5005 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  5006 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  5007 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5008 
  5009 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  5010 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  5011 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  5012 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  5013 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5014 
  5015 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  5016 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  5017 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5018 
  5019 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  5020 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5021 
  5022   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  5023   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  5024 
  5025 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  5026 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5027 
  5028   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  5029   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  5030   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  5031   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  5032   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  5033 
  5034 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  5035 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5036 
  5037   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  5038   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  5039   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  5040 
  5041 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  5042 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  5043 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5044 
  5045 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  5046 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5047 
  5048 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5049 
  5050 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  5051 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5052 
  5053 
  5054 *** ML ***
  5055 
  5056 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  5057 
  5058     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  5059     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  5060 
  5061     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  5062     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  5063     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  5064     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5065 
  5066     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  5067     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  5068     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5069 
  5070 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  5071 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  5072 
  5073 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  5074 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  5075 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  5076 
  5077 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  5078 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  5079 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  5080 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  5081 
  5082 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  5083 the context or even global references.
  5084 
  5085 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  5086 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  5087 
  5088 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  5089 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  5090 
  5091   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  5092   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  5093   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  5094   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  5095   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  5096   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  5097   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  5098   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  5099   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  5100   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  5101 
  5102 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  5103 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  5104 
  5105 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  5106 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  5107 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  5108 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  5109 pass the proper local context through the code!
  5110 
  5111 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  5112 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  5113 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  5114 Theory_Data version.
  5115 
  5116 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  5117 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  5118 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  5119 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  5120 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  5121 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  5122 explicitly in rare situations.
  5123 
  5124 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  5125 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  5126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5127 
  5128 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  5129 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5130 
  5131 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  5132 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  5133 quite rare).
  5134 
  5135 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  5136 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5137 
  5138 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  5139 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  5140 terms.
  5141 
  5142 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  5143 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5144 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5145 
  5146 
  5147 *** System ***
  5148 
  5149 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5150 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5151 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5152 
  5153 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5154 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5155 respectively.
  5156 
  5157 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5158 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5159 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5160 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5161 
  5162   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5163 
  5164 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5165 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5166 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5167 component.
  5168 
  5169 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5170 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5171 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5172 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5173 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5174 the user for manual installation.
  5175 
  5176 
  5177 
  5178 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5179 -------------------------------------
  5180 
  5181 *** General ***
  5182 
  5183 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5184 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5185 
  5186 
  5187 *** Pure ***
  5188 
  5189 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5190 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5191 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5192 
  5193 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5194 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5195 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5196 
  5197 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5198 interpretation.
  5199 
  5200 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5201 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5202 
  5203 
  5204 *** Document preparation ***
  5205 
  5206 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5207 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5208 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5209 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5210 
  5211 
  5212 *** HOL ***
  5213 
  5214 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5215 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5216 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5217 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5218 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5219 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5220 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5221 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5222 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5223 
  5224 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5225 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5226 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5227 
  5228 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5229 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5230 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5231 
  5232 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5233 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5234 
  5235 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5236 
  5237 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5238 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5239 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5240 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5241 
  5242 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5243 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5244 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5245 "mirabelle" utility.
  5246 
  5247 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5248 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5249 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5250 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5251 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5252 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5253 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5254 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5255 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5256 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5257 
  5258 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5259 procedure only.
  5260 
  5261 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5262 
  5263 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5264 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5265 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5266 that fail later.
  5267 
  5268 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5269 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5270 
  5271 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5272 the same method as the approximation method.
  5273 
  5274 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5275 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5276 series expansion.
  5277 
  5278 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5279 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5280 
  5281 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5282 reals.
  5283 
  5284 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5285 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5286 
  5287 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5288 fixpoint theorem.
  5289 
  5290 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5291   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5292     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5293   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5294     accordingly
  5295   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5296     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5297   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5298     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5299 
  5300 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5301 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5302 lattice.
  5303 
  5304 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5305 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5306 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5307 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5308 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5309 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5311 
  5312 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5313   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5314     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5315   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5316     le_inf_iff
  5317   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5318     sup_aci)
  5319   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5320   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5321   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5322     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5323     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5324     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5325     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5326     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5327     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5328     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5329     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5330     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5331     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5332   - authentic syntax for
  5333     Set.Pow
  5334     Set.image
  5335   - mere abbreviations:
  5336     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5337     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5338     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5339     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5340     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5341     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5342     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5343     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5344   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5345 
  5346 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5347 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5348 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5349 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5350 
  5351 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5352 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5353 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5354 
  5355 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5356 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5357 
  5358 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5359 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5360 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5361 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5362 
  5363 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5364 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5365 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5366 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5367 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5368 
  5369 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5370 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5371 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5372 
  5373 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5374 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5375 
  5376 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5377 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5378 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5379 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5380 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5381 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5382 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5383 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5384 
  5385 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5386     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5387     code_post       replaces    code post
  5388     etc.
  5389   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5390 
  5391 * Renamed methods:
  5392     sizechange -> size_change
  5393     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5394   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5395 
  5396 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5397 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5398 
  5399 * Renamed theorems:
  5400     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5401     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5402     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5403     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5404     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5405   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5406 
  5407 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5409 
  5410 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5412 
  5413 
  5414 *** HOLCF ***
  5415 
  5416 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5417 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5418 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5419 
  5420 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5421 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5422 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5423 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5424 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5425 
  5426 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5427 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5428 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5429 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5430 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5431 
  5432 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5433 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5434 constructor are pre-configured.
  5435 
  5436 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5437 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5438 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5439 
  5440 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5441 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5442 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5443 as well.)
  5444 
  5445 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5446 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5447 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5448 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5449 examples.
  5450 
  5451 
  5452 *** ML ***
  5453 
  5454 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5455 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5456 
  5457 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5458 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5459 position, logical grouping etc.
  5460 
  5461 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5462 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5463 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5464 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5465 
  5466 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5467 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5468 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5469 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5470 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5471 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5472 
  5473 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5474 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5475 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5476 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5477 experiments with references.
  5478 
  5479 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5480 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5481 
  5482 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5483 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5484 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5485 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5486 
  5487 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5488 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5489 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5490 
  5491 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5492 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5493 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5494 
  5495 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5496 
  5497 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5499 
  5500 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5501 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5502 
  5503 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5504 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5505 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5506 
  5507 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5508 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5509 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5510 
  5511 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5512 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5513 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5515 
  5516 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5517 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5518 instead of global theory.
  5519 
  5520 
  5521 *** System ***
  5522 
  5523 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5524 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5525 usedir option -q.
  5526 
  5527 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5528 also the system manual.
  5529 
  5530 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5531 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5532 
  5533 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5534 this is always enabled.
  5535 
  5536 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5537 
  5538 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5539 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5540 currently supported on Linux only.
  5541 
  5542 
  5543 
  5544 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5545 --------------------------------
  5546 
  5547 *** General ***
  5548 
  5549 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5550 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5551 
  5552   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5553     "isatool."
  5554 
  5555   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5556     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5557 
  5558   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5559     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5560 
  5561 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5562 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5563 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5564 
  5565 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5566 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5567 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5568 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5569 via "isabelle emacs".
  5570 
  5571 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5572 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5573 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5574 
  5575 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5576 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5577 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5578 
  5579 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5580 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5581 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5582 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5583 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5584 
  5585 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5586 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5587 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5588 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5589 
  5590 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5591 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5592 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5593 
  5594 
  5595 *** Pure ***
  5596 
  5597 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5598 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5599 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5600 
  5601 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5602 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5603 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5604 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5605 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5606 
  5607 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5608 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5609 useful in locale declarations.
  5610 
  5611 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5612 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5613 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5614 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5615 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5616 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5617 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5618 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5619 no longer generated.
  5620 
  5621 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5622 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5623 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5624 
  5625 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5626 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5627 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5628 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5629 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5630 
  5631 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5632 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5633 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5634 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5635 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5636 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5637 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5638 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5639 
  5640 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5641 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5642 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5643 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5644 
  5645 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5646 
  5647 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5648 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5649 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5650 
  5651 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5652 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5653 
  5654 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5655 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5656 in HOL, write
  5657 
  5658     class foo = ...
  5659 
  5660 instead of
  5661 
  5662     class foo = type + ...
  5663 
  5664 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5665 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5666 
  5667 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5668 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5669 
  5670 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5671 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5672 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5673 
  5674 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5675 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5676 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5677 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5678 directly in regular applications.
  5679 
  5680 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5681 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5682 
  5683 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5684 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5685 
  5686 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5687 theory context.
  5688 
  5689 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5690 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5691 
  5692 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5693 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5694 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5695 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5696 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5697 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5698 
  5699   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5700 
  5701 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5702 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5703 normalization.
  5704 
  5705 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5706 addressing etc.
  5707 
  5708 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5709 
  5710   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5711   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5712 
  5713 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5714 
  5715   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5716      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5717      parts of the code generator framework).
  5718 
  5719   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5720      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5721      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5722 
  5723 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5724 
  5725 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5726 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5727 
  5728 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5729 patterns, e.g.
  5730 
  5731     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5732 
  5733 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5734 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5735 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5736 hyphen:
  5737 
  5738     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5739 
  5740 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5741 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5742 
  5743 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5744 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5745 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5746 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5747 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5748 higher-order unification.
  5749 
  5750 
  5751 *** Document preparation ***
  5752 
  5753 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5754 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5755 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5756 
  5757 
  5758 *** HOL ***
  5759 
  5760 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5761 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5762 
  5763 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5764 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5765 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5766 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5767 Main, as before.
  5768 
  5769 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5770 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5771 
  5772 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5773 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5774 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5775 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5776 
  5777 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5778 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5779 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5780 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5781 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5782 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5783 
  5784 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5785 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5786 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5787 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5788 
  5789 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5790 menu.
  5791 
  5792 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5793 (contains the empty clause).
  5794 
  5795 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5796 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5797 
  5798 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5799 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5800 
  5801 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5802 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5803 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5804 
  5805 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5806 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5807 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5808 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5809 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5810 
  5811 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5812 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5813 
  5814 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5815 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5816 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5817 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5818 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5819 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5820 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5821 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5822 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5823 
  5824 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5825 
  5826 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5827 
  5828 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5829 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5830 
  5831 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5832 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5833 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5834 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5835 
  5836 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5837 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5838 
  5839     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5840     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5841     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5842     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5843     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5844     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5845     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5846     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5847 
  5848 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5849 theory Set.
  5850 
  5851 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5852 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5853 
  5854 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5855 
  5856 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5857 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5858 
  5859 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5860 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5861 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5862 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5863 allowed. For examples see
  5864 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5865 
  5866 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5867 
  5868 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5870 
  5871 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5872 structure:
  5873 
  5874     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5875     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5876     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5877     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5878     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5879     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5880     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5881     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5882     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5883     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5884     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5885     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5886     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5887     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5888     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5889     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5890     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5891     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5892     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5893     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5894     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5895     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5896     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5897     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5898     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5899     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5900     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5901     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5902     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5903     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5904     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5905     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5906     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5907 
  5908     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5909     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5910     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5911     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5912     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5913     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5914     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5915     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5916     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5917     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5918 
  5919     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5920     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5921     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5922     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5923     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5924     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5925 
  5926 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5927 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5928 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5929 
  5930 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5931 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5932 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5933 
  5934 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5935 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5936 
  5937 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5938 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5939 
  5940 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5941 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5942 proofs, e.g.
  5943 
  5944   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5945 
  5946 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5947 
  5948 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5949 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5950 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5951 
  5952 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5953 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5955 
  5956 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5957 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5958 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5960 
  5961 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5962 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5963 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5964 preorder_class.*.
  5965 
  5966 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5967 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5968 
  5969 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5970 
  5971   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5972 
  5973 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5974 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5975 fold_image.
  5976 
  5977 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5978 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5979 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5980 the former will disappear at some point.
  5981 
  5982 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5983 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5984 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5985 
  5986 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5987 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5988 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5989 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5990 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5991 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5992 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5993 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5994 
  5995 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5996 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5997 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5998 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5999 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  6000 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  6001 
  6002     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  6003     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  6004     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  6005     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  6006     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  6007     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  6008     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  6009 
  6010 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  6011 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6012 rename old lemmas as follows:
  6013 
  6014 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  6015 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  6016 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  6017 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  6018 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  6019 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  6020 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  6021 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  6022 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  6023 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  6024 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  6025 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  6026 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  6027 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  6028 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  6029 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  6030 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  6031 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  6032 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  6033 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  6034 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  6035 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  6036 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  6037 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  6038 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  6039 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  6040 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  6041 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  6042 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  6043 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  6044 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  6045 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  6046 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  6047 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  6048 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  6049 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  6050 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  6051 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  6052 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  6053 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  6054 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  6055 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  6056 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  6057 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  6058 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  6059 
  6060 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6061 
  6062 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  6063 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  6064 
  6065 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  6066 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  6067 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  6068 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  6069 
  6070 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  6071 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  6072 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  6073 theory RealVector.
  6074 
  6075 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  6076 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  6077 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  6078 and inner products are included.
  6079 
  6080 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  6081 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  6082 supported.
  6083 
  6084 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  6085 first diagonalization argument.
  6086 
  6087 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  6088 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  6089 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  6090 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6091 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  6092 
  6093     hide (open) const gcd
  6094     abbreviation gcd where
  6095       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  6096     notation (output)
  6097       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  6098 
  6099 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  6100 
  6101 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  6102 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  6103 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6104 
  6105 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  6106 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  6107 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  6108 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  6109 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  6110 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  6111 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  6112 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  6113 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  6114 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  6115 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  6116 cases.
  6117 
  6118 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  6119 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  6120 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  6121 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  6122 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  6123 
  6124     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  6125     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  6126     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  6127     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  6128     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  6129 
  6130 
  6131 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6132 
  6133 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  6134 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  6135 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  6136 
  6137 * New theory of factorial domains.
  6138 
  6139 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  6140 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  6141 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  6142 
  6143 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6144 
  6145 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  6146 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  6147 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  6148 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  6149 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  6150 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  6151 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  6152 
  6153 
  6154 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6155 
  6156 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  6157 
  6158 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  6159 theory targets.
  6160 
  6161 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  6162 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  6163 'inductive' etc.
  6164 
  6165 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  6166 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  6167 
  6168 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  6169 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  6170 
  6171 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  6172 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  6173 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  6174 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  6175 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  6176 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  6177 the algorithm W:
  6178 
  6179  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  6180  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  6181          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  6182 
  6183 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  6184 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  6185 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  6186 
  6187 
  6188 *** HOLCF ***
  6189 
  6190 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  6191 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  6192 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  6193 
  6194 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  6195 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  6196 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  6197 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  6198 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6199 
  6200 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  6201 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6202 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6203 
  6204 
  6205 *** ZF ***
  6206 
  6207 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  6208 
  6209 
  6210 *** ML ***
  6211 
  6212 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  6213 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  6214 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  6215 5.2.1!
  6216 
  6217 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  6218 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  6219 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  6220 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6221 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6222 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6223 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6224 
  6225 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6226 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6227 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6228 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6229 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6230 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6231 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6232 
  6233 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6234 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6235 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6236 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6237 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6238 
  6239 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6240 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6241 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6242 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6243 Method.add_method.
  6244 
  6245 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6246 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6247 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6248 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6249 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6250 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6251 
  6252 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6253 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6254 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6255 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6256 examples.
  6257 
  6258 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6259 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6260 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6261 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  6262 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  6263 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  6264 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  6265 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  6266 bindings everywher