NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Jul 04 16:50:57 2014 +0200 (2014-07-04)
changeset 57508 19240ff4b02d
parent 57504 5cf245c62c4c
child 57512 cc97b347b301
permissions -rw-r--r--
misc tuning for release;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
     5 ---------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    10 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    11 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    12 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    13 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    14 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    15 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    16 some examples.
    17 
    18 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
    19 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
    20 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
    21 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
    22 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
    23 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
    24 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
    25 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
    26 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
    27 
    28 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    29 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    30 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    31 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    32 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    33 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    34 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    35 proof tools.
    36 
    37 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    38 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    39 supports input via ` (backquote).
    40 
    41 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    42 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    43 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    44 
    45 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    46 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    47 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
    48 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    49 
    50 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
    51 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    52 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
    53 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    54 
    55 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    56 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    57 
    58 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    59 not check existence within the file-system.
    60 
    61 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
    62 isar-ref, jedit, system.
    63 
    64 
    65 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    66 
    67 * Improved Document panel: simplied interaction where every single
    68 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
    69 buffer.
    70 
    71 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
    72 to PIDE hyperlinks.
    73 
    74 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    75 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    76 
    77 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    78 auxiliary ML files.
    79 
    80 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
    81 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
    82 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
    83 
    84 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
    85 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
    86 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
    87 
    88 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
    89 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
    90 caret".
    91 
    92 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
    93 completion popup and context-menu.
    94 
    95 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
    96 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
    97 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
    98 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
    99 
   100 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   101 to highlight text via regular expression.
   102 
   103 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   104 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   105 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   106 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   107 
   108 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   109 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   110 
   111 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   112 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   113 
   114 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   115 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   116 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   117 
   118 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
   119 simplification process, enabled by the "simplifier_trace" attribute
   120 within the context.
   121 
   122 
   123 *** Pure ***
   124 
   125 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   126 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   127 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   128 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
   129 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
   130 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
   131 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   132 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
   133 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
   134 
   135 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   136 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   137 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   138 renaming needs to be applied:
   139 
   140   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   141   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   142   all            ~>  Pure.all
   143   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   144   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   145 
   146 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   147 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   148 old constants:
   149 
   150 setup {*
   151   fn thy => thy
   152     |> Sign.root_path
   153     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   154     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   155     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   156     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   157 *}
   158 
   159 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   160 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   161 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   162 
   163 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   164 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   165 instantiated theorem.
   166 
   167 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   168 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   169 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   170 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   171 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   172 
   173   attribute_setup standard =
   174     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   175 
   176 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   177 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   178 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   179 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   180 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   181 
   182 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   183 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   184 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
   185 
   186 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   187 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   188 
   189 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
   190 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   191 
   192 
   193 *** HOL ***
   194 
   195 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
   196 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   197 
   198 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   200 
   201 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
   202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   203 
   204 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
   205 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   209 
   210 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   211 with the given constants.
   212 
   213 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   214 operations on records.
   215 
   216 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
   217 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   218 
   219 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   220 
   221 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   222 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   223 
   224 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
   227 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
   228 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
   229 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
   230 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   231 
   232 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   233 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   234 
   235 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
   236   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
   237   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
   238   part of theory "Main".
   239 
   240   Theory renamings:
   241     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   242     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   243     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   244     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   245     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   246     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   247     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   248     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   249     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   250     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   251     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   252     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   253     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   254     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   255     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   256     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   257     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   258     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   259     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   260     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   261     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   262     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   263 
   264   New theories:
   265     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   266     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   267     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   268     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   269     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   270 
   271   Discontinued theories:
   272     BNF/BNF.thy
   273     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   274 
   275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * New (co)datatype package:
   278   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
   279   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
   280     "size") as required by 'fun'.
   281   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
   282     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
   283   - Renamed commands:
   284       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   285       primrec_new ~> primrec
   286       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   287     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   288   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   289     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   290     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   291   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
   292     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
   293     using "prim(co)rec".
   294     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   295   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
   296     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   297     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   299     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   300     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   301     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   302 
   303 * Old datatype package:
   304   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
   305     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
   306     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   307   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
   308     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
   309     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   310 
   311 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
   312   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
   313   BNF-based datatype package.
   314 
   315   Renamed constants:
   316     Option.set ~> set_option
   317     Option.map ~> map_option
   318     option_rel ~> rel_option
   319 
   320   Renamed theorems:
   321     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   322     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   323     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   324     option.recs ~> option.rec
   325     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   326     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   327     map.simps ~> list.map
   328     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   329     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   330     the.simps ~> option.sel
   331 
   332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   333 
   334 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   335     sum_map ~> map_sum
   336     map_pair ~> map_prod
   337     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   338     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   339     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   340     set_rel ~> rel_set
   341     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   342     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
   343     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   344     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   345 
   346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   347 
   348 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
   349 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
   350 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
   351 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
   352 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
   353 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
   354 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   355 
   356 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
   357 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
   358 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
   359 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
   360 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   361 
   362 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   363 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   364 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   365 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   366 
   367 * Sledgehammer:
   368   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   369   - MaSh overhaul:
   370     . New SML-based learning engines eliminate the dependency on
   371       Python and increase performance and reliability.
   372     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
   373       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
   374       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
   375       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
   376   - New option:
   377       smt_proofs
   378   - Renamed options:
   379       isar_compress ~> compress
   380       isar_try0 ~> try0
   381 
   382 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   383 
   384 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   385 
   386 * Nitpick:
   387   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
   388     take infinite values.
   389   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
   390     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
   391   - Removed "std" option.
   392   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   393     "hide_types".
   394 
   395 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
   396 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   397 
   398 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   399 
   400 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   401   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   402   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
   403     SUP instead uniformly.
   404   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   405     or SUP and Sup.
   406   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   407   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   408   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
   409     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
   410     INT_cong, SUP_cong
   411 
   412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   413 
   414 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
   415 
   416 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   417 
   418   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   419   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   420   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   421   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   422 
   423 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   424 
   425 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
   426 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
   427 
   428 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
   429 
   430     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
   431     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
   432     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
   433     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
   434     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
   435     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
   436     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
   437     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
   438     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
   439     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
   440     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
   441     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
   442     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
   443     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
   444     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
   445     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
   446     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
   447     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
   448     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
   449     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
   450     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
   451     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
   452     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
   453     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
   454     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
   455     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
   456     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
   457     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
   458     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
   459     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
   460     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
   461     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
   462     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
   463     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
   464     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
   465     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
   466     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
   467     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
   468     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
   469     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
   470     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
   471     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
   472     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
   473     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
   474     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
   475     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
   476     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
   477     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
   478     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
   479     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
   480     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
   481     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
   482     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
   483     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
   484     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
   485     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
   486     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
   487     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
   488     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
   489 
   490   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
   491   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
   492   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
   493     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
   494 
   495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   496 
   497 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   498 
   499   Fact consolidations:
   500     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   501     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   502     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   503     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   504     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   505     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   506     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   507     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   508     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   509     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   510     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   511     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   512     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   513     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   514     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   515     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   516     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   517     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   518     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   519     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   520     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   521     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   522     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   523     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   524     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   525     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   526     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   527     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   528     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   529     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   530     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   531     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   532     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   533     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   534     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   535     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   536     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   537     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   538     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   539     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   540 
   541 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   542 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   543 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   544 
   545 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
   546 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   547 
   548 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   549 
   550 INCOMPATBILITY.
   551 
   552 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
   553 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   554 
   555 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   557 
   558 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   559     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   560 
   561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   562 
   563 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
   564   consolidation:
   565     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   566     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   567 
   568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   569 
   570 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   571   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   572   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   573   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   574     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   575   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   576     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   577   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   578 
   579 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   580 
   581 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   582     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   583     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   584     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   585     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   586 
   587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   588 
   589 * Fact name consolidation:
   590     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   591     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   592     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   593     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   594     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   595 
   596 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   597 
   598 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   599 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   600 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   601 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   602 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   603 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
   604 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
   605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   606 
   607 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   608 
   609 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   610 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   611 
   612 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   613 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   614 
   615 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   616 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   617 or the brute way with
   618 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   619 
   620 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
   621 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
   622 stating boundedness of sets.
   623 
   624 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
   625 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
   626 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   627 
   628 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   629   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   630   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   631   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   632   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   633   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   634   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   635   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   636   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   637   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   638   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   639   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   640 
   641   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   642 
   643   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   644 
   645     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   646     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
   647     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
   648     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
   649     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   650 
   651 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   652 
   653 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   654   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   655 
   656   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   657 
   658   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   659 
   660   - removed constant isDiff
   661 
   662   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
   663     input syntax.
   664 
   665   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
   666 
   667   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   668 
   669   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   670 
   671   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   672 
   673   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
   674     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
   675     has_vector_derivative.
   676 
   677   - Other renamings:
   678     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   679     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   680     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   681     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   682     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   683     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   684     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   685 
   686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   687 
   688 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
   689 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
   690 in continuous_intros.
   691 
   692 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
   693 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
   694 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   695 
   696 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
   697 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
   698 especially removes
   699 
   700     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   701 
   702 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   703     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   704 
   705 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   706 
   707   Renamings:
   708     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   709     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   710     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   711     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   712     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   713     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   714     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   715     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   716     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   717     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   718     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   719     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   720 
   721     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   722     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   723     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   724 
   725   Removed theorems:
   726     complex_zero_def
   727     complex_add_def
   728     complex_minus_def
   729     complex_diff_def
   730     complex_one_def
   731     complex_mult_def
   732     complex_inverse_def
   733     complex_scaleR_def
   734 
   735 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   736 
   737 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   738 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   739 
   740 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
   741 
   742 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
   743 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
   744 
   745 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
   746 
   747 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   748 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   749 
   750 * HOL-Word:
   751   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
   752     of "word_arith_wis".
   753   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   754     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   755     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   756 
   757 * HOL-Number_Theory:
   758   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
   759   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
   760   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
   761     (except the AFP)
   762 
   763 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   764 
   765 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   766   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
   767   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
   768     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
   769   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   770     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   771     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   772     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   773     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
   774     intervals.
   775   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
   776     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
   777     - renamed theorems:
   778         interval ~> box
   779         mem_interval ~> mem_box
   780         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
   781         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
   782         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
   783         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
   784         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
   785         subset_interval ~> subset_box
   786         open_interval ~> open_box
   787         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
   788         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
   789         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
   790         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
   791         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
   792         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
   793         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
   794         convex_box ~> convex_prod
   795         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
   796         convex_interval ~> convex_box
   797         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
   798         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
   799         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
   800         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
   801         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
   802         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
   803         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
   804         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
   805         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
   806         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
   807         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
   808         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
   809         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
   810         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
   811 
   812     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
   813         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
   814         has_integral + has_integral_real
   815         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
   816         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
   817         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
   818         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
   819         integral_const + integral_const_real
   820         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
   821         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
   822         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
   823         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
   824         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
   825         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
   826         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
   827         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
   828         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
   829         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
   830 
   831   - renamed theorems:
   832     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   833     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   834     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   835 
   836 * HOL-Probability:
   837   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
   838     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   839 
   840     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   841     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   842     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   843     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   844     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   845     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   846     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   847     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   848     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   849     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   850     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   851     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   852     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   853     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   854     integral_indicator          ~>
   855          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   856     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   857     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   858     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   859 
   860     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   861          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   862 
   863     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   864          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   865 
   866     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   867          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   868 
   869     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   870          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   871          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   872 
   873     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   874          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   875 
   876     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   877          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   878 
   879     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   880          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   881          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   882 
   883     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   884          positive_integral_real_affine
   885 
   886     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   887          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   888 
   889     The following theorems where removed:
   890 
   891     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   892     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   893     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   894     lebesgue_integral_multc
   895     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   896     integral_cmul_indicator
   897     integral_real
   898 
   899   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
   900 
   901     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
   902       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
   903 
   904     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
   905 
   906   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
   907     distributed random variables.
   908 
   909 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
   910 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
   911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   912 
   913 
   914 *** Scala ***
   915 
   916 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   917 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   918 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   919 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   920 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   921 
   922 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
   923 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   924 
   925 
   926 *** ML ***
   927 
   928 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   929 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   930 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   931 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   932 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   933 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   934 
   935 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   936 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   937 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   938 actually belongs to it).
   939 
   940 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   941 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   942 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   943 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   944 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   945 of schematic variables.
   946 
   947 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   948 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   949 
   950 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   951 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
   952 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   953 
   954 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   955 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   956 
   957 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   958 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   959 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   961 
   962 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   963 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   964 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   965 formal context.
   966 
   967 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   968 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   969 
   970 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   971 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   972 
   973 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   974 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   975 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   976 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   977 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   978 
   979 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   980 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   981 purposes.
   982 
   983 
   984 *** System ***
   985 
   986 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
   987 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
   988 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
   989 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
   990 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
   991 
   992 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   993 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   994 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   995 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   996 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
   997 settings variable.
   998 
   999 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  1000 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  1001 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  1002 
  1003 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  1004 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  1005 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  1006 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  1007 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  1008 
  1009 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  1010 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  1011 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  1012 
  1013 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  1014 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  1015 
  1016 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  1017 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  1018 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  1019 
  1020 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  1021 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  1022 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  1023 processing is started.
  1024 
  1025 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  1026 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  1027 
  1028 
  1029 
  1030 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  1031 -------------------------------------
  1032 
  1033 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1034 
  1035 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  1036 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  1037 
  1038 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  1039 after edits surrounding the command location.
  1040 
  1041 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  1042 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  1043 e.g. out-of-memory).
  1044 
  1045 
  1046 *** System ***
  1047 
  1048 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  1049 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  1050 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  1051 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  1052 
  1053 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  1054 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  1055 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  1056 
  1057 
  1058 
  1059 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  1060 -------------------------------------
  1061 
  1062 *** General ***
  1063 
  1064 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  1065 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  1066 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1067 
  1068 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  1069 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1070 
  1071 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  1072 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  1073 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  1074 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  1075 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  1076 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  1077 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  1078 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  1079 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  1080 syntax.
  1081 
  1082 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  1083 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1084 
  1085 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  1086 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  1087 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  1088 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  1089 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  1090 
  1091 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  1092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1093 
  1094 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  1095 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  1096 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  1097 
  1098 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  1099 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  1100 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  1101 
  1102 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  1103 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  1104 
  1105 
  1106 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1107 
  1108 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  1109 Documentation panel.
  1110 
  1111 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  1112 documentation.
  1113 
  1114 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  1115 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  1116 
  1117 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  1118 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  1119 normal editing and checking process.
  1120 
  1121 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  1122 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1123 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1124 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1125 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1126 
  1127 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1128 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1129 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1130 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1131 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1132 
  1133 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1134 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1135 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1136 
  1137 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1138 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1139 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1140 to resolve conflict.
  1141 
  1142 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1143 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1144 
  1145 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1146 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1147 such command executions while editing.
  1148 
  1149 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1150 document content.
  1151 
  1152 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1153 toplevel theorem statements.
  1154 
  1155 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1156 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1157 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1158 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1159 
  1160 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1161 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1162 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1163 
  1164 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1165 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1166 
  1167 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1168 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1169 
  1170 
  1171 *** Pure ***
  1172 
  1173 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1174 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1175 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1176 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1177 details.
  1178 
  1179 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1180 
  1181 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1182 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1183 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1184 
  1185 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1187 
  1188 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1189 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1190 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1191 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1192 
  1193 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1194 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1195 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1196 
  1197 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1198 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1199 
  1200 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1201 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1202 situations.
  1203 
  1204 
  1205 *** HOL ***
  1206 
  1207 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1208 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1210 
  1211 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1212 
  1213 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1214 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1215 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1216 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1217 
  1218   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1219 
  1220 * Code generator:
  1221   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1222     'code_instance'.
  1223   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1224     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1225 
  1226 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1227 examples.
  1228 
  1229 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1230 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1231 to distinguish both when desired.
  1232 
  1233 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1234 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1235 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1236 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1237 
  1238 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1239 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1240 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1241 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1242 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1243 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1244 
  1245 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1246 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1247 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1248 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1249 
  1250 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1251 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1252 
  1253 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1254 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1255 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1256 
  1257 * Lifting:
  1258   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1259     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1260       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1261       transfer rules
  1262     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1263       correspondence relation can be generated
  1264     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1265       parametricity
  1266     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1267   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1268   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1269     copies
  1270   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1271     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1272     anonymous context)
  1273   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1274     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1275   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1276     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1277   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1278     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1279 
  1280 * Transfer:
  1281   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1282     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1283   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1284   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1285     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1286   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1287 
  1288 * Reification and reflection:
  1289   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1290     "Reification".
  1291   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1292   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1294 
  1295 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1296   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1297     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1298     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1299   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1300     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1301   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1302     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1303     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1304     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1305     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1306     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1307     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1308     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1309   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1310     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1311   - Fact renames:
  1312       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1313       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1315 
  1316 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1317 
  1318 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1319 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1320 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1322 
  1323 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1324 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1325 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1326 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1327 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1328 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1329 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1330 lemmas.
  1331 
  1332 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1333 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1334 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1335 
  1336 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1337 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1338 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1339 
  1340 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1341 top and bottom elements.
  1342 
  1343 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1344 
  1345 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1346 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1347 
  1348  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1349    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1350    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1351 
  1352  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1353    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1354    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1355 
  1356    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1357    arbitrary filter.
  1358 
  1359  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1360    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1361    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1362    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1363    on a compact set.
  1364 
  1365  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1366    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1367    linear_continuum_topology).
  1368 
  1369  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1370    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1371    on all sequences converging to x.
  1372 
  1373  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1374    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1375    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1376    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1377    left or right.
  1378 
  1379  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1380 
  1381      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1382 
  1383  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1384    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1385 
  1386  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1387    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1388    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1389    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1390    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1391    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1392 
  1393  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1394 
  1395    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1396 
  1397    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1398      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1399 
  1400    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1401 
  1402    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1403      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1404 
  1405    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1406 
  1407    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1408 
  1409  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1410 
  1411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1412 
  1413 * Nitpick:
  1414   - Added option "spy".
  1415   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1416 
  1417 * Sledgehammer:
  1418   - Renamed option:
  1419       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1420     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1421   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1422   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1423   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1424 
  1425 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1426 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1427 
  1428 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1429   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1430   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1431     generated code.
  1432   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1433   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1434   - Fact renames:
  1435     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1436     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1437     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1438 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1439 
  1440 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1441 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1442 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1443 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1444 
  1445 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1446 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1447 
  1448 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1449 
  1450 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1451 
  1452     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1453     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1454 
  1455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1456 
  1457 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1458 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1459 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1460 
  1461 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1462 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1463 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1464 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1465 
  1466 * HOL-BNF:
  1467   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1468     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1469     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1470     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1471   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1472     coinduct).
  1473   - Renamed keywords:
  1474     data ~> datatype_new
  1475     codata ~> codatatype
  1476     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1477   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1478     discs ~> disc
  1479     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1480     map_id' ~> map_id
  1481     sels ~> sel
  1482     set_map' ~> set_map
  1483     sets ~> set
  1484 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1485 
  1486 
  1487 *** ML ***
  1488 
  1489 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1490 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1491 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1492 Examples.thy in particular.
  1493 
  1494 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1495 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1496 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1497 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1498 
  1499 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1500 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1501 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1502 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1504 
  1505 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1506 
  1507     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1508     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1509 
  1510 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511 
  1512 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1513 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1514 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1515 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1516 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1517 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1518 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1519 
  1520 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1521 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1522 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1523 clasets separately from the context.
  1524 
  1525 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1526 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1527 
  1528 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1529 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1530 
  1531 
  1532 *** System ***
  1533 
  1534 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1535 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1536 
  1537 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1538 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1539 
  1540 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1541 settings variable.
  1542 
  1543 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1544 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1545 always pdf.
  1546 
  1547 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1548 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1549 
  1550 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1551 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1552 
  1553 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1554 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1555 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1556 
  1557 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1558 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1559 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1560 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1561 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1562 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1563 
  1564 
  1565 
  1566 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1567 -----------------------------------
  1568 
  1569 *** General ***
  1570 
  1571 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1572 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1573 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1574 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1575 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1576 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1577 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1578 
  1579 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1580 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1581 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1582 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1583 
  1584 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1585 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1586 
  1587 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1588 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1589 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1590 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1591 dependencies properly.
  1592 
  1593 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1594 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1595 
  1596 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1597 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1598 
  1599 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1600 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1601 and "class ... context ...".
  1602 
  1603 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1604 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1605 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1606 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1607 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1608 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1609 
  1610 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1611 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1612 
  1613 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1614 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1615 
  1616 
  1617 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1618 
  1619 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1620 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1621 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1622 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1623 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1624 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1625 
  1626 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1627 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1628 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1629 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1630 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1631 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1632 
  1633 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1634 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1635 browser on demand.
  1636 
  1637 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1638 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1639 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1640 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1641 
  1642 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1643 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1644 
  1645 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1646 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1647 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1648 potentially infinite message streams.
  1649 
  1650 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1651 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1652 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1653 schemes.
  1654 
  1655 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1656 symbols.
  1657 
  1658 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1659 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1660 
  1661 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1662 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1663 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1664 
  1665 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1666 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1667 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1668 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1669 
  1670 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1671 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1672 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1673 
  1674 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1675 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1676 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1677 Isabelle distribution.
  1678 
  1679 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1680 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1681 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1682 
  1683 
  1684 *** Pure ***
  1685 
  1686 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1687 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1688 
  1689 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1690 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1691 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1692 
  1693 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1694 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1695 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1696 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1697 with some care where this is really required.
  1698 
  1699 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1700 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1701 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1702 
  1703   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1704 
  1705 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1706 a Hasse diagram.
  1707 
  1708 
  1709 *** HOL ***
  1710 
  1711 * Sledgehammer:
  1712 
  1713   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1714     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1715   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1716   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1717   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1718   - Renamed options:
  1719       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1720       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1721       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1722       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1723 
  1724 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1725 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1726 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1727 
  1728 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1730 
  1731 * Lifting:
  1732   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1733   - quot_del attribute
  1734   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1735 
  1736 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1737 expressions.
  1738 
  1739 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1740 pointfree expressions.
  1741 
  1742 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1743 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1744 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1745 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1746 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1747 
  1748 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1749 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1750 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1751 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1752 accordingly.
  1753 
  1754 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1755 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1756 
  1757 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1758 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1759 
  1760 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1761 
  1762 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1763 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1764 
  1765 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1766 
  1767 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1768 
  1769   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1770   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1771 
  1772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1773 
  1774 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1775 
  1776   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1777   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1778 
  1779 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1780 
  1781 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1782 
  1783   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1784     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1785     output f x converges to G.
  1786 
  1787   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1788     infinity (at_bot).
  1789 
  1790   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1791     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1792 
  1793   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1794     at_top".
  1795 
  1796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1797 
  1798 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1799 lattice type classes.
  1800 
  1801 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1802 
  1803     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1804     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1805 
  1806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1807 
  1808 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1809 changes as follows.
  1810 
  1811   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1812 
  1813       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1814       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1815 
  1816   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1817     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1818     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1819     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1820 
  1821   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1822     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1823     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1824 
  1825   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1826     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1827     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1828     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1829 
  1830   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1831     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1832 
  1833       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1834       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1835       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1836       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1837       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1838       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1839       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1840       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1841       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1842       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1843       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1844       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1845       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1846       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1847       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1848       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1849 
  1850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1851 
  1852 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1853 
  1854 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1855 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1856 
  1857 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1858 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1859 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1860 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1861 
  1862   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1863   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1864   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1865   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1866   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1867   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1868   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1869   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1870   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1871   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1872 
  1873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1874 
  1875 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1876 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1877 Data").
  1878 
  1879 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1880 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1881 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1882 code.
  1883 
  1884 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1885 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1886 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1887 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1888 
  1889 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1890 
  1891 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1892 
  1893 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1894 
  1895   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1896   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1897 
  1898 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1899 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1900 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1901 
  1902   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1903 
  1904     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1905     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1906     cart_base i  removed
  1907     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1908 
  1909   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1910 
  1911   Renamed lemmas:
  1912 
  1913     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1914     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1915     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1916     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1917     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1918     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1919     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1920     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1921     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1922     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1923 
  1924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1925 
  1926 * HOL/Probability:
  1927 
  1928   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1929 
  1930   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1931     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1932     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1933 
  1934   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1935     projective family).
  1936 
  1937 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1938 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1939 
  1940 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1941 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1942 datatypes.
  1943 
  1944 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1945 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1946 
  1947 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1948 trees for the code generator.
  1949 
  1950 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1951 Lifting/Transfer.
  1952 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1953 
  1954 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1955 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1956 
  1957 
  1958 *** Document preparation ***
  1959 
  1960 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1961 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1962 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1963 
  1964 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1965 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1966 
  1967 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1968 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1969 document/root.tex.
  1970 
  1971 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1972 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1973 
  1974 
  1975 *** ML ***
  1976 
  1977 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1978 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1979 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1980 
  1981 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1982 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1983 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1984 
  1985 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1986 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1987 necessarily printing visible text.
  1988 
  1989 
  1990 *** System ***
  1991 
  1992 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1993 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1994 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1995 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1996 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1997 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1998 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1999 
  2000 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  2001 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  2002 
  2003   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  2004 
  2005 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  2006 
  2007 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  2008 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  2009 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  2010 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  2011 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  2012 
  2013 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  2014 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  2015 
  2016 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  2017 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  2018 
  2019 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  2020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2021 
  2022 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  2023 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  2024 version of Isabelle.
  2025 
  2026 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  2027 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  2028 
  2029 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  2030 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2031 for home-made settings.
  2032 
  2033 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  2034 
  2035 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  2036 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  2037 configuration.
  2038 
  2039 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  2040 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  2041 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  2042 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  2043 bundled as Isabelle component.
  2044 
  2045 
  2046 
  2047 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  2048 ------------------------------
  2049 
  2050 *** General ***
  2051 
  2052 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  2053 
  2054   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  2055     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  2056   - markup for bound variables
  2057   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  2058   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  2059   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  2060     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  2061 
  2062 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  2063 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  2064 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  2065 
  2066 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  2067 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  2068 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  2069 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  2070 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  2071 
  2072   context
  2073     fixes x y z :: 'a
  2074     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  2075   begin
  2076 
  2077   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  2078 
  2079   end
  2080 
  2081   thm my_trans
  2082 
  2083 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  2084 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  2085 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  2086 
  2087 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  2088 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  2089 
  2090 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  2091 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  2092 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  2093 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  2094 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  2095 
  2096 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  2097 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  2098 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  2099 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  2100 indices of schematic variables.
  2101 
  2102 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  2103 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  2104 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2105 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  2106 etc. was exploited.
  2107 
  2108 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  2109 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  2110 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  2111 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  2112 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  2113 of the material of that old tutorial.
  2114 
  2115 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  2116 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  2117 manual.
  2118 
  2119 
  2120 *** Pure ***
  2121 
  2122 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2123 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2124 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2125 
  2126 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2127 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2128 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2129 undocumented feature.)
  2130 
  2131 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2132 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2133 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2134 
  2135   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2136 
  2137   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2138     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2139 
  2140 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2141 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2142 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2143 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2144 
  2145 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2146 
  2147     num ~> num_token
  2148     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2149     xstr ~> str_token
  2150 
  2151 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2152 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2153 position information via constraints).
  2154 
  2155 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2156 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2157 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2158 
  2159 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2160 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2161 
  2162 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2163 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2164 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2165 
  2166 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2167 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2168 
  2169 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2170 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2171 
  2172   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2173 
  2174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2175 
  2176 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2177 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2178 
  2179 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2180 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2181 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2182 
  2183 
  2184 *** HOL ***
  2185 
  2186 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2187 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2188 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2189 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2190 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2191 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2192 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2193 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2194 possible.
  2195 
  2196 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2197 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2198 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2199 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2200 
  2201 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2202 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2203 
  2204 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2205 
  2206 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2207 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2208 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2209 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2210 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2211 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2212 
  2213   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2214     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2215 
  2216   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2217     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2218     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2219 
  2220   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2221     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2222 
  2223   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2224     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2225     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2226 
  2227   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2228     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2229 
  2230 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2231 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2232 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2233 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2234 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2235 
  2236   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2237     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2238     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2239     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2240     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2241 
  2242     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2243     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2244 
  2245   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2246     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2247     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2248     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2249     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2250     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2251     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2252     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2253 
  2254   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2255     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2256     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2257     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2258 
  2259   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2260     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2261     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2262     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2263 
  2264   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2265     from type nat to type int.
  2266 
  2267 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2268 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2269 
  2270   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2271     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2272     type.  Example syntax:
  2273 
  2274     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2275       is List.insert
  2276 
  2277     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2278     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2279     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2280     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2281     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2282     by the package.
  2283 
  2284   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2285     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2286     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2287     code generation for each constant.
  2288 
  2289   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2290     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2291     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2292     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2293     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2294 
  2295   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2296     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2297     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2298 
  2299 * Quotient package:
  2300 
  2301   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2302     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2303 
  2304   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2305     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2306 
  2307   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2308     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2309     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2310 
  2311   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2312     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2313 
  2314 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2315 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2316 
  2317 * Quickcheck:
  2318 
  2319   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2320     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2321     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2322     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2323     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2324 
  2325     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2326     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2327     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2328 
  2329     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2330     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2331 
  2332     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2333     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2334     show genuine counterexamples.
  2335 
  2336   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2337     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2338 
  2339     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2340     constructors of that type.
  2341 
  2342   - Support for multisets.
  2343 
  2344   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2345 
  2346   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2347     conjectures in a locale context.
  2348 
  2349 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2350 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2351 
  2352 * Sledgehammer:
  2353   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2354     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2355   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2356   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2357     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2358   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2359   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2360   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2361   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2362 
  2363 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2364 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2365 
  2366 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2367 
  2368 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2369 
  2370 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2371 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2372 
  2373   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2374 
  2375 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2376 a list and a nat.
  2377 
  2378 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2379 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2380 
  2381 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2382 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2383 default.
  2384 
  2385 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2386 
  2387   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2388 
  2389 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2390 
  2391 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2392 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2393 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2394 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2395 one_case.
  2396 
  2397 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2398 the result of the fact expression.
  2399 
  2400 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2401 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2402 of some relation theorems:
  2403 
  2404   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2405   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2406   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2407   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2408   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2409   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2410 
  2411 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2412 
  2413 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2414 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2415 
  2416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2417 
  2418 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2419 to match the constant's name:
  2420 
  2421   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2422   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2423   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2424   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2425   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2426   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2427   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2428   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2429   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2430   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2431   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2432   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2433   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2434   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2435   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2436   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2437   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2438   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2439   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2440   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2441   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2442   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2443   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2444   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2445 
  2446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2447 
  2448 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2449 and corresponding theorem names:
  2450 
  2451   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2452 
  2453   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2454 
  2455   - Renamed theorems:
  2456 
  2457     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2458     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2459     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2460     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2461     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2462     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2463     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2464     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2465     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2466     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2467     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2468     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2469     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2470     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2471     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2472     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2473     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2474     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2475     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2476     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2477     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2478     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2479     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2480 
  2481     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2482 
  2483     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2484 
  2485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2486 
  2487 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2488 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2489 
  2490   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2491   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2492   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2493   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2494   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2495   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2496   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2497   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2498   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2499   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2500   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2501   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2502   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2503   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2504   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2505   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2506   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2507   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2508   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2509   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2510   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2511 
  2512 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2513 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2514 
  2515 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2516 
  2517 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2518 
  2519   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2520   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2521   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2522   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2523   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2524   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2525   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2526   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2527   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2528   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2529   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2530   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2531   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2532   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2533   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2534   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2535   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2536   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2537 
  2538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2539 
  2540 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2541 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2542 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2543 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2544 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2545 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2546 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2547 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2548 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2549 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2550 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2551 
  2552 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2553 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2554 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2555 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2556 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2557 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2558 
  2559 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2560 through option types.
  2561 
  2562 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2563 relations.
  2564 
  2565 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2566 
  2567 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2568 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2569 
  2570   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2571   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2572   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2573   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2574   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2575   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2576   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2577   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2578   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2579   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2580   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2581   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2582   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2583   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2584   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2585   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2586   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2587   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2588   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2589   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2590   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2591   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2592   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2593   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2594   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2595   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2596   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2597   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2598   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2599   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2600   zless_le ~> less_le
  2601   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2602   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2603   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2604 
  2605 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2606 
  2607   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2608 
  2609 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2610 
  2611 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2612 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2613 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2614 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2616 
  2617 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2618 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2619 
  2620 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2621 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2622 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2623 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2624 follows:
  2625 
  2626   Operations:
  2627   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2628   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2629   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2630   del -> rbt_del
  2631   delete -> rbt_delete
  2632   ins -> rbt_ins
  2633   insert -> rbt_insert
  2634   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2635   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2636   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2637   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2638   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2639   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2640   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2641   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2642   union -> rbt_union
  2643   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2644   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2645 
  2646   Lemmas:
  2647   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2648   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2649   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2650   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2651   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2652   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2653   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2654   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2655   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2656   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2657   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2658   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2659   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2660   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2661   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2662   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2663   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2664   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2665   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2666   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2667   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2668   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2669   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2670   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2671   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2672   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2673   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2674   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2675   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2676   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2677   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2678   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2679   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2680   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2681   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2682   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2683   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2684   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2685   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2686   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2687   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2688   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2689   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2690   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2691   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2692   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2693   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2694   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2695   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2696   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2697   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2698   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2699   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2700   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2701   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2702   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2703   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2704   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2705   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2706   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2707   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2708   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2709   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2710   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2711   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2712   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2713   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2714   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2715   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2716   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2717   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2718   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2719   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2720   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2721   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2722   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2723   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2724   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2725   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2726   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2727   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2728   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2729   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2730 
  2731 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2732 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2733 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2734 
  2735   Changed Operations:
  2736   float_abs -> abs
  2737   float_nprt -> nprt
  2738   float_pprt -> pprt
  2739   pow2 -> use powr
  2740   round_down -> float_round_down
  2741   round_up -> float_round_up
  2742   scale -> exponent
  2743 
  2744   Removed Operations:
  2745   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2746 
  2747   Renamed Lemmas:
  2748   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2749   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2750   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2751   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2752   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2753   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2754   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2755   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2756   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2757   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2758   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2759   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2760   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2761   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2762   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2763   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2764   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2765   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2766   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2767   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2768   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2769   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2770   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2771   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2772   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2773   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2774   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2775   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2776   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2777   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2778   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2779   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2780   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2781   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2782   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2783   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2784 
  2785   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2786   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2787   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2788   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2789   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2790   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2791   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2792   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2793   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2794   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2795 
  2796 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2797 association lists with distinct keys.
  2798 
  2799 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2800 annotated commands.
  2801 
  2802 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2803 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2804 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2805 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2806 
  2807 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2808 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2809 instead.
  2810 
  2811   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2812   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2813   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2814   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2815   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2816   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2817   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2818   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2819   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2820   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2821   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2822   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2823   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2824   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2825   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2826   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2827   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2828   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2829   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2830   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2831   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2832   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2833   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2834   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2835   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2836   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2837   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2838   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2839   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2840   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2841   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2842   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2843   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2844   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2845   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2846   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2847   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2848   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2849   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2850   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2851   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2852 
  2853 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2854 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2855 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2856 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2857 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2858 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2859 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2860 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2861 
  2862 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2863 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2864 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2865 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2866 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2867 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2868 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2869 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2870 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2871 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2872 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2873 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2874 
  2875   Renamed constants:
  2876   measure -> emeasure
  2877   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2878   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2879   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2880   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2881 
  2882   Removed locales:
  2883   completeable_measure_space
  2884   finite_measure_space
  2885   finite_prob_space
  2886   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2887   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2888   finite_sigma_algebra
  2889   measure_space
  2890   pair_finite_prob_space
  2891   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2892   pair_finite_space
  2893   pair_sigma_algebra
  2894   product_sigma_algebra
  2895 
  2896   Removed constants:
  2897   conditional_space
  2898   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2899   image_space
  2900   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2901   pair_measure_generator
  2902   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2903   subvimage
  2904 
  2905   Replacement theorems:
  2906   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2907   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2908   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2909   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2910   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2911   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2912   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2913   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2914   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2915   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2916   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2917   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2918   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2919   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2920   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2921   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2922   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2923   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2924   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2925   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2926   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2927   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2928   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2929   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2930   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2931   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2932   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2933   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2934   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2935   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2936   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2937   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2938   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2939   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2940   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2941   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2942   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2943   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2944   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2945   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2946   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2947   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2948   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2949   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2950   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2951   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2952   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2953   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2954   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2955   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2956   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2957   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2958   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2959   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2960   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2961   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2962   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2963   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2964   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2965   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2966   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2967   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2968   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2969   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2970   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2971   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2972   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2973   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2974   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2975   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2976   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2977   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2978   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2979   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2980   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2981   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2982   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2983   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2984   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2985   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2986   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2987   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2988   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2989   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2990   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2991   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2992   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2993   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2994   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2995   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2996   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2997   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2998   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2999   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  3000   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  3001   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  3002   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  3003   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  3004   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  3005   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  3006   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  3007   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  3008   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  3009   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  3010   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  3011   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  3012   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3013   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  3014   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  3015   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  3016   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  3017   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  3018   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  3019   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  3020   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  3021   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  3022   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  3023   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  3024   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3025   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  3026   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3027   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  3028   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  3029   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  3030   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  3031   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  3032   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  3033   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  3034 
  3035 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  3036 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  3037 
  3038 
  3039 *** FOL ***
  3040 
  3041 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  3042 
  3043 
  3044 *** ZF ***
  3045 
  3046 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  3047 analysis.
  3048 
  3049 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  3050 
  3051 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3052 
  3053 
  3054 *** ML ***
  3055 
  3056 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  3057 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  3058 
  3059 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  3060 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  3061 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  3062 
  3063 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  3064 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  3065 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  3066 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  3067 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  3068 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  3069 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  3070 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  3071 
  3072 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  3073 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  3074 
  3075 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  3076 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  3077 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  3078 
  3079 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3080 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3081 
  3082 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  3083 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  3084 context as well.
  3085 
  3086 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  3087 
  3088   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  3089   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  3090   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  3091   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  3092   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  3093   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  3094   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  3095   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  3096   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  3097   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  3098   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  3099   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  3100 
  3101 
  3102 *** System ***
  3103 
  3104 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  3105 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  3106 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  3107 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  3108 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  3109 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  3110 the generic user home was intended.
  3111 
  3112 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  3113 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  3114 
  3115 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  3116 (not just JRE).
  3117 
  3118 
  3119 
  3120 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  3121 ------------------------------------
  3122 
  3123 *** General ***
  3124 
  3125 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3126 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3127 
  3128   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3129     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3130     files for checking).
  3131 
  3132   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3133     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3134     positions.
  3135 
  3136   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3137     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3138     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3139 
  3140   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3141     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3142     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3143 
  3144   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3145     cores.
  3146 
  3147   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3148     versions (garbage collection).
  3149 
  3150 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3151 including some remaining limitations.
  3152 
  3153 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3154 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3155 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3156 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3157 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3159 
  3160 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3161 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3162 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3163 
  3164 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3165 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3166 usedir option -Q.
  3167 
  3168 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3169 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3170 
  3171   long_names   ~> names_long
  3172   short_names  ~> names_short
  3173   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3174 
  3175 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3176 
  3177   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3178 
  3179 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3180 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3181 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3182 
  3183 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3184 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3185 
  3186 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3187   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3188   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3189   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3190     "Classical Reasoner".
  3191 
  3192 
  3193 *** HOL ***
  3194 
  3195 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3196 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3197 
  3198 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3199 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3200 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3201 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3202 class complete_linorder.
  3203 
  3204 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3205 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3206 
  3207 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3208 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3209 
  3210   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3211   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3212   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3213   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3214   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3215   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3216   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3217   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3218   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3219   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3220   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3221 
  3222 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3223 
  3224   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3225   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3226   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3227   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3228   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3229   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3230   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3231   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3232   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3233   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3234   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3235   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3236   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3237   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3238   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3239   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3240 
  3241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3242 
  3243 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3245 
  3246 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3247 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3248 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3249 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3250 
  3251 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3252 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3253 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3255 
  3256 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3257 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3258 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3259 
  3260 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3261 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3262 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3263 
  3264 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3265 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3266 
  3267 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3268 
  3269     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3270     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3271 
  3272 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3273 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3274 
  3275 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3276 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277 
  3278 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3279 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3280 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3281 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3282 
  3283   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3284   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3285   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3286   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3287   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3288   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3289   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3290 
  3291 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3292 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3293 
  3294   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3295   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3296   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3297   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3298   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3299   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3300   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3301   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3302   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3303   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3304   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3305   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3306   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3307   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3308   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3309   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3310   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3311   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3312   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3313   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3314   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3315   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3316   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3317   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3318   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3319   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3320   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3321   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3322   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3323   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3324   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3325   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3326   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3327   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3328   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3329   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3330   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3331   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3332   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3333   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3334   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3335   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3336   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3337   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3338   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3339   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3340   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3341   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3342   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3343   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3344   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3345   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3346   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3347   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3348   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3349   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3350   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3351   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3352   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3353   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3354   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3355   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3356   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3357   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3358   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3359   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3360   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3361   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3362   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3363   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3364   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3365   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3366   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3367   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3368   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3369   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3370   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3371   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3372   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3373   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3374   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3375   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3376 
  3377 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3378 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3379 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3380 
  3381 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3382 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3383 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3384 
  3385 * Code generation:
  3386 
  3387   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3388     characters in the target language.
  3389 
  3390   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3391     instead.
  3392 
  3393   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3394 
  3395   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3396     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3397 
  3398       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3399 
  3400 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3403 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3404 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3405 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3406 syntax.
  3407 
  3408 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3409 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3410 
  3411 * Nitpick:
  3412   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3413   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3414   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3415     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3416 
  3417 * Sledgehammer:
  3418   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3419   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3420     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3421   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3422     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3423   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3424     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3425   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3426     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3427   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3428     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3429 
  3430 * Metis:
  3431   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3433     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434 
  3435 * Command 'try':
  3436   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3437     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3439     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3440 
  3441 * Quickcheck:
  3442   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3443     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3444   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3445     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3446   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3447     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3448     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3449     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3450   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3451     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3452 
  3453 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3454 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3455 
  3456 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3457 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3458 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3459 
  3460 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3461 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3462 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3463 
  3464 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3465 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3466 
  3467 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3468 arithmetic.
  3469 
  3470 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3471 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3472 and lattice type classes.
  3473 
  3474 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3475 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3476 
  3477 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3478 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3479 
  3480 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3481 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3482 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3483 
  3484   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3485   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3486   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3487   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3488 
  3489 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3490 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3491 constants:
  3492 
  3493   type inat   ~> type enat
  3494   Fin         ~> enat
  3495   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3496   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3497   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3498 
  3499 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3500 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3501 
  3502 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3503 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3504 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3505 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3506 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3507 
  3508 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3509 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3510 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3511 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3512 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3513 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3514 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3515 
  3516   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3517   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3518   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3519   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3520 
  3521 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3522 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3523 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3524 
  3525   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3526   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3527   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3528   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3529   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3530   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3531   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3532   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3533   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3534   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3535   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3536   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3537   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3538   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3539   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3540   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3541   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3542   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3543   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3544   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3545   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3546   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3547   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3548   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3549   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3550   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3551   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3552   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3553   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3554   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3555   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3556   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3557   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3558   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3559   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3560   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3561   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3562   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3563   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3564   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3565   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3566   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3567   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3568   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3569   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3570   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3571   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3572   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3573   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3574   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3575   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3576 
  3577 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3578   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3579   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3580   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3581   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3582     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3583 
  3584 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3585 
  3586   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3587   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3588   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3589   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3590   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3591   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3592   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3593   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3594   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3595   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3596   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3597   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3598   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3599   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3600   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3601   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3602   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3603   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3604   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3605   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3606   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3607   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3608   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3609   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3610   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3611 
  3612 
  3613 *** Document preparation ***
  3614 
  3615 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3616 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3617 same.
  3618 
  3619 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3620 result.
  3621 
  3622 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3623 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3624 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3625 
  3626 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3627 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3628 
  3629 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3630 like this:
  3631 
  3632   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3633   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3634 
  3635 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3636 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3637 layouts.
  3638 
  3639 
  3640 *** ML ***
  3641 
  3642 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3643 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3644 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3645 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3646 under external program control.
  3647 
  3648 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3649 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3650 
  3651 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3652 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3653 (better known as Proof General).
  3654 
  3655 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3656 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3657 
  3658 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3659 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3660 
  3661 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3662 (including quotes etc.).
  3663 
  3664 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3665 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3666 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3667 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3668 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3669 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3670 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3671 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3672 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3673 
  3674 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3675 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3676 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3677 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3678 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3679 
  3680 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3681 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3682 
  3683 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3684 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3685 
  3686 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3687 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3688 
  3689 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3690 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3691 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3692 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3693 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3694 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3695 proper Proof.context.
  3696 
  3697 
  3698 *** System ***
  3699 
  3700 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3701 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3702 
  3703 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3704 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3705 
  3706 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3707 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3708 
  3709   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3710   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3711   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3712   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3713   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3714 
  3715 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3716 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3717 
  3718 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3719 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3720 example:
  3721 
  3722   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3723 
  3724 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3725 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3726 
  3727 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3728 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3729 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3730 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3731 
  3732 
  3733 
  3734 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3735 ----------------------------------
  3736 
  3737 *** General ***
  3738 
  3739 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3740 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3741 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3742 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3743 like this:
  3744 
  3745   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3746 
  3747 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3748 
  3749 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3750 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3751 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3752 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3753 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3754 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3755 
  3756 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3757 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3758 the following package declarations:
  3759 
  3760   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3761   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3762 
  3763 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3764 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3765 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3766 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3767 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3768 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3769 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3770 
  3771 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3772 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3773 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3774 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3775 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3776 
  3777 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3778 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3779 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3780 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3781 
  3782 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3783 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3784 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3785 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3786 
  3787   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3788 
  3789   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3790   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3791   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3792   show_types                    show_types
  3793   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3794   show_consts                   show_consts
  3795   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3796 
  3797   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3798   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3799   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3800 
  3801   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3802   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3803 
  3804   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3805 
  3806   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3807   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3808   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3809   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3810   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3811 
  3812 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3813 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3814 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3815 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3816 
  3817 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3818 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819 
  3820   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3821   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3822 
  3823 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3824 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3825 float_token.
  3826 
  3827 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3828 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3830 
  3831 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3832 DejaVu Sans.
  3833 
  3834 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3835 
  3836 
  3837 *** Pure ***
  3838 
  3839 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3840 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3841 time.
  3842 
  3843 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3844 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3845 
  3846 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3847 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3848 
  3849 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3850 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3851 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3852 command already provided this functionality.
  3853 
  3854 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3855 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3856 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3857 without interpretations.
  3858 
  3859 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3860 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3861 
  3862 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3863 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3864 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3865 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3866 
  3867 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3868 'definition' instead.
  3869 
  3870 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3871 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3872 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3873 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3874 
  3875 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3876 constructors.
  3877 
  3878 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3879 the local file system.
  3880 
  3881 
  3882 *** HOL ***
  3883 
  3884 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3885 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3886 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3887 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3888 
  3889   declare [[coercion f]]
  3890 
  3891 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3892 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3893 
  3894   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3895 
  3896 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3897 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3898 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3899 other theories like this:
  3900 
  3901   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3902 
  3903 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3904 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3905 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3906 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3907 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3908 for examples.
  3909 
  3910 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3911 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3912 
  3913 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3914 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3915 
  3916 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3917 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3918 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3919 
  3920 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3921 functorial structure of types.
  3922 
  3923 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3924 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3925 
  3926 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3927 languages.
  3928 
  3929 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3930 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3931 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3932 
  3933 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3934 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3935 
  3936 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3937 combinators any longer.
  3938 
  3939 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3940 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3941 
  3942 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3943 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3944 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3945 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3946 
  3947   record 'a foo = ...
  3948   ...
  3949   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3950 
  3951 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3952 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954 
  3955 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3956 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3957 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3958 
  3959 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3960 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3961 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3962 
  3963 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3964 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3965 
  3966 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3967 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3968 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3969 independently.
  3970 
  3971 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3972 counter example search.
  3973 
  3974 * Sledgehammer:
  3975   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3976     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3977     sledgehammer").
  3978   - Renamed commands:
  3979     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3980     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3981     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3982     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983   - Renamed options:
  3984     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3985     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3986     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3987     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3988     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989 
  3990 * Nitpick:
  3991   - Renamed options:
  3992     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3993     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3994     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3995   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3996   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3997   - Added "whack" option.
  3998   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3999   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  4000   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  4001   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  4002     higher cardinalities.
  4003   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  4004 
  4005 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  4006 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  4007 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  4008 
  4009     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  4010 
  4011 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  4012 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  4013 
  4014 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  4015 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  4016 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  4017 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  4018 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  4019 "smt_solver".
  4020 
  4021 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  4022 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  4023 
  4024 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  4025 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  4026 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  4027 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4028 
  4029 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  4030   - Renamed:
  4031     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  4032     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  4033     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4034   - Added:
  4035     smt_verbose
  4036     smt_random_seed
  4037     smt_datatypes
  4038     smt_infer_triggers
  4039     smt_monomorph_limit
  4040     cvc3_options
  4041     remote_cvc3_options
  4042     remote_z3_options
  4043     yices_options
  4044 
  4045 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  4046 header.
  4047 
  4048 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  4049 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  4050 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  4051 
  4052   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  4053 
  4054 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4055 
  4056 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  4057 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4058 
  4059 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4060 
  4061 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  4062 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4063 
  4064 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  4065 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  4066 
  4067 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  4068 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4069 
  4070 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  4071 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  4072 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4073 
  4074 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4075 
  4076 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  4077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4078 
  4079 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  4080 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4081 
  4082 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  4083 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  4084 for congruent(2)).
  4085 
  4086 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  4087 
  4088   types
  4089     bool ~> HOL.bool
  4090     nat ~> Nat.nat
  4091 
  4092   constants
  4093     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  4094     True ~> HOL.True
  4095     False ~> HOL.False
  4096     op & ~> HOL.conj
  4097     op | ~> HOL.disj
  4098     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  4099     op = ~> HOL.eq
  4100     Not ~> HOL.Not
  4101     The ~> HOL.The
  4102     All ~> HOL.All
  4103     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  4104     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  4105     Let ~> HOL.Let
  4106     If ~> HOL.If
  4107     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  4108     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  4109     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  4110     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  4111     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  4112     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  4113     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  4114     op : ~> Set.member
  4115     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  4116 
  4117 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4118 
  4119 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  4120 
  4121     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  4122     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4123     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4124     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4125     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4126     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4127     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4128     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4129 
  4130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4131 
  4132 * More stylized fact names:
  4133 
  4134   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4135   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4136   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4137   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4138 
  4139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4140 
  4141 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4142 
  4143   constants
  4144     null ~> List.null
  4145 
  4146   facts
  4147     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4148     null_empty ~> null_def
  4149 
  4150 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4151 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4152 generation.
  4153 
  4154 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4155 Haskell code.
  4156 
  4157 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4158 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4159 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4160 
  4161 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4162 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4163 
  4164 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4165 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4166 
  4167 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4168 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4169 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4170 
  4171 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4172 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4173 
  4174 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4176 
  4177 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4178 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4179 referred to by its qualified name.
  4180 
  4181   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4182   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4183   product ~>  Enum.product
  4184 
  4185 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4186 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4188 
  4189 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4190 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4191 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4193 
  4194 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4195 sort_key.
  4196 
  4197 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4199 
  4200 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4201 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4202 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4203 
  4204   types
  4205     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4206               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4207               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4208         (depends on your needs)
  4209 
  4210   constants
  4211      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4212      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4213      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4214 
  4215 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4216 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4217 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4218 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4219 
  4220 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4221 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4222 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4223 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4224 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4225 
  4226 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4228 
  4229 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4230 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4231 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4232 
  4233 
  4234 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4235 
  4236 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4237 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4238 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4239 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4240 compatibility.
  4241 
  4242 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4243 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4244 
  4245 
  4246 *** HOLCF ***
  4247 
  4248 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4249 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4250 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4251 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4252 
  4253 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4254 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4255 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4256 
  4257   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4258   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4259   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4260 
  4261 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4262 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4263 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4264 
  4265 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4266 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4267 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4268 domain definition now works:
  4269 
  4270   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4271 
  4272 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4273 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4274 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4275 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4276 
  4277   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4278     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4279 
  4280   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4281 
  4282 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4283 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4284 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4285 
  4286 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4287 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4288 
  4289 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4290 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4291 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4292 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4293 
  4294 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4295 
  4296 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4297 
  4298 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4299 
  4300 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4302 
  4303 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4304 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4305 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4306 
  4307 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4308 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4309 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4310 
  4311 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4312 still supported as an input translation.
  4313 
  4314 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4315 
  4316   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4317   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4318   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4319   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4320   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4321   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4322   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4323 
  4324 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4325 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4326 
  4327   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4328   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4329   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4330   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4331   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4332   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4333 
  4334 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4335 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4336 
  4337 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4338 
  4339   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4340   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4341   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4342   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4343 
  4344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4345 
  4346 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4347 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4348 
  4349 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4350 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4351 
  4352   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4353   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4354   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4355   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4356   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4357   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4358   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4359   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4360   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4361   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4362   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4363   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4364   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4365   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4366   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4367   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4368   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4369   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4370   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4371   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4372 
  4373 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4374 
  4375   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4376   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4377   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4378   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4379   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4380   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4381   box_less             ~> box_below
  4382   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4383   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4384   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4385   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4386   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4387   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4388   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4389   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4390   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4391   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4392   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4393   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4394   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4395   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4396   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4397   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4398   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4399   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4400   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4401   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4402   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4403   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4404   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4405   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4406   up_less              ~> up_below
  4407   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4408   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4409   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4410   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4411   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4412   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4413   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4414   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4415   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4416   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4417   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4418   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4419   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4420 
  4421 
  4422 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4423 
  4424 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4425 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4426 
  4427 
  4428 *** ML ***
  4429 
  4430 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4431 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4432 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4433 
  4434 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4435 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4436 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4437 
  4438 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4439 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4440 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4441 
  4442 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4443 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4444 
  4445 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4446 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4447 
  4448 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4449 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4450 
  4451 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4452 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4453 
  4454 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4455 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4456 almost all situations.
  4457 
  4458 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4459 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4460 Isabelle/ML.
  4461 
  4462 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4463 meaning.
  4464 
  4465 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4466 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4467 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4468 
  4469 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4470 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4471 
  4472 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4473 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4474 
  4475 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4476 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4477 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4478 
  4479 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4480 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4481 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4482 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4483 configuration options.
  4484 
  4485 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4486 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4487 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4488 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4489 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4490 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4491 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4492 
  4493 
  4494 
  4495 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4496 ---------------------------------
  4497 
  4498 *** General ***
  4499 
  4500 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4501 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4502 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4503 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4504 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4505 their full internal name.
  4506 
  4507 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4508 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4509 Some hints on upgrading:
  4510 
  4511   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4512     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4513     which are independent of this issue.
  4514 
  4515   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4516     provides the following special forms:
  4517 
  4518       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4519       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4520       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4521 
  4522     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4523     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4524     extra variables".
  4525 
  4526     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4527     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4528     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4529     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4530     "logic".
  4531 
  4532   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4533     antiquotations:
  4534 
  4535       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4536       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4537       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4538       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4539 
  4540   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4541     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4542     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4543     antiquotations.
  4544 
  4545 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4546 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4547 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4548 diagnose syntax problems.
  4549 
  4550 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4551 
  4552 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4553 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4554 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4555 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4556 
  4557 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4558 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4559 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4560 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4561 
  4562 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4563 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4564 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4565 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4566 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4567 
  4568 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4569 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4570 
  4571 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4572 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4573 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4574 
  4575   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4576 
  4577 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4578 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4579 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4580 
  4581 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4582 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4586 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4587 
  4588 
  4589 *** Pure ***
  4590 
  4591 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4592 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4593 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4594 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4595 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4596 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4597 inspect proof terms.
  4598 
  4599 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4600 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4601 are added internally.  For example:
  4602 
  4603   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4604 
  4605 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4606 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4607 
  4608 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4609 
  4610 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4611 'class' instead.
  4612 
  4613 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4614 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4616 
  4617 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4618 invariants.
  4619 
  4620 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4621 user space functionality any longer.
  4622 
  4623 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4624 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4626 
  4627 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4628 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4629 
  4630 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4631 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4632 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4633 
  4634 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4635 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4636 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4637 
  4638 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4639 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4640 
  4641 
  4642 *** HOL ***
  4643 
  4644 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4645 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4646 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4647 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4648 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4649 
  4650 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4651 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4652 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4653 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4654 
  4655   fun
  4656     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4657   where
  4658     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4659 
  4660   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4661     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4662 
  4663   quotient_definition
  4664     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4665 
  4666 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4667 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4668 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4669 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4670 
  4671 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4672 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4673 
  4674 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4675 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4676 
  4677 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4678 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4679 
  4680 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4681 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4682 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4683 
  4684 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4685 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4686 
  4687 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4689 
  4690 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4692 
  4693 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4694 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4695 
  4696 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4697 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4698 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4699 
  4700   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4701   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4702   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4703   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4704   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4705   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4706   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4707   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4708   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4709   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4710   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4711   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4712   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4713   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4714   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4715   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4716   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4717   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4718   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4719   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4720   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4721   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4722   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4723   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4724   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4725   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4726   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4727   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4728   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4729   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4730 
  4731 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4732 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4733 
  4734 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4735 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4736 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4737 
  4738 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4739 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4740 
  4741 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4742 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4743 
  4744 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4745 
  4746 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4747 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4748 
  4749 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4750 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4751 
  4752 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4753 
  4754 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4755 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4756 
  4757 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4758 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4759 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4760 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4761 
  4762 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4763   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4764   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4765   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4767 
  4768 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4769 lattices):
  4770 
  4771     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4772     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4773 
  4774     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4775 
  4776     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4777     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4778     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4779     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4780     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4781     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4782     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4783     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4784     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4785     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4786     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4787     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4788     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4789 
  4790     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4791     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4792     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4793     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4794     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4795     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4796     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4797     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4798     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4799     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4800     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4801     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4802     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4803     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4804     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4805     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4806     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4807     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4808 
  4809   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4810   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4811 
  4812     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4813     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4814     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4815     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4816     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4817 
  4818 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4819 
  4820 * Refined field classes:
  4821   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4822     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4823     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4824   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4828   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4829   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4830   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4831     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4832   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4833     equal_neg_zero.
  4834 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4835 
  4836 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4837 sets to lattices:
  4838 
  4839   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4840   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4841   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4842   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4843   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4844   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4845   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4846   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4847   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4848   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4849 
  4850 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4851 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4852 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4853 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4854 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4855 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4856 
  4857 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4858 multiset order:
  4859 
  4860   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4861     <= and <;
  4862   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4863     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4864     multiset_order;
  4865   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4866     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4867     generation;
  4868   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4869     if needed.
  4870 
  4871 Renamed:
  4872 
  4873   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4874   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4875   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4876 
  4877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4878 
  4879 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4880 
  4881 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4882 
  4883 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4884 
  4885 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4886 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4887 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4888 
  4889   Constants:
  4890   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4891   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4892   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4893   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4894   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4895   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4896   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4897   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4898   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4899   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4900   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4901   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4902   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4903 
  4904   Lemmas:
  4905   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4906   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4907   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4908   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4909   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4910   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4911   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4912   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4913   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4914   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4915   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4916   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4917   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4918 
  4919 * Sledgehammer:
  4920   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4921     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4922     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4923     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4924     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4925     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4926     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4927   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4928   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4929     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4930   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4931     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4932     is still experimental.)
  4933   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4934     full-typed mode.
  4935   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4936 
  4937 * Nitpick:
  4938   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4939   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4940   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4941     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4942   - Added support for quotient types.
  4943   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4944     constructs.
  4945   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4946     "termination" proofs).
  4947   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4948   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4949   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4950   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4951     record getters.
  4952   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4953   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4954   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4955   - Added "atoms" option.
  4956   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4957     problems.
  4958   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4959     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4960     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4961   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4962     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4963   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4964 
  4965 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4966   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4967   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4968   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4969   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4970   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4971   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4972   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4973   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4974   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4975 
  4976 
  4977 *** HOLCF ***
  4978 
  4979 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4980 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4981 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4982 
  4983 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4984 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4985 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4986 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4987 
  4988 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4989 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4990 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4991 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4992 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4993 
  4994 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4995 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4996 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4997 
  4998 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4999 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5000 
  5001   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  5002   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  5003 
  5004 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  5005 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5006 
  5007   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  5008   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  5009   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  5010   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  5011   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  5012 
  5013 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  5014 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5015 
  5016   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  5017   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  5018   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  5019 
  5020 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  5021 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  5022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5023 
  5024 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  5025 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5026 
  5027 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5028 
  5029 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  5030 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5031 
  5032 
  5033 *** ML ***
  5034 
  5035 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  5036 
  5037     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  5038     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  5039 
  5040     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  5041     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  5042     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  5043     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5044 
  5045     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  5046     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  5047     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5048 
  5049 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  5050 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  5051 
  5052 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  5053 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  5054 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  5055 
  5056 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  5057 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  5058 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  5059 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  5060 
  5061 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  5062 the context or even global references.
  5063 
  5064 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  5065 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  5066 
  5067 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  5068 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  5069 
  5070   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  5071   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  5072   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  5073   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  5074   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  5075   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  5076   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  5077   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  5078   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  5079   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  5080 
  5081 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  5082 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  5083 
  5084 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  5085 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  5086 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  5087 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  5088 pass the proper local context through the code!
  5089 
  5090 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  5091 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  5092 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  5093 Theory_Data version.
  5094 
  5095 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  5096 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  5097 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  5098 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  5099 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  5100 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  5101 explicitly in rare situations.
  5102 
  5103 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  5104 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  5105 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5106 
  5107 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  5108 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5109 
  5110 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  5111 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  5112 quite rare).
  5113 
  5114 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  5115 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5116 
  5117 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  5118 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  5119 terms.
  5120 
  5121 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  5122 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5123 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5124 
  5125 
  5126 *** System ***
  5127 
  5128 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5129 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5130 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5131 
  5132 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5133 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5134 respectively.
  5135 
  5136 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5137 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5138 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5139 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5140 
  5141   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5142 
  5143 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5144 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5145 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5146 component.
  5147 
  5148 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5149 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5150 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5151 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5152 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5153 the user for manual installation.
  5154 
  5155 
  5156 
  5157 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5158 -------------------------------------
  5159 
  5160 *** General ***
  5161 
  5162 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5163 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5164 
  5165 
  5166 *** Pure ***
  5167 
  5168 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5169 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5170 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5171 
  5172 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5173 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5174 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5175 
  5176 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5177 interpretation.
  5178 
  5179 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5180 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5181 
  5182 
  5183 *** Document preparation ***
  5184 
  5185 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5186 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5187 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5188 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5189 
  5190 
  5191 *** HOL ***
  5192 
  5193 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5194 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5195 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5196 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5197 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5198 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5199 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5200 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5201 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5202 
  5203 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5204 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5205 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5206 
  5207 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5208 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5209 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5210 
  5211 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5212 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5213 
  5214 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5215 
  5216 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5217 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5218 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5219 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5220 
  5221 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5222 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5223 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5224 "mirabelle" utility.
  5225 
  5226 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5227 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5228 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5229 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5230 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5231 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5232 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5233 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5234 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5235 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5236 
  5237 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5238 procedure only.
  5239 
  5240 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5241 
  5242 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5243 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5244 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5245 that fail later.
  5246 
  5247 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5248 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5249 
  5250 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5251 the same method as the approximation method.
  5252 
  5253 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5254 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5255 series expansion.
  5256 
  5257 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5258 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5259 
  5260 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5261 reals.
  5262 
  5263 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5264 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5265 
  5266 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5267 fixpoint theorem.
  5268 
  5269 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5270   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5271     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5272   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5273     accordingly
  5274   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5275     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5276   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5277     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5278 
  5279 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5280 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5281 lattice.
  5282 
  5283 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5284 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5285 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5286 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5287 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5288 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5289 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5290 
  5291 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5292   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5293     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5294   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5295     le_inf_iff
  5296   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5297     sup_aci)
  5298   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5299   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5300   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5301     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5302     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5303     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5304     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5305     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5306     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5307     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5308     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5309     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5310     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5311   - authentic syntax for
  5312     Set.Pow
  5313     Set.image
  5314   - mere abbreviations:
  5315     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5316     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5317     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5318     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5319     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5320     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5321     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5322     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5323   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5324 
  5325 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5326 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5327 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5328 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5329 
  5330 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5331 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5332 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5333 
  5334 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5335 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5336 
  5337 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5338 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5339 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5340 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5341 
  5342 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5343 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5344 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5345 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5346 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5347 
  5348 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5349 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5351 
  5352 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5353 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5354 
  5355 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5356 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5357 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5358 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5359 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5360 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5361 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5363 
  5364 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5365     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5366     code_post       replaces    code post
  5367     etc.
  5368   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5369 
  5370 * Renamed methods:
  5371     sizechange -> size_change
  5372     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5373   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5374 
  5375 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5376 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5377 
  5378 * Renamed theorems:
  5379     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5380     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5381     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5382     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5383     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5384   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5385 
  5386 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5388 
  5389 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5390 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5391 
  5392 
  5393 *** HOLCF ***
  5394 
  5395 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5396 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5397 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5398 
  5399 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5400 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5401 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5402 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5403 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5404 
  5405 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5406 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5407 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5408 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5409 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5410 
  5411 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5412 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5413 constructor are pre-configured.
  5414 
  5415 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5416 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5417 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5418 
  5419 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5420 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5421 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5422 as well.)
  5423 
  5424 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5425 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5426 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5427 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5428 examples.
  5429 
  5430 
  5431 *** ML ***
  5432 
  5433 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5434 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5435 
  5436 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5437 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5438 position, logical grouping etc.
  5439 
  5440 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5441 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5442 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5443 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5444 
  5445 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5446 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5447 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5448 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5449 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5450 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5451 
  5452 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5453 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5454 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5455 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5456 experiments with references.
  5457 
  5458 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5459 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5460 
  5461 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5462 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5463 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5464 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5465 
  5466 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5467 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5468 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5469 
  5470 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5471 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5472 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5473 
  5474 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5475 
  5476 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5478 
  5479 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5480 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5481 
  5482 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5483 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5484 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5485 
  5486 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5487 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5488 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5489 
  5490 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5491 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5492 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5494 
  5495 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5496 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5497 instead of global theory.
  5498 
  5499 
  5500 *** System ***
  5501 
  5502 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5503 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5504 usedir option -q.
  5505 
  5506 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5507 also the system manual.
  5508 
  5509 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5510 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5511 
  5512 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5513 this is always enabled.
  5514 
  5515 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5516 
  5517 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5518 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5519 currently supported on Linux only.
  5520 
  5521 
  5522 
  5523 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5524 --------------------------------
  5525 
  5526 *** General ***
  5527 
  5528 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5529 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5530 
  5531   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5532     "isatool."
  5533 
  5534   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5535     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5536 
  5537   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5538     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5539 
  5540 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5541 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5542 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5543 
  5544 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5545 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5546 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5547 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5548 via "isabelle emacs".
  5549 
  5550 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5551 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5552 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5553 
  5554 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5555 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5556 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5557 
  5558 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5559 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5560 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5561 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5562 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5563 
  5564 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5565 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5566 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5567 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5568 
  5569 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5570 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5571 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5572 
  5573 
  5574 *** Pure ***
  5575 
  5576 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5577 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5578 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5579 
  5580 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5581 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5582 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5583 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5584 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5585 
  5586 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5587 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5588 useful in locale declarations.
  5589 
  5590 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5591 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5592 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5593 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5594 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5595 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5596 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5597 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5598 no longer generated.
  5599 
  5600 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5601 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5602 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5603 
  5604 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5605 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5606 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5607 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5608 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5609 
  5610 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5611 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5612 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5613 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5614 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5615 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5616 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5617 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5618 
  5619 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5620 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5621 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5622 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5623 
  5624 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5625 
  5626 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5627 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5628 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5629 
  5630 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5631 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5632 
  5633 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5634 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5635 in HOL, write
  5636 
  5637     class foo = ...
  5638 
  5639 instead of
  5640 
  5641     class foo = type + ...
  5642 
  5643 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5644 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5645 
  5646 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5647 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5648 
  5649 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5650 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5651 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5652 
  5653 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5654 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5655 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5656 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5657 directly in regular applications.
  5658 
  5659 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5660 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5661 
  5662 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5663 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5664 
  5665 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5666 theory context.
  5667 
  5668 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5669 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5670 
  5671 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5672 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5673 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5674 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5675 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5676 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5677 
  5678   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5679 
  5680 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5681 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5682 normalization.
  5683 
  5684 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5685 addressing etc.
  5686 
  5687 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5688 
  5689   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5690   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5691 
  5692 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5693 
  5694   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5695      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5696      parts of the code generator framework).
  5697 
  5698   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5699      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5700      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5701 
  5702 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5703 
  5704 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5705 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5706 
  5707 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5708 patterns, e.g.
  5709 
  5710     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5711 
  5712 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5713 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5714 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5715 hyphen:
  5716 
  5717     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5718 
  5719 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5720 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5721 
  5722 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5723 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5724 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5725 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5726 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5727 higher-order unification.
  5728 
  5729 
  5730 *** Document preparation ***
  5731 
  5732 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5733 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5734 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5735 
  5736 
  5737 *** HOL ***
  5738 
  5739 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5740 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5741 
  5742 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5743 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5744 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5745 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5746 Main, as before.
  5747 
  5748 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5749 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5750 
  5751 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5752 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5753 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5754 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5755 
  5756 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5757 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5758 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5759 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5760 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5761 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5762 
  5763 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5764 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5765 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5766 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5767 
  5768 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5769 menu.
  5770 
  5771 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5772 (contains the empty clause).
  5773 
  5774 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5775 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5776 
  5777 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5778 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5779 
  5780 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5781 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5782 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5783 
  5784 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5785 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5786 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5787 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5788 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5789 
  5790 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5791 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5792 
  5793 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5794 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5795 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5796 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5797 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5798 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5799 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5800 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5801 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5802 
  5803 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5804 
  5805 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5806 
  5807 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5808 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5809 
  5810 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5811 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5812 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5813 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5814 
  5815 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5816 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5817 
  5818     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5819     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5820     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5821     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5822     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5823     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5824     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5825     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5826 
  5827 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5828 theory Set.
  5829 
  5830 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5831 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5832 
  5833 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5834 
  5835 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5836 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5837 
  5838 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5839 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5840 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5841 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5842 allowed. For examples see
  5843 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5844 
  5845 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5846 
  5847 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5849 
  5850 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5851 structure:
  5852 
  5853     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5854     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5855     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5856     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5857     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5858     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5859     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5860     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5861     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5862     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5863     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5864     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5865     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5866     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5867     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5868     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5869     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5870     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5871     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5872     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5873     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5874     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5875     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5876     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5877     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5878     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5879     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5880     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5881     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5882     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5883     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5884     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5885     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5886 
  5887     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5888     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5889     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5890     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5891     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5892     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5893     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5894     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5895     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5896     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5897 
  5898     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5899     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5900     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5901     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5902     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5903     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5904 
  5905 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5906 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5907 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5908 
  5909 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5910 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5911 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5912 
  5913 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5914 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5915 
  5916 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5917 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5918 
  5919 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5920 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5921 proofs, e.g.
  5922 
  5923   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5924 
  5925 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5926 
  5927 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5928 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5929 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5930 
  5931 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5932 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5934 
  5935 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5936 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5937 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5938 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5939 
  5940 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5941 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5942 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5943 preorder_class.*.
  5944 
  5945 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5946 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5947 
  5948 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5949 
  5950   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5951 
  5952 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5953 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5954 fold_image.
  5955 
  5956 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5957 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5958 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5959 the former will disappear at some point.
  5960 
  5961 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5962 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5963 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5964 
  5965 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5966 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5967 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5968 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5969 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5970 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5971 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5972 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5973 
  5974 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5975 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5976 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5977 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5978 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5979 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5980 
  5981     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5982     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5983     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5984     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5985     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5986     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5987     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5988 
  5989 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5990 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5991 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5992 
  5993 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5994 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5995 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5996 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5997 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5998 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5999 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  6000 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  6001 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  6002 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  6003 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  6004 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  6005 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  6006 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  6007 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  6008 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  6009 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  6010 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  6011 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  6012 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  6013 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  6014 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  6015 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  6016 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  6017 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  6018 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  6019 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  6020 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  6021 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  6022 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  6023 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  6024 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  6025 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  6026 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  6027 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  6028 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  6029 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  6030 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  6031 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  6032 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  6033 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  6034 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  6035 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  6036 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  6037 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  6038 
  6039 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6040 
  6041 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  6042 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  6043 
  6044 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  6045 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  6046 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  6047 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  6048 
  6049 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  6050 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  6051 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  6052 theory RealVector.
  6053 
  6054 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  6055 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  6056 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  6057 and inner products are included.
  6058 
  6059 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  6060 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  6061 supported.
  6062 
  6063 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  6064 first diagonalization argument.
  6065 
  6066 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  6067 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  6068 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  6069 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6070 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  6071 
  6072     hide (open) const gcd
  6073     abbreviation gcd where
  6074       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  6075     notation (output)
  6076       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  6077 
  6078 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  6079 
  6080 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  6081 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  6082 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6083 
  6084 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  6085 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  6086 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  6087 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  6088 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  6089 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  6090 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  6091 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  6092 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  6093 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  6094 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  6095 cases.
  6096 
  6097 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  6098 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  6099 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  6100 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  6101 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  6102 
  6103     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  6104     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  6105     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  6106     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  6107     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  6108 
  6109 
  6110 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6111 
  6112 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  6113 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  6114 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  6115 
  6116 * New theory of factorial domains.
  6117 
  6118 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  6119 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  6120 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  6121 
  6122 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6123 
  6124 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  6125 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  6126 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  6127 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  6128 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  6129 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  6130 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  6131 
  6132 
  6133 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6134 
  6135 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  6136 
  6137 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  6138 theory targets.
  6139 
  6140 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  6141 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  6142 'inductive' etc.
  6143 
  6144 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  6145 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  6146 
  6147 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  6148 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  6149 
  6150 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  6151 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  6152 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  6153 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  6154 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  6155 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  6156 the algorithm W:
  6157 
  6158  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  6159  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  6160          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  6161 
  6162 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  6163 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  6164 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  6165 
  6166 
  6167 *** HOLCF ***
  6168 
  6169 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  6170 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  6171 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  6172 
  6173 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  6174 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  6175 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  6176 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  6177 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6178 
  6179 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  6180 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6181 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6182 
  6183 
  6184 *** ZF ***
  6185 
  6186 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  6187 
  6188 
  6189 *** ML ***
  6190 
  6191 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  6192 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  6193 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  6194 5.2.1!
  6195 
  6196 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  6197 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  6198 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  6199 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6200 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6201 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6202 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6203 
  6204 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6205 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6206 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6207 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6208 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6209 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6210 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6211 
  6212 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6213 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6214 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6215 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6216 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6217 
  6218 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6219 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6220 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6221 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6222 Method.add_method.
  6223 
  6224 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6225 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6226 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6227 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6228 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6229 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6230 
  6231 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6232 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6233 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6234 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6235 examples.
  6236 
  6237 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6238 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6239 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6240 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  6241 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  6242 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  6243 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  6244 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  6245 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  6246 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  6247 
  6248 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  6249 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  6250 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  6251 
  6252 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  6253 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  6254 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  6255 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  6256 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  6257 resort for legacy applications.
  6258 
  6259 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  6260 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  6261 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  6262 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  6263 explicit runtime argument.
  6264