NEWS
author Manuel Eberl <eberlm@in.tum.de>
Mon Feb 04 17:19:04 2019 +0100 (7 months ago)
changeset 69791 195aeee8b30a
parent 69790 154cf64e403e
child 69811 18f61ce86425
permissions -rw-r--r--
Formal Laurent series and overhaul of Formal power series (due to Jeremy Sylvestre)
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    13 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    14 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    15 
    16 * The font family "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from the
    17 existing "DejaVu" collection, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    18 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    19 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    20 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    21 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    22 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    23 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    24 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    25 
    26 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    27 
    28 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    29 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )".
    33 
    34 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    35 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60). The command-line tool "isabelle update -u
    36 mixfix_cartouches" allows to update existing theory sources
    37 automatically.
    38 
    39 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    40 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    41 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 
    44 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    45 
    46 * The jEdit File Browser is more prominent in the default GUI layout of
    47 Isabelle/jEdit: various virtual file-systems provide access to Isabelle
    48 resources, notably via "favorites:" (or "Edit Favorites").
    49 
    50 * Action "isabelle-export-browser" points the File Browser to the theory
    51 exports of the current buffer, based on the "isabelle-export:" virtual
    52 file-system. The directory view needs to be reloaded manually to follow
    53 ongoing document processing.
    54 
    55 * Action "isabelle-session-browser" points the File Browser to session
    56 information, based on the "isabelle-session:" virtual file-system. Its
    57 entries are structured according to chapter / session names, the open
    58 operation is redirected to the session ROOT file.
    59 
    60 * System option "jedit_text_overview" allows to disable the text
    61 overview column.
    62 
    63 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    64 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    65 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    66 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    67 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", now it
    68 defaults to 0.
    69 
    70 * Improved sub-pixel font rendering (especially on Linux), thanks to
    71 OpenJDK 11.
    72 
    73 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    74 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    75 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    76 Isabelle component).
    77 
    78 
    79 *** Isar ***
    80 
    81 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
    82 precedence over goal/proof.
    83 
    84 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
    85 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
    86 
    87 
    88 *** HOL ***
    89 
    90 * Formal Laurent series and overhaul of Formal power series 
    91 in HOL-Computational_Algebra
    92 
    93 * exponentiation by squaring in HOL-Library; used for computing powers in monoid_mult and modular exponentiation in HOL-Number_Theory
    94 
    95 * more material on residue rings in HOL-Number_Theory:
    96 Carmichael's function, primitive roots, more properties for "ord"
    97 
    98 * the functions \<Union>, \<Inter>, \<Squnion>, \<Sqinter>
    99 (not the corresponding binding operators) now have the same precedence
   100 as any other prefix function symbol.
   101 
   102 * Slightly more conventional naming schema in structure Inductive.
   103 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   104 
   105 * Code generation: command 'export_code' without file keyword exports
   106 code as regular theory export, which can be materialized using the
   107 command-line tool "isabelle export" or 'export_files' in the session
   108 ROOT, or browsed in Isabelle/jEdit via the "isabelle-export:"
   109 file-system. To get generated code dumped into output, use "file \<open>\<close>".
   110 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   111 
   112 * Code generation for OCaml: proper strings are used for literals.
   113 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   114 
   115 * Code generation for Haskell: code includes for Haskell must contain
   116 proper module frame, nothing is added magically any longer.
   117 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   118 
   119 * Code generation: slightly more conventional syntax for
   120 'code_stmts' antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   121 
   122 * The simplifier uses image_cong_simp as a congruence rule. The historic
   123 and not really well-formed congruence rules INF_cong*, SUP_cong*,
   124 are not used by default any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY; consider using
   125 declare image_cong_simp [cong del] in extreme situations.
   126 
   127 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
   128 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
   129 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
   130 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
   131 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   132 
   133 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
   134 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
   135 
   136 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the <Union># operator now has the same
   137 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
   138 
   139 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint instead.
   140 
   141 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute renamed to sum_mset.swap
   142 and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
   143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   144 
   145 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
   146 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
   147 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   148 
   149 * Sledgehammer:
   150   - The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote provers, has
   151     been updated.
   152   - The machine-learning-based filter MaSh has been optimized to take
   153     less time (in most cases).
   154 
   155 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
   156 
   157 * HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: case_of_simps now supports overlapping 
   158 and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested patterns.
   159 It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which assumes
   160 sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   161 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   163 
   164 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   165 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   166 retrieved with the "isabelle export" command-line tool like this:
   167 
   168   isabelle export -x "*:**.prv" HOL-SPARK-Examples
   169 
   170 
   171 *** ML ***
   172 
   173 * Local_Theory.reset is no longer available in user space. Regular
   174 definitional packages should use balanced blocks of
   175 Local_Theory.open_target versus Local_Theory.close_target instead,
   176 or the Local_Theory.subtarget(_result) combinator. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   177 
   178 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   179 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   180 
   181 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
   182 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   183 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
   184 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
   185 ">" as separator. For example:
   186 
   187   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
   188   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
   189 
   190   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
   191   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
   192 
   193   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
   194   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
   195 
   196 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
   197 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
   198 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
   199 observes the official standard).
   200 
   201 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   202 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   203 
   204 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   205 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   206 useful.
   207 
   208 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   209 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   210 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   211 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   212 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   213 
   214   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   215   module Isabelle.Pure where
   216     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   217     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   218     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   219     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   220   \<close>
   221 
   222 The ML function Generate_File.generate writes all generated files from a
   223 given theory to the file-system, e.g. a temporary directory where some
   224 external compiler is applied.
   225 
   226 
   227 *** System ***
   228 
   229 * The command-line tool "isabelle update" uses Isabelle/PIDE in
   230 batch-mode to update theory sources based on semantic markup produced in
   231 Isabelle/ML. Actual updates depend on system options that may be enabled
   232 via "-u OPT" (for "update_OPT"), see also $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/options
   233 section "Theory update". Theory sessions are specified as in "isabelle
   234 dump".
   235 
   236 * The command-line tool "isabelle update -u control_cartouches" changes
   237 antiquotations into control-symbol format (where possible): @{NAME}
   238 becomes \<^NAME> and @{NAME ARG} becomes \<^NAME>\<open>ARG\<close>.
   239 
   240 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   241 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   242 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   243 component).
   244 
   245 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   246 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   247 Isabelle/PIDE.
   248 
   249 * Isabelle server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   250 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   251 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   252 
   253 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   254 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   255 is no longer required.
   256 
   257 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   258 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   259 
   260   isabelle ghc_setup
   261   isabelle ghc_stack
   262 
   263   isabelle ocaml_setup
   264   isabelle ocaml_opam
   265 
   266 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   267 (and corresponding directory contents):
   268 
   269   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   270   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   271   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   272 
   273   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   274   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   275 
   276 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   277 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   278 
   279   ISABELLE_GHC
   280 
   281   ISABELLE_OCAML
   282   ISABELLE_OCAMLC
   283 
   284 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   285 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   286 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT.
   287 
   288 * Update to Java 11: the latest long-term support version of OpenJDK.
   289 
   290 * System option "checkpoint" has been discontinued: obsolete thanks to
   291 improved memory management in Poly/ML.
   292 
   293 
   294 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   295 ---------------------------------
   296 
   297 *** General ***
   298 
   299 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   300 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   301 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   302 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   303 
   304 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   305 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   306 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   307 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   308 
   309 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   310 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   311 
   312 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   313 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   314 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   315 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   316 avoid this.
   317 
   318 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   319 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   320 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   321 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   322 
   323 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   324 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   325 instead.
   326 
   327 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   328 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   329 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   330 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   331 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   332 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   333 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   334 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   335 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   336 syntax), use option "-m".
   337 
   338 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   339 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   340 
   341 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   342 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   343 without specific Prover IDE management.
   344 
   345 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   346 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   347 context.
   348 
   349 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   350 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   351 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   352 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   353 
   354   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   355 
   356 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   357 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   358 
   359 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   360 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   361 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   362 output.
   363 
   364 
   365 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   366 
   367 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   368 for session management:
   369 
   370   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   371     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   372 
   373   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   374     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   375 
   376   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   377     and -S
   378 
   379   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   380     theories
   381 
   382   Examples:
   383     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   384     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   385     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   386     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   387     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   388 
   389 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   390 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   391 
   392 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   393 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   394 
   395 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   396 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   397 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   398 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   399 arguments into this format.
   400 
   401 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   402 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   403 
   404 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   405 functions (e.g. State output).
   406 
   407 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   408 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   409 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   410 
   411 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   412 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   413 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   414 
   415 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   416 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   417 
   418 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   419 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   420 Isabelle".
   421 
   422 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   423 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   424 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   425 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   426 Unicode content when saving the file.
   427 
   428 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   429 
   430 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   431 
   432 
   433 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   434 
   435 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   436 Isabelle/jEdit.
   437 
   438 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   439 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   440 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   441 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   442 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   443 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   444 
   445 
   446 *** Document preparation ***
   447 
   448 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   449 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   450 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   451 are supported:
   452 
   453   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   454   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   455   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   456 
   457 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   458 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   459 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   460 
   461 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   462 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   463 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   464 
   465 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   466 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   467 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   468 
   469 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   470 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   471 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   472 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   473 
   474 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   475 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   476 
   477 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   478 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   479 normally need to import.
   480 
   481 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   482 session name verbatim.
   483 
   484 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   485 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   486 
   487 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   488 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   489 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   490 
   491 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   492 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   493 anymore.
   494 
   495 
   496 *** Isar ***
   497 
   498 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   499 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   500 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   501 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   502 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   503 
   504 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   505 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   506 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   507 
   508 
   509 *** Pure ***
   510 
   511 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   512 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   513 
   514 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   515 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   516 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   517 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   518 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   519 
   520 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   521 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   522 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   523 duplicate constant declarations.
   524 
   525 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   526 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   527 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   528 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   529 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   530 
   531 
   532 *** HOL ***
   533 
   534 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   535 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   536 
   537 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   538 
   539   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   540 
   541   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   542     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   543     constraints instead.
   544 
   545   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   546 
   547   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   548     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   549     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   550     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   551 
   552   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   553     standard target languages.
   554 
   555   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   556     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   557     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   558     HOL string values and vice versa.
   559 
   560   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   561     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   562 
   563 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   564 
   565 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   566 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   567 
   568 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   569 
   570 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   571 former axioms:
   572 
   573   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   574 
   575 are replaced by:
   576 
   577   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   578 
   579 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   580 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   581 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   582 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   583 
   584 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   585 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   586 
   587 * Clarifed theorem names:
   588 
   589   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   590   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   591 
   592 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   593 
   594 * SMT module:
   595 
   596   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   597     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   598 
   599   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   600     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   601     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   602 
   603 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   604 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   605 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   606 
   607 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   608 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   609 
   610 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   612 
   613 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   614 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   616 
   617 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   618 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   619 Renamed:
   620 
   621   span_inc ~> span_superset
   622   span_superset ~> span_base
   623   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   624 
   625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   626 
   627 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   628 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   629 
   630 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   631 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   632 
   633 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   634 
   635   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   636     input syntax
   637 
   638   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   639 
   640 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   641 
   642 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   643 
   644 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   645 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   647 
   648 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   649   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   650   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   651   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   652 
   653 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   654 
   655 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   656 
   657   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   658   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   659   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   660   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   661   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   662 
   663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   664 
   665 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   666 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   667 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   668 broken proofs.
   669 
   670 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   671 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   672 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   673 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   674 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   675 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   676 
   677 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   678 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   679 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   680 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   681 examples.
   682 
   683 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   684 
   685 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   686 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   687 
   688 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   689 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   690 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   692 
   693 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   694 infix/prefix notation.
   695 
   696 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   697 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   698 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   699 
   700 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   701 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   703 
   704 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   705 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   707 
   708 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   709 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   710 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   711 
   712 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   713 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   714 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   715 
   716 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   717 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   718 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   719 
   720 
   721 *** ML ***
   722 
   723 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   724 are stored persistently in the session build database.
   725 
   726 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   727 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   728 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   729 "isabelle process".
   730 
   731 
   732 *** System ***
   733 
   734 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   735 longer supported.
   736 
   737 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   738 support has been discontinued.
   739 
   740 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   741 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   742 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   743 
   744 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   745 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   746 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   747 quotes):
   748 
   749   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   750   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   751 
   752   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   753   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   754 
   755   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   756   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   757 
   758 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   759   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   760   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   761   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   762 
   763 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   764 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   765 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   766 only.
   767 
   768 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   769 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   770 up-to-date status of a session.
   771 
   772 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   773 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   774 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   775 directory.
   776 
   777 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   778 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   779 
   780 * The command-line tool "export" and 'export_files' in session ROOT
   781 entries retrieve theory exports from the session build database.
   782 
   783 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   784 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   785 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   786 See also the "system" manual.
   787 
   788 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   789 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   790 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   791 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   792 been discontinued.
   793 
   794 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   795 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   796 
   797 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   798 repository for the generated session files.
   799 
   800 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   801 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   802 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   803 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   804 ISABELLE_HOME).
   805 
   806 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   807 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   808 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   809 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   810 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   811 
   812 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   813 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   814 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   815 
   816 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   817 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   818 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   819 32/64 bit.
   820 
   821 
   822 
   823 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   824 ----------------------------------
   825 
   826 *** General ***
   827 
   828 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   829 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   830 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   831 
   832 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   833 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   834 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   835 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   836 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   837 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   838 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   839 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   840 
   841 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   842 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   843 just the theory base name as before).
   844 
   845 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   846 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   847 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   848 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   849 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   850 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   851 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   852 
   853 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   854 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   855 leads to the follow renamings:
   856 
   857   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   858   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   859   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   860   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
   861   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
   862 
   863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   864 
   865 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
   866 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
   867 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
   868 
   869 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
   870 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
   871 
   872 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
   873 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
   874 antiquotations:
   875 
   876   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   877     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
   878   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   879     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
   880   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
   881 
   882 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
   883 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
   884 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
   885 tutorial on code generation.
   886 
   887 
   888 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   889 
   890 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
   891 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
   892 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
   893 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
   894 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
   895 
   896 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
   897 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
   898 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
   899 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
   900 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
   901 effectively always enabled.
   902 
   903 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
   904 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
   905 buffers.
   906 
   907 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
   908 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
   909 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
   910 represented by a different border color.
   911 
   912 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
   913 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
   914 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
   915 
   916 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
   917 document in the default web browser.
   918 
   919 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
   920 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
   921 used for formal checking.
   922 
   923 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
   924 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
   925 enabled at all times.
   926 
   927 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
   928 
   929 
   930 *** Pure ***
   931 
   932 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
   933 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
   934 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
   935 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   936 
   937 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
   938   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
   939     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
   940   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
   941     malformed.
   942   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
   943     malformed.
   944 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   945 
   946 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
   947 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
   948 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   949 
   950 
   951 *** HOL ***
   952 
   953 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
   954 
   955 * SMT module:
   956   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
   957     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
   958     disabled by default.
   959   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
   960   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
   961 
   962 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
   963 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
   964 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
   965 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   966 
   967 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
   968 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
   969 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
   970 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   971 
   972 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
   973 of "Complex_Main").
   974 
   975 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
   976 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   977 
   978 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
   979 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   980 
   981 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
   982 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   983 
   984 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
   985 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   986 
   987 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
   988 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
   989 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
   990 
   991 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
   992 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   993 
   994 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
   995 
   996 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
   997 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   998 
   999 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
  1000 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
  1001 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
  1002 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1003 
  1004 * Generalized some facts:
  1005     measure_induct_rule
  1006     measure_induct
  1007     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
  1008     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
  1009     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
  1010     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
  1011 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1012 
  1013 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
  1014 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
  1015 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
  1016 euclidean size.
  1017 
  1018 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
  1019   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
  1020   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
  1021     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
  1022     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
  1023   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
  1024     available as "bezout_coefficients".
  1025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1026 
  1027 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
  1028 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
  1029 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
  1030 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1031 
  1032 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
  1033   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
  1034   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
  1035 
  1036 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
  1037 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1038 
  1039 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
  1040 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
  1041 
  1042 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
  1043 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
  1044 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1045 
  1046 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
  1047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1048 
  1049 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
  1050 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
  1051 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
  1052 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
  1053 
  1054 syntax (ASCII)
  1055   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
  1056   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
  1057   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
  1058 
  1059 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
  1060 multisets have been renamed:
  1061 
  1062   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
  1063   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
  1064 
  1065 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1066 
  1067 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
  1068 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
  1069 
  1070 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
  1071 
  1072 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
  1073 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
  1074 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
  1075 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1076 
  1077 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1078 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1079 
  1080 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1081 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1082 
  1083 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1084 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1085 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1086 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1088 
  1089 
  1090 *** System ***
  1091 
  1092 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1093 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1094 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1095 
  1096 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1097 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1098 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1099 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1100 
  1101 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1102 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1103 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1104 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1105 
  1106 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1107 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1108 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1109 unchanged.
  1110 
  1111 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1112 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1113 
  1114 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1115 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1116 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1117 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1118 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1119 
  1120 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1121 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1122 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1123 
  1124 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1125 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1126 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1127 
  1128 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1129 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1130 
  1131   isabelle imports -I -a
  1132   isabelle imports -U -a
  1133   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1134   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1135 
  1136 
  1137 
  1138 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1139 -------------------------------------
  1140 
  1141 *** General ***
  1142 
  1143 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1144   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1145     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1146   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1147     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1148     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1149     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1150     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1151 
  1152 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1153 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1154 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1155 
  1156 bundle foo
  1157 begin
  1158   declare a [simp]
  1159   declare b [intro]
  1160 end
  1161 
  1162 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1163 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1164 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1165 
  1166 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1167 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1168 discontinued.
  1169 
  1170 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1171 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1172 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1173 
  1174 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1175 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1176 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1177 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1178 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1179 
  1180 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1181 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1182 
  1183 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1184 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1185 
  1186 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1187 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1188 examples.
  1189 
  1190 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1191 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1192 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1193 
  1194 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1195 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1196 
  1197 
  1198 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1199 
  1200 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1201 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1202 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1203 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1204 
  1205 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1206 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1207 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1208 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1209 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1210 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1211 
  1212 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1213 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1214 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1215 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1216 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1217 
  1218 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1219 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1220 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1221 
  1222 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1223 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1224 
  1225 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1226 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1227 
  1228 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1229 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1230 
  1231 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1232 
  1233 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1234 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1235 systematic renaming.
  1236 
  1237 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1238 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1239 theorem statement.
  1240 
  1241 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1242 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1243 
  1244 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1245 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1246 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1247 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1248 
  1249 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1250 following independent stages:
  1251 
  1252   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1253   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1254   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1255   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1256 
  1257 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1258 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1259 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1260 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1261 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1262 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1263 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1264 
  1265 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1266 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1267 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1268 
  1269 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1270 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1271 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1272 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1273 
  1274 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1275 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1276 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1277 
  1278 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1279 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1280 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1281 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1282 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1283 old keymaps.
  1284 
  1285 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1286 and diverse:
  1287 
  1288   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1289   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1290   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1291 
  1292 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1293 have to be changed.
  1294 
  1295 
  1296 *** Document preparation ***
  1297 
  1298 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1299 
  1300 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1301 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1302 
  1303 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1304 this allows special forms of document output.
  1305 
  1306 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1307 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1308 derivatives.
  1309 
  1310 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1311 
  1312 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1313 Isabelle2015).
  1314 
  1315 
  1316 *** Isar ***
  1317 
  1318 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1319 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1320 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1321 
  1322 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1323 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1324 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1325 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1326 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1327 
  1328 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1329 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1330 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1331 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1332 
  1333 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1334 context.
  1335 
  1336 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1337 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1338 
  1339 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1340 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1341 
  1342 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1343 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1344 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1345 
  1346 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1347 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1349 
  1350 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1351 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1352 definitions.
  1353 
  1354 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1355 expression, e.g.
  1356 
  1357   (use facts in simp)
  1358   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1359 
  1360 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1361 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1362 
  1363 
  1364 *** Pure ***
  1365 
  1366 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1367 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1368 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1369 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1370 
  1371 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1372 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1373 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1374 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1375 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1376 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1377 
  1378 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1379 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1380 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1381 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1382 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1383 types where this is really intended.
  1384 
  1385 
  1386 *** HOL ***
  1387 
  1388 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1389 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1390 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1391 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1392 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1393 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1394 
  1395 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1396 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1397 
  1398 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1399 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1400 
  1401 * Sledgehammer:
  1402   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1403   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1404 
  1405 * (Co)datatype package:
  1406   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1407     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1408     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1409     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1410   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1411     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1412   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1413     to the map function.
  1414   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1415   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1416        terms of map and set
  1417        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1418   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1419        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1420     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1421   - Renamed lemmas:
  1422       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1423       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1424     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1425   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1426   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1427     equivalent) form.
  1428     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1429 
  1430 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1431 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1432 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1433 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1434 
  1435 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1436 
  1437   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1438   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1439 
  1440 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1441 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1442 eliminated altogether.
  1443 
  1444 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1445 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1446 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1447 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1448 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1449 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1450 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1451 
  1452 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1454 
  1455 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1456 
  1457     setsum ~> sum
  1458     setprod ~> prod
  1459     listsum ~> sum_list
  1460     listprod ~> prod_list
  1461 
  1462 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1463 
  1464 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1465     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1466     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1467     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1468     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1469     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1470     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1471     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1472     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1473     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1474     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1475     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1476     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1477     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1478     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1479     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1480     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1481     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1482     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1483     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1484     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1485     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1486     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1487     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1488     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1489     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1490     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1491     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1492     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1493     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1495 
  1496 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1497 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1498 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1499 
  1500 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1501 
  1502 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1503 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1504 
  1505   - Logical representation:
  1506     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1507     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1508       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1509     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1510       are non-canonical.
  1511   - Printing and parsing:
  1512     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1513       (as before).
  1514     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1515     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1516       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1517       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1518     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1519       printed as their logical representation.
  1520   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1521     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1522   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1523 
  1524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1525 
  1526 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1527 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1528 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1529 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1530 
  1531 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1532 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1533 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1534 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1535 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1536 
  1537 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1538 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1539 
  1540 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1541 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1542 
  1543 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1544 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1545 interface for the generated code.
  1546 
  1547 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1548 spelt out explicitly.
  1549 
  1550 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1551 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1552 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1553 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1554 
  1555 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1556 products.
  1557 
  1558 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1559 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1560 
  1561 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1562 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1563 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1564 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1565 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1566 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1567 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1569 
  1570 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1571 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1572 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1573 
  1574 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1576 
  1577   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1578   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1579   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1580 
  1581 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1582   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1583     le_add_same_cancel1
  1584     le_add_same_cancel2
  1585     less_add_same_cancel1
  1586     less_add_same_cancel2
  1587     add_le_same_cancel1
  1588     add_le_same_cancel2
  1589     add_less_same_cancel1
  1590     add_less_same_cancel2
  1591 
  1592 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1593   superseeded by a more general version:
  1594     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1595     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1596     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1597     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1598     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1599     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1600     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1601     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1602 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1603 
  1604 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1605 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1606 
  1607 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1608 
  1609 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1610 
  1611   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1612   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1613 
  1614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1615 
  1616 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1617 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1618 
  1619 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1620 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1621 A)".
  1622 
  1623 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1624 
  1625 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1626 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1627 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1628 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1629 
  1630 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1631 dioid.
  1632 
  1633 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1634 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1635 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1636 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1637 
  1638 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1639 of a more general type also:
  1640   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1641   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1642   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1643   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1644   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1645   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1646   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1647   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1648   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1649   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1650   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1651   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1652   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1653   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1654   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1655   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1656   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1657   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1658   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1659   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1660   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1661   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1662   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1663   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1664   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1665   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1666   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1667   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1668   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1669   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1670   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1671   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1672   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1673   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1674   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1675   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1676   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1677   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1678   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1679   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1680   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1681   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1682   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1683   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1684   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1685   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1686   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1687   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1688   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1689   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1690   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1691   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1692   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1693   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1694   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1695   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1696   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1697   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1698   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1699   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1700   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1701   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1702   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1703   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1704   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1705   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1706   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1707   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1708   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1709   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1710   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1711   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1712   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1713   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1714   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1715   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1716   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1717   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1718   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1719   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1720   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1721   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1722   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1723   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1724   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1725   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1726   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1727   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1728 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1729 
  1730 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1731 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1732 
  1733 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1734 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1735 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1736 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1737 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1738 
  1739 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1740 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1741 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1742 once.
  1743 
  1744 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1745 set_mset rather than count.
  1746 
  1747   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1748     by default.
  1749 
  1750   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1751     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1752 
  1753   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1754     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1755 
  1756   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1757     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1758 
  1759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1760 
  1761 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1762 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1763 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1764 underscores.
  1765 
  1766 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1767 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1768 relation.
  1769 
  1770 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1771 everywhere fix bijections.
  1772 
  1773 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1774 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1775 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1776 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1777 
  1778 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1779 
  1780 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1781 
  1782 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1783 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1784 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1785 
  1786 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1787 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1788 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1789 
  1790 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1791 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1792 
  1793 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1794 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1795 domain.
  1796 
  1797 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1798 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1799 
  1800   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1801   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1802 
  1803 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1804 Probability Mass Functions.
  1805 
  1806 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1807 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1808 folding over a list in random order.
  1809 
  1810 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1811 subprobability distributions.
  1812 
  1813 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1814 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1815 
  1816     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1817     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1818     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1819     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1820     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1821     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1822     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1823     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1824     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1825     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1826     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1827     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1828     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1829     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1830     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1831     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1832     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1833     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1834     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1835     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1836     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1837     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1838 
  1839 Some functions have been renamed:
  1840     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1841 
  1842 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1843     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1844     #\<subset># ~> <
  1845     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1846     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1848 
  1849 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1850 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1851 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1852 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1853 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1854 
  1855 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1856 been renamed:
  1857 
  1858     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  1859     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  1860     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1861     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  1862     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  1863     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  1864     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  1865     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  1866     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  1867 
  1868     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  1869     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  1870     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1871     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  1872     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  1873     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  1874     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  1875     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  1876     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  1877     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  1878     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  1879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1880 
  1881 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  1882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1883 
  1884 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  1885 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  1886 
  1887     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1888     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1889     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1890     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1891     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  1892     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1893     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1894     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1895     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  1896     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  1897     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  1898     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  1899     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  1900     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1901     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1902     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1903     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1904 
  1905 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  1906 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  1907 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  1908 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  1909 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  1910 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1911 
  1912 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  1913 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  1914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1915 
  1916 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  1917 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  1918 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1919 
  1920 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  1921 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  1922 removed or changed:
  1923 
  1924   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  1925   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  1926   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  1927   union_single_eq_diff
  1928   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1929   diff_single_eq_union
  1930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1931 
  1932 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  1933 to use add_mset instead of single:
  1934 
  1935   mset_add
  1936   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1937   diff_single_eq_union
  1938   union_single_eq_diff
  1939   union_single_eq_member
  1940   add_eq_conv_diff
  1941   insert_noteq_member
  1942   add_eq_conv_ex
  1943   multi_member_split
  1944   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  1945   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1946   mset_subset_insertD
  1947   insert_subset_eq_iff
  1948   insert_union_subset_iff
  1949   multi_psub_of_add_self
  1950   inter_add_left1
  1951   inter_add_left2
  1952   inter_add_right1
  1953   inter_add_right2
  1954   sup_union_left1
  1955   sup_union_left2
  1956   sup_union_right1
  1957   sup_union_right2
  1958   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  1959   multi_nonempty_split
  1960   mset_insort
  1961   mset_update
  1962   mult1I
  1963   less_add
  1964   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  1965   rel_mset_Zero
  1966   msed_map_invL
  1967   msed_map_invR
  1968   msed_rel_invL
  1969   msed_rel_invR
  1970   le_multiset_right_total
  1971   multiset_induct
  1972   multiset_induct2_size
  1973   multiset_induct2
  1974 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1975 
  1976 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  1977 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  1978 element:
  1979 
  1980   image_mset
  1981   mset
  1982   replicate_mset
  1983   mult1
  1984   pred_mset
  1985   rel_mset'
  1986   mset_insort
  1987 
  1988 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1989 
  1990 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  1991 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  1992 
  1993   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  1994   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  1995   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  1996   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  1997   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  1998   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1999   count_single [simp] ~> []
  2000   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2001   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  2002   size_single [simp] ~> []
  2003   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2004   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2005   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2006   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2007   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  2008   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  2009   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  2010   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  2011   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  2012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2013 
  2014 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  2015 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  2016 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  2017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2018 
  2019 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  2020 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  2021 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2022 
  2023 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  2024 multisets:
  2025 
  2026   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  2027   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  2028 
  2029 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  2030 and union of multisets have been changed:
  2031 
  2032   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  2033   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  2034 
  2035 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2036 
  2037 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  2038 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  2039 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2040 
  2041 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  2042 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  2043 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  2044 
  2045 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  2046 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  2047 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  2048 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  2049 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  2050 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2051 
  2052 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  2053 the following renaming
  2054 
  2055   prefixeq -> prefix
  2056   prefix -> strict_prefix
  2057   suffixeq -> suffix
  2058   suffix -> strict_suffix
  2059 
  2060 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  2061 
  2062 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  2063 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  2064 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  2065 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  2066 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  2067 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2068 
  2069 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  2070 theories.
  2071 
  2072 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  2073 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  2074 
  2075 
  2076 *** ML ***
  2077 
  2078 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2079 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2080 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2081 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2083 
  2084 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2085 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2086 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2087 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2088 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2089 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2090 superseded by General.Div.
  2091 
  2092 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2093 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2094 
  2095 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2096 with approximative output quality.
  2097 
  2098 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2099 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2100 
  2101 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2102 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2103 requiring separate files.
  2104 
  2105 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2106 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2107 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2108 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2109 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2110 
  2111 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2112 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2113 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2114 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2115 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2116 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2117 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2118 
  2119 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2120 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2122 
  2123 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2124 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2125 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2126 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2127 
  2128 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2129 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2130 
  2131 
  2132 *** System ***
  2133 
  2134 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2135 
  2136 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2137 much less disk space.
  2138 
  2139 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2140 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2141 particular:
  2142 
  2143   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2144     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2145   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2146   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2147 
  2148 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2149 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2150 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2151 
  2152 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2153 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2154 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2155 return code 1.
  2156 
  2157 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2158 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2159 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2160 
  2161 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2162 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2163 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2164 
  2165 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2166 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2167 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2168 by default).
  2169 
  2170 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2171 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2172 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2173 resulting log files.
  2174 
  2175 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2176 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2177 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2178 implicit default via option -p.
  2179 
  2180 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2181 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2182 
  2183 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2184 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2185 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2186 
  2187 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2188 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2189 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2190 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2191 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2192 
  2193 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2194 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2195 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2196 
  2197 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2198 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2199 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2200 
  2201 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2202 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2203 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2204 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2205 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2206 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2207 been discontinued.
  2208 
  2209 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2210 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2211 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2212 
  2213 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2214 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2215 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2216 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2217 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2218 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2219 
  2220 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2221 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2222 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2223 connection).
  2224 
  2225 
  2226 
  2227 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2228 -----------------------------------
  2229 
  2230 *** General ***
  2231 
  2232 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2233 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2234 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2235 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2236 examples that do require HOL.
  2237 
  2238 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2239 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2240 
  2241 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2242 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2243 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2244 has been removed (see below).
  2245 
  2246 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2247 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2248 
  2249 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2250 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2251 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2252 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2253 
  2254 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2255 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2256 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2257 meaning.
  2258 
  2259 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2260 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2261 to update old sources.
  2262 
  2263 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2264 
  2265   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2266   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2267   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2268   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2269 
  2270 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2271 accordingly.
  2272 
  2273 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2274 'theorem'.
  2275 
  2276 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2277 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2278 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2279 
  2280 
  2281 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2282 
  2283 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2284 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2285 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2286 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2287 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2288 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2289 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2290 any effect on the running ML program.
  2291 
  2292 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2293 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2294 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2295 update.
  2296 
  2297 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2298 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2299 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2300 
  2301 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2302 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2303 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2304 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2305 visibility.
  2306 
  2307 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2308 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2309 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2310 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2311 panel.
  2312 
  2313 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2314 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2315 
  2316 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2317 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2318 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2319 
  2320 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2321 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2322 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2323 
  2324 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2325 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2326 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2327 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2328 
  2329 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2330 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2331 the editor.
  2332 
  2333 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2334 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2335 
  2336 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2337 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2338 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2339 instead.
  2340 
  2341 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2342 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2343 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2344 
  2345 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2346 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2347 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2348 
  2349 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2350 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2351 
  2352 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2353 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2354 
  2355 
  2356 *** Document preparation ***
  2357 
  2358 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2359 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2360 
  2361 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2362 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2363 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2364 
  2365 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2366 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2367 follows:
  2368 
  2369   \<^item>  itemize
  2370   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2371   \<^descr>  description
  2372 
  2373 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2374 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2375 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2376 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2377 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2378 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2379 
  2380 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2381 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2382 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2383 
  2384 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2385 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2386 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2387 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2388 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2389 
  2390 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2391 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2392 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2393 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2394 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2395 
  2396 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2397 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2398 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2399 
  2400 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2401 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2402 
  2403 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2404 
  2405 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2406 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2407 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2408 
  2409 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2410 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2411 
  2412 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2413 entities of the Isar language.
  2414 
  2415 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2416 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2417 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2418 
  2419 
  2420 *** Isar ***
  2421 
  2422 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2423 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2424 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2425 example:
  2426 
  2427   have result: "C x y"
  2428     if "A x" and "B y"
  2429     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2430     <proof>
  2431 
  2432 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2433 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2434 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2435 
  2436   {
  2437     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2438     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2439     have "C x y" <proof>
  2440   }
  2441   note result = this
  2442 
  2443 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2444 instead of 'assume' above.
  2445 
  2446 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2447 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2448 
  2449   assume result: "C x y"
  2450     if "A x" and "B y"
  2451     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2452 
  2453 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2454 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2455 
  2456 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2457 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2458 example:
  2459 
  2460   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2461 
  2462 is equivalent to:
  2463 
  2464   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2465 
  2466 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2467 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2468 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2469 follows:
  2470 
  2471   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2472 
  2473 or:
  2474 
  2475   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2476 
  2477 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2478 
  2479   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2480 
  2481 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2482 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2483 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2484 of the local context elements yet.
  2485 
  2486 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2487 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2488 
  2489   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2490   then have something
  2491   proof cases
  2492     case a
  2493     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2494   next
  2495     case b
  2496     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2497   next
  2498     case c
  2499     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2500   qed
  2501 
  2502 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2503 
  2504   case a: (c xs)
  2505   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2506 
  2507 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2508 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2509 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2510 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2511 and always put attributes in front.
  2512 
  2513 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2514 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2515 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2516 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2517 
  2518 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2519 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2520 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2521 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2522 
  2523   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2524     supply [simp] = a
  2525   proof
  2526     show A by simp
  2527   next
  2528     show A by simp
  2529   qed
  2530 
  2531 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2532 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2533 
  2534 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2535 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2536 
  2537 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2538 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2539 
  2540 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2541 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2542 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2543 manual.
  2544 
  2545 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2546 ('apply' scripts).
  2547 
  2548 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2549 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2550 example:
  2551 
  2552 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2553   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2554 proof goal_cases
  2555   case (1 x)
  2556   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2557 next
  2558   case (2 y z)
  2559   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2560 qed
  2561 
  2562 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2563   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2564 proof goal_cases
  2565   case prems: 1
  2566   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2567 next
  2568   case prems: 2
  2569   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2570 qed
  2571 
  2572 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2573 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2574 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2575 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2576 
  2577 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2578 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2579 
  2580 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2581 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2582 
  2583 
  2584 *** Pure ***
  2585 
  2586 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2587 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2588 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2589 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2590 
  2591 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2592 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2593 
  2594 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2595 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2596 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2597 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2598 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2599 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2600 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2601 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2602 
  2603   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2604   begin
  2605     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2606   end
  2607 
  2608   locale morphism =
  2609     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2610     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2611   begin
  2612     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2613   end
  2614 
  2615 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2616 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2617 
  2618 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2619 'defines'.
  2620 
  2621 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2622 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2623 
  2624 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2625 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2626 
  2627 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2628 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2629 
  2630 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2631 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2632 exploited.
  2633 
  2634 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2635 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2636 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2637 
  2638 
  2639 *** HOL ***
  2640 
  2641 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2642 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2643 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2644 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2645 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2646 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2647 
  2648 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2649 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2650 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2651 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2652 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2653 
  2654 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2655 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2656 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2657 simplify porting old theories:
  2658 
  2659   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2660 
  2661   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2662 
  2663   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2664   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2665 
  2666   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2667 
  2668   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2669   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2670 
  2671   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2672 
  2673   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2674     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2675 
  2676   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2677   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2678   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2679 
  2680   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2681   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2682   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2683 
  2684 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2685 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2686 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2687 
  2688 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2689 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2690 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2691 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2692 
  2693 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2694 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2695 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2696 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2697 
  2698 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2699 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2700 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2701 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2702 
  2703 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2704 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2705 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2707 
  2708 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2709 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2710 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2711 
  2712 Consolidated facts:
  2713   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2714   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2715   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2716   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2717   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2718   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2719   split_split ~> prod.split
  2720   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2721   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2722   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2723   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2724   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2725   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2726   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2727   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2728   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2729   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2730   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2731   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2732   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2733   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2734   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2735   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2736   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2737   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2738   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2739   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2740   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2741   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2742   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2743   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2744   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2745   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2746   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2747   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2748 
  2749 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2750   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2751   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2752   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2753   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2754 
  2755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2756 
  2757 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2758 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2759 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2760 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2761 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2762 
  2763 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2764   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2765   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2766   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2767   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2768   real_of_one of_int_1
  2769   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2770   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2771   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2772   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2773   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2774   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2775   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2776   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2777   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2778   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2779   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2780   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2781   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2782   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2783   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2784   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2785   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2786 
  2787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788 
  2789 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2790 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2791 
  2792 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2793 
  2794 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2795 
  2796 * Sledgehammer:
  2797   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2798   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2799     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2800   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2801   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2802   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2803     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2805 
  2806 * Nitpick:
  2807   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2808   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2809   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2810   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2811   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2812 
  2813 * (Co)datatype package:
  2814   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2815     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2816   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2817   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2818     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2819   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2820     being defined.
  2821   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2822 
  2823 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2824 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2825 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2826 
  2827 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2828 
  2829 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2830 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2831 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2832 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2833 
  2834 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2836 
  2837 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2838 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2839 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2840 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2841 
  2842 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2843 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2844 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2845 
  2846 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2847 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2848 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2849 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2850 
  2851 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2852 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2853 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2854 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2855 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2856 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2857 during instantiation.
  2858 
  2859 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  2860 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  2861 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2862 
  2863 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  2864 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  2865 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  2866 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  2867 
  2868   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2869   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2870 
  2871 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2872 
  2873 * Library/Multiset:
  2874   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  2875       < ~> <#
  2876       > ~> >#
  2877       <= ~> <=#
  2878       >= ~> >=#
  2879       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  2880       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  2881     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2882   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  2883       \<subset>#
  2884       \<subseteq>#
  2885       \<supset>#
  2886       \<supseteq>#
  2887   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  2888     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  2889     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  2890     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  2891     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  2892     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  2893     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2894   - Renamed conversions:
  2895       multiset_of ~> mset
  2896       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  2897       set_of ~> set_mset
  2898     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2899   - Renamed lemmas:
  2900       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2901       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  2902       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2903     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2904   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  2905     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  2906     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  2907     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2908 
  2909 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  2910 
  2911 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  2912 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  2913 chain-complete partial orders.
  2914 
  2915 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  2916 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  2917 
  2918 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  2919 periodic functions.
  2920 
  2921 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  2922 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  2923 GCD.
  2924 
  2925 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  2926 
  2927 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  2928 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2929 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2930 
  2931 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  2932 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  2933 
  2934 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  2935 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  2936 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  2937 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  2938 
  2939 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  2940 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  2941 
  2942 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  2943 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  2944 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  2945 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  2946 properties.
  2947 
  2948 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  2949 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  2950 
  2951 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  2952 structures.
  2953 
  2954 
  2955 *** ML ***
  2956 
  2957 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  2958 system are available:
  2959 
  2960   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  2961   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  2962   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  2963 
  2964 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  2965 
  2966 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  2967 Isar proof method.
  2968 
  2969 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  2970 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  2971 breaks.
  2972 
  2973 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  2974 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  2975 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2976 
  2977 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  2978 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  2979 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  2980 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  2981 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2982 
  2983 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  2984 
  2985   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  2986   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  2987 
  2988   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  2989   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  2990 
  2991 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  2992 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  2993 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  2994 
  2995 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  2996 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  2997 instead (with proper context).
  2998 
  2999 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  3000 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  3001 
  3002 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  3003 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  3004 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  3005 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  3006 the proof context discipline.
  3007 
  3008 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  3009 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  3010 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  3011 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  3012 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3013 
  3014 
  3015 *** System ***
  3016 
  3017 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  3018 
  3019 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  3020 conflations:
  3021 
  3022     hence  ~>  then have
  3023     thus   ~>  then show
  3024 
  3025 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  3026 maintainability of proofs.
  3027 
  3028 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  3029 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  3030 performance.
  3031 
  3032 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  3033 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  3034 
  3035     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  3036 
  3037 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  3038 space.
  3039 
  3040 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  3041 platforms as follows.
  3042 
  3043   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  3044     associated with the main app bundle
  3045 
  3046   - isabelle jedit: settings
  3047     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  3048     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3049 
  3050   - isabelle build: settings
  3051     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3052 
  3053 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  3054 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  3055 
  3056 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  3057 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  3058 required after change.
  3059 
  3060 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  3061 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  3062 
  3063 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  3064 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  3065 
  3066 
  3067 
  3068 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  3069 ------------------------------
  3070 
  3071 *** General ***
  3072 
  3073 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  3074 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  3075 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3076 
  3077   context
  3078   begin
  3079 
  3080   private definition ...
  3081   private lemma ...
  3082 
  3083   qualified definition ...
  3084   qualified lemma ...
  3085 
  3086   lemma ...
  3087   theorem ...
  3088 
  3089   end
  3090 
  3091 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3092 naming policy.
  3093 
  3094 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3095 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3096 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3097 
  3098 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3099 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3100 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3101 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3102 
  3103 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3104 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3105 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3107 
  3108 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3109 theory context.
  3110 
  3111 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3112 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3113 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3114 
  3115 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3116 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3117 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3118 sources.
  3119 
  3120 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3121 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3122 
  3123 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3124 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3125 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3126 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3127 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3128 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3129 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3130 
  3131 
  3132 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3133 
  3134 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3135 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3136 
  3137 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3138 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3139 in the buffer.
  3140 
  3141 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3142 marker, SideKick parser.
  3143 
  3144 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3145 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3146 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3147 
  3148 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3149 Options / Text Area).
  3150 
  3151 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3152 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3153 
  3154 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3155 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3156 
  3157 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3158 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3159 
  3160 
  3161 *** Document preparation ***
  3162 
  3163 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3164 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3165 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3166 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3167 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3168 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3169 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3170 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3173 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3174 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3175 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3176 
  3177 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3178 style.
  3179 
  3180 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3181 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3182 
  3183 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3184 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3185 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3186 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3187 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3188 
  3189 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3190 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3191 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3192 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3193 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3194 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3195 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3196 
  3197 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3198 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3199 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3201 
  3202 
  3203 *** Pure ***
  3204 
  3205 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3206 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3207 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3208 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3209 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3210 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3211 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3212 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3213 
  3214 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3215 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3216 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3217 
  3218 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3219 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3220 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3221 different index.
  3222 
  3223 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3224 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3225 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3226 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3227 
  3228 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3229 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3230 token category instead.
  3231 
  3232 
  3233 *** HOL ***
  3234 
  3235 * New (co)datatype package:
  3236   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3237     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3238     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3239     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3240     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3241   - Renamed theorems:
  3242       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3243       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3244       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3245       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3246       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3247       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3248       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3249       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3250       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3251       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3252       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3253       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3254       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3255     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3257     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3258     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3259   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3260     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3261     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3262   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3263     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3264     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3265     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3266     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3267     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3268     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269   - Renamed theories:
  3270       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3271       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3272       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3273       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3274       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3275       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3276     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3278     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3279     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3280     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3281     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3282     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3283     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3284     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3285     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3286   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3287     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3288     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3289     rules.
  3290 
  3291 * Old datatype package:
  3292   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3293     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3294     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3295     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3296     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3297   - Renamed theorems:
  3298       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3299     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3300   - Renamed theory:
  3301       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3302     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303 
  3304 * Nitpick:
  3305   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3306     operations.
  3307 
  3308 * Sledgehammer:
  3309   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3310     default.
  3311   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3312     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3313   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3314     Removed sub-command:
  3315       min
  3316   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3317     dramatically improved.
  3318   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3319 
  3320 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3321   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3322     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3323     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3324     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3325     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3326     point to it.
  3327     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3328   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3329     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3330   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3331     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3332   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3333     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3334 
  3335 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3336 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3337 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3338 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3339 
  3340 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3341 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3342 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3343 
  3344 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3345 
  3346 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3347 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3348 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3349 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3350 
  3351 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3352 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3353 
  3354 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3356 
  3357 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3358 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3359 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360 
  3361 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3362 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3363 
  3364 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3365 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3366 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3367 
  3368 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3369 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3370 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3371 needed.
  3372 
  3373 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3374 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3375 
  3376 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3377 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3378 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3379 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3380 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3381 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3382 
  3383 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3384 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3385 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3386 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3387 
  3388 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3389 type class hierarchy:
  3390   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3391   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3392   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3393   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3394 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3395 
  3396 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3397   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3398   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3399 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3400 
  3401 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3402 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3403 
  3404 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3405   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3406   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3407   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3408 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3409 
  3410 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3411 and part of theory Main.
  3412   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3413 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3414 
  3415 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3417 
  3418 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3419 Fact rename:
  3420     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3421 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422 
  3423 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3424 
  3425 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3426 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3427 
  3428 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3429 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3430 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3431 
  3432 * Library/Multiset:
  3433   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3434   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3435     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3436   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3437       <# ~> #<#
  3438       <=# ~> #<=#
  3439       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3440       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3441     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3442   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3443       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3444       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3445     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3446   - Renamed
  3447       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3448       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3449       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3450     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3451   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3452   - Added attributes:
  3453       image_mset.id [simp]
  3454       image_mset_id [simp]
  3455       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3456       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3457       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3458       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3459       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3460       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3461     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3462 
  3463 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3464 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3465 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3466 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3467 
  3468 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3469 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3470 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3471 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3472 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3473 examples.
  3474 
  3475 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3476   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3477   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3478   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3479     projection
  3480 
  3481 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3482 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3483 
  3484 
  3485 *** ML ***
  3486 
  3487 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3488 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3489 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3490 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3491 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3492 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3493 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3494 
  3495 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3496 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3497 
  3498 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3499 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3500 
  3501 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3503 
  3504 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3505 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3506 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3507 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3508 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3509 nested.
  3510 
  3511 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3512 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3513 
  3514 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3515 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3516 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3518 
  3519 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3520 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3521 Thm.term_of etc.
  3522 
  3523 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3524 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3525 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3526 
  3527 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3528 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3529 
  3530 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3531 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3532 
  3533 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3534 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3535 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3536 
  3537 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3538 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3539 
  3540 
  3541 *** System ***
  3542 
  3543 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3544 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3545 
  3546 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3547 
  3548 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3549 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3550 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3551 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3552 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3553 
  3554 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3555 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3556 
  3557 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3558 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3559 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3560 
  3561 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3562 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3563 
  3564 
  3565 
  3566 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3567 ---------------------------------
  3568 
  3569 *** General ***
  3570 
  3571 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3572 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3573 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3574 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3575 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3576 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3577 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3578 some examples.
  3579 
  3580 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3581 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3582 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3583 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3584 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3585 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3586 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3587 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3588 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3589 
  3590 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3591 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3592 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3593 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3594 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3595 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3596 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3597 proof tools.
  3598 
  3599 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3600 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3601 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3602 
  3603 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3604 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3605 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3606 
  3607 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3608 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3609 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3610 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3611 
  3612 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3613 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3614 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3616 
  3617 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3618 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3619 
  3620 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3621 not check existence within the file-system.
  3622 
  3623 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3624 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3625 
  3626 
  3627 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3628 
  3629 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3630 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3631 buffer.
  3632 
  3633 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3634 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3635 
  3636 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3637 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3638 
  3639 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3640 auxiliary ML files.
  3641 
  3642 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3643 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3644 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3645 
  3646 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3647 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3648 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3649 
  3650 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3651 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3652 
  3653 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3654 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3655 caret".
  3656 
  3657 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3658 completion popup and context-menu.
  3659 
  3660 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3661 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3662 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3663 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3664 
  3665 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3666 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3667 
  3668 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3669 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3670 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3671 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3672 
  3673 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3674 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3675 
  3676 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3677 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3678 
  3679 * Improved monitor panel.
  3680 
  3681 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3682 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3683 
  3684 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3685 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3686 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3687 
  3688 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3689 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3690 within the context.
  3691 
  3692 
  3693 *** Pure ***
  3694 
  3695 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3696 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3697 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3698 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3699 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3700 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3701 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3702 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3703 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3704 
  3705 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3706 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3707 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3708 renaming needs to be applied:
  3709 
  3710   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3711   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3712   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3713   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3714   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3715 
  3716 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3717 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3718 old constants:
  3719 
  3720 setup {*
  3721   fn thy => thy
  3722     |> Sign.root_path
  3723     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3724     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3725     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3726     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3727 *}
  3728 
  3729 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3730 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3731 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3732 
  3733 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3734 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3735 instantiated theorem.
  3736 
  3737 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3738 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3739 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3740 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3741 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3742 
  3743   attribute_setup standard =
  3744     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3745 
  3746 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3747 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3748 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3749 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3750 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3751 
  3752 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3753 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3754 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3755 
  3756 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3757 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3758 
  3759 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3760 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3761 
  3762 
  3763 *** HOL ***
  3764 
  3765 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3766 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3767 
  3768 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3770 
  3771 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3773 
  3774 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3775 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3776 
  3777 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 
  3780 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3781 with the given constants.
  3782 
  3783 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3784 operations on records.
  3785 
  3786 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3787 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790 
  3791 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3792 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3793 
  3794 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3795 
  3796 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3797 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3798 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3799 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3800 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3801 
  3802 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3803 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3804 
  3805 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3806   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3807   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3808   part of theory "Main".
  3809 
  3810   Theory renamings:
  3811     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3812     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3813     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3814     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3815     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3816     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3817     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3818     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3819     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3820     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3821     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3822     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3823     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3824     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3825     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3826     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3827     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3828     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3829     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3830     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3831     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3832     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3833 
  3834   New theories:
  3835     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3836     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3837     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3838     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3839     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3840 
  3841   Discontinued theories:
  3842     BNF/BNF.thy
  3843     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3844 
  3845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3846 
  3847 * New (co)datatype package:
  3848   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3849   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3850     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3851   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3852     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3853   - Renamed commands:
  3854       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3855       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3856       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3857     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3858   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  3859     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  3860     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3861   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  3862     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  3863     using "prim(co)rec".
  3864     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3865   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  3866     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  3867     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3868   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  3869     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  3870     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  3871     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3872 
  3873 * Old datatype package:
  3874   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  3875     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  3876     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3877   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  3878     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  3879     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880 
  3881 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  3882   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  3883   BNF-based datatype package.
  3884 
  3885   Renamed constants:
  3886     Option.set ~> set_option
  3887     Option.map ~> map_option
  3888     option_rel ~> rel_option
  3889 
  3890   Renamed theorems:
  3891     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  3892     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  3893     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  3894     option.recs ~> option.rec
  3895     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  3896     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  3897     map.simps ~> list.map
  3898     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  3899     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  3900     the.simps ~> option.sel
  3901 
  3902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3903 
  3904 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  3905     sum_map ~> map_sum
  3906     map_pair ~> map_prod
  3907     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  3908     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  3909     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  3910     set_rel ~> rel_set
  3911     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  3912     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  3913     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  3914     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  3915 
  3916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3917 
  3918 * Lifting and Transfer:
  3919   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  3920   - stronger reflexivity prover
  3921   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  3922   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  3923     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  3924     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  3925       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  3926       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  3927       automatically
  3928     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  3929     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  3930       automatically for datatypes
  3931   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  3932     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  3933       more
  3934       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3935     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  3936       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  3937       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3938     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  3939       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  3940       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3941   - registration of code equations is more robust
  3942     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3943   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  3944     form
  3945     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  3947     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3948   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  3949     Code_Numeral.natural
  3950     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3951   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  3952     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3953 
  3954 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  3955 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  3956 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  3957 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  3958 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  3959 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  3960 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3961 
  3962 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  3963 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  3964 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  3965 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  3966 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  3967 
  3968 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  3969 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  3970 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  3971 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  3972 
  3973 * Sledgehammer:
  3974   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  3975   - MaSh overhaul:
  3976     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  3977       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  3978     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  3979       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  3980       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  3981       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  3982   - New option:
  3983       smt_proofs
  3984   - Renamed options:
  3985       isar_compress ~> compress
  3986       isar_try0 ~> try0
  3987 
  3988 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989 
  3990 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  3991 
  3992 * Nitpick:
  3993   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  3994     take infinite values.
  3995   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  3996     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  3997   - Removed "std" option.
  3998   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  3999     "hide_types".
  4000 
  4001 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  4002 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4003 
  4004 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  4005 
  4006 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  4007   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  4008   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  4009     SUP instead uniformly.
  4010   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  4011     or SUP and Sup.
  4012   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  4013   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  4014   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  4015     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  4016     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  4017 
  4018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4019 
  4020 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  4021 
  4022 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  4023 
  4024   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4025   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4026   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4027   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4028 
  4029 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4030 
  4031 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  4032 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  4033 
  4034 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  4035 
  4036     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  4037     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  4038     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  4039     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  4040     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  4041     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  4042     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  4043     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  4044     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  4045     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  4046     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  4047     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  4048     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  4049     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  4050     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4051     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4052     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  4053     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  4054     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  4055     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  4056     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  4057     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  4058     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  4059     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  4060     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  4061     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  4062     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  4063     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  4064     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  4065     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  4066     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  4067     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  4068     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  4069     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  4070     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  4071     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  4072     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  4073     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  4074     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  4075     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4076     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4077     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4078     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4079     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4080     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4081     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4082     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4083     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4084     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4085     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4086     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4087     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4088     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4089     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4090     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4091     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4092     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4093     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4094     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4095 
  4096   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4097   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4098   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4099     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4100 
  4101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4102 
  4103 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4104 
  4105   Fact consolidations:
  4106     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4107     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4108     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4109     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4110     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4111     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4112     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4113     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4114     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4115     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4116     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4117     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4118     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4119     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4120     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4121     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4122     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4123     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4124     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4125     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4126     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4127     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4128     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4129     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4130     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4131     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4132     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4133     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4134     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4135     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4136     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4137     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4138     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4139     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4140     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4141     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4142     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4143     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4144     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4145     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4146 
  4147 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4148 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4149 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4150 
  4151 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4152 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4153 
  4154 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4155 
  4156 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4157 
  4158 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4159 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4160 
  4161 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4163 
  4164 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4165     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4166 
  4167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4168 
  4169 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4170   consolidation:
  4171     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4172     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4173 
  4174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4175 
  4176 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4177   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4178   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4179   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4180     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4181   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4182     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4183   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4184 
  4185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4186 
  4187 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4188 
  4189     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4190     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4191     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4192     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4193     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4194     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4195     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4196     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4197     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4198     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4199     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4200     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4201     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4202 
  4203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4204 
  4205 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4206 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4207 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4208 
  4209 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4210     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4211     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4212     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4213     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4214 
  4215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4216 
  4217 * Fact name consolidation:
  4218     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4219     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4220     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4221     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4222     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4223 
  4224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4225 
  4226 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4227 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4228 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4229 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4230 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4231 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4232 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4234 
  4235 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4236 
  4237 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4238 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4239 
  4240 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4241 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4242 
  4243 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4244 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4245 or the brute way with
  4246 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4247 
  4248 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4249 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4250 stating boundedness of sets.
  4251 
  4252 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4253 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4254 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4255 
  4256 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4257   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4258   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4259   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4260   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4261   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4262   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4263   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4264   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4265   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4266   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4267   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4268 
  4269   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4270 
  4271   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4272 
  4273     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4274     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4275     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4276     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4277     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4278 
  4279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4280 
  4281 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4282   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4283 
  4284   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4285 
  4286   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4287 
  4288   - removed constant isDiff
  4289 
  4290   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4291     input syntax.
  4292 
  4293   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4294 
  4295   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4296 
  4297   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4298 
  4299   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4300 
  4301   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4302     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4303     has_vector_derivative.
  4304 
  4305   - Other renamings:
  4306     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4307     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4308     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4309     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4310     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4311     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4312     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4313 
  4314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4315 
  4316 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4317 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4318 in continuous_intros.
  4319 
  4320 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4321 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4322 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4323 
  4324 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4325 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4326 especially removes
  4327 
  4328     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4329 
  4330 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4331     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4332 
  4333 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4334 
  4335   Renamings:
  4336     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4337     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4338     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4339     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4340     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4341     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4342     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4343     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4344     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4345     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4346     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4347     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4348 
  4349     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4350     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4351     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4352 
  4353   Removed theorems:
  4354     complex_zero_def
  4355     complex_add_def
  4356     complex_minus_def
  4357     complex_diff_def
  4358     complex_one_def
  4359     complex_mult_def
  4360     complex_inverse_def
  4361     complex_scaleR_def
  4362 
  4363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4364 
  4365 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4366 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4367 
  4368 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4369 
  4370 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4371 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4372 
  4373 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4374 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4375 
  4376 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4377 
  4378 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4379 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4380 
  4381 * HOL-Word:
  4382   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4383     of "word_arith_wis".
  4384   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4385     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4386     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4387 
  4388 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4389   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4390   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4391   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4392     (except the AFP)
  4393 
  4394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4395 
  4396 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4397   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4398   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4399     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4400   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4401     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4402     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4403     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4404     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4405     intervals.
  4406   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4407     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4408     - renamed theorems:
  4409         interval ~> box
  4410         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4411         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4412         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4413         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4414         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4415         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4416         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4417         open_interval ~> open_box
  4418         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4419         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4420         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4421         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4422         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4423         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4424         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4425         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4426         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4427         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4428         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4429         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4430         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4431         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4432         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4433         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4434         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4435         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4436         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4437         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4438         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4439         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4440         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4441         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4442 
  4443     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4444         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4445         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4446         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4447         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4448         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4449         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4450         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4451         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4452         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4453         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4454         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4455         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4456         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4457         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4458         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4459         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4460         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4461 
  4462   - renamed theorems:
  4463     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4464     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4465     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4466 
  4467 * HOL-Probability:
  4468   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4469 
  4470     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4471       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4472 
  4473     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4474 
  4475   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4476     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4477 
  4478     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4479     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4480     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4481     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4482     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4483     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4484     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4485     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4486     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4487     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4488     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4489     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4490     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4491     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4492     integral_indicator          ~>
  4493          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4494     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4495     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4496     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4497 
  4498     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4499          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4500 
  4501     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4502          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4503 
  4504     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4505          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4506 
  4507     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4508          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4509          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4510 
  4511     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4512          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4513 
  4514     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4515          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4516 
  4517     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4518          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4519          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4520 
  4521     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4522          nn_integral_real_affine
  4523 
  4524     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4525          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4526 
  4527     The following theorems where removed:
  4528 
  4529     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4530     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4531     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4532     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4533     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4534     integral_cmul_indicator
  4535     integral_real
  4536 
  4537   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4538     distributed random variables.
  4539 
  4540 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4541 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4543 
  4544 
  4545 *** Scala ***
  4546 
  4547 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4548 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4549 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4550 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4551 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4552 
  4553 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4554 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4555 
  4556 
  4557 *** ML ***
  4558 
  4559 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4560 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4561 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4562 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4563 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4564 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4565 
  4566 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4567 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4568 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4569 actually belongs to it).
  4570 
  4571 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4572 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4573 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4574 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4575 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4576 of schematic variables.
  4577 
  4578 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4579 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4580 
  4581 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4582 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4583 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4587 
  4588 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4589 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4590 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4591 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4592 
  4593 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4594 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4595 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4596 formal context.
  4597 
  4598 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4599 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4600 
  4601 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4602 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4603 
  4604 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4605 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4606 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4607 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4608 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4609 
  4610 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4611 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4612 purposes.
  4613 
  4614 
  4615 *** System ***
  4616 
  4617 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4618 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4619 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4620 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4621 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4622 
  4623 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4624 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4625 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4626 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4627 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4628 settings variable.
  4629 
  4630 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4631 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4632 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4633 
  4634 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4635 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4636 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4637 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4638 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4639 
  4640 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4641 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4642 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4643 
  4644 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4645 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4646 
  4647 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4648 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4649 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4650 
  4651 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4652 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4653 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4654 processing is started.
  4655 
  4656 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4657 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4658 
  4659 
  4660 
  4661 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4662 -------------------------------------
  4663 
  4664 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4665 
  4666 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4667 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4668 
  4669 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4670 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4671 
  4672 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4673 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4674 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4675 
  4676 
  4677 *** System ***
  4678 
  4679 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4680 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4681 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4682 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4683 
  4684 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4685 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4686 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4687 
  4688 
  4689 
  4690 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4691 -------------------------------------
  4692 
  4693 *** General ***
  4694 
  4695 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4696 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4697 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4698 
  4699 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4700 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4701 
  4702 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4703 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4704 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4705 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4706 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4707 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4708 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4709 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4710 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4711 syntax.
  4712 
  4713 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4714 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4715 
  4716 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4717 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4718 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4719 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4720 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4721 
  4722 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4724 
  4725 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4726 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4727 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4728 
  4729 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4730 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4731 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4732 
  4733 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4734 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4735 
  4736 
  4737 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4738 
  4739 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4740 Documentation panel.
  4741 
  4742 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4743 documentation.
  4744 
  4745 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4746 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4747 
  4748 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4749 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4750 normal editing and checking process.
  4751 
  4752 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4753 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4754 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4755 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4756 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4757 
  4758 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4759 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4760 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4761 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4762 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4763 
  4764 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4765 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4766 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4767 
  4768 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4769 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4770 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4771 to resolve conflict.
  4772 
  4773 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4774 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4775 
  4776 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4777 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4778 such command executions while editing.
  4779 
  4780 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4781 document content.
  4782 
  4783 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4784 toplevel theorem statements.
  4785 
  4786 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4787 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4788 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4789 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4790 
  4791 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4792 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4793 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4794 
  4795 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4796 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4797 
  4798 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4799 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4800 
  4801 
  4802 *** Pure ***
  4803 
  4804 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4805 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4806 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4807 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4808 details.
  4809 
  4810 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4811 
  4812 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4813 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4814 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4815 
  4816 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4818 
  4819 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4820 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4821 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4822 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4823 
  4824 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4825 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4826 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4827 
  4828 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4829 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4830 
  4831 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4832 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4833 situations.
  4834 
  4835 
  4836 *** HOL ***
  4837 
  4838 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4839 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4841 
  4842 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4843 
  4844 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4845 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4846 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4847 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4848 
  4849   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4850 
  4851 * Code generator:
  4852   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4853     'code_instance'.
  4854   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4855     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4856 
  4857 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4858 examples.
  4859 
  4860 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  4861 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  4862 to distinguish both when desired.
  4863 
  4864 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  4865 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  4866 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  4867 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4868 
  4869 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  4870 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  4871 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  4872 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  4873 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  4874 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4875 
  4876 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  4877 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  4878 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4879 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  4880 
  4881 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  4882 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  4883 
  4884 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  4885 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  4886 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  4887 
  4888 * Lifting:
  4889   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  4890     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  4891       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  4892       transfer rules
  4893     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  4894       correspondence relation can be generated
  4895     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  4896       parametricity
  4897     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  4898   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  4899   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  4900     copies
  4901   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  4902     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  4903     anonymous context)
  4904   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  4905     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4906   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  4907     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  4908   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  4909     INCOMPATIBILITY
  4910 
  4911 * Transfer:
  4912   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  4913     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  4914   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  4915   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  4916     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  4917   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  4918 
  4919 * Reification and reflection:
  4920   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  4921     "Reification".
  4922   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  4923   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  4924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4925 
  4926 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  4927   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  4928     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4929     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  4930   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  4931     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  4932   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  4933     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  4934     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  4935     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  4936     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  4937     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  4938     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  4939     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  4940   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  4941     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  4942   - Fact renames:
  4943       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  4944       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  4945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4946 
  4947 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  4948 
  4949 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  4950 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  4951 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  4952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4953 
  4954 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  4955 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  4956 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  4957 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  4958 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  4959 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  4960 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  4961 lemmas.
  4962 
  4963 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  4964 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  4965 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4966 
  4967 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  4968 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4969 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  4970 
  4971 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  4972 top and bottom elements.
  4973 
  4974 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  4975 
  4976 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  4977 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  4978 
  4979  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  4980    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  4981    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  4982 
  4983  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  4984    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  4985    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  4986 
  4987    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  4988    arbitrary filter.
  4989 
  4990  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  4991    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  4992    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  4993    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  4994    on a compact set.
  4995 
  4996  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  4997    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  4998    linear_continuum_topology).
  4999 
  5000  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  5001    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  5002    on all sequences converging to x.
  5003 
  5004  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  5005    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  5006    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  5007    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  5008    left or right.
  5009 
  5010  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  5011 
  5012      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  5013 
  5014  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  5015    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  5016 
  5017  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  5018    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  5019    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  5020    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  5021    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  5022    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  5023 
  5024  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  5025 
  5026    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  5027 
  5028    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  5029      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  5030 
  5031    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  5032 
  5033    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  5034      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  5035 
  5036    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  5037 
  5038    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  5039 
  5040  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  5041 
  5042 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5043 
  5044 * Nitpick:
  5045   - Added option "spy".
  5046   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  5047 
  5048 * Sledgehammer:
  5049   - Renamed option:
  5050       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  5051     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5052   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  5053   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  5054   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  5055 
  5056 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  5057 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  5058 
  5059 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  5060   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  5061   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  5062     generated code.
  5063   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  5064   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  5065   - Fact renames:
  5066     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  5067     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  5068     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  5069 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5070 
  5071 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  5072 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  5073 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  5074 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  5075 
  5076 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5077 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5078 
  5079 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5080 
  5081 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5082 
  5083     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5084     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5085 
  5086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5087 
  5088 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5089 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5090 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5091 
  5092 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5093 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5094 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5095 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5096 
  5097 * HOL-BNF:
  5098   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5099     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5100     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5101     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5102   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5103     coinduct).
  5104   - Renamed keywords:
  5105     data ~> datatype_new
  5106     codata ~> codatatype
  5107     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5108   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5109     discs ~> disc
  5110     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5111     map_id' ~> map_id
  5112     sels ~> sel
  5113     set_map' ~> set_map
  5114     sets ~> set
  5115 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5116 
  5117 
  5118 *** ML ***
  5119 
  5120 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5121 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5122 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5123 Examples.thy in particular.
  5124 
  5125 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5126 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5127 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5128 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5129 
  5130 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5131 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5132 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5133 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5135 
  5136 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5137 
  5138     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5139     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5140 
  5141 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5142 
  5143 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5144 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5145 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5146 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5147 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5148 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5149 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5150 
  5151 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5152 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5153 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5154 clasets separately from the context.
  5155 
  5156 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5157 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5158 
  5159 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5160 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5161 
  5162 
  5163 *** System ***
  5164 
  5165 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5166 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5167 
  5168 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5169 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5170 
  5171 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5172 settings variable.
  5173 
  5174 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5175 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5176 always pdf.
  5177 
  5178 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5179 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5180 
  5181 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5182 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5183 
  5184 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5185 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5186 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5187 
  5188 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5189 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5190 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5191 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5192 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5193 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5194 
  5195 
  5196 
  5197 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5198 -----------------------------------
  5199 
  5200 *** General ***
  5201 
  5202 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5203 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5204 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5205 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5206 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5207 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5208 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5209 
  5210 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5211 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5212 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5213 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5214 
  5215 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5216 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5217 
  5218 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5219 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5220 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5221 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5222 dependencies properly.
  5223 
  5224 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5225 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5226 
  5227 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5228 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5229 
  5230 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5231 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5232 and "class ... context ...".
  5233 
  5234 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5235 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5236 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5237 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5238 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5239 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5240 
  5241 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5242 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5243 
  5244 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5245 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5246 
  5247 
  5248 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5249 
  5250 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5251 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5252 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5253 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5254 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5255 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5256 
  5257 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5258 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5259 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5260 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5261 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5262 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5263 
  5264 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5265 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5266 browser on demand.
  5267 
  5268 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5269 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5270 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5271 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5272 
  5273 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5274 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5275 
  5276 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5277 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5278 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5279 potentially infinite message streams.
  5280 
  5281 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5282 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5283 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5284 schemes.
  5285 
  5286 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5287 symbols.
  5288 
  5289 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5290 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5291 
  5292 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5293 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5294 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5295 
  5296 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5297 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5298 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5299 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5300 
  5301 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5302 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5303 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5304 
  5305 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5306 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5307 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5308 Isabelle distribution.
  5309 
  5310 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5311 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5312 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5313 
  5314 
  5315 *** Pure ***
  5316 
  5317 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5318 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5319 
  5320 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5321 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5322 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5323 
  5324 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5325 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5326 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5327 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5328 with some care where this is really required.
  5329 
  5330 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5331 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5332 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5333 
  5334   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5335 
  5336 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5337 a Hasse diagram.
  5338 
  5339 
  5340 *** HOL ***
  5341 
  5342 * Sledgehammer:
  5343 
  5344   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5345     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5346   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5347   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5348   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5349   - Renamed options:
  5350       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5351       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5352       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5353       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5354 
  5355 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5356 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5357 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5358 
  5359 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5360 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5361 
  5362 * Lifting:
  5363   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5364   - quot_del attribute
  5365   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5366 
  5367 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5368 expressions.
  5369 
  5370 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5371 pointfree expressions.
  5372 
  5373 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5374 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5375 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5376 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5378 
  5379 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5380 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5381 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5382 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5383 accordingly.
  5384 
  5385 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5386 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5387 
  5388 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5389 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5390 
  5391 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5392 
  5393 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5394 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5395 
  5396 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5397 
  5398 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5399 
  5400   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5401   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5402 
  5403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5404 
  5405 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5406 
  5407   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5408   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5409 
  5410 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5411 
  5412 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5413 
  5414   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5415     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5416     output f x converges to G.
  5417 
  5418   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5419     infinity (at_bot).
  5420 
  5421   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5422     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5423 
  5424   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5425     at_top".
  5426 
  5427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5428 
  5429 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5430 lattice type classes.
  5431 
  5432 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5433 
  5434     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5435     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5436 
  5437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5438 
  5439 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5440 changes as follows.
  5441 
  5442   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5443 
  5444       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5445       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5446 
  5447   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5448     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5449     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5450     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5451 
  5452   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5453     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5454     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5455 
  5456   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5457     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5458     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5459     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5460 
  5461   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5462     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5463 
  5464       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5465       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5466       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5467       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5468       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5469       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5470       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5471       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5472       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5473       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5474       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5475       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5476       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5477       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5478       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5479       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5480 
  5481 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5482 
  5483 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5484 
  5485 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5486 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5487 
  5488 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5489 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5490 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5491 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5492 
  5493   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5494   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5495   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5496   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5497   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5498   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5499   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5500   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5501   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5502   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5503 
  5504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5505 
  5506 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5507 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5508 Data").
  5509 
  5510 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5511 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5512 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5513 code.
  5514 
  5515 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5516 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5517 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5519 
  5520 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5521 
  5522 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5523 
  5524 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5525 
  5526   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5527   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5528 
  5529 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5530 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5531 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5532 
  5533   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5534 
  5535     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5536     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5537     cart_base i  removed
  5538     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5539 
  5540   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5541 
  5542   Renamed lemmas:
  5543 
  5544     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5545     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5546     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5547     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5548     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5549     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5550     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5551     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5552     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5553     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5554 
  5555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5556 
  5557 * HOL/Probability:
  5558 
  5559   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5560 
  5561   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5562     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5563     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5564 
  5565   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5566     projective family).
  5567 
  5568 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5569 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5570 
  5571 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5572 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5573 datatypes.
  5574 
  5575 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5576 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5577 
  5578 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5579 trees for the code generator.
  5580 
  5581 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5582 Lifting/Transfer.
  5583 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5584 
  5585 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5587 
  5588 
  5589 *** Document preparation ***
  5590 
  5591 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5592 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5593 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5594 
  5595 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5596 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5597 
  5598 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5599 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5600 document/root.tex.
  5601 
  5602 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5603 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5604 
  5605 
  5606 *** ML ***
  5607 
  5608 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5609 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5610 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5611 
  5612 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5613 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5614 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5615 
  5616 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5617 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5618 necessarily printing visible text.
  5619 
  5620 
  5621 *** System ***
  5622 
  5623 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5624 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5625 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5626 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5627 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5628 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5629 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5630 
  5631 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5632 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5633 
  5634   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5635 
  5636 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5637 
  5638 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5639 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5640 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5641 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5642 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5643 
  5644 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5645 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5646 
  5647 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5648 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5649 
  5650 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5651 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5652 
  5653 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5654 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5655 version of Isabelle.
  5656 
  5657 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5658 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5659 
  5660 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5661 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5662 for home-made settings.
  5663 
  5664 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5665 
  5666 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5667 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5668 configuration.
  5669 
  5670 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5671 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5672 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5673 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5674 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5675 
  5676 
  5677 
  5678 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5679 ------------------------------
  5680 
  5681 *** General ***
  5682 
  5683 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5684 
  5685   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5686     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5687   - markup for bound variables
  5688   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5689   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5690   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5691     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5692 
  5693 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5694 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5695 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5696 
  5697 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5698 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5699 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5700 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5701 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5702 
  5703   context
  5704     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5705     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5706   begin
  5707 
  5708   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5709 
  5710   end
  5711 
  5712   thm my_trans
  5713 
  5714 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5715 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5716 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5717 
  5718 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5719 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5720 
  5721 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5722 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5723 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5724 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5725 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5726 
  5727 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5728 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5729 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5730 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5731 indices of schematic variables.
  5732 
  5733 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5734 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5735 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5736 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5737 etc. was exploited.
  5738 
  5739 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5740 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5741 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5742 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5743 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5744 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5745 
  5746 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5747 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5748 manual.
  5749 
  5750 
  5751 *** Pure ***
  5752 
  5753 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5754 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5755 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5756 
  5757 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5758 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5759 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5760 undocumented feature.)
  5761 
  5762 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5763 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5764 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5765 
  5766   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5767 
  5768   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5769     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5770 
  5771 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5772 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5773 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5774 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5775 
  5776 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5777 
  5778     num ~> num_token
  5779     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5780     xstr ~> str_token
  5781 
  5782 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5783 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5784 position information via constraints).
  5785 
  5786 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5787 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5788 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5789 
  5790 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5791 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5792 
  5793 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5794 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5795 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5796 
  5797 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5798 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5799 
  5800 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5801 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5802 
  5803   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5804 
  5805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5806 
  5807 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5808 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5809 
  5810 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5811 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5812 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5813 
  5814 
  5815 *** HOL ***
  5816 
  5817 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5818 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5819 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5820 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5821 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5822 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5823 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5824 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5825 possible.
  5826 
  5827 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5828 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5829 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5830 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5831 
  5832 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5833 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5834 
  5835 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5836 
  5837 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5838 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5839 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5840 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5841 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5842 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5843 
  5844   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5845     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5846 
  5847   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5848     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5849     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5850 
  5851   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5852     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5853 
  5854   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5855     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5856     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5857 
  5858   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  5859     Redefine using other integer operations.
  5860 
  5861 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  5862 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  5863 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  5864 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  5865 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  5866 
  5867   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  5868     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  5869     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  5870     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  5871     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  5872 
  5873     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  5874     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  5875 
  5876   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  5877     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  5878     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  5879     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  5880     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  5881     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  5882     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  5883     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  5884 
  5885   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  5886     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  5887     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  5888     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  5889 
  5890   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  5891     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  5892     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  5893     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  5894 
  5895   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  5896     from type nat to type int.
  5897 
  5898 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  5899 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  5900 
  5901   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  5902     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  5903     type.  Example syntax:
  5904 
  5905     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  5906       is List.insert
  5907 
  5908     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  5909     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  5910     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  5911     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  5912     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  5913     by the package.
  5914 
  5915   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  5916     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  5917     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  5918     code generation for each constant.
  5919 
  5920   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  5921     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  5922     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  5923     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  5924     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  5925 
  5926   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  5927     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  5928     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  5929 
  5930 * Quotient package:
  5931 
  5932   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  5933     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  5934 
  5935   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  5936     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  5937 
  5938   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  5939     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  5940     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5941 
  5942   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  5943     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5944 
  5945 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  5946 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  5947 
  5948 * Quickcheck:
  5949 
  5950   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  5951     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  5952     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  5953     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  5954     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  5955 
  5956     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  5957     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  5958     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  5959 
  5960     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  5961     continues searching for genuine ones.
  5962 
  5963     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  5964     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  5965     show genuine counterexamples.
  5966 
  5967   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  5968     value generators for a given type and operations.
  5969 
  5970     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  5971     constructors of that type.
  5972 
  5973   - Support for multisets.
  5974 
  5975   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  5976 
  5977   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  5978     conjectures in a locale context.
  5979 
  5980 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  5981 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  5982 
  5983 * Sledgehammer:
  5984   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  5985     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  5986   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  5987   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  5988     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  5989   - Sped up the minimizer.
  5990   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  5991   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  5992   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  5993 
  5994 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  5995 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  5996 
  5997 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  5998 
  5999 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6000 
  6001 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  6002 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  6003 
  6004   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  6005 
  6006 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  6007 a list and a nat.
  6008 
  6009 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  6010 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  6011 
  6012 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  6013 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  6014 default.
  6015 
  6016 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  6017 
  6018   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  6019 
  6020 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  6021 
  6022 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  6023 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  6024 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  6025 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  6026 one_case.
  6027 
  6028 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  6029 the result of the fact expression.
  6030 
  6031 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  6032 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  6033 of some relation theorems:
  6034 
  6035   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  6036   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6037   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  6038   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  6039   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  6040   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  6041 
  6042 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  6043 
  6044 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  6045 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  6046 
  6047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6048 
  6049 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  6050 to match the constant's name:
  6051 
  6052   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  6053   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  6054   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  6055   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  6056   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  6057   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  6058   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  6059   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  6060   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  6061   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  6062   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  6063   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  6064   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  6065   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  6066   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  6067   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  6068   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  6069   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  6070   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  6071   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  6072   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  6073   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6074   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6075   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6076 
  6077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6078 
  6079 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6080 and corresponding theorem names:
  6081 
  6082   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6083 
  6084   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6085 
  6086   - Renamed theorems:
  6087 
  6088     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6089     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6090     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6091     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6092     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6093     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6094     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6095     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6096     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6097     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6098     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6099     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6100     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6101     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6102     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6103     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6104     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6105     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  6106     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  6107     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  6108     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  6109     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  6110     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  6111 
  6112     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  6113 
  6114     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  6115 
  6116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6117 
  6118 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  6119 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6120 
  6121   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  6122   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  6123   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  6124   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  6125   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  6126   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  6127   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  6128   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  6129   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  6130   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  6131   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  6132   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  6133   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  6134   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  6135   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  6136   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  6137   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  6138   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  6139   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  6140   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  6141   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  6142 
  6143 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  6144 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6145 
  6146 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6147 
  6148 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  6149 
  6150   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  6151   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  6152   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  6153   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  6154   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  6155   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  6156   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  6157   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  6158   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  6159   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  6160   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  6161   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  6162   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  6163   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  6164   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  6165   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  6166   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  6167   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  6168 
  6169 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6170 
  6171 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  6172 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  6173 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  6174 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  6175 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  6176 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  6177 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  6178 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  6179 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  6180 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  6181 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  6182 
  6183 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  6184 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  6185 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  6186 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  6187 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  6188 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  6189 
  6190 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  6191 through option types.
  6192 
  6193 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  6194 relations.
  6195 
  6196 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6197 
  6198 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  6199 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6200 
  6201   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  6202   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  6203   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  6204   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  6205   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  6206   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  6207   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  6208   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  6209   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  6210   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  6211   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  6212   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  6213   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  6214   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  6215   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  6216   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  6217   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  6218   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  6219   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  6220   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  6221   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  6222   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  6223   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  6224   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  6225   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  6226   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  6227   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  6228   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  6229   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  6230   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  6231   zless_le ~> less_le
  6232   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  6233   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  6234   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  6235 
  6236 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  6237 
  6238   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  6239 
  6240 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  6241 
  6242 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  6243 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  6244 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  6245 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  6246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6247 
  6248 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6249 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  6250 
  6251 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  6252 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  6253 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  6254 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  6255 follows:
  6256 
  6257   Operations:
  6258   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  6259   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  6260   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  6261   del -> rbt_del
  6262   delete -> rbt_delete
  6263   ins -> rbt_ins
  6264   insert -> rbt_insert
  6265   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  6266   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  6267   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  6268   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  6269   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  6270   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  6271   tree_less -> rbt