NEWS
author hoelzl
Fri Jun 13 14:08:20 2014 +0200 (2014-06-13)
changeset 57252 19b7ace1c5da
parent 57251 f51985ebd152
child 57253 6515cf25de13
permissions -rw-r--r--
properties of normal distributed random variables (by Sudeep Kanav)
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Support for path completion within the formal text, based on
    93     file-system content.
    94 
    95   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    96     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    97     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    98 
    99   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
   100     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   101 
   102 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   103 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   104 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   105 
   106 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   107 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   110 auxiliary ML files.
   111 
   112 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   113 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   114 
   115 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   116 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   117 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   118 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   119 
   120 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   121 to highlight text via regular expression.
   122 
   123 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   124 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   125 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   126 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   127 
   128 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   129 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   130 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   131 
   132 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   133 
   134 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   135 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   136 
   137 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   138 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   139 
   140 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   141 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   142 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   143 
   144 
   145 *** Pure ***
   146 
   147 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   148 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   149 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   150 renaming needs to be applied:
   151 
   152   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   153   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   154   all            ~>  Pure.all
   155   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   156   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   157 
   158 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   159 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   160 old constants:
   161 
   162 setup {*
   163   fn thy => thy
   164     |> Sign.root_path
   165     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   166     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   167     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   168     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   169 *}
   170 
   171 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   172 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   173 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   174 
   175 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   176 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   177 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   178 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   179 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   180 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   181 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   182 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   183 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   184 
   185 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   186 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   187 instantiated theorem.
   188 
   189 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   190 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   191 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   192 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   193 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   194 
   195   attribute_setup standard =
   196     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   197 
   198 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   199 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   200 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   201 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   202 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   203 
   204 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   205 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   206 differently).
   207 
   208 
   209 *** HOL ***
   210 
   211 * Command and antiquotation ''value'' are hardcoded against nbe and
   212 ML now.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Separate command ''approximate'' for approximative computation
   215 in Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216 
   217 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   218   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   219   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   220   and SUP instead uniformly.
   221   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   222   or SUP and Sup.
   223   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   224   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   225   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   226   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   227   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   229 
   230 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   231   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   232   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   233   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   234   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   235   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236 
   237 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   238   can now deal with conjunctions.
   239   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   240   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   241   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   242 
   243 * HOL-Word:
   244   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   245   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   246   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   247   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   248   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   249 
   250 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   251 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   257 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   260 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   263 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   266   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   267   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   268   Theory renamings:
   269     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   270     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   271     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   272     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   273     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   274     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   275     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   276     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   277     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   278     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   279     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   280     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   281     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   282     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   283     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   284     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   285     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   286     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   287     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   288     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   289     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   290     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   291   New theories:
   292     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   293     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   294     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   295     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   296     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   297   Discontinued theories:
   298     BNF/BNF.thy
   299     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   300   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302 * New (co)datatype package:
   303   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   304   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   305     required by "fun".
   306   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   307     with Transfer.
   308   * Renamed commands:
   309       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   310       primrec_new ~> primrec
   311       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   312     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   314     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   315     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   316   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   317     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   318     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   319   * No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by default,
   320     eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   321     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322   * No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   323     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   324     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   325     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   326 
   327 * Old datatype package:
   328   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   329     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   330     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   331   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   332     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   333     "case_prod").
   334     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   335 
   336 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   337   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   338   datatype package.
   339   Renamed constants:
   340     Option.set ~> set_option
   341     Option.map ~> map_option
   342     option_rel ~> rel_option
   343   Renamed theorems:
   344     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   345     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   346     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   347     option.recs ~> option.rec
   348     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   349     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   350     map.simps ~> list.map
   351     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   352     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   353     the.simps ~> option.sel
   354   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   355 
   356 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   357     sum_map ~> map_sum
   358     map_pair ~> map_prod
   359     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   360     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   361     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   362     set_rel ~> rel_set
   363     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   364     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   365     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   366     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   367 
   368 * New theories:
   369     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   370     Library/Tree
   371 
   372 * Theory reorganizations:
   373   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   374 
   375 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof traces.
   376   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   377   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   378   use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now the default SAT
   379   solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and corresponding tactics;
   380   the old default can be restored using
   381   "declare [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   382 
   383 * SMT module:
   384   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   385     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   386     called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also supported as oracles. Yices is no
   387     longer supported, because no version of the solver can handle both
   388     SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   389 
   390 * Sledgehammer:
   391   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   392   - MaSh overhaul:
   393       - New SML-based learning engines eliminate the dependency on Python
   394         and increase performance and reliability.
   395       - Activation of MaSh now works via the "MaSh" system option (without
   396         requiring restart), instead of former settings variable "MASH".
   397         The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu Plugin
   398         Options / Isabelle / General. Allowed values include "sml" (for the
   399         default SML engine), "py" (for the old Python engine), and "none".
   400   - New option:
   401       smt_proofs
   402   - Renamed options:
   403       isar_compress ~> compress
   404       isar_try0 ~> try0
   405     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   406 
   407 * Metis:
   408   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   409     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   410 
   411 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   412 
   413 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   414 
   415 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   416 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   417 
   418 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   419 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   420 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   421 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   422 
   423 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   425 
   426 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   427 with the given constants.
   428 
   429 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   430 
   431 Fact consolidations:
   432     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   433     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   434     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   435     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   436     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   437     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   438     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   439     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   440     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   441     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   442     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   443     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   444     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   445     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   446     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   447     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   448     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   449     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   450     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   451     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   452     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   453     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   454     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   455     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   456     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   457     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   458     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   459     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   460     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   461     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   462     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   463     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   464     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   465     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   466     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   467     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   468     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   469     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   470     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   471     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   472 
   473 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   474 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   475 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   476 
   477 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   478 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   479 
   480 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   481 
   482 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   483 
   484 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   486 
   487 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   489 
   490 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   491 operations on records.
   492 
   493 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   495 
   496 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   497     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   499 
   500 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   501     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   502     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   504 
   505 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   506   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   507   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   508   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   509     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   510   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   511     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   512   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   514 
   515 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   516     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   517     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   518     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   519     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   520 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   521 
   522 * Fact name consolidation:
   523     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   524     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   525     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   526     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   527     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   529 
   530 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   531 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   532 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   533 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   534 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   535 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   536 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   537 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   538 
   539 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   540 
   541 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   542 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   543 
   544 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   545 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   546 
   547 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   548 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   549 or the brute way with
   550 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   551 
   552 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   553 
   554 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   555 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   556 
   557 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   558 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   559 
   560 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   561 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   562 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   563 INCOMPATIBILITY
   564 
   565 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   566   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   567   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   568   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   569   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   570   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   571   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   572   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   573   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   574   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   575   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   576   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   577 
   578   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   579 
   580   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   581     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   582     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   583     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   584     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   585 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   586 
   587 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   588   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   589 
   590   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   591 
   592   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   593 
   594   - removed constant isDiff
   595 
   596   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   597     syntax.
   598 
   599   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   600 
   601   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   602 
   603   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   604 
   605   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   606 
   607   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   608     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   609 
   610   - Other renamings:
   611     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   612     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   613     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   614     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   615     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   616     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   617     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   619 
   620 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   621   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   622 
   623 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im, the Complex
   624   constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use primcorec to defined the
   625   behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   626 
   627   Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they are
   628   available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This especially
   629   removes
   630     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   631 
   632   Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   633     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   634 
   635   Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   636 
   637   Renamings:
   638     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   639     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   640     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   641     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   642     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   643     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   644     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   645     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   646     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   647     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   648     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   649     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   650 
   651     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   652     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   653     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   654 
   655   Removed theorems:
   656     complex_zero_def
   657     complex_add_def
   658     complex_minus_def
   659     complex_diff_def
   660     complex_one_def
   661     complex_mult_def
   662     complex_inverse_def
   663     complex_scaleR_def
   664 
   665 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   666 
   667 * Nitpick:
   668   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   669     infinite values.
   670   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   671     "Rep_Integ".
   672   - Removed "std" option.
   673   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   674     "hide_types".
   675 
   676 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   677   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   678   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   679     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   680     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   681     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   682     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   683     intervals.
   684 
   685   - renamed theorems:
   686     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   687     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   688     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   689 
   690 * HOL-Probability:
   691   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general Bochner
   692     integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   693 
   694     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   695     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   696     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   697     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   698     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   699     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   700     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   701     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   702     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   703     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   704     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   705     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   706     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   707     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   708     integral_indicator          ~>
   709          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   710     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   711     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   712     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   713 
   714     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   715          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   716 
   717     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   718          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   719 
   720     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   721          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   722 
   723     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   724          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   725          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   726 
   727     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   728          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   729 
   730     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   731          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   732 
   733     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   734          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   735          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   736 
   737     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   738          positive_integral_real_affine
   739 
   740     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   741          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   742 
   743     The following theorems where removed:
   744 
   745     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   746     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   747     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   748     lebesgue_integral_multc
   749     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   750     integral_cmul_indicator
   751     integral_real
   752 
   753   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
   754 
   755     * Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
   756       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
   757 
   758     * Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
   759 
   760   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal distributed
   761     random variables.
   762 
   763 * Library/Kleene-Algebra was removed because AFP/Kleene_Algebra subsumes it.
   764 
   765 *** Scala ***
   766 
   767 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   768 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   769 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   770 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   771 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   772 
   773 
   774 *** ML ***
   775 
   776 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   777 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   778 
   779 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   780 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   781 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   782 
   783 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   785 
   786 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   787 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   788 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   790 
   791 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   792 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   793 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   794 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   795 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   796 of schematic variables.
   797 
   798 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   799 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   800 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   801 formal context.
   802 
   803 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   804 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   805 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   806 actually belongs to it).
   807 
   808 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   809 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   810 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   811 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   812 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   813 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   814 
   815 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   816 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   817 
   818 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   819 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   820 
   821 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   822 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   823 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   824 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   825 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   826 
   827 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   828 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   829 purposes.
   830 
   831 
   832 *** System ***
   833 
   834 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   835 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   836 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   837 processing is started.
   838 
   839 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   840 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   841 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   842 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   843 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   844 
   845 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   846 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   847 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   848 
   849 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   850 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   851 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   852 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   853 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   854 settings variable yet.
   855 
   856 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar
   857 functionality may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   858 
   859 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
   860 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
   861 
   862 
   863 
   864 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   865 -------------------------------------
   866 
   867 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   868 
   869 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   870 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   871 
   872 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   873 after edits surrounding the command location.
   874 
   875 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   876 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   877 e.g. out-of-memory).
   878 
   879 
   880 *** System ***
   881 
   882 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   883 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   884 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   885 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   886 
   887 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   888 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   889 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   890 
   891 
   892 
   893 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   894 -------------------------------------
   895 
   896 *** General ***
   897 
   898 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   899 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   900 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   901 
   902 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   903 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   904 
   905 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   906 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   907 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   908 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   909 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   910 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   911 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   912 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   913 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   914 syntax.
   915 
   916 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   917 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   918 
   919 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   920 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   921 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   922 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   923 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   924 
   925 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   927 
   928 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   929 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   930 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   931 
   932 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   933 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   934 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   935 
   936 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   937 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   938 
   939 
   940 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   941 
   942 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   943 Documentation panel.
   944 
   945 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   946 documentation.
   947 
   948 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   949 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   950 
   951 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   952 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   953 normal editing and checking process.
   954 
   955 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   956 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   957 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   958 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   959 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   960 
   961 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   962 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   963 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   964 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   965 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   966 
   967 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   968 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   969 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   970 
   971 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   972 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   973 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   974 to resolve conflict.
   975 
   976 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   977 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   978 
   979 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   980 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   981 such command executions while editing.
   982 
   983 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   984 document content.
   985 
   986 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   987 toplevel theorem statements.
   988 
   989 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   990 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   991 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   992 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   993 
   994 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   995 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   996 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   997 
   998 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   999 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1000 
  1001 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1002 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1003 
  1004 
  1005 *** Pure ***
  1006 
  1007 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1008 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1009 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1010 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1011 details.
  1012 
  1013 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1014 
  1015 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1016 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1017 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1018 
  1019 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1021 
  1022 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1023 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1024 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1025 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1026 
  1027 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1028 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1029 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1030 
  1031 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1032 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1033 
  1034 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1035 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1036 situations.
  1037 
  1038 
  1039 *** HOL ***
  1040 
  1041 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1042 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1043 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1044 
  1045 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1046 
  1047 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1048 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1049 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1050 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1051 
  1052   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1053 
  1054 * Code generator:
  1055   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1056     'code_instance'.
  1057   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1058     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1059 
  1060 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1061 examples.
  1062 
  1063 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1064 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1065 to distinguish both when desired.
  1066 
  1067 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1068 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1069 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1070 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1071 
  1072 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1073 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1074 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1075 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1076 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1077 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1078 
  1079 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1080 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1081 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1082 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1083 
  1084 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1085 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1086 
  1087 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1088 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1089 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1090 
  1091 * Lifting:
  1092   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1093     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1094       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1095       transfer rules
  1096     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1097       correspondence relation can be generated
  1098     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1099       parametricity
  1100     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1101   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1102   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1103     copies
  1104   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1105     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1106     anonymous context)
  1107   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1108     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1109   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1110     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1111   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1112     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1113 
  1114 * Transfer:
  1115   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1116     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1117   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1118   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1119     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1120   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1121 
  1122 * Reification and reflection:
  1123   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1124     "Reification".
  1125   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1126   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1128 
  1129 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1130   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1131     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1132     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1133   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1134     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1135   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1136     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1137     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1138     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1139     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1140     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1141     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1142     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1143   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1144     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1145   - Fact renames:
  1146       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1147       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1149 
  1150 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1151 
  1152 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1153 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1154 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1156 
  1157 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1158 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1159 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1160 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1161 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1162 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1163 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1164 lemmas.
  1165 
  1166 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1167 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1168 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1169 
  1170 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1171 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1172 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1173 
  1174 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1175 top and bottom elements.
  1176 
  1177 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1178 
  1179 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1180 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1181 
  1182  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1183    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1184    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1185 
  1186  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1187    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1188    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1189 
  1190    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1191    arbitrary filter.
  1192 
  1193  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1194    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1195    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1196    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1197    on a compact set.
  1198 
  1199  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1200    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1201    linear_continuum_topology).
  1202 
  1203  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1204    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1205    on all sequences converging to x.
  1206 
  1207  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1208    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1209    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1210    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1211    left or right.
  1212 
  1213  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1214 
  1215      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1216 
  1217  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1218    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1219 
  1220  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1221    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1222    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1223    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1224    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1225    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1226 
  1227  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1228 
  1229    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1230 
  1231    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1232      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1233 
  1234    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1235 
  1236    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1237      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1238 
  1239    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1240 
  1241    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1242 
  1243  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1244 
  1245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1246 
  1247 * Nitpick:
  1248   - Added option "spy".
  1249   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1250 
  1251 * Sledgehammer:
  1252   - Renamed option:
  1253       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1254     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1255   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1256   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1257   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1258 
  1259 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1260 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1261 
  1262 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1263   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1264   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1265     generated code.
  1266   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1267   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1268   - Fact renames:
  1269     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1270     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1271     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1272 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1273 
  1274 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1275 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1276 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1277 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1278 
  1279 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1280 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1281 
  1282 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1283 
  1284 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1285 
  1286     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1287     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1288 
  1289 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1290 
  1291 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1292 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1293 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1294 
  1295 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1296 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1297 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1298 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1299 
  1300 * HOL-BNF:
  1301   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1302     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1303     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1304     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1305   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1306     coinduct).
  1307   - Renamed keywords:
  1308     data ~> datatype_new
  1309     codata ~> codatatype
  1310     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1311   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1312     discs ~> disc
  1313     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1314     map_id' ~> map_id
  1315     sels ~> sel
  1316     set_map' ~> set_map
  1317     sets ~> set
  1318 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 
  1321 *** ML ***
  1322 
  1323 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1324 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1325 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1326 Examples.thy in particular.
  1327 
  1328 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1329 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1330 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1331 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1332 
  1333 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1334 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1335 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1336 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1338 
  1339 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1340 
  1341     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1342     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1343 
  1344 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1345 
  1346 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1347 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1348 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1349 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1350 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1351 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1352 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1353 
  1354 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1355 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1356 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1357 clasets separately from the context.
  1358 
  1359 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1360 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1361 
  1362 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1363 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1364 
  1365 
  1366 *** System ***
  1367 
  1368 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1369 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1370 
  1371 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1372 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1373 
  1374 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1375 settings variable.
  1376 
  1377 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1378 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1379 always pdf.
  1380 
  1381 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1382 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1383 
  1384 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1385 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1386 
  1387 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1388 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1389 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1390 
  1391 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1392 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1393 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1394 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1395 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1396 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1397 
  1398 
  1399 
  1400 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1401 -----------------------------------
  1402 
  1403 *** General ***
  1404 
  1405 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1406 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1407 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1408 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1409 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1410 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1411 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1412 
  1413 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1414 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1415 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1416 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1417 
  1418 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1419 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1420 
  1421 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1422 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1423 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1424 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1425 dependencies properly.
  1426 
  1427 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1428 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1429 
  1430 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1431 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1432 
  1433 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1434 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1435 and "class ... context ...".
  1436 
  1437 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1438 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1439 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1440 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1441 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1442 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1443 
  1444 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1445 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1446 
  1447 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1448 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1449 
  1450 
  1451 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1452 
  1453 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1454 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1455 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1456 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1457 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1458 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1459 
  1460 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1461 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1462 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1463 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1464 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1465 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1466 
  1467 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1468 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1469 browser on demand.
  1470 
  1471 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1472 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1473 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1474 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1475 
  1476 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1477 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1478 
  1479 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1480 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1481 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1482 potentially infinite message streams.
  1483 
  1484 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1485 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1486 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1487 schemes.
  1488 
  1489 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1490 symbols.
  1491 
  1492 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1493 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1494 
  1495 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1496 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1497 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1498 
  1499 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1500 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1501 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1502 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1503 
  1504 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1505 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1506 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1507 
  1508 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1509 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1510 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1511 Isabelle distribution.
  1512 
  1513 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1514 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1515 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1516 
  1517 
  1518 *** Pure ***
  1519 
  1520 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1521 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1522 
  1523 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1524 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1525 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1526 
  1527 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1528 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1529 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1530 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1531 with some care where this is really required.
  1532 
  1533 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1534 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1535 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1536 
  1537   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1538 
  1539 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1540 a Hasse diagram.
  1541 
  1542 
  1543 *** HOL ***
  1544 
  1545 * Sledgehammer:
  1546 
  1547   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1548     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1549   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1550   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1551   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1552   - Renamed options:
  1553       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1554       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1555       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1556       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1557 
  1558 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1559 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1560 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1561 
  1562 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1563 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1564 
  1565 * Lifting:
  1566   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1567   - quot_del attribute
  1568   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1569 
  1570 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1571 expressions.
  1572 
  1573 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1574 pointfree expressions.
  1575 
  1576 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1577 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1578 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1579 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1580 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1581 
  1582 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1583 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1584 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1585 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1586 accordingly.
  1587 
  1588 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1589 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1590 
  1591 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1592 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1593 
  1594 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1595 
  1596 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1597 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1598 
  1599 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1600 
  1601 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1602 
  1603   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1604   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1605 
  1606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1609 
  1610   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1611   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1612 
  1613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1614 
  1615 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1616 
  1617   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1618     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1619     output f x converges to G.
  1620 
  1621   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1622     infinity (at_bot).
  1623 
  1624   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1625     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1626 
  1627   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1628     at_top".
  1629 
  1630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1631 
  1632 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1633 lattice type classes.
  1634 
  1635 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1636 
  1637     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1638     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1639 
  1640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1641 
  1642 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1643 changes as follows.
  1644 
  1645   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1646 
  1647       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1648       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1649 
  1650   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1651     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1652     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1653     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1654 
  1655   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1656     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1657     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1658 
  1659   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1660     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1661     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1662     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1663 
  1664   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1665     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1666 
  1667       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1668       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1669       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1670       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1671       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1672       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1673       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1674       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1675       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1676       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1677       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1678       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1679       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1680       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1681       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1682       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1683 
  1684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1685 
  1686 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1687 
  1688 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1689 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1690 
  1691 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1692 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1693 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1694 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1695 
  1696   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1697   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1698   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1699   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1700   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1701   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1702   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1703   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1704   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1705   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1706 
  1707 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1708 
  1709 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1710 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1711 Data").
  1712 
  1713 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1714 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1715 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1716 code.
  1717 
  1718 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1719 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1720 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1722 
  1723 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1724 
  1725 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1726 
  1727 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1728 
  1729   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1730   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1731 
  1732 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1733 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1734 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1735 
  1736   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1737 
  1738     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1739     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1740     cart_base i  removed
  1741     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1742 
  1743   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1744 
  1745   Renamed lemmas:
  1746 
  1747     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1748     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1749     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1750     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1751     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1752     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1753     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1754     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1755     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1756     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1757 
  1758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1759 
  1760 * HOL/Probability:
  1761 
  1762   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1763 
  1764   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1765     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1766     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1767 
  1768   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1769     projective family).
  1770 
  1771 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1772 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1773 
  1774 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1775 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1776 datatypes.
  1777 
  1778 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1779 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1780 
  1781 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1782 trees for the code generator.
  1783 
  1784 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1785 Lifting/Transfer.
  1786 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1787 
  1788 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1790 
  1791 
  1792 *** Document preparation ***
  1793 
  1794 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1795 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1796 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1797 
  1798 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1799 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1800 
  1801 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1802 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1803 document/root.tex.
  1804 
  1805 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1806 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1807 
  1808 
  1809 *** ML ***
  1810 
  1811 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1812 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1813 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1814 
  1815 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1816 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1817 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1818 
  1819 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1820 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1821 necessarily printing visible text.
  1822 
  1823 
  1824 *** System ***
  1825 
  1826 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1827 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1828 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1829 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1830 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1831 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1832 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1833 
  1834 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1835 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1836 
  1837   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1838 
  1839 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1840 
  1841 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1842 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1843 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1844 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1845 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1846 
  1847 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1848 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1849 
  1850 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1851 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1852 
  1853 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1855 
  1856 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1857 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1858 version of Isabelle.
  1859 
  1860 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1861 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1862 
  1863 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1864 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1865 for home-made settings.
  1866 
  1867 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1868 
  1869 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1870 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1871 configuration.
  1872 
  1873 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1874 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1875 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1876 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1877 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1878 
  1879 
  1880 
  1881 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1882 ------------------------------
  1883 
  1884 *** General ***
  1885 
  1886 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1887 
  1888   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1889     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1890   - markup for bound variables
  1891   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1892   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1893   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1894     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1895 
  1896 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1897 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1898 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1899 
  1900 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1901 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1902 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1903 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1904 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1905 
  1906   context
  1907     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1908     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1909   begin
  1910 
  1911   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1912 
  1913   end
  1914 
  1915   thm my_trans
  1916 
  1917 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1918 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1919 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1920 
  1921 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1922 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1923 
  1924 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1925 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1926 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1927 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1928 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1929 
  1930 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1931 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1932 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1933 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1934 indices of schematic variables.
  1935 
  1936 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1937 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1938 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1939 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1940 etc. was exploited.
  1941 
  1942 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1943 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1944 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1945 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1946 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1947 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1948 
  1949 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1950 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1951 manual.
  1952 
  1953 
  1954 *** Pure ***
  1955 
  1956 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1957 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1958 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1959 
  1960 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1961 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1962 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1963 undocumented feature.)
  1964 
  1965 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1966 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1967 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1968 
  1969   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1970 
  1971   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1972     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1973 
  1974 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1975 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1976 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1977 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1978 
  1979 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1980 
  1981     num ~> num_token
  1982     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1983     xstr ~> str_token
  1984 
  1985 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1986 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1987 position information via constraints).
  1988 
  1989 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1990 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1991 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1992 
  1993 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1994 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1995 
  1996 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1997 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1998 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1999 
  2000 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2001 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2002 
  2003 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2004 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2005 
  2006   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2007 
  2008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2009 
  2010 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2011 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2012 
  2013 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2014 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2015 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2016 
  2017 
  2018 *** HOL ***
  2019 
  2020 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2021 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2022 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2023 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2024 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2025 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2026 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2027 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2028 possible.
  2029 
  2030 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2031 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2032 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2033 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2034 
  2035 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2036 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2037 
  2038 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2039 
  2040 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2041 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2042 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2043 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2044 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2045 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2046 
  2047   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2048     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2049 
  2050   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2051     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2052     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2053 
  2054   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2055     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2056 
  2057   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2058     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2059     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2060 
  2061   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2062     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2063 
  2064 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2065 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2066 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2067 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2068 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2069 
  2070   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2071     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2072     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2073     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2074     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2075 
  2076     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2077     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2078 
  2079   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2080     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2081     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2082     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2083     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2084     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2085     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2086     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2087 
  2088   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2089     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2090     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2091     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2092 
  2093   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2094     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2095     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2096     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2097 
  2098   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2099     from type nat to type int.
  2100 
  2101 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2102 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2103 
  2104   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2105     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2106     type.  Example syntax:
  2107 
  2108     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2109       is List.insert
  2110 
  2111     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2112     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2113     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2114     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2115     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2116     by the package.
  2117 
  2118   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2119     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2120     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2121     code generation for each constant.
  2122 
  2123   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2124     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2125     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2126     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2127     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2128 
  2129   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2130     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2131     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2132 
  2133 * Quotient package:
  2134 
  2135   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2136     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2137 
  2138   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2139     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2140 
  2141   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2142     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2143     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2144 
  2145   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2146     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2147 
  2148 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2149 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2150 
  2151 * Quickcheck:
  2152 
  2153   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2154     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2155     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2156     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2157     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2158 
  2159     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2160     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2161     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2162 
  2163     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2164     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2165 
  2166     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2167     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2168     show genuine counterexamples.
  2169 
  2170   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2171     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2172 
  2173     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2174     constructors of that type.
  2175 
  2176   - Support for multisets.
  2177 
  2178   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2179 
  2180   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2181     conjectures in a locale context.
  2182 
  2183 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2184 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2185 
  2186 * Sledgehammer:
  2187   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2188     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2189   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2190   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2191     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2192   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2193   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2194   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2195   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2196 
  2197 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2198 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2199 
  2200 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2201 
  2202 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2203 
  2204 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2205 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2206 
  2207   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2208 
  2209 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2210 a list and a nat.
  2211 
  2212 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2213 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2214 
  2215 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2216 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2217 default.
  2218 
  2219 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2220 
  2221   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2222 
  2223 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2224 
  2225 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2226 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2227 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2228 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2229 one_case.
  2230 
  2231 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2232 the result of the fact expression.
  2233 
  2234 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2235 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2236 of some relation theorems:
  2237 
  2238   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2239   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2240   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2241   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2242   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2243   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2244 
  2245 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2246 
  2247 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2248 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2249 
  2250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2251 
  2252 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2253 to match the constant's name:
  2254 
  2255   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2256   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2257   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2258   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2259   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2260   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2261   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2262   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2263   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2264   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2265   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2266   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2267   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2268   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2269   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2270   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2271   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2272   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2273   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2274   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2275   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2276   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2277   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2278   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2279 
  2280 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2281 
  2282 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2283 and corresponding theorem names:
  2284 
  2285   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2286 
  2287   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2288 
  2289   - Renamed theorems:
  2290 
  2291     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2292     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2293     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2294     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2295     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2296     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2297     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2298     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2299     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2300     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2301     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2302     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2303     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2304     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2305     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2306     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2307     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2308     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2309     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2310     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2311     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2312     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2313     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2314 
  2315     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2316 
  2317     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2318 
  2319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2320 
  2321 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2322 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2323 
  2324   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2325   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2326   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2327   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2328   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2329   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2330   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2331   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2332   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2333   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2334   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2335   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2336   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2337   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2338   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2339   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2340   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2341   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2342   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2343   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2344   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2345 
  2346 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2347 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2348 
  2349 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2350 
  2351 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2352 
  2353   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2354   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2355   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2356   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2357   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2358   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2359   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2360   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2361   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2362   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2363   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2364   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2365   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2366   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2367   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2368   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2369   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2370   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2371 
  2372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2373 
  2374 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2375 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2376 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2377 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2378 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2379 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2380 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2381 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2382 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2383 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2384 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2385 
  2386 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2387 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2388 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2389 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2390 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2391 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2392 
  2393 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2394 through option types.
  2395 
  2396 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2397 relations.
  2398 
  2399 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2400 
  2401 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2402 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2403 
  2404   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2405   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2406   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2407   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2408   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2409   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2410   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2411   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2412   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2413   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2414   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2415   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2416   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2417   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2418   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2419   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2420   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2421   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2422   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2423   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2424   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2425   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2426   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2427   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2428   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2429   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2430   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2431   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2432   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2433   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2434   zless_le ~> less_le
  2435   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2436   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2437   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2438 
  2439 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2440 
  2441   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2442 
  2443 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2444 
  2445 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2446 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2447 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2448 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2450 
  2451 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2452 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2453 
  2454 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2455 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2456 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2457 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2458 follows:
  2459 
  2460   Operations:
  2461   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2462   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2463   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2464   del -> rbt_del
  2465   delete -> rbt_delete
  2466   ins -> rbt_ins
  2467   insert -> rbt_insert
  2468   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2469   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2470   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2471   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2472   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2473   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2474   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2475   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2476   union -> rbt_union
  2477   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2478   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2479 
  2480   Lemmas:
  2481   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2482   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2483   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2484   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2485   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2486   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2487   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2488   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2489   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2490   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2491   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2492   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2493   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2494   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2495   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2496   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2497   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2498   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2499   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2500   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2501   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2502   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2503   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2504   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2505   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2506   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2507   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2508   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2509   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2510   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2511   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2512   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2513   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2514   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2515   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2516   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2517   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2518   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2519   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2520   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2521   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2522   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2523   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2524   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2525   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2526   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2527   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2528   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2529   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2530   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2531   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2532   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2533   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2534   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2535   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2536   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2537   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2538   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2539   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2540   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2541   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2542   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2543   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2544   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2545   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2546   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2547   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2548   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2549   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2550   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2551   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2552   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2553   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2554   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2555   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2556   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2557   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2558   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2559   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2560   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2561   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2562   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2563   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2564 
  2565 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2566 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2567 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2568 
  2569   Changed Operations:
  2570   float_abs -> abs
  2571   float_nprt -> nprt
  2572   float_pprt -> pprt
  2573   pow2 -> use powr
  2574   round_down -> float_round_down
  2575   round_up -> float_round_up
  2576   scale -> exponent
  2577 
  2578   Removed Operations:
  2579   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2580 
  2581   Renamed Lemmas:
  2582   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2583   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2584   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2585   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2586   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2587   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2588   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2589   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2590   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2591   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2592   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2593   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2594   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2595   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2596   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2597   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2598   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2599   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2600   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2601   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2602   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2603   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2604   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2605   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2606   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2607   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2608   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2609   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2610   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2611   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2612   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2613   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2614   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2615   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2616   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2617   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2618 
  2619   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2620   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2621   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2622   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2623   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2624   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2625   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2626   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2627   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2628   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2629 
  2630 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2631 association lists with distinct keys.
  2632 
  2633 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2634 annotated commands.
  2635 
  2636 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2637 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2638 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2639 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2640 
  2641 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2642 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2643 instead.
  2644 
  2645   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2646   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2647   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2648   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2649   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2650   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2651   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2652   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2653   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2654   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2655   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2656   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2657   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2658   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2659   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2660   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2661   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2662   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2663   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2664   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2665   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2666   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2667   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2668   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2669   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2670   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2671   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2672   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2673   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2674   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2675   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2676   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2677   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2678   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2679   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2680   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2681   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2682   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2683   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2684   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2685   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2686 
  2687 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2688 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2689 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2690 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2691 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2692 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2693 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2694 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2695 
  2696 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2697 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2698 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2699 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2700 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2701 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2702 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2703 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2704 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2705 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2706 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2707 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2708 
  2709   Renamed constants:
  2710   measure -> emeasure
  2711   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2712   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2713   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2714   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2715 
  2716   Removed locales:
  2717   completeable_measure_space
  2718   finite_measure_space
  2719   finite_prob_space
  2720   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2721   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2722   finite_sigma_algebra
  2723   measure_space
  2724   pair_finite_prob_space
  2725   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2726   pair_finite_space
  2727   pair_sigma_algebra
  2728   product_sigma_algebra
  2729 
  2730   Removed constants:
  2731   conditional_space
  2732   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2733   image_space
  2734   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2735   pair_measure_generator
  2736   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2737   subvimage
  2738 
  2739   Replacement theorems:
  2740   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2741   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2742   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2743   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2744   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2745   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2746   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2747   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2748   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2749   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2750   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2751   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2752   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2753   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2754   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2755   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2756   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2757   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2758   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2759   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2760   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2761   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2762   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2763   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2764   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2765   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2766   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2767   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2768   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2769   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2770   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2771   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2772   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2773   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2774   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2775   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2776   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2777   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2778   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2779   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2780   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2781   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2782   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2783   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2784   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2785   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2786   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2787   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2788   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2789   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2790   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2791   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2792   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2793   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2794   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2795   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2796   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2797   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2798   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2799   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2800   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2801   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2802   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2803   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2804   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2805   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2806   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2807   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2808   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2809   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2810   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2811   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2812   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2813   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2814   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2815   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2816   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2817   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2818   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2819   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2820   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2821   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2822   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2823   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2824   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2825   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2826   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2827   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2828   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2829   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2830   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2831   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2832   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2833   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2834   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2835   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2836   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2837   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2838   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2839   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2840   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2841   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2842   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2843   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2844   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2845   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2846   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2847   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2848   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2849   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2850   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2851   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2852   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2853   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2854   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2855   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2856   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2857   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2858   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2859   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2860   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2861   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2862   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2863   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2864   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2865   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2866   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2867   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2868 
  2869 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2870 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2871 
  2872 
  2873 *** FOL ***
  2874 
  2875 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2876 
  2877 
  2878 *** ZF ***
  2879 
  2880 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2881 analysis.
  2882 
  2883 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2884 
  2885 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2886 
  2887 
  2888 *** ML ***
  2889 
  2890 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2891 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2892 
  2893 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2894 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2895 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2896 
  2897 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2898 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2899 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2900 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2901 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2902 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2903 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2904 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2905 
  2906 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2907 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2908 
  2909 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2910 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2911 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2912 
  2913 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2914 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2915 
  2916 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2917 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2918 context as well.
  2919 
  2920 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2921 
  2922   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2923   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2924   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2925   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2926   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2927   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2928   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2929   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2930   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2931   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2932   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2933   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2934 
  2935 
  2936 *** System ***
  2937 
  2938 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2939 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2940 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2941 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2942 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2943 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2944 the generic user home was intended.
  2945 
  2946 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2947 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2948 
  2949 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2950 (not just JRE).
  2951 
  2952 
  2953 
  2954 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2955 ------------------------------------
  2956 
  2957 *** General ***
  2958 
  2959 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2960 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2961 
  2962   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2963     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2964     files for checking).
  2965 
  2966   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2967     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2968     positions.
  2969 
  2970   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2971     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2972     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2973 
  2974   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2975     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2976     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2977 
  2978   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2979     cores.
  2980 
  2981   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2982     versions (garbage collection).
  2983 
  2984 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2985 including some remaining limitations.
  2986 
  2987 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2988 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2989 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2990 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2991 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2993 
  2994 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2995 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2996 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2997 
  2998 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2999 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3000 usedir option -Q.
  3001 
  3002 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3003 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3004 
  3005   long_names   ~> names_long
  3006   short_names  ~> names_short
  3007   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3008 
  3009 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3010 
  3011   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3012 
  3013 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3014 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3015 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3016 
  3017 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3018 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3019 
  3020 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3021   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3022   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3023   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3024     "Classical Reasoner".
  3025 
  3026 
  3027 *** HOL ***
  3028 
  3029 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3030 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3031 
  3032 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3033 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3034 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3035 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3036 class complete_linorder.
  3037 
  3038 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3039 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3040 
  3041 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3042 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3043 
  3044   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3045   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3046   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3047   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3048   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3049   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3050   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3051   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3052   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3053   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3054   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3055 
  3056 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3057 
  3058   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3059   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3060   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3061   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3062   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3063   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3064   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3065   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3066   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3067   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3068   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3069   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3070   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3071   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3072   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3073   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3074 
  3075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3076 
  3077 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3078 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3079 
  3080 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3081 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3082 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3083 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3084 
  3085 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3086 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3087 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3088 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3089 
  3090 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3091 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3092 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3093 
  3094 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3095 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3096 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3097 
  3098 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3099 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3100 
  3101 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3102 
  3103     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3104     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3105 
  3106 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3107 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3108 
  3109 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3110 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3111 
  3112 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3113 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3114 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3115 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3116 
  3117   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3118   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3119   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3120   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3121   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3122   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3123   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3124 
  3125 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3126 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3127 
  3128   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3129   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3130   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3131   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3132   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3133   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3134   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3135   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3136   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3137   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3138   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3139   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3140   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3141   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3142   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3143   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3144   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3145   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3146   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3147   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3148   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3149   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3150   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3151   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3152   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3153   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3154   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3155   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3156   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3157   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3158   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3159   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3160   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3161   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3162   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3163   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3164   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3165   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3166   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3167   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3168   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3169   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3170   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3171   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3172   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3173   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3174   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3175   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3176   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3177   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3178   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3179   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3180   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3181   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3182   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3183   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3184   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3185   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3186   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3187   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3188   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3189   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3190   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3191   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3192   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3193   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3194   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3195   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3196   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3197   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3198   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3199   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3200   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3201   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3202   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3203   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3204   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3205   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3206   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3207   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3208   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3209   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3210 
  3211 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3212 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3213 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3214 
  3215 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3216 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3217 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3218 
  3219 * Code generation:
  3220 
  3221   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3222     characters in the target language.
  3223 
  3224   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3225     instead.
  3226 
  3227   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3228 
  3229   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3230     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3231 
  3232       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3233 
  3234 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3235 
  3236 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3237 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3238 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3239 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3240 syntax.
  3241 
  3242 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3243 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3244 
  3245 * Nitpick:
  3246   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3247   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3248   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3249     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3250 
  3251 * Sledgehammer:
  3252   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3253   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3254     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3255   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3256     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3257   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3258     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3259   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3260     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3261   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3262     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3263 
  3264 * Metis:
  3265   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3267     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3268 
  3269 * Command 'try':
  3270   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3271     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3273     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3274 
  3275 * Quickcheck:
  3276   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3277     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3278   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3279     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3280   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3281     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3282     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3283     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3284   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3285     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3286 
  3287 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3288 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3289 
  3290 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3291 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3292 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3293 
  3294 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3295 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3297 
  3298 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3299 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3300 
  3301 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3302 arithmetic.
  3303 
  3304 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3305 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3306 and lattice type classes.
  3307 
  3308 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3309 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3310 
  3311 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3312 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3313 
  3314 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3315 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3316 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317 
  3318   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3319   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3320   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3321   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3322 
  3323 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3324 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3325 constants:
  3326 
  3327   type inat   ~> type enat
  3328   Fin         ~> enat
  3329   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3330   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3331   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3332 
  3333 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3334 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3335 
  3336 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3337 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3338 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3339 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3340 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3341 
  3342 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3343 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3344 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3345 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3346 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3347 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3348 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3349 
  3350   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3351   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3352   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3353   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3354 
  3355 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3356 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3357 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3358 
  3359   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3360   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3361   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3362   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3363   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3364   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3365   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3366   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3367   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3368   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3369   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3370   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3371   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3372   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3373   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3374   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3375   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3376   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3377   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3378   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3379   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3380   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3381   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3382   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3383   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3384   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3385   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3386   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3387   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3388   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3389   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3390   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3391   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3392   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3393   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3394   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3395   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3396   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3397   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3398   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3399   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3400   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3401   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3402   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3403   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3404   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3405   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3406   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3407   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3408   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3409   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3410 
  3411 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3412   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3413   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3414   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3415   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3416     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3417 
  3418 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419 
  3420   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3421   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3422   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3423   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3424   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3425   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3426   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3427   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3428   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3429   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3430   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3431   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3432   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3433   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3434   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3435   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3436   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3437   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3438   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3439   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3440   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3441   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3442   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3443   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3444   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3445 
  3446 
  3447 *** Document preparation ***
  3448 
  3449 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3450 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3451 same.
  3452 
  3453 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3454 result.
  3455 
  3456 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3457 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3458 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3459 
  3460 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3461 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3462 
  3463 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3464 like this:
  3465 
  3466   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3467   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3468 
  3469 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3470 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3471 layouts.
  3472 
  3473 
  3474 *** ML ***
  3475 
  3476 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3477 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3478 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3479 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3480 under external program control.
  3481 
  3482 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3483 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3484 
  3485 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3486 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3487 (better known as Proof General).
  3488 
  3489 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3490 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3491 
  3492 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3493 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3494 
  3495 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3496 (including quotes etc.).
  3497 
  3498 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3499 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3500 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3501 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3502 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3503 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3504 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3505 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3506 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3507 
  3508 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3509 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3510 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3511 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3512 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3513 
  3514 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3515 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3516 
  3517 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3518 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3519 
  3520 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3521 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3522 
  3523 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3524 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3525 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3526 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3527 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3528 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3529 proper Proof.context.
  3530 
  3531 
  3532 *** System ***
  3533 
  3534 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3535 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3536 
  3537 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3538 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3539 
  3540 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3541 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3542 
  3543   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3544   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3545   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3546   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3547   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3548 
  3549 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3550 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3553 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3554 example:
  3555 
  3556   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3557 
  3558 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3559 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3560 
  3561 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3562 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3563 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3564 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3565 
  3566 
  3567 
  3568 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3569 ----------------------------------
  3570 
  3571 *** General ***
  3572 
  3573 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3574 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3575 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3576 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3577 like this:
  3578 
  3579   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3580 
  3581 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3582 
  3583 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3584 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3585 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3586 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3587 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3588 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3589 
  3590 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3591 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3592 the following package declarations:
  3593 
  3594   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3595   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3596 
  3597 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3598 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3599 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3600 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3601 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3602 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3603 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3604 
  3605 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3606 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3607 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3608 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3609 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3610 
  3611 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3612 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3613 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3614 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3615 
  3616 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3617 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3618 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3619 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3620 
  3621   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3622 
  3623   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3624   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3625   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3626   show_types                    show_types
  3627   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3628   show_consts                   show_consts
  3629   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3630 
  3631   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3632   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3633   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3634 
  3635   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3636   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3637 
  3638   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3639 
  3640   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3641   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3642   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3643   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3644   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3645 
  3646 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3647 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3648 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3649 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3650 
  3651 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3653 
  3654   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3655   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3656 
  3657 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3658 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3659 float_token.
  3660 
  3661 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3662 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3664 
  3665 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3666 DejaVu Sans.
  3667 
  3668 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3669 
  3670 
  3671 *** Pure ***
  3672 
  3673 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3674 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3675 time.
  3676 
  3677 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3678 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3679 
  3680 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3681 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3682 
  3683 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3684 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3685 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3686 command already provided this functionality.
  3687 
  3688 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3689 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3690 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3691 without interpretations.
  3692 
  3693 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3694 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3695 
  3696 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3697 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3698 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3699 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3700 
  3701 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3702 'definition' instead.
  3703 
  3704 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3705 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3706 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3707 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3708 
  3709 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3710 constructors.
  3711 
  3712 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3713 the local file system.
  3714 
  3715 
  3716 *** HOL ***
  3717 
  3718 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3719 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3720 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3721 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3722 
  3723   declare [[coercion f]]
  3724 
  3725 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3726 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3727 
  3728   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3729 
  3730 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3731 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3732 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3733 other theories like this:
  3734 
  3735   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3736 
  3737 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3738 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3739 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3740 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3741 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3742 for examples.
  3743 
  3744 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3745 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3746 
  3747 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3748 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3749 
  3750 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3751 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3752 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3753 
  3754 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3755 functorial structure of types.
  3756 
  3757 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3758 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3759 
  3760 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3761 languages.
  3762 
  3763 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3764 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3765 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3766 
  3767 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3768 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3769 
  3770 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3771 combinators any longer.
  3772 
  3773 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3774 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3775 
  3776 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3777 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3778 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3779 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3780 
  3781   record 'a foo = ...
  3782   ...
  3783   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3784 
  3785 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3786 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3790 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3791 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3792 
  3793 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3794 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3795 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3796 
  3797 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3798 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3799 
  3800 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3801 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3802 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3803 independently.
  3804 
  3805 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3806 counter example search.
  3807 
  3808 * Sledgehammer:
  3809   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3810     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3811     sledgehammer").
  3812   - Renamed commands:
  3813     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3814     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3815     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3816     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3817   - Renamed options:
  3818     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3819     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3820     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3821     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3822     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3823 
  3824 * Nitpick:
  3825   - Renamed options:
  3826     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3827     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3828     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3829   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3830   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3831   - Added "whack" option.
  3832   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3833   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3834   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3835   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3836     higher cardinalities.
  3837   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3838 
  3839 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3840 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3841 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3842 
  3843     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3844 
  3845 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3846 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3847 
  3848 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3849 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3850 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3851 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3852 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3853 "smt_solver".
  3854 
  3855 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3856 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3857 
  3858 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3859 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3860 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3861 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3862 
  3863 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3864   - Renamed:
  3865     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3866     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3867     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3868   - Added:
  3869     smt_verbose
  3870     smt_random_seed
  3871     smt_datatypes
  3872     smt_infer_triggers
  3873     smt_monomorph_limit
  3874     cvc3_options
  3875     remote_cvc3_options
  3876     remote_z3_options
  3877     yices_options
  3878 
  3879 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3880 header.
  3881 
  3882 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3883 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3884 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3885 
  3886   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3887 
  3888 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3891 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3892 
  3893 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3894 
  3895 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3896 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3897 
  3898 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3899 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3900 
  3901 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3902 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3903 
  3904 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3905 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3906 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3907 
  3908 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3909 
  3910 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3912 
  3913 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3914 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3915 
  3916 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3917 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3918 for congruent(2)).
  3919 
  3920 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3921 
  3922   types
  3923     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3924     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3925 
  3926   constants
  3927     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3928     True ~> HOL.True
  3929     False ~> HOL.False
  3930     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3931     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3932     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3933     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3934     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3935     The ~> HOL.The
  3936     All ~> HOL.All
  3937     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3938     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3939     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3940     If ~> HOL.If
  3941     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3942     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3943     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3944     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3945     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3946     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3947     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3948     op : ~> Set.member
  3949     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3950 
  3951 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3952 
  3953 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3954 
  3955     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3956     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3957     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3958     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3959     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3960     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3961     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3962     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3963 
  3964 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3965 
  3966 * More stylized fact names:
  3967 
  3968   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3969   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3970   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3971   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3972 
  3973 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3974 
  3975 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3976 
  3977   constants
  3978     null ~> List.null
  3979 
  3980   facts
  3981     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3982     null_empty ~> null_def
  3983 
  3984 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3985 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3986 generation.
  3987 
  3988 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3989 Haskell code.
  3990 
  3991 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3992 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3993 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3994 
  3995 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3996 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3997 
  3998 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3999 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4000 
  4001 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4002 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4003 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4004 
  4005 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4006 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4007 
  4008 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4010 
  4011 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4012 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4013 referred to by its qualified name.
  4014 
  4015   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4016   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4017   product ~>  Enum.product
  4018 
  4019 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4020 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022 
  4023 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4024 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4025 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4027 
  4028 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4029 sort_key.
  4030 
  4031 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4033 
  4034 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4035 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4036 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4037 
  4038   types
  4039     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4040               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4041               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4042         (depends on your needs)
  4043 
  4044   constants
  4045      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4046      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4047      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4048 
  4049 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4050 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4051 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4052 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4053 
  4054 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4055 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4056 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4057 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4058 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4059 
  4060 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4062 
  4063 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4064 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4065 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4066 
  4067 
  4068 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4069 
  4070 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4071 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4072 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4073 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4074 compatibility.
  4075 
  4076 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4077 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4078 
  4079 
  4080 *** HOLCF ***
  4081 
  4082 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4083 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4084 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4085 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4086 
  4087 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4088 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4089 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4090 
  4091   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4092   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4093   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4094 
  4095 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4096 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4097 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4098 
  4099 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4100 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4101 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4102 domain definition now works:
  4103 
  4104   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4105 
  4106 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4107 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4108 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4109 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4110 
  4111   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4112     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4113 
  4114   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4115 
  4116 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4117 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4118 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4119 
  4120 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4121 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4122 
  4123 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4124 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4125 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4126 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4127 
  4128 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4129 
  4130 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4131 
  4132 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4133 
  4134 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4136 
  4137 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4138 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4139 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4140 
  4141 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4142 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4143 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4144 
  4145 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4146 still supported as an input translation.
  4147 
  4148 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4149 
  4150   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4151   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4152   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4153   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4154   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4155   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4156   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4157 
  4158 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4159 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4160 
  4161   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4162   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4163   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4164   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4165   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4166   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4167 
  4168 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4169 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4170 
  4171 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4172 
  4173   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4174   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4175   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4176   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4177 
  4178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4179 
  4180 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4181 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4182 
  4183 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4184 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4185 
  4186   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4187   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4188   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4189   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4190   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4191   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4192   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4193   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4194   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4195   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4196   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4197   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4198   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4199   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4200   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4201   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4202   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4203   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4204   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4205   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4206 
  4207 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4208 
  4209   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4210   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4211   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4212   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4213   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4214   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4215   box_less             ~> box_below
  4216   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4217   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4218   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4219   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4220   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4221   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4222   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4223   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4224   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4225   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4226   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4227   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4228   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4229   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4230   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4231   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4232   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4233   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4234   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4235   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4236   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4237   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4238   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4239   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4240   up_less              ~> up_below
  4241   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4242   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4243   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4244   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4245   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4246   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4247   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4248   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4249   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4250   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4251   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4252   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4253   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4254 
  4255 
  4256 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4257 
  4258 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4259 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4260 
  4261 
  4262 *** ML ***
  4263 
  4264 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4265 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4266 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4267 
  4268 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4269 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4270 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4271 
  4272 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4273 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4274 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4275 
  4276 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4277 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4278 
  4279 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4280 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4281 
  4282 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4283 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4284 
  4285 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4286 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4287 
  4288 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4289 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4290 almost all situations.
  4291 
  4292 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4293 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4294 Isabelle/ML.
  4295 
  4296 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4297 meaning.
  4298 
  4299 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4300 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4301 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4302 
  4303 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4304 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4305 
  4306 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4307 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4308 
  4309 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4310 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4311 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4312 
  4313 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4314 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4315 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4316 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4317 configuration options.
  4318 
  4319 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4320 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4321 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4322 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4323 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4324 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4325 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4326 
  4327 
  4328 
  4329 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4330 ---------------------------------
  4331 
  4332 *** General ***
  4333 
  4334 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4335 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4336 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4337 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4338 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4339 their full internal name.
  4340 
  4341 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4342 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4343 Some hints on upgrading:
  4344 
  4345   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4346     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4347     which are independent of this issue.
  4348 
  4349   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4350     provides the following special forms:
  4351 
  4352       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4353       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4354       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4355 
  4356     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4357     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4358     extra variables".
  4359 
  4360     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4361     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4362     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4363     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4364     "logic".
  4365 
  4366   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4367     antiquotations:
  4368 
  4369       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4370       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4371       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4372       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4373 
  4374   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4375     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4376     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4377     antiquotations.
  4378 
  4379 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4380 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4381 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4382 diagnose syntax problems.
  4383 
  4384 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4385 
  4386 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4387 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4388 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4389 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4390 
  4391 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4392 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4393 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4394 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4395 
  4396 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4397 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4398 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4399 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4400 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4401 
  4402 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4403 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4404 
  4405 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4406 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4407 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4408 
  4409   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4410 
  4411 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4412 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4413 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4414 
  4415 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4416 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4418 
  4419 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4420 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4421 
  4422 
  4423 *** Pure ***
  4424 
  4425 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4426 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4427 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4428 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4429 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4430 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4431 inspect proof terms.
  4432 
  4433 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4434 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4435 are added internally.  For example:
  4436 
  4437   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4438 
  4439 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4440 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4441 
  4442 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4443 
  4444 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4445 'class' instead.
  4446 
  4447 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4448 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4450 
  4451 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4452 invariants.
  4453 
  4454 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4455 user space functionality any longer.
  4456 
  4457 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4458 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4460 
  4461 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4462 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4463 
  4464 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4465 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4466 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4467 
  4468 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4469 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4470 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4471 
  4472 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4473 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4474 
  4475 
  4476 *** HOL ***
  4477 
  4478 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4479 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4480 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4481 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4482 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4483 
  4484 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4485 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4486 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4487 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4488 
  4489   fun
  4490     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4491   where
  4492     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4493 
  4494   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4495     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4496 
  4497   quotient_definition
  4498     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4499 
  4500 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4501 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4502 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4503 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4504 
  4505 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4506 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4507 
  4508 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4509 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4510 
  4511 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4513 
  4514 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4515 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4516 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4517 
  4518 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4519 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4520 
  4521 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4523 
  4524 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4526 
  4527 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4528 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4529 
  4530 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4531 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4532 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4533 
  4534   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4535   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4536   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4537   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4538   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4539   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4540   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4541   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4542   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4543   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4544   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4545   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4546   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4547   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4548   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4549   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4550   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4551   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4552   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4553   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4554   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4555   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4556   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4557   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4558   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4559   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4560   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4561   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4562   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4563   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4564 
  4565 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4566 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4567 
  4568 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4569 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4570 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4571 
  4572 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4573 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4574 
  4575 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4576 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4577 
  4578 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4579 
  4580 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4581 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4582 
  4583 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4584 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4585 
  4586 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4587 
  4588 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4589 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4590 
  4591 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4592 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4593 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4594 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4595 
  4596 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4597   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4598   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4599   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4600 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4601 
  4602 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4603 lattices):
  4604 
  4605     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4606     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4607 
  4608     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4609 
  4610     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4611     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4612     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4613     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4614     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4615     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4616     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4617     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4618     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4619     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4620     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4621     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4622     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4623 
  4624     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4625     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4626     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4627     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4628     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4629     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4630     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4631     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4632     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4633     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4634     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4635     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4636     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4637     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4638     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4639     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4640     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4641     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4642 
  4643   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4644   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4645 
  4646     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4647     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4648     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4649     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4650     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4651 
  4652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4653 
  4654 * Refined field classes:
  4655   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4656     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4657     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4658   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4660 
  4661 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4662   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4663   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4664   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4665     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4666   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4667     equal_neg_zero.
  4668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4669 
  4670 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4671 sets to lattices:
  4672 
  4673   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4674   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4675   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4676   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4677   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4678   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4679   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4680   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4681   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4682   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4683 
  4684 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4685 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4686 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4687 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4688 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4689 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4690 
  4691 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4692 multiset order:
  4693 
  4694   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4695     <= and <;
  4696   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4697     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4698     multiset_order;
  4699   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4700     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4701     generation;
  4702   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4703     if needed.
  4704 
  4705 Renamed:
  4706 
  4707   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4708   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4709   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4710 
  4711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4712 
  4713 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4714 
  4715 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4716 
  4717 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4718 
  4719 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4720 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4721 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4722 
  4723   Constants:
  4724   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4725   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4726   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4727   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4728   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4729   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4730   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4731   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4732   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4733   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4734   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4735   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4736   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4737 
  4738   Lemmas:
  4739   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4740   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4741   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4742   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4743   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4744   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4745   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4746   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4747   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4748   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4749   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4750   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4751   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4752 
  4753 * Sledgehammer:
  4754   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4755     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4756     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4757     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4758     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4759     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4760     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4761   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4762   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4763     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4764   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4765     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4766     is still experimental.)
  4767   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4768     full-typed mode.
  4769   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4770 
  4771 * Nitpick:
  4772   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4773   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4774   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4775     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4776   - Added support for quotient types.
  4777   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4778     constructs.
  4779   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4780     "termination" proofs).
  4781   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4782   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4783   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4784   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4785     record getters.
  4786   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4787   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4788   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4789   - Added "atoms" option.
  4790   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4791     problems.
  4792   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4793     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4794     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4795   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4796     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4797   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4798 
  4799 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4800   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4801   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4802   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4803   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4804   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4805   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4806   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4807   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4808   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4809 
  4810 
  4811 *** HOLCF ***
  4812 
  4813 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4814 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4815 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4816 
  4817 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4818 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4819 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4820 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4821 
  4822 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4823 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4824 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4825 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4826 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4827 
  4828 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4829 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4830 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4831 
  4832 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4833 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4834 
  4835   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4836   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4837 
  4838 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4839 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4840 
  4841   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4842   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4843   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4844   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4845   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4846 
  4847 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4848 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4849 
  4850   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4851   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4852   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4853 
  4854 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4855 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4857 
  4858 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4859 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4860 
  4861 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4862 
  4863 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4864 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4865 
  4866 
  4867 *** ML ***
  4868 
  4869 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4870 
  4871     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4872     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4873 
  4874     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4875     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4876     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4877     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4878 
  4879     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4880     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4881     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4882 
  4883 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4884 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4885 
  4886 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4887 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4888 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4889 
  4890 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4891 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4892 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4893 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4894 
  4895 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4896 the context or even global references.
  4897 
  4898 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4899 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4900 
  4901 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4902 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4903 
  4904   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4905   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4906   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4907   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4908   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4909   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4910   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4911   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4912   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4913   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4914 
  4915 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4916 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4917 
  4918 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4919 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4920 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4921 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4922 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4923 
  4924 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4925 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4926 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4927 Theory_Data version.
  4928 
  4929 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4930 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4931 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4932 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4933 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4934 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4935 explicitly in rare situations.
  4936 
  4937 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4938 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4940 
  4941 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4942 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4943 
  4944 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4945 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4946 quite rare).
  4947 
  4948 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4949 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4950 
  4951 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4952 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4953 terms.
  4954 
  4955 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4956 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4957 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4958 
  4959 
  4960 *** System ***
  4961 
  4962 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4963 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4964 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4965 
  4966 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4967 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4968 respectively.
  4969 
  4970 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4971 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4972 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4973 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4974 
  4975   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4976 
  4977 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4978 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4979 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4980 component.
  4981 
  4982 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4983 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4984 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4985 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4986 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4987 the user for manual installation.
  4988 
  4989 
  4990 
  4991 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4992 -------------------------------------
  4993 
  4994 *** General ***
  4995 
  4996 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4997 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4998 
  4999 
  5000 *** Pure ***
  5001 
  5002 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5003 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5004 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5005 
  5006 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5007 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5008 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5009 
  5010 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5011 interpretation.
  5012 
  5013 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5014 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5015 
  5016 
  5017 *** Document preparation ***
  5018 
  5019 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5020 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5021 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5022 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5023 
  5024 
  5025 *** HOL ***
  5026 
  5027 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5028 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5029 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5030 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5031 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5032 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5033 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5034 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5035 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5036 
  5037 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5038 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5039 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5040 
  5041 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5042 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5043 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5044 
  5045 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5046 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5047 
  5048 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5049 
  5050 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5051 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5052 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5053 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5054 
  5055 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5056 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5057 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5058 "mirabelle" utility.
  5059 
  5060 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5061 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5062 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5063 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5064 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5065 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5066 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5067 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5068 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5069 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5070 
  5071 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5072 procedure only.
  5073 
  5074 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5075 
  5076 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5077 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5078 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5079 that fail later.
  5080 
  5081 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5082 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5083 
  5084 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5085 the same method as the approximation method.
  5086 
  5087 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5088 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5089 series expansion.
  5090 
  5091 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5092 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5093 
  5094 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5095 reals.
  5096 
  5097 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5098 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5099 
  5100 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5101 fixpoint theorem.
  5102 
  5103 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5104   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5105     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5106   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5107     accordingly
  5108   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5109     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5110   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5111     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5112 
  5113 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5114 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5115 lattice.
  5116 
  5117 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5118 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5119 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5120 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5121 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5122 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5123 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5124 
  5125 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5126   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5127     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5128   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5129     le_inf_iff
  5130   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5131     sup_aci)
  5132   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5133   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5134   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5135     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5136     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5137     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5138     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5139     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5140     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5141     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5142     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5143     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5144     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5145   - authentic syntax for
  5146     Set.Pow
  5147     Set.image
  5148   - mere abbreviations:
  5149     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5150     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5151     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5152     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5153     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5154     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5155     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5156     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5157   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5158 
  5159 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5160 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5161 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5162 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5163 
  5164 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5165 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5166 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5167 
  5168 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5169 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5170 
  5171 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5172 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5173 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5174 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5175 
  5176 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5177 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5178 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5179 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5180 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5181 
  5182 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5183 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5185 
  5186 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5187 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5188 
  5189 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5190 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5191 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5192 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5193 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5194 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5195 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5197 
  5198 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5199     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5200     code_post       replaces    code post
  5201     etc.
  5202   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5203 
  5204 * Renamed methods:
  5205     sizechange -> size_change
  5206     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5207   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5208 
  5209 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5210 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5211 
  5212 * Renamed theorems:
  5213     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5214     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5215     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5216     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5217     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5218   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5219 
  5220 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5222 
  5223 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5225 
  5226 
  5227 *** HOLCF ***
  5228 
  5229 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5230 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5231 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5232 
  5233 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5234 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5235 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5236 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5237 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5238 
  5239 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5240 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5241 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5242 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5243 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5244 
  5245 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5246 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5247 constructor are pre-configured.
  5248 
  5249 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5250 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5251 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5252 
  5253 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5254 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5255 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5256 as well.)
  5257 
  5258 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5259 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5260 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5261 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5262 examples.
  5263 
  5264 
  5265 *** ML ***
  5266 
  5267 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5268 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5269 
  5270 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5271 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5272 position, logical grouping etc.
  5273 
  5274 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5275 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5276 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5277 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5278 
  5279 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5280 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5281 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5282 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5283 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5284 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5285 
  5286 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5287 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5288 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5289 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5290 experiments with references.
  5291 
  5292 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5293 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5294 
  5295 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5296 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5297 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5298 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5299 
  5300 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5301 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5302 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5303 
  5304 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5305 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5306 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5307 
  5308 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5309 
  5310 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5312 
  5313 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5314 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5315 
  5316 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5317 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5318 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5319 
  5320 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5321 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5322 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5323 
  5324 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5325 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5326 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5328 
  5329 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5330 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5331 instead of global theory.
  5332 
  5333 
  5334 *** System ***
  5335 
  5336 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5337 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5338 usedir option -q.
  5339 
  5340 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5341 also the system manual.
  5342 
  5343 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5344 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5345 
  5346 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5347 this is always enabled.
  5348 
  5349 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5350 
  5351 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5352 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5353 currently supported on Linux only.
  5354 
  5355 
  5356 
  5357 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5358 --------------------------------
  5359 
  5360 *** General ***
  5361 
  5362 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5363 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5364 
  5365   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5366     "isatool."
  5367 
  5368   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5369     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5370 
  5371   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5372     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5373 
  5374 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5375 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5376 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5377 
  5378 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5379 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5380 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5381 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5382 via "isabelle emacs".
  5383 
  5384 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5385 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5386 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5387 
  5388 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5389 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5390 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5391 
  5392 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5393 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5394 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5395 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5396 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5397 
  5398 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5399 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5400 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5401 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5402 
  5403 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5404 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5405 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5406 
  5407 
  5408 *** Pure ***
  5409 
  5410 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5411 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5412 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5413 
  5414 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5415 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5416 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5417 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5418 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5419 
  5420 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5421 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5422 useful in locale declarations.
  5423 
  5424 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5425 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5426 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5427 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5428 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5429 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5430 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5431 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5432 no longer generated.
  5433 
  5434 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5435 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5436 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5437 
  5438 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5439 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5440 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5441 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5442 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5443 
  5444 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5445 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5446 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5447 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5448 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5449 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5450 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5451 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5452 
  5453 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5454 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5455 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5456 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5457 
  5458 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5459 
  5460 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5461 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5462 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5463 
  5464 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5465 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5466 
  5467 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5468 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5469 in HOL, write
  5470 
  5471     class foo = ...
  5472 
  5473 instead of
  5474 
  5475     class foo = type + ...
  5476 
  5477 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5478 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5479 
  5480 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5481 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5482 
  5483 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5484 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5485 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5486 
  5487 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5488 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5489 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5490 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5491 directly in regular applications.
  5492 
  5493 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5494 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5495 
  5496 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5497 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5498 
  5499 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5500 theory context.
  5501 
  5502 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5503 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5504 
  5505 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5506 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5507 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5508 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5509 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5510 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5511 
  5512   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5513 
  5514 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5515 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5516 normalization.
  5517 
  5518 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5519 addressing etc.
  5520 
  5521 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5522 
  5523   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5524   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5525 
  5526 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5527 
  5528   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5529      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5530      parts of the code generator framework).
  5531 
  5532   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5533      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5534      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5535 
  5536 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5537 
  5538 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5539 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5540 
  5541 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5542 patterns, e.g.
  5543 
  5544     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5545 
  5546 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5547 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5548 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5549 hyphen:
  5550 
  5551     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5552 
  5553 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5554 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5555 
  5556 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5557 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5558 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5559 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5560 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5561 higher-order unification.
  5562 
  5563 
  5564 *** Document preparation ***
  5565 
  5566 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5567 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5568 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5569 
  5570 
  5571 *** HOL ***
  5572 
  5573 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5574 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5575 
  5576 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5577 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5578 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5579 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5580 Main, as before.
  5581 
  5582 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5583 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5584 
  5585 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5586 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5587 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5588 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5589 
  5590 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5591 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5592 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5593 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5594 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5595 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5596 
  5597 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5598 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5599 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5600 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5601 
  5602 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5603 menu.
  5604 
  5605 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5606 (contains the empty clause).
  5607 
  5608 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5609 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5610 
  5611 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5612 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5613 
  5614 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5615 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5616 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5617 
  5618 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5619 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5620 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5621 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5622 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5623 
  5624 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5625 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5626 
  5627 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5628 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5629 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5630 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5631 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5632 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5633 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5634 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5635 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5636 
  5637 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5638 
  5639 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5640 
  5641 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5642 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5643 
  5644 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5645 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5646 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5647 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5648 
  5649 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5650 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5651 
  5652     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5653     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5654     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5655     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5656     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5657     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5658     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5659     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5660 
  5661 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5662 theory Set.
  5663 
  5664 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5665 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5666 
  5667 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5668 
  5669 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5670 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5671 
  5672 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5673 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5674 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5675 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5676 allowed. For examples see
  5677 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5678 
  5679 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5680 
  5681 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5683 
  5684 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5685 structure:
  5686 
  5687     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5688     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5689     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5690     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5691     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5692     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5693     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5694     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5695     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5696     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5697     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5698     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5699     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5700     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5701     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5702     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5703     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5704     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5705     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5706     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5707     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5708     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5709     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5710     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5711     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5712     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5713     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5714     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5715     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5716     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5717     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5718     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5719     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5720 
  5721     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5722     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5723     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5724     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5725     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5726     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5727     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5728     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5729     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5730     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5731 
  5732     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5733     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5734     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5735     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5736     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5737     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5738 
  5739 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5740 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5741 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5742 
  5743 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5744 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5745 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5746 
  5747 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5748 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5749 
  5750 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5751 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5752 
  5753 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5754 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5755 proofs, e.g.
  5756 
  5757   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5758 
  5759 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5760 
  5761 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5762 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5763 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5764 
  5765 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5766 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5768 
  5769 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5770 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5771 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5773 
  5774 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5775 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5776 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5777 preorder_class.*.
  5778 
  5779 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5780 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5781 
  5782 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5783 
  5784   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5785 
  5786 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5787 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5788 fold_image.
  5789 
  5790 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5791 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5792 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5793 the former will disappear at some point.
  5794 
  5795 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5796 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5797 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5798 
  5799 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5800 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5801 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5802 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5803 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5804 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5805 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5806 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5807 
  5808 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5809 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5810 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5811 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5812 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5813 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5814 
  5815     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5816     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5817     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5818     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5819     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5820     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5821     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5822 
  5823 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5824 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5825 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5826 
  5827 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5828 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5829 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5830 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5831 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5832 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5833 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5834 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5835 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5836 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5837 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5838 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5839 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5840 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5841 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5842 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5843 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5844 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5845 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5846 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5847 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5848 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5849 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5850 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5851 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5852 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5853 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5854 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5855 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5856 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5857 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5858 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5859 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5860 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5861 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5862 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5863 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5864 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5865 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5866 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5867 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5868 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5869 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5870 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5871 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5872 
  5873 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5874 
  5875 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5876 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5877 
  5878 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5879 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5880 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5881 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5882 
  5883 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5884 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5885 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5886 theory RealVector.
  5887 
  5888 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5889 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5890 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5891 and inner products are included.
  5892 
  5893 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5894 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5895 supported.
  5896 
  5897 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5898 first diagonalization argument.
  5899 
  5900 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5901 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5902 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5903 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5904 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5905 
  5906     hide (open) const gcd
  5907     abbreviation gcd where
  5908       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5909     notation (output)
  5910       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5911 
  5912 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5913 
  5914 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5915 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5916 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5917 
  5918 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5919 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5920 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5921 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5922 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5923 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5924 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5925 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5926 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5927 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5928 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5929 cases.
  5930 
  5931 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5932 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5933 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5934 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5935 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5936 
  5937     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5938     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5939     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5940     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5941     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5942 
  5943 
  5944 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5945 
  5946 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5947 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5948 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5949 
  5950 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5951 
  5952 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5953 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5954 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5955 
  5956 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5957 
  5958 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5959 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5960 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5961 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5962 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5963 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5964 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5965 
  5966 
  5967 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5968 
  5969 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5970 
  5971 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5972 theory targets.
  5973 
  5974 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5975 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5976 'inductive' etc.
  5977 
  5978 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5979 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5980 
  5981 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5982 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5983 
  5984 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5985 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5986 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5987 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5988 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5989 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5990 the algorithm W:
  5991 
  5992  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5993  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5994          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5995 
  5996 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5997 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5998 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5999 
  6000 
  6001 *** HOLCF ***
  6002 
  6003 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  6004 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  6005 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  6006 
  6007 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  6008 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  6009 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  6010 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  6011 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6012 
  6013 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  6014 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6015 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6016 
  6017 
  6018 *** ZF ***
  6019 
  6020 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  6021 
  6022 
  6023 *** ML ***
  6024 
  6025 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  6026 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  6027 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  6028 5.2.1!
  6029 
  6030 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  6031 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  6032 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  6033 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6034 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6035 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6036 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6037 
  6038 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6039 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6040 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6041 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6042 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6043 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6044 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6045 
  6046 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6047 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6048 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6049 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6050 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6051 
  6052 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6053 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6054 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6055 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6056 Method.add_method.
  6057 
  6058 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6059 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6060 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6061 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6062 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6063 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6064 
  6065 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6066 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6067 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6068 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6069 examples.
  6070 
  6071 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6072 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6073 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6074 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  6075 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  6076 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  6077 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  6078 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  6079 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  6080 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  6081 
  6082 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  6083 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  6084 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  6085 
  6086 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  6087 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  6088 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  6089 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  6090 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  6091 resort for legacy applications.
  6092 
  6093 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  6094 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  6095 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  6096 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  6097 explicit runtime argument.
  6098 
  6099 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  6100 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  6101 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  6102 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  6103 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6104 
  6105 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  6106 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  6107 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  6108 theory state.
  6109 
  6110 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  6111 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  6112 
  6113   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  6114   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  6115   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  6116   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  6117   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  6118   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  6119   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  6120   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  6121   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  6122   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  6123 
  6124 
  6125 *** System ***
  6126 
  6127 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  6128 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  6129 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  6130 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  6131 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  6132 
  6133 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  6134 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  6135 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  6136 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  6137 
  6138 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  6139 
  6140 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  6141 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  6142 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  6143 prover operations.
  6144 
  6145 
  6146 
  6147 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  6148 -------------------------------
  6149 
  6150 *** General ***
  6151 
  6152 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  6153 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  6154 
  6155 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6156 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6157 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6158 provides a proper context already.
  6159 
  6160 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6161 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6162 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6163 
  6164 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6165 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6166 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6167 swap theory imports.
  6168 
  6169 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6170 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6171 
  6172 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6173 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6174 white space without escapes.
  6175 
  6176 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6177 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6178 "foo_bar".
  6179 
  6180 
  6181 *** Pure ***
  6182 
  6183 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6184 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6185 
  6186 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6187 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6188 
  6189 (1) unused_thms
  6190      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6191 
  6192 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6193      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6194      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6195 
  6196 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6197      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6198      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6199      their ancestors.
  6200 
  6201 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6202 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6203 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6204 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6205 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6206 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6207 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6208 
  6209 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6210 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6211 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6212 
  6213 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6214 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6215 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6216 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6217 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6218 
  6219 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6220 
  6221 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6222 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6223 update of theories within ML code.
  6224 
  6225 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6226 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6227 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6228 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6229 
  6230 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6231 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6232 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6234 
  6235 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6236 
  6237 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6238 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6239 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6240 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6241 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6242 
  6243 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6244 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6245 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6246 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6247 situations.
  6248 
  6249 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6250 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6251 proof text.
  6252 
  6253 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6254 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6255 
  6256 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6257 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6258 predicates.
  6259 
  6260