NEWS
author blanchet
Sun Apr 22 14:16:46 2012 +0200 (2012-04-22)
changeset 47672 1bf4fa90cd03
parent 47659 e3c4d1b0b351
child 47673 dd253cfa5b23
permissions -rw-r--r--
fixed typos
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
     5 ------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10 
    11   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
    12     command line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
    13   - markup for bound variables
    14   - markup for types of term variables (e.g. displayed as tooltips)
    15   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    16   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
    17     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
    18 
    19 * Updated and extended reference manuals ("isar-ref" and
    20 "implementation"); reduced remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    21 
    22 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    23 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    24 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    25 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    26 etc. was exploited.
    27 
    28 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    29 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    30 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    31 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    32 indices of schematic variables.
    33 
    34 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
    35 
    36     num ~> num_token
    37     xnum ~> xnum_token
    38     xstr ~> str_token
    39 
    40 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
    41 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
    42 position information via constraints).
    43 
    44 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
    45 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
    46 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    47 
    48 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    49 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    50 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    51 
    52 
    53 *** Pure ***
    54 
    55 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
    56 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
    57 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
    58 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
    59 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
    60 
    61   context
    62     fixes x y z :: 'a
    63     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
    64   begin
    65 
    66   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
    67 
    68   end
    69 
    70   thm my_trans
    71 
    72 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
    73 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
    74 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
    75 
    76 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
    77 ... begin ... end" block as well.
    78 
    79 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
    80 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
    81 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
    82 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.
    83 
    84 See commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref
    85 manual.
    86 
    87 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
    88 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
    89 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
    90 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
    91 
    92 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
    93 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
    94 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
    95 
    96 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
    97 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
    98 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
    99 undocumented feature.)
   100 
   101 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   102 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   103 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   104 
   105 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   106 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   107 
   108 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   109 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   110 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   111 
   112 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   113 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   114 
   115 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   116 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   117 
   118   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   119 
   120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   121 
   122 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   123 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   124 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   125 
   126   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   127 
   128   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   129     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   130 
   131 
   132 *** HOL ***
   133 
   134 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL" ("prog-prove").
   135 It completely supercedes "A Tutorial Introduction to Structured Isar Proofs",
   136 which has been removed. It supercedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant
   137 for Higher-Order Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial
   138 but does not cover all of the material of that old tutorial.
   139 
   140 * Discontinued old Tutorial on Isar ("isar-overview");
   141 
   142 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   143 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   144 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   145 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase sets S accidentally
   146 used as predicates by "%x. x : S" and predicates P accidentally used
   147 as sets by "{x. P x}".  Corresponding proofs in a first step should be
   148 pruned from any tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def
   149 as far as possible.
   150 
   151 For developments which deliberately mixed predicates and sets, a
   152 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   153 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   154 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   155 
   156 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   157 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   158 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   159 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. (See definitions
   160 in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.) Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some user theories
   161 may require adaptations as follows:
   162 
   163   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   164     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   165 
   166   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   167     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   168     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   169 
   170   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   171     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   172 
   173   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   174     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   175     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   176 
   177   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   178     Redefine using other integer operations.
   179 
   180 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   181 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183 * New proof import from HOL Light: Faster, simpler, and more scalable.
   184 Requires a proof bundle, which is available as an external component.
   185 Discontinued old (and mostly dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.
   186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   189 
   190 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   191 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   192 of some relation theorems:
   193 
   194   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   195   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   196   symp_def ~> (dropped, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   197   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   198   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   199   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   200 
   201 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   202 
   203 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   204 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   205 
   206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   209 to match the constant's name:
   210 
   211   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   212   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   213   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   214   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   215   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   216   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   217   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   218   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   219   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   220   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   221   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   222   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   223   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   224   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   225   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   226   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   227   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   228   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   229   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   230   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   231   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   232   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   233   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   234   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   235 
   236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   237 
   238 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   239 and corresponding theorem names:
   240 
   241   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   242 
   243   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   244 
   245   - Renamed theorems:
   246 
   247     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   248     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   249     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   250     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   251     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   252     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   253     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   254     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   255     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   256     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   257     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   258     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   259     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   260     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   261     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   262     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   263     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   264     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   265     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   266     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   267     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   268     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   269     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   270 
   271     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   272 
   273     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   274 
   275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   278 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   279 
   280   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   281   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   282   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   283   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   284   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   285   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   286   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   287   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   288   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   289   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   290   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   291   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   292   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   293   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   294   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   295   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   296   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   297   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   298   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   299   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   300   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   301 
   302 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   303 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306 
   307 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   308 
   309   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   310   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   311   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   312   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   313   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   314   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   315   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   316   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   317   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   318   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   319   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   320   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   321   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   322   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   323   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   324   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   325   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   326   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   327 
   328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   329 
   330 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   331 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   332 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   333 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   334 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   335 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   336 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   337 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   338 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   339 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   340 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   341 
   342 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   343 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   344 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   345 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   346 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   347 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   348 
   349 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   350 through option types.
   351 
   352 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   353 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   354 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   355 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   356 one_case.
   357 
   358 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   359 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   360 
   361 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   362 association lists with distinct keys.
   363 
   364 * 'datatype' specifications allow explicit sort constraints.
   365 
   366 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   367 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   368 
   369 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   370 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   371 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   372 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   373 follows:
   374 
   375   Operations:
   376   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   377   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   378   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   379   del -> rbt_del
   380   delete -> rbt_delete
   381   ins -> rbt_ins
   382   insert -> rbt_insert
   383   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   384   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   385   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   386   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   387   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   388   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   389   tree_less -> rbt_less
   390   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   391   union -> rbt_union
   392   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   393   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   394 
   395   Lemmas:
   396   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   397   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   398   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   399   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   400   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   401   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   402   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   403   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   404   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   405   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   406   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   407   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   408   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   409   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   410   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   411   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   412   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   413   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   414   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   415   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   416   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   417   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   418   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   419   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   420   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   421   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   422   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   423   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   424   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   425   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   426   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   427   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   428   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   429   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   430   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   431   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   432   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   433   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   434   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   435   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   436   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   437   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   438   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   439   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   440   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   441   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   442   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   443   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   444   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   445   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   446   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   447   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   448   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   449   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   450   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   451   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   452   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   453   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   454   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   455   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   456   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   457   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   458   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   459   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   460   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   461   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   462   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   463   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   464   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   465   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   466   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   467   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   468   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   469   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   470   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   471   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   472   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   473   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   474   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   475   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   476   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   477   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   478   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   479 
   480 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as a
   481 subset of the real numbers. All operations are defined using the
   482 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.
   483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   484 
   485   Changed Operations:
   486   float_abs -> abs
   487   float_nprt -> nprt
   488   float_pprt -> pprt
   489   pow2 -> use powr
   490   round_down -> float_round_down
   491   round_up -> float_round_up
   492   scale -> exponent
   493 
   494   Removed Operations:
   495   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   496 
   497   Renamed Lemmas:
   498   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   499   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   500   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   501   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   502   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   503   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   504   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   505   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   506   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   507   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   508   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   509   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   510   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   511   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   512   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   513   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   514   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   515   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   516   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   517   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   518   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   519   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   520   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   521   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   522   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   523   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   524   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   525   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   526   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   527   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   528   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   529   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   530   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   531   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   532   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   533   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   534 
   535   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   536   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   537   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   538   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   539   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   540   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   541   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   542   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   543   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   544   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   545 
   546 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   547 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   548 instead.
   549 
   550   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   551   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   552   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   553   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   554   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   555   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   556   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   557   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   558   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   559   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   560   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   561   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   562   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   563   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   564   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   565   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   566   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   567   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   568   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   569   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   570   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   571   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   572   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   573   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   574   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   575   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   576   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   577   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   578   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   579   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   580   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   581   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   582   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   583   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   584   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   585   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   586   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   587   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   588   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   589   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   590   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   591 
   592 * New tactic "word_bitwise" for splitting machine word equalities and
   593 inequalities into logical circuits. Requires theory "WordBitwise" from HOL-Word
   594 session. Supports addition, subtraction, multiplication, shifting by
   595 constants, bitwise operators and numeric constants. Requires fixed-length word
   596 types, cannot operate on 'a word. Solves many standard word identies outright
   597 and converts more into first order problems amenable to blast or similar. See
   598 HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy and examples in HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   599 
   600 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   601 the result of the fact expression.
   602 
   603 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   604 relations.
   605 
   606 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   607 
   608 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   609 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   610 
   611   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   612   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   613   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   614   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   615   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   616   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   617   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   618   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   619   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   620   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   621   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   622   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   623   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   624   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   625   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   626   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   627   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   628   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   629   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   630   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   631   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   632   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   633   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   634   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   635   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   636   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   637   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   638   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   639   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   640   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   641   zless_le ~> less_le
   642   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   643   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   644   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   645 
   646 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   647 
   648   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   649 
   650 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   651 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   652 
   653   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   654 
   655 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   656 a list and a nat.
   657 
   658 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   659 
   660 * New Transfer package:
   661 
   662   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   663     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   664     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   665     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   666     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   667 
   668     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   669     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   670 
   671   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   672     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   673     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   674     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   675     necessary for variables whose types changes, but can be overridden
   676     for specific variables with e.g. 'transfer fixing: x y z'.
   677     The variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with
   678     one that is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   679 
   680   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   681     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)". The
   682     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   683     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   684 
   685   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   686     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   687     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   688     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   689 
   690   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   691     from type nat to type int.
   692 
   693 * New Lifting package:
   694 
   695   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   696     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation type. Example
   697     syntax:
   698 
   699     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   700       is List.insert
   701 
   702     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   703     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   704     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   705     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   706     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   707     by the package.
   708 
   709   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   710     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   711     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   712     code generation for each constant.
   713 
   714   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with
   715     a user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient
   716     theorem or a type_definition theorem. The package configures
   717     transfer rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets
   718     up the lift_definition command to work with the type.
   719 
   720   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   721     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Word/Word.thy and
   722     Library/Float.thy.
   723 
   724 * Quotient package:
   725 
   726   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   727     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   728 
   729   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   730     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   731 
   732   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   733     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   734     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   735 
   736   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   737     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   738 
   739 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   740 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   741 
   742 * Quickcheck:
   743 
   744   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   745     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   746     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   747     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   748     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   749 
   750     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   751     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   752     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   753 
   754     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   755     continues searching for genuine ones.
   756 
   757     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   758     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   759     show genuine counterexamples.
   760 
   761   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   762     value generators for a given type and operations.
   763 
   764     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   765     constructors of that type.
   766 
   767   - Support for multisets.
   768 
   769   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   770 
   771   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   772     conjectures in a locale context.
   773 
   774 * Nitpick:
   775   - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and
   776     affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   777 
   778 * Sledgehammer:
   779   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012 paper "More
   780     SPASS with Isabelle".
   781   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   782   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and TFF1),
   783     iProver, iProver-Eq.
   784   - Replaced remote E-SInE with remote Satallax in the default setup.
   785   - Sped up the minimizer.
   786   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   787   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   788   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   789 
   790 * Metis:
   791   - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   792     parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   793 
   794 * SMT:
   795   - Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   796 
   797 * Command 'try0':
   798   - Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   799 
   800 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   801 eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.
   802 
   803 * HOL/TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all languages)
   804 into Isabelle/HOL.
   805 
   806 
   807 *** FOL ***
   808 
   809 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
   810 
   811 
   812 *** ZF ***
   813 
   814 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
   815 analysis.
   816 
   817 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
   818 
   819 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   820 
   821 
   822 *** ML ***
   823 
   824 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
   825 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
   826 
   827 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
   828 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
   829 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
   830 
   831 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
   832 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
   833 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
   834 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
   835 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
   836 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
   837 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
   838 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
   839 
   840 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
   841 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
   842 
   843 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
   844 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
   845 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
   846 
   847 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   848 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   849 
   850 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
   851 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
   852 context as well.
   853 
   854 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
   855 
   856   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
   857   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
   858   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
   859   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
   860   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
   861   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
   862   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
   863   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
   864   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
   865   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
   866   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
   867   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
   868 
   869 
   870 *** System ***
   871 
   872 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
   873 (not just JRE).
   874 
   875 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
   876 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
   877 
   878 
   879 
   880 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
   881 ------------------------------------
   882 
   883 *** General ***
   884 
   885 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
   886 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
   887 
   888   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
   889     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
   890     files for checking).
   891 
   892   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
   893     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
   894     positions.
   895 
   896   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
   897     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
   898     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
   899 
   900   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
   901     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
   902     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
   903 
   904   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
   905     cores.
   906 
   907   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
   908     versions (garbage collection).
   909 
   910 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
   911 including some remaining limitations.
   912 
   913 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
   914 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   915 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
   916 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
   917 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
   918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   919 
   920 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
   921 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
   922 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
   923 
   924 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
   925 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
   926 usedir option -Q.
   927 
   928 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
   929 configuration options, with more conventional names:
   930 
   931   long_names   ~> names_long
   932   short_names  ~> names_short
   933   unique_names ~> names_unique
   934 
   935 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
   936 
   937   declare [[names_unique = false]]
   938 
   939 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
   940 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
   941 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
   942 
   943 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
   944 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
   945 
   946 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
   947   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
   948   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
   949   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
   950     "Classical Reasoner".
   951 
   952 
   953 *** HOL ***
   954 
   955 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
   956 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   957 
   958 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
   959 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
   960 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
   961 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
   962 class complete_linorder.
   963 
   964 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
   965 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
   966 
   967 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
   968 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
   969 
   970   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
   971   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
   972   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   973   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   974   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   975   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   976   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
   977   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
   978   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
   979   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
   980   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
   981 
   982 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   983 
   984   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
   985   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
   986   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   987   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   988   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   989   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   990   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   991   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   992   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   993   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   994   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   995   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   996   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   997   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   998   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   999   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1000 
  1001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1002 
  1003 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1004 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1005 
  1006 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1007 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1008 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1009 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1010 
  1011 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1012 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1013 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1014 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1015 
  1016 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1017 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1018 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1019 
  1020 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1021 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1022 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1023 
  1024 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1025 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1026 
  1027 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1028 
  1029     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1030     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1031 
  1032 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1033 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1034 
  1035 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1036 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1037 
  1038 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1039 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1040 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1041 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1042 
  1043   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1044   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1045   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1046   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1047   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1048   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1049   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1050 
  1051 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1052 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1053 
  1054   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1055   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1056   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1057   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1058   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1059   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1060   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1061   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1062   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1063   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1064   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1065   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1066   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1067   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1068   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1069   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1070   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1071   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1072   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1073   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1074   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1075   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1076   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1077   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1078   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1079   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1080   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1081   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1082   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1083   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1084   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1085   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1086   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1087   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1088   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1089   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1090   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1091   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1092   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1093   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1094   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1095   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1096   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1097   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1098   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1099   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1100   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1101   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1102   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1103   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1104   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1105   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1106   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1107   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1108   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1109   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1110   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1111   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1112   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1113   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1114   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1115   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1116   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1117   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1118   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1119   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1120   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1121   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1122   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1123   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1124   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1125   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1126   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1127   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1128   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1129   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1130   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1131   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1132   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1133   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1134   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1135   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1136 
  1137 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1138 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1139 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1140 
  1141 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1142 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1143 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1144 
  1145 * Code generation:
  1146 
  1147   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1148     characters in the target language.
  1149 
  1150   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1151     instead.
  1152 
  1153   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1154 
  1155   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1156     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1157 
  1158       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1159 
  1160 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1161 
  1162 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1163 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1164 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1165 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1166 syntax.
  1167 
  1168 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1169 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1170 
  1171 * Nitpick:
  1172   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1173   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1174   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1175     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1176 
  1177 * Sledgehammer:
  1178   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1179   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1180     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1181   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1182     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1183   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1184     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1185   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1186     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1187   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1188     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1189 
  1190 * Metis:
  1191   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1192   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1193     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1194 
  1195 * Command 'try':
  1196   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1197     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1198   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1199     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1200 
  1201 * Quickcheck:
  1202   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1203     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1204   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1205     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1206   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1207     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1208     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1209     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1210   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1211     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1212 
  1213 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1214 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1215 
  1216 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1217 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1218 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1219 
  1220 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1221 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1222 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1223 
  1224 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1225 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1226 
  1227 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1228 arithmetic.
  1229 
  1230 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1231 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1232 and lattice type classes.
  1233 
  1234 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1235 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1236 
  1237 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1238 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1239 
  1240 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1241 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1242 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1243 
  1244   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1245   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1246   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1247   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1248 
  1249 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1250 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1251 constants:
  1252 
  1253   type inat   ~> type enat
  1254   Fin         ~> enat
  1255   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1256   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1257   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1258 
  1259 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1260 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1261 
  1262 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1263 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1264 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1265 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1266 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1267 
  1268 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1269 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1270 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1271 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1272 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1273 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1274 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1275 
  1276   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1277   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1278   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1279   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1280 
  1281 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1282 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1283 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1284 
  1285   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1286   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1287   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1288   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1289   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1290   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1291   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1292   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1293   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1294   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1295   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1296   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1297   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1298   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1299   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1300   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1301   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1302   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1303   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1304   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1305   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1306   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1307   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1308   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1309   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1310   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1311   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1312   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1313   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1314   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1315   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1316   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1317   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1318   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1319   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1320   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1321   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1322   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1323   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1324   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1325   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1326   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1327   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1328   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1329   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1330   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1331   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1332   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1333   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1334   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1335   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1336 
  1337 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1338   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1339   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1340   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1341   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1342     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1343 
  1344 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1345 
  1346   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1347   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1348   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1349   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1350   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1351   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1352   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1353   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1354   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1355   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1356   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1357   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1358   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1359   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1360   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1361   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1362   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1363   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1364   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1365   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1366   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1367   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1368   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1369   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1370   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1371 
  1372 
  1373 *** Document preparation ***
  1374 
  1375 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1376 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1377 same.
  1378 
  1379 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1380 result.
  1381 
  1382 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1383 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1384 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1385 
  1386 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1387 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1388 
  1389 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1390 like this:
  1391 
  1392   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1393   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1394 
  1395 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1396 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1397 layouts.
  1398 
  1399 
  1400 *** ML ***
  1401 
  1402 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1403 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1404 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1405 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1406 under external program control.
  1407 
  1408 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1409 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1410 
  1411 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1412 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1413 (better known as Proof General).
  1414 
  1415 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1416 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1417 
  1418 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1419 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1420 
  1421 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1422 (including quotes etc.).
  1423 
  1424 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1425 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1426 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1427 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1428 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1429 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1430 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1431 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1432 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1433 
  1434 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1435 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1436 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1437 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1438 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1439 
  1440 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1441 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1442 
  1443 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1444 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1445 
  1446 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1447 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1448 
  1449 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1450 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1451 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1452 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1453 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1454 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1455 proper Proof.context.
  1456 
  1457 
  1458 *** System ***
  1459 
  1460 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1461 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1462 
  1463 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1464 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1465 
  1466 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1467 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1468 
  1469   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1470   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1471   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1472   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1473   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1474 
  1475 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1476 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1477 
  1478 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1479 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1480 example:
  1481 
  1482   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1483 
  1484 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1485 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1486 
  1487 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1488 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1489 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1490 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1491 
  1492 
  1493 
  1494 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1495 ----------------------------------
  1496 
  1497 *** General ***
  1498 
  1499 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1500 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1501 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1502 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1503 like this:
  1504 
  1505   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1506 
  1507 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1508 
  1509 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1510 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1511 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1512 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1513 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1514 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1515 
  1516 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1517 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1518 the following package declarations:
  1519 
  1520   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1521   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1522 
  1523 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1524 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1525 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1526 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1527 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1528 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1529 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1530 
  1531 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1532 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1533 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1534 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1535 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1536 
  1537 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1538 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1539 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1540 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1541 
  1542 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1543 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1544 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1545 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1546 
  1547   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1548 
  1549   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1550   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1551   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1552   show_types                    show_types
  1553   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1554   show_consts                   show_consts
  1555   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1556 
  1557   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1558   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1559   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1560 
  1561   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1562   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1563 
  1564   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1565 
  1566   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1567   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1568   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1569   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1570   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1571 
  1572 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1573 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1574 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1575 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1576 
  1577 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1581   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1582 
  1583 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1584 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1585 float_token.
  1586 
  1587 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1588 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1589 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1590 
  1591 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1592 DejaVu Sans.
  1593 
  1594 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1595 
  1596 
  1597 *** Pure ***
  1598 
  1599 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1600 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1601 time.
  1602 
  1603 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1604 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1605 
  1606 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1607 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1608 
  1609 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1610 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1611 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1612 command already provided this functionality.
  1613 
  1614 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1615 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1616 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1617 without interpretations.
  1618 
  1619 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1620 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1621 
  1622 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1623 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1624 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1625 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1626 
  1627 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1628 'definition' instead.
  1629 
  1630 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1631 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1632 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1633 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1634 
  1635 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1636 constructors.
  1637 
  1638 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1639 the local file system.
  1640 
  1641 
  1642 *** HOL ***
  1643 
  1644 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1645 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1646 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1647 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1648 
  1649   declare [[coercion f]]
  1650 
  1651 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1652 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1653 
  1654   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1655 
  1656 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1657 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1658 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1659 other theories like this:
  1660 
  1661   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1662 
  1663 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1664 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1665 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1666 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1667 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1668 for examples.
  1669 
  1670 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1671 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1672 
  1673 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1674 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1675 
  1676 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1677 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1678 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1679 
  1680 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1681 functorial structure of types.
  1682 
  1683 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1684 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1685 
  1686 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1687 languages.
  1688 
  1689 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1690 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1692 
  1693 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1694 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1695 
  1696 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1697 combinators any longer.
  1698 
  1699 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1700 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1701 
  1702 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1703 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1704 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1705 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1706 
  1707   record 'a foo = ...
  1708   ...
  1709   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1710 
  1711 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1712 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1714 
  1715 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1716 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1717 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1718 
  1719 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1720 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1721 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1722 
  1723 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1724 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1725 
  1726 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1727 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1728 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1729 independently.
  1730 
  1731 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1732 counter example search.
  1733 
  1734 * Sledgehammer:
  1735   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1736     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1737     sledgehammer").
  1738   - Renamed commands:
  1739     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1740     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1741     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1742     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1743   - Renamed options:
  1744     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1745     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1746     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1747     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1748     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1749 
  1750 * Nitpick:
  1751   - Renamed options:
  1752     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1753     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1754     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1755   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1756   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1757   - Added "whack" option.
  1758   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1759   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1760   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1761   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1762     higher cardinalities.
  1763   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1764 
  1765 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1766 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1767 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1768 
  1769     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1770 
  1771 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1772 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1773 
  1774 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1775 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1776 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1777 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1778 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1779 "smt_solver".
  1780 
  1781 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1782 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1783 
  1784 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1785 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1786 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1787 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1788 
  1789 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1790   - Renamed:
  1791     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1792     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1793     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1794   - Added:
  1795     smt_verbose
  1796     smt_random_seed
  1797     smt_datatypes
  1798     smt_infer_triggers
  1799     smt_monomorph_limit
  1800     cvc3_options
  1801     remote_cvc3_options
  1802     remote_z3_options
  1803     yices_options
  1804 
  1805 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  1806 header.
  1807 
  1808 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  1809 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  1810 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  1811 
  1812   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  1813 
  1814 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1815 
  1816 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  1817 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1818 
  1819 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1820 
  1821 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  1822 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1823 
  1824 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  1825 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  1826 
  1827 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  1828 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1829 
  1830 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  1831 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  1832 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1833 
  1834 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1835 
  1836 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  1837 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1838 
  1839 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  1840 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1841 
  1842 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  1843 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  1844 for congruent(2)).
  1845 
  1846 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  1847 
  1848   types
  1849     bool ~> HOL.bool
  1850     nat ~> Nat.nat
  1851 
  1852   constants
  1853     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  1854     True ~> HOL.True
  1855     False ~> HOL.False
  1856     op & ~> HOL.conj
  1857     op | ~> HOL.disj
  1858     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  1859     op = ~> HOL.eq
  1860     Not ~> HOL.Not
  1861     The ~> HOL.The
  1862     All ~> HOL.All
  1863     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  1864     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  1865     Let ~> HOL.Let
  1866     If ~> HOL.If
  1867     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  1868     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  1869     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  1870     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  1871     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  1872     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  1873     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  1874     op : ~> Set.member
  1875     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  1876 
  1877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1878 
  1879 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  1880 
  1881     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  1882     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  1883     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  1884     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  1885     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  1886     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  1887     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  1888     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  1889 
  1890 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1891 
  1892 * More stylized fact names:
  1893 
  1894   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  1895   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  1896   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  1897   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  1898 
  1899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1900 
  1901 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  1902 
  1903   constants
  1904     null ~> List.null
  1905 
  1906   facts
  1907     mem_iff ~> member_def
  1908     null_empty ~> null_def
  1909 
  1910 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  1911 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  1912 generation.
  1913 
  1914 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  1915 Haskell code.
  1916 
  1917 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  1918 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  1919 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1920 
  1921 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  1922 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1923 
  1924 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  1925 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  1926 
  1927 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  1928 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  1929 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1930 
  1931 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  1932 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1933 
  1934 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  1935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1936 
  1937 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  1938 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  1939 referred to by its qualified name.
  1940 
  1941   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1942   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1943   product ~>  Enum.product
  1944 
  1945 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1946 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1947 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1948 
  1949 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1950 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1951 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1953 
  1954 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1955 sort_key.
  1956 
  1957 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1959 
  1960 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1961 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1962 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1963 
  1964   types
  1965     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1966               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1967               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1968         (depends on your needs)
  1969 
  1970   constants
  1971      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1972      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1973      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1974 
  1975 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1976 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1977 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1978 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1979 
  1980 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1981 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1982 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1983 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1984 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1985 
  1986 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1987 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1988 
  1989 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1990 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1991 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1992 
  1993 
  1994 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1995 
  1996 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1997 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1998 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1999 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2000 compatibility.
  2001 
  2002 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2003 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2004 
  2005 
  2006 *** HOLCF ***
  2007 
  2008 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2009 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2010 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2011 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2012 
  2013 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2014 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2015 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2016 
  2017   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2018   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2019   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2020 
  2021 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2022 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2023 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2024 
  2025 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2026 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2027 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2028 domain definition now works:
  2029 
  2030   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2031 
  2032 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2033 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2034 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2035 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2036 
  2037   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2038     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2039 
  2040   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2041 
  2042 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2043 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2044 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2045 
  2046 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2047 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2048 
  2049 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2050 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2051 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2052 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2053 
  2054 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2055 
  2056 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2057 
  2058 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2059 
  2060 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2062 
  2063 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2064 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2065 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2066 
  2067 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2068 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2069 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2070 
  2071 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2072 still supported as an input translation.
  2073 
  2074 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2075 
  2076   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2077   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2078   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2079   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2080   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2081   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2082   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2083 
  2084 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2085 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2086 
  2087   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2088   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2089   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2090   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2091   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2092   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2093 
  2094 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2095 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2096 
  2097 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2098 
  2099   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2100   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2101   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2102   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2103 
  2104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2105 
  2106 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2107 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2108 
  2109 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2110 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2111 
  2112   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2113   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2114   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2115   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2116   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2117   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2118   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2119   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2120   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2121   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2122   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2123   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2124   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2125   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2126   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2127   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2128   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2129   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2130   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2131   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2132 
  2133 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2134 
  2135   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2136   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2137   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2138   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2139   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2140   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2141   box_less             ~> box_below
  2142   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2143   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2144   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2145   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2146   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2147   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2148   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2149   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2150   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2151   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2152   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2153   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2154   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2155   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2156   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2157   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2158   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2159   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2160   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2161   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2162   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2163   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2164   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2165   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2166   up_less              ~> up_below
  2167   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2168   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2169   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2170   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2171   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2172   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2173   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2174   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2175   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2176   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2177   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2178   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2179   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2180 
  2181 
  2182 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2183 
  2184 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2185 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2186 
  2187 
  2188 *** ML ***
  2189 
  2190 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2191 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2192 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2193 
  2194 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2195 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2196 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2197 
  2198 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2199 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2200 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2201 
  2202 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2203 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2204 
  2205 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2206 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2207 
  2208 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2209 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2210 
  2211 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2212 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2213 
  2214 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2215 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2216 almost all situations.
  2217 
  2218 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2219 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2220 Isabelle/ML.
  2221 
  2222 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2223 meaning.
  2224 
  2225 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2226 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2227 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2228 
  2229 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2230 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2231 
  2232 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2233 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2234 
  2235 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2236 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2237 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2238 
  2239 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2240 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2241 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2242 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2243 configuration options.
  2244 
  2245 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2246 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2247 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2248 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2249 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2250 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2251 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2252 
  2253 
  2254 
  2255 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2256 ---------------------------------
  2257 
  2258 *** General ***
  2259 
  2260 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2261 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2262 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2263 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2264 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2265 their full internal name.
  2266 
  2267 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2268 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2269 Some hints on upgrading:
  2270 
  2271   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2272     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2273     which are independent of this issue.
  2274 
  2275   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2276     provides the following special forms:
  2277 
  2278       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2279       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2280       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2281 
  2282     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2283     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2284     extra variables".
  2285 
  2286     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2287     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2288     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2289     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2290     "logic".
  2291 
  2292   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2293     antiquotations:
  2294 
  2295       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2296       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2297       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2298       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2299 
  2300   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2301     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2302     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2303     antiquotations.
  2304 
  2305 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2306 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2307 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2308 diagnose syntax problems.
  2309 
  2310 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2311 
  2312 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2313 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2314 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2315 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2316 
  2317 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2318 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2319 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2320 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2321 
  2322 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2323 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2324 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2325 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2326 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2327 
  2328 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2329 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2330 
  2331 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2332 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2333 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2334 
  2335   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2336 
  2337 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2338 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2339 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2340 
  2341 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2342 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2344 
  2345 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2346 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2347 
  2348 
  2349 *** Pure ***
  2350 
  2351 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2352 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2353 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2354 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2355 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2356 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2357 inspect proof terms.
  2358 
  2359 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2360 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2361 are added internally.  For example:
  2362 
  2363   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2364 
  2365 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2366 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2367 
  2368 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2369 
  2370 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2371 'class' instead.
  2372 
  2373 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2374 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2375 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2376 
  2377 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2378 invariants.
  2379 
  2380 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2381 user space functionality any longer.
  2382 
  2383 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2384 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2385 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2386 
  2387 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2388 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2389 
  2390 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2391 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2392 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2393 
  2394 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2395 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2396 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2397 
  2398 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2399 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2400 
  2401 
  2402 *** HOL ***
  2403 
  2404 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2405 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2406 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2407 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2408 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2409 
  2410 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2411 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2412 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2413 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2414 
  2415   fun
  2416     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2417   where
  2418     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2419 
  2420   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2421     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2422 
  2423   quotient_definition
  2424     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2425 
  2426 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2427 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2428 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2429 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2430 
  2431 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2432 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2433 
  2434 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2435 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2436 
  2437 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2439 
  2440 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2441 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2442 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2443 
  2444 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2445 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2446 
  2447 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2449 
  2450 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2452 
  2453 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2454 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2455 
  2456 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2457 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2458 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2459 
  2460   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2461   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2462   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2463   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2464   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2465   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2466   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2467   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2468   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2469   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2470   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2471   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2472   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2473   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2474   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2475   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2476   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2477   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2478   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2479   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2480   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2481   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2482   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2483   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2484   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2485   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2486   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2487   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2488   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2489   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2490 
  2491 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2492 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2493 
  2494 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2495 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2496 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2497 
  2498 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2499 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2500 
  2501 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2502 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2503 
  2504 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2505 
  2506 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2507 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2508 
  2509 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2510 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2511 
  2512 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2513 
  2514 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2515 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2516 
  2517 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2518 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2519 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2520 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2521 
  2522 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2523   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2524   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2525   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2527 
  2528 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2529 lattices):
  2530 
  2531     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2532     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2533 
  2534     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2535 
  2536     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2537     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2538     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2539     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2540     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2541     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2542     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2543     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2544     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2545     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2546     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2547     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2548     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2549 
  2550     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2551     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2552     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2553     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2554     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2555     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2556     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2557     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2558     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2559     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2560     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2561     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2562     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2563     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2564     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2565     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2566     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2567     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2568 
  2569   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2570   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2571 
  2572     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2573     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2574     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2575     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2576     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2577 
  2578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2579 
  2580 * Refined field classes:
  2581   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2582     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2583     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2584   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2585 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2586 
  2587 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2588   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2589   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2590   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2591     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2592   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2593     equal_neg_zero.
  2594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2595 
  2596 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2597 sets to lattices:
  2598 
  2599   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2600   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2601   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2602   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2603   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2604   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2605   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2606   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2607   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2608   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2609 
  2610 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2611 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2612 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2613 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2614 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2615 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2616 
  2617 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2618 multiset order:
  2619 
  2620   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2621     <= and <;
  2622   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2623     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2624     multiset_order;
  2625   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2626     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2627     generation;
  2628   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2629     if needed.
  2630 
  2631 Renamed:
  2632 
  2633   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2634   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2635   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2636 
  2637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2638 
  2639 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2640 
  2641 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2642 
  2643 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2644 
  2645 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2646 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2647 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2648 
  2649   Constants:
  2650   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2651   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2652   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2653   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2654   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2655   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2656   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2657   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2658   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2659   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2660   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2661   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2662   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2663 
  2664   Lemmas:
  2665   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2666   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2667   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2668   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2669   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2670   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2671   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2672   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2673   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2674   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2675   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2676   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2677   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2678 
  2679 * Sledgehammer:
  2680   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2681     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2682     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2683     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2684     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2685     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2686     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2687   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2688   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2689     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2690   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2691     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2692     is still experimental.)
  2693   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2694     full-typed mode.
  2695   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2696 
  2697 * Nitpick:
  2698   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2699   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2700   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2701     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2702   - Added support for quotient types.
  2703   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2704     constructs.
  2705   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2706     "termination" proofs).
  2707   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2708   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2709   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2710   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2711     record getters.
  2712   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2713   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2714   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2715   - Added "atoms" option.
  2716   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2717     problems.
  2718   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2719     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2720     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2721   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2722     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2723   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2724 
  2725 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2726   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2727   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2728   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2729   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2730   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2731   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2732   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2733   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2734   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735 
  2736 
  2737 *** HOLCF ***
  2738 
  2739 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2740 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2741 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2742 
  2743 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2744 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2745 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2746 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747 
  2748 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2749 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2750 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2751 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2752 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2753 
  2754 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2755 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2756 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2757 
  2758 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2759 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2760 
  2761   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2762   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2763 
  2764 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2765 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2766 
  2767   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2768   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2769   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2770   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2771   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2772 
  2773 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2774 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2775 
  2776   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2777   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2778   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2779 
  2780 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2781 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2783 
  2784 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2785 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2786 
  2787 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788 
  2789 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2790 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2791 
  2792 
  2793 *** ML ***
  2794 
  2795 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2796 
  2797     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2798     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2799 
  2800     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  2801     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  2802     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  2803     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2804 
  2805     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  2806     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  2807     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2808 
  2809 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  2810 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  2811 
  2812 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  2813 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  2814 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  2815 
  2816 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  2817 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  2818 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  2819 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  2820 
  2821 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  2822 the context or even global references.
  2823 
  2824 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  2825 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  2826 
  2827 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  2828 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  2829 
  2830   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  2831   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  2832   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  2833   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  2834   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  2835   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  2836   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  2837   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  2838   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  2839   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  2840 
  2841 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  2842 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  2843 
  2844 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  2845 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  2846 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  2847 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  2848 pass the proper local context through the code!
  2849 
  2850 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  2851 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  2852 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  2853 Theory_Data version.
  2854 
  2855 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  2856 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  2857 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  2858 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  2859 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  2860 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  2861 explicitly in rare situations.
  2862 
  2863 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  2864 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  2865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2866 
  2867 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  2868 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2869 
  2870 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  2871 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  2872 quite rare).
  2873 
  2874 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  2875 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2876 
  2877 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  2878 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  2879 terms.
  2880 
  2881 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  2882 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  2883 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  2884 
  2885 
  2886 *** System ***
  2887 
  2888 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  2889 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  2890 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  2891 
  2892 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  2893 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  2894 respectively.
  2895 
  2896 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  2897 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  2898 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  2899 prefers 64 bit if available:
  2900 
  2901   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  2902 
  2903 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  2904 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  2905 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  2906 component.
  2907 
  2908 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  2909 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  2910 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  2911 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  2912 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  2913 the user for manual installation.
  2914 
  2915 
  2916 
  2917 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  2918 -------------------------------------
  2919 
  2920 *** General ***
  2921 
  2922 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  2923 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  2924 
  2925 
  2926 *** Pure ***
  2927 
  2928 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  2929 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  2930 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  2931 
  2932 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  2933 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  2934 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  2935 
  2936 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  2937 interpretation.
  2938 
  2939 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  2940 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2941 
  2942 
  2943 *** Document preparation ***
  2944 
  2945 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2946 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2947 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2948 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2949 
  2950 
  2951 *** HOL ***
  2952 
  2953 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2954 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2955 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2956 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2957 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2958 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2959 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2960 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2961 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2962 
  2963 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2964 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2965 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2966 
  2967 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2968 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2969 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2970 
  2971 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2972 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2973 
  2974 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2975 
  2976 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2977 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2978 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2979 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2980 
  2981 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2982 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2983 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2984 "mirabelle" utility.
  2985 
  2986 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2987 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2988 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2989 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2990 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2991 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2992 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2993 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2994 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2995 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2996 
  2997 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2998 procedure only.
  2999 
  3000 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3001 
  3002 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3003 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3004 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3005 that fail later.
  3006 
  3007 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3008 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3009 
  3010 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3011 the same method as the approximation method.
  3012 
  3013 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3014 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3015 series expansion.
  3016 
  3017 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3018 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3019 
  3020 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3021 reals.
  3022 
  3023 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3024 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3025 
  3026 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3027 fixpoint theorem.
  3028 
  3029 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3030   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3031     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3032   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3033     accordingly
  3034   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3035     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3036   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3037     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3038 
  3039 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3040 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3041 lattice.
  3042 
  3043 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3044 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3045 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3046 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3047 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3048 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3050 
  3051 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3052   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3053     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3054   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3055     le_inf_iff
  3056   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3057     sup_aci)
  3058   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3059   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3060   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3061     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3062     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3063     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3064     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3065     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3066     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3067     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3068     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3069     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3070     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3071   - authentic syntax for
  3072     Set.Pow
  3073     Set.image
  3074   - mere abbreviations:
  3075     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3076     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3077     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3078     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3079     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3080     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3081     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3082     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3083   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3084 
  3085 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3086 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3087 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3088 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3089 
  3090 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3091 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3092 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3093 
  3094 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3095 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3096 
  3097 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3098 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3099 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3100 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3103 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3104 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3105 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3106 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3107 
  3108 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3109 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3111 
  3112 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3113 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3114 
  3115 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3116 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3117 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3118 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3119 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3120 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3121 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3123 
  3124 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3125     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3126     code_post       replaces    code post
  3127     etc.
  3128   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3129 
  3130 * Renamed methods:
  3131     sizechange -> size_change
  3132     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3133   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3134 
  3135 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3136 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3137 
  3138 * Renamed theorems:
  3139     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3140     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3141     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3142     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3143     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3144   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3145 
  3146 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3148 
  3149 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3151 
  3152 
  3153 *** HOLCF ***
  3154 
  3155 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3156 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3157 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3158 
  3159 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3160 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3161 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3162 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3163 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3164 
  3165 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3166 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3167 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3168 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3169 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3170 
  3171 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3172 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3173 constructor are pre-configured.
  3174 
  3175 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3176 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3177 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3178 
  3179 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3180 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3181 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3182 as well.)
  3183 
  3184 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3185 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3186 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3187 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3188 examples.
  3189 
  3190 
  3191 *** ML ***
  3192 
  3193 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3194 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3195 
  3196 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3197 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3198 position, logical grouping etc.
  3199 
  3200 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3201 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3202 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3203 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3204 
  3205 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3206 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3207 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3208 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3209 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3210 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3211 
  3212 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3213 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3214 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3215 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3216 experiments with references.
  3217 
  3218 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3219 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3220 
  3221 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3222 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3223 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3224 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3225 
  3226 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3227 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3228 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3229 
  3230 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3231 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3232 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3233 
  3234 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3235 
  3236 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3237 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3238 
  3239 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3240 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3241 
  3242 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3243 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3244 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3245 
  3246 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3247 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3248 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3249 
  3250 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3251 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3252 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254 
  3255 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3256 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3257 instead of global theory.
  3258 
  3259 
  3260 *** System ***
  3261 
  3262 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3263 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3264 usedir option -q.
  3265 
  3266 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3267 also the system manual.
  3268 
  3269 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3270 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3271 
  3272 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3273 this is always enabled.
  3274 
  3275 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3276 
  3277 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3278 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3279 currently supported on Linux only.
  3280 
  3281 
  3282 
  3283 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3284 --------------------------------
  3285 
  3286 *** General ***
  3287 
  3288 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3289 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3290 
  3291   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3292     "isatool."
  3293 
  3294   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3295     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3296 
  3297   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3298     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3299 
  3300 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3301 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3302 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3303 
  3304 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3305 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3306 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3307 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3308 via "isabelle emacs".
  3309 
  3310 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3311 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3312 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3313 
  3314 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3315 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3316 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3317 
  3318 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3319 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3320 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3321 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3322 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3323 
  3324 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3325 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3326 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3327 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3328 
  3329 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3330 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3331 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3332 
  3333 
  3334 *** Pure ***
  3335 
  3336 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3337 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3338 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3339 
  3340 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3341 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3342 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3343 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3344 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3345 
  3346 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3347 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3348 useful in locale declarations.
  3349 
  3350 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3351 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3352 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3353 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3354 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3355 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3356 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3357 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3358 no longer generated.
  3359 
  3360 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3361 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3362 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3363 
  3364 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3365 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3366 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3367 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3368 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3369 
  3370 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3371 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3372 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3373 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3374 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3375 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3376 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3377 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3378 
  3379 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3380 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3381 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3382 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3383 
  3384 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3385 
  3386 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3387 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3388 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3389 
  3390 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3391 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3392 
  3393 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3394 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3395 in HOL, write
  3396 
  3397     class foo = ...
  3398 
  3399 instead of
  3400 
  3401     class foo = type + ...
  3402 
  3403 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3404 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3405 
  3406 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3407 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3408 
  3409 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3410 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3411 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3412 
  3413 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3414 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3415 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3416 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3417 directly in regular applications.
  3418 
  3419 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3420 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3421 
  3422 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3423 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3424 
  3425 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3426 theory context.
  3427 
  3428 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3429 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3432 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3433 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3434 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3435 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3436 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3437 
  3438   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3439 
  3440 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3441 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3442 normalization.
  3443 
  3444 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3445 addressing etc.
  3446 
  3447 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3448 
  3449   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3450   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3451 
  3452 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3453 
  3454   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3455      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3456      parts of the code generator framework).
  3457 
  3458   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3459      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3460      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3461 
  3462 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3463 
  3464 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3465 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3466 
  3467 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3468 patterns, e.g.
  3469 
  3470     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3471 
  3472 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3473 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3474 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3475 hyphen:
  3476 
  3477     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3478 
  3479 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3480 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3481 
  3482 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3483 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3484 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3485 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3486 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3487 higher-order unification.
  3488 
  3489 
  3490 *** Document preparation ***
  3491 
  3492 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3493 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3494 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3495 
  3496 
  3497 *** HOL ***
  3498 
  3499 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3500 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3501 
  3502 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3503 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3504 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3505 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3506 Main, as before.
  3507 
  3508 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3509 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3510 
  3511 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3512 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3513 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3514 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3515 
  3516 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3517 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3518 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3519 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3520 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3521 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3522 
  3523 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3524 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3525 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3526 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3527 
  3528 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3529 menu.
  3530 
  3531 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3532 (contains the empty clause).
  3533 
  3534 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3535 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3536 
  3537 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3538 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3539 
  3540 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3541 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3542 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3543 
  3544 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3545 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3546 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3547 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3548 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3549 
  3550 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3551 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3552 
  3553 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3554 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3555 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3556 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3557 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3558 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3559 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3560 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3561 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3562 
  3563 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3564 
  3565 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3566 
  3567 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3568 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3569 
  3570 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3571 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3572 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3573 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3574 
  3575 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3576 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3577 
  3578     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3579     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3580     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3581     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3582     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3583     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3584     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3585     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3586 
  3587 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3588 theory Set.
  3589 
  3590 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3591 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3592 
  3593 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3594 
  3595 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3596 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3597 
  3598 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3599 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3600 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3601 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3602 allowed. For examples see
  3603 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3604 
  3605 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3606 
  3607 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3608 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3609 
  3610 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3611 structure:
  3612 
  3613     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3614     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3615     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3616     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3617     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3618     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3619     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3620     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3621     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3622     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3623     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3624     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3625     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3626     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3627     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3628     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3629     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3630     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3631     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3632     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3633     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3634     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3635     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3636     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3637     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3638     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3639     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3640     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3641     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3642     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3643     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3644     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3645     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3646 
  3647     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3648     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3649     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3650     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3651     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3652     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3653     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3654     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3655     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3656     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3657 
  3658     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3659     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3660     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3661     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3662     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3663     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3664 
  3665 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3666 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3667 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3668 
  3669 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3670 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3671 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3672 
  3673 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3674 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3675 
  3676 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3677 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3678 
  3679 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3680 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3681 proofs, e.g.
  3682 
  3683   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3684 
  3685 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3686 
  3687 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3688 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3689 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3690 
  3691 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3692 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3696 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3697 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3698 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3699 
  3700 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3701 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3702 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3703 preorder_class.*.
  3704 
  3705 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3706 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3707 
  3708 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3709 
  3710   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3711 
  3712 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3713 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3714 fold_image.
  3715 
  3716 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3717 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3718 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3719 the former will disappear at some point.
  3720 
  3721 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3722 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3723 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3724 
  3725 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3726 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3727 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3728 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3729 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3730 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3731 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3732 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3733 
  3734 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3735 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3736 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3737 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3738 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3739 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3740 
  3741     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3742     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3743     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3744     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3745     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3746     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3747     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3748 
  3749 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3750 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3751 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3752 
  3753 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3754 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3755 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3756 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3757 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3758 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3759 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3760 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3761 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3762 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3763 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3764 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3765 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3766 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3767 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3768 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3769 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3770 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3771 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3772 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3773 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3774 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3775 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3776 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3777 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3778 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3779 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3780 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3781 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3782 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3783 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3784 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3785 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3786 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3787 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3788 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3789 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3790 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3791 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3792 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3793 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3794 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3795 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3796 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3797 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3798 
  3799 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  3802 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  3803 
  3804 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  3805 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  3806 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  3807 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  3808 
  3809 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  3810 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  3811 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  3812 theory RealVector.
  3813 
  3814 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  3815 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  3816 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  3817 and inner products are included.
  3818 
  3819 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  3820 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  3821 supported.
  3822 
  3823 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  3824 first diagonalization argument.
  3825 
  3826 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  3827 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  3828 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  3829 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3830 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  3831 
  3832     hide (open) const gcd
  3833     abbreviation gcd where
  3834       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  3835     notation (output)
  3836       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  3837 
  3838 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  3839 
  3840 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  3841 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  3842 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3843 
  3844 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  3845 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  3846 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  3847 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  3848 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  3849 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  3850 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  3851 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  3852 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  3853 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  3854 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  3855 cases.
  3856 
  3857 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  3858 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  3859 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  3860 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  3861 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  3862 
  3863     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  3864     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  3865     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  3866     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  3867     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  3868 
  3869 
  3870 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3871 
  3872 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  3873 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  3874 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  3875 
  3876 * New theory of factorial domains.
  3877 
  3878 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  3879 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  3880 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  3881 
  3882 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3883 
  3884 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  3885 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  3886 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  3887 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  3888 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  3889 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  3890 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  3891 
  3892 
  3893 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3894 
  3895 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  3896 
  3897 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  3898 theory targets.
  3899 
  3900 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  3901 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  3902 'inductive' etc.
  3903 
  3904 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  3905 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  3906 
  3907 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  3908 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  3909 
  3910 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  3911 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  3912 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  3913 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  3914 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  3915 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  3916 the algorithm W:
  3917 
  3918  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  3919  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  3920          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  3921 
  3922 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  3923 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  3924 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  3925 
  3926 
  3927 *** HOLCF ***
  3928 
  3929 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  3930 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  3931 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  3932 
  3933 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  3934 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  3935 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  3936 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  3937 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3938 
  3939 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  3940 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3941 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942 
  3943 
  3944 *** ZF ***
  3945 
  3946 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3947 
  3948 
  3949 *** ML ***
  3950 
  3951 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3952 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3953 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3954 5.2.1!
  3955 
  3956 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3957 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3958 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3959 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3960 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3961 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3962 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3963 
  3964 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3965 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3966 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3967 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3968 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3969 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3970 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3971 
  3972 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3973 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3974 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3975 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3976 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3977 
  3978 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3979 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3980 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3981 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3982 Method.add_method.
  3983 
  3984 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3985 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3986 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3987 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3988 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3989 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3990 
  3991 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3992 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3993 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3994 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3995 examples.
  3996 
  3997 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3998 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3999 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4000 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4001 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4002 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4003 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4004 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4005 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4006 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4007 
  4008 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4009 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4010 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4011 
  4012 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4013 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4014 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4015 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4016 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4017 resort for legacy applications.
  4018 
  4019 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4020 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4021 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4022 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4023 explicit runtime argument.
  4024 
  4025 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4026 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4027 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4028 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4029 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4030 
  4031 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4032 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4033 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4034 theory state.
  4035 
  4036 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4037 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4038 
  4039   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4040   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4041   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4042   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4043   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4044   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4045   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4046   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4047   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4048   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4049 
  4050 
  4051 *** System ***
  4052 
  4053 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4054 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4055 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4056 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4057 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4058 
  4059 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4060 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4061 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4062 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4063 
  4064 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4065 
  4066 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4067 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4068 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4069 prover operations.
  4070 
  4071 
  4072 
  4073 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4074 -------------------------------
  4075 
  4076 *** General ***
  4077 
  4078 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4079 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4080 
  4081 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4082 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4083 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4084 provides a proper context already.
  4085 
  4086 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4087 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4088 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4089 
  4090 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4091 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4092 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4093 swap theory imports.
  4094 
  4095 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4096 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4097 
  4098 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4099 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4100 white space without escapes.
  4101 
  4102 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4103 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4104 "foo_bar".
  4105 
  4106 
  4107 *** Pure ***
  4108 
  4109 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4110 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4111 
  4112 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4113 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4114 
  4115 (1) unused_thms
  4116      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4117 
  4118 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4119      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4120      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4121 
  4122 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4123      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4124      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4125      their ancestors.
  4126 
  4127 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4128 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4129 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4130 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4131 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4132 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4133 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4134 
  4135 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4136 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4137 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4138 
  4139 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4140 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4141 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4142 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4143 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4144 
  4145 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4146 
  4147 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4148 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4149 update of theories within ML code.
  4150 
  4151 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4152 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4153 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4154 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4155 
  4156 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4157 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4158 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4159 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4160 
  4161 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4162 
  4163 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4164 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4165 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4166 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4167 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4168 
  4169 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4170 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4171 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4172 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4173 situations.
  4174 
  4175 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4176 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4177 proof text.
  4178 
  4179 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4180 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4181 
  4182 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4183 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4184 predicates.
  4185 
  4186 
  4187 *** Document preparation ***
  4188 
  4189 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4190 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4191 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4192 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4193 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4194 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4195 
  4196 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4197 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4198 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4199 
  4200 
  4201 *** HOL ***
  4202 
  4203 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4204 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4205 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4206 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4207 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4208 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4209 
  4210 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4211 with multithreading.
  4212 
  4213 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4214 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4215 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4216 
  4217 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4218 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4219 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4220 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4221 
  4222 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4223 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4224 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4225 and makes them available separately.  See
  4226 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4227 
  4228 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4229 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4230 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4231 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4232 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4233 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4234 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4235 the declared rules.
  4236 
  4237 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4238 
  4239   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4240 
  4241 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4242 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4243 
  4244 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4245 
  4246   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4247 
  4248   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4249     definitions on => and bool.
  4250 
  4251   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4252     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4253     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4254 
  4255       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4256       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4257       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4258       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4259       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4260       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4261       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4262       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4263 
  4264   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4265     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4266     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4267 
  4268   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4269     The proof pattern
  4270 
  4271       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4272       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4273 
  4274     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4275     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4276 
  4277       have "EX S. P S"
  4278       proof
  4279         show "P S" <...>
  4280       qed
  4281 
  4282   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4283     The proof pattern
  4284 
  4285       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4286       also have "S = T" <...>
  4287       finally have "P T" .
  4288 
  4289     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4290     must be replaced by something like
  4291 
  4292       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4293       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4294       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4295 
  4296   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4297     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4298 
  4299       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4300 
  4301     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4302     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4303     type of the form
  4304 
  4305       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4306 
  4307     rather than
  4308 
  4309       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4310 
  4311 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4312 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4313 
  4314 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4315 
  4316 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4317 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4319 
  4320 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4321 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4322 
  4323 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4324 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4325 
  4326 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4327 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4328 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4329 
  4330 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4331 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4332 
  4333   less_trans
  4334   less_linear
  4335   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4336   le_less_trans
  4337   less_le_trans
  4338   less_not_sym
  4339   less_asym
  4340 
  4341 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4342 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4343 and different variable names.
  4344 
  4345 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4346 
  4347 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4348 finite maps.
  4349 
  4350 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4351 
  4352 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4353 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4354 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4355 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4356 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4357 accordingly.
  4358 
  4359 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4360 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4361 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4362 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4363 
  4364 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4365 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4366 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4367 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4368 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4370 
  4371 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4372 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4373 
  4374 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4375 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4376 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4377 
  4378 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4379 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4380 
  4381 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4382 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4383 
  4384 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4385 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4386 
  4387 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4388 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4389 
  4390 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4391 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4393 
  4394 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4395 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4396 
  4397 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4398 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4399 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4400 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4401 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4402 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4403 
  4404 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4405 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4406 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4407 
  4408 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4409 
  4410 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4411 
  4412 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4413 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4414 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4415 
  4416 
  4417 *** ZF ***
  4418 
  4419 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4420 same session:
  4421 
  4422   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4423   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4424   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4425   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4426   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4427   List      -> List_ZF
  4428   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4429 
  4430 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4431 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4432 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4433 
  4434 
  4435 *** ML ***
  4436 
  4437 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4438 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4439 
  4440 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4441 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4442 
  4443 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4444 
  4445 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4446 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4447 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4448 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4449 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4450 
  4451 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4452 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4453 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4454 
  4455 
  4456 *** System ***
  4457 
  4458 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4459 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4460 
  4461 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4462 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4463 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4464 
  4465 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4466 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4467 
  4468 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4469 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4470 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4471 
  4472 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4473 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4474 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4475 
  4476 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4477 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4478 
  4479 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4480 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4481 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4482 script.
  4483 
  4484 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4485 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4486 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4487 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4488 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4489 
  4490 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4491 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4492 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4493 
  4494 
  4495 
  4496 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4497 -----------------------------------
  4498 
  4499 *** General ***
  4500 
  4501 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4502 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4503 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4504 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4505 
  4506 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4507 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4508 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4509 
  4510 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4511 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4512 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4513 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4514 
  4515 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4516 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4517 quotes.
  4518 
  4519 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4520 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4521 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4522 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4523 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4524 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4525 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4526 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4527 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4528 
  4529 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4530 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4531 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4532 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4533 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4534 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4535 
  4536 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4537 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4538 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4539 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4540 
  4541 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4542 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4543 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4544 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4545 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4546 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4547 
  4548 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4549 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4550 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4551 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4552 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4553 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4554 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4555 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4556 
  4557 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4558 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4559 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4560 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4561 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4562 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4563 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4564 
  4565 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4566 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4567 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4568 
  4569 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4570 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4571 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4572 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4573 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4574 limit is imposed.
  4575 
  4576 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4577 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4578 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4579 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4580 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4581 and scalability.
  4582 
  4583 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4584 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4585 
  4586 
  4587 *** Document preparation ***
  4588 
  4589 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4590 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4591 current context.
  4592 
  4593 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4594 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4595 
  4596 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4597 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4598 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4599 
  4600 
  4601 *** Pure ***
  4602 
  4603 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4604 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4605 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4606 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4607 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4608 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4609 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4610 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4611 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4612 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4613 
  4614 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4615 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4616 sketch:
  4617 
  4618     internal compilation:
  4619         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4620     writing SML code to a file:
  4621         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4622     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4623         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4624     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4625         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4626 
  4627     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4628         method ``eval''
  4629 
  4630 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4631 
  4632 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4633 
  4634     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4635     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4636     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4637     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4638 
  4639 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4640 
  4641     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4642       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4643 
  4644     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4645       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4646 
  4647     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4648       {(target)}+
  4649         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4650 
  4651     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4652       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4653         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4654 
  4655 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4656 
  4657 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4658 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4659 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4660 codegen".
  4661 
  4662 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4663 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4664 annotations).
  4665 
  4666 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4667 syntax.
  4668 
  4669 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4670 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4671 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4672 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4673 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4674 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4675 
  4676 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4677 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4678 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4679 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4680 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4681 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4682 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4683 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4684 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4685 equations, see section "definitions".
  4686 
  4687 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4688 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4689 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4690 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4691 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4692 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4693 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4694 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4695 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4696 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4697 
  4698 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4699 configuration options:
  4700 
  4701   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4702   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4703   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4704   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4705   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4706   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4707   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4708   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4709   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4710 
  4711 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4712 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4713 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4714 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4715 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4716 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4717 order.
  4718 
  4719 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4720 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4721 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4722 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4723 context encountered later on.
  4724 
  4725 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4726 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4727 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4728 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4729 
  4730 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4731 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4732 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4733 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4734 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4735 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4736 
  4737 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4738 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4739 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4740 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4741 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4742 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4743 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4744 more permissive.
  4745 
  4746 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4747 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4748 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4749 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4750 maintainability of proof texts.
  4751 
  4752 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4753 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4754 
  4755   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4756   then guess x and y by clarify
  4757 
  4758 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4759 proof tools being involved here.
  4760 
  4761 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4762 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4763 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4764 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4765 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4766 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4767 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4768 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4769 
  4770 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4771 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4772 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4773 
  4774   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4775   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4776   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4777   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4778 
  4779 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4780 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4781 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4782 
  4783 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4784 both named and unnamed ones.
  4785 
  4786 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4787 
  4788   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4789 
  4790 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4791 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4792 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4793 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4794 
  4795 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4796 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4797 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4798 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4799 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4800 
  4801 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  4802 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  4803 
  4804 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  4805 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  4806 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  4807 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  4808 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  4809 originally first one.
  4810 
  4811 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  4812 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  4813 expected.
  4814 
  4815 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  4816 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  4817 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  4818 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  4819 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  4820 
  4821   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4822     assumes "EX x. P x"
  4823     obtains x where "P x"
  4824 
  4825   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4826     assumes "A & B"
  4827     obtains A and B
  4828 
  4829   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4830     assumes "A | B"
  4831     obtains
  4832       A
  4833     | B
  4834 
  4835 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  4836 explicitly:
  4837 
  4838   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4839     obtains "~ thesis"
  4840 
  4841   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4842     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  4843 
  4844 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  4845 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  4846 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  4847 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  4848 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  4849 case_names).
  4850 
  4851 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  4852 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  4853 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  4854 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  4855 
  4856 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  4857 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  4858 top-level lemma.
  4859 
  4860 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  4861 introduction rule (default "that").
  4862 
  4863 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4864 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  4865 to occur.
  4866 
  4867 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  4868 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  4869 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  4870 representations independently of name spaces.
  4871 
  4872 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  4873 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  4874 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4875 
  4876 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  4877 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  4878 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  4879 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  4880 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  4881 current context.
  4882 
  4883 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  4884 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  4885 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  4886 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  4887 
  4888   axiomatization
  4889     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  4890     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  4891 
  4892   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  4893   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  4894 
  4895   abbreviation
  4896     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  4897     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  4898 
  4899 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  4900 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  4901 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  4902 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  4903 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  4904 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  4905 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  4906 
  4907 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  4908 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  4909 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  4910 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  4911 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  4912 
  4913 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  4914 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  4915 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  4916 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  4917 
  4918 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  4919 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  4920 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  4921 
  4922   definition "K x _ = x"
  4923 
  4924   inductive conj for A B
  4925   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  4926 
  4927 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  4928 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  4929 abbreviations on output.
  4930 
  4931 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  4932 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  4933 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  4934 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  4935 
  4936 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  4937 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  4938 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  4939 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  4940 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  4941 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4942 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4943 
  4944 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4945 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4946 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4947 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4948 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4949 
  4950 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4951 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4952 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4953 
  4954 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4955 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4956 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4957 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4958 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4959 
  4960   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4961     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4962 
  4963 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4964 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4965 partial_order.
  4966 
  4967 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4968 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4969 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4970 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4971 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4972 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4973 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4974 examples.
  4975 
  4976 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4977 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4978 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4979 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4980 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4981 
  4982 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4983 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4984 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4985 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4986 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4987 
  4988   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4989   (induct set: foo bar)
  4990   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4991   (induct type: foo bar)
  4992 
  4993 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4994 new format.
  4995 
  4996 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4997 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4998 
  4999 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5000 considered a legacy feature.
  5001 
  5002 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5003 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5004 
  5005 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5006 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5007 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5008 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5009   
  5010 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5011 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5012 manipulating the claset.
  5013 
  5014 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5015 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5016 least one premise.
  5017 
  5018 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5019 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5020 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5021 rule steps.
  5022 
  5023 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5024 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5025 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5026 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5027 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5028 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5029 
  5030 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5031 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5032 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5033 
  5034 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5035 the graph browser tool.
  5036 
  5037 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5038 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5039 
  5040 
  5041 *** HOL ***
  5042 
  5043 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5044 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5045 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5046 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5047 multi-threading.
  5048   
  5049 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5050 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5051 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5052 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5053 work with multi-threading.
  5054 
  5055 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5056 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5057 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5058 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5059 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5060 
  5061 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5062 
  5063 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5064 equality.
  5065 
  5066 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5067 the new 'class' package:
  5068 
  5069     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5070     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5071     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5072     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5073     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5074     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5075     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5076     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5077     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5078     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5079     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5080     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5081     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5082     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5083     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5084     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5085     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5086     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5087     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5088     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5089 
  5090 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5091 
  5092 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5093 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5094 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5095 names.
  5096 
  5097 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5098 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5099 
  5100 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5101 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5102 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5103 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5104 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5105 
  5106 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5107 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5108 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5109 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5110 
  5111 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5112 
  5113 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5114 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5115 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5116 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5117 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5118 
  5119 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5120 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5121 
  5122 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5123 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5124 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5125 
  5126 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5127 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5128 
  5129 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5130 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5131 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5132 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5133 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5134 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5135 in the current context.
  5136 
  5137 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5138 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5140 
  5141 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5142 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5143 
  5144 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5145 
  5146     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5147     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5148 
  5149     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5150       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5151     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5152     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5153 
  5154     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5155     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5156 
  5157   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5158 
  5159     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5160     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5161     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5162     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5163     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5164     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5165     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5166     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5167     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5168     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5169     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5170     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5171     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5172     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5173     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5174     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5175     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5176     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5177     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5178     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5179     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5180     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5181     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5182     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5183     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5184     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5185     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5186     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5187     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5188     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5189     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5190     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5191     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5192     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5193     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5194 
  5195     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5196     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5197     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5198     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5199     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5200     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5201     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5202     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5203     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5204     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5205     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5206     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5207     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5208     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5209     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5210     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5211     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5212 
  5213     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5214     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5215     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5216     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5217     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5218     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5219     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5220     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5221     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5222     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5223     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5224     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5225     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5226     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5227     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5228     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5229     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5230     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5231     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5232     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5233     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5234     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5235     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5236     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5237     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5238     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5239     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5240     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5241 
  5242     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5243     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5244     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5245     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5246     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5247     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5248 
  5249     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5250     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5251     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5252     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5253 
  5254     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5255     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5256 
  5257     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5258     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5259 
  5260 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5261 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5262 
  5263 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5264 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5265 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5266 "*.size".
  5267 
  5268 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5269 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5270 
  5271 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5272 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5273 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5274 
  5275 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5276 
  5277 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5278 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5279 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5280 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5281 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5282 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5283 numerals on all operations.
  5284 
  5285 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5286 
  5287 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5288 
  5289 * Code generator library theories:
  5290   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5291     languages.
  5292   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5293     languages.
  5294   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5295     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5296   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5297   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5298     denominator).
  5299   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5300     representable by rational numbers.
  5301   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5302     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5303     includes Code_Integer.
  5304   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5305     target-language built-in integers.
  5306   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5307     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5308 
  5309 * New package for inductive predicates
  5310 
  5311   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5312 
  5313     inductive
  5314       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5315       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5316     where
  5317       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5318     | ...
  5319 
  5320   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5321 
  5322     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5323 
  5324     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5325     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5326 
  5327     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5328     intros
  5329       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5330       ...
  5331 
  5332   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5333   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5334 
  5335     inductive_set
  5336       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5337       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5338     where
  5339       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5340     | ...
  5341 
  5342   or
  5343 
  5344     inductive_set
  5345       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5346       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5347       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5348     where
  5349       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5350     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5351     | ...
  5352 
  5353   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5354 
  5355   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5356   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5357 
  5358   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5359 
  5360   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5361     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5362     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5363     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5364     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5365 
  5366   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5367     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5368     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5369     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5370     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5371     statements of the form
  5372 
  5373       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5374 
  5375     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5376     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5377 
  5378       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5379 
  5380   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5381 
  5382       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5383         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5384         ==> ... ==> P
  5385 
  5386     for predicates and
  5387 
  5388       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5389         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5390         ==> ... ==> P
  5391 
  5392     for sets rather than
  5393 
  5394       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5395         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5396         ==> ... ==> P
  5397 
  5398     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5399     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5400     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5401 
  5402   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5403     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5404     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5405 
  5406 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5407 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5408 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5409 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5410 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5411 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5412 
  5413 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5414 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5415 
  5416 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5417 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5418 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5419 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5420 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5421 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5422 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5423 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5424 variable.
  5425 
  5426 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5427 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5428 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5429 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5430   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5431   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5432 
  5433 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5434 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5435 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5436 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5437 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5438 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5439 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5440 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5441 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5442 
  5443 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5444 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5445 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5446 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5447 rat, etc.
  5448 
  5449 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5450 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5451 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5452 
  5453 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5454 
  5455 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5456 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5457 
  5458 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5459 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5460 
  5461 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5462 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5463 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5464 
  5465 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5466 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5467 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5468 
  5469 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5470 
  5471 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5472 
  5473 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5474 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5475 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5476 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5477 
  5478 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5479 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5480 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5481 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5482 
  5483 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5484 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5485 algebraic operations.
  5486 
  5487 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5489 
  5490 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5492 
  5493 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5494 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5495 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5496 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5497 adapted.
  5498  
  5499 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5500 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5501 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5502 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5503 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5504 
  5505 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5506 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5507 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5508 
  5509 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5510 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5511 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5512 
  5513 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5514 
  5515 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5516 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5517 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5518   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5519       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5520   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5521   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5522   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5523 
  5524 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5525 
  5526 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5527 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5528 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5529 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5530 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5531 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5532 
  5533 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5534 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5535 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5536 
  5537 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5538 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5539 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5541 
  5542 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5543 
  5544 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5545 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5546 
  5547 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5548 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5549 
  5550 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5551 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5552 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5553 
  5554 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5555 True/False.
  5556 
  5557 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5558 
  5559 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5560 
  5561 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5562 ``rule'' method.
  5563 
  5564 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5565 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5566 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5567 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5568 
  5569 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5570 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5571 
  5572 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5573 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5574 
  5575 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5576 Library.
  5577 
  5578 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5579 
  5580 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5581 as greatest fixed-point.
  5582 
  5583 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5584 association lists.
  5585 
  5586 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5587 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5588 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5589 
  5590 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5591 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5592 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5593 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5594 behavior.
  5595 
  5596 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5597 
  5598 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5599 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5600 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5601 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5602 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5603 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5604 
  5605 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5606 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5607 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5608 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5609 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5610 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5611 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5612 
  5613 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5614 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5615 
  5616 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5617 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5618 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5619 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5620 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5621 
  5622 
  5623 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5624 
  5625 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5626 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5627 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5628 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5630 
  5631 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5632 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5633 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5634 
  5635 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5636 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5637 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5638 
  5639 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5640 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5641 
  5642 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5643 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5644 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5646 
  5647   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5648   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5649   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5650   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5651   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5652   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5653   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5654   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5655   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5656   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5657   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5658   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5659   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5660   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5661   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5662 
  5663 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5664 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5665 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5666 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5667 
  5668   approx        <-- capprox
  5669   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5670   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5671   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5672   monad         <-- cmonad
  5673   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5674   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5675   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5676   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5677 
  5678 
  5679 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5680 
  5681 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5682 
  5683 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5685 
  5686 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5687 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5688 
  5689 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5690 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5691 of algebraic structures.
  5692 
  5693 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5694 
  5695 
  5696 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5697 
  5698 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5699 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5700 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5701 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5702 
  5703 
  5704 *** ML ***
  5705 
  5706 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5707 (even on SML/NJ).
  5708 
  5709 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5710 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5711 compile-time.  For example:
  5712 
  5713 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5714 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5715 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5716 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5717 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5718 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5719 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5720 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5721 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5722 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5723 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5724 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5725 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5726 ML {* @{context} *}
  5727 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5728 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5729 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5730 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5731 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5732 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5733 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5734 
  5735 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5736 
  5737 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5738 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5739 
  5740 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5741 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5742 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5743 
  5744 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5745 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5746 
  5747 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5748 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5749 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5750 
  5751 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5752 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5753 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5754 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5755 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5756 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5757 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5758 declarations and definitions.
  5759 
  5760 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5761 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5762 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5763 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5764 
  5765 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5766 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5767 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5768 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5769 
  5770 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5771 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5772 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5773 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5774 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5775 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5776 
  5777 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5778 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5779 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5780 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5781 attributes, methods, etc.
  5782 
  5783 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5784 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5785 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5786 fold_map combinators.
  5787 
  5788 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5789 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5790 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5791 derivation.
  5792 
  5793 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5794 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5795 achieve the old behaviour.
  5796 
  5797 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5798 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5799 statements.
  5800 
  5801 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  5802 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  5803 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  5804 
  5805 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  5806 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  5807 some popular functions from term.ML:
  5808 
  5809   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  5810   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  5811   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  5812 
  5813 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  5814 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  5815 
  5816 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  5817 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  5818 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  5819 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  5820 various freeze_thaw operations.
  5821 
  5822 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  5823 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  5824 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  5825 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  5826 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  5827 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  5828 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  5829 in a locale context).
  5830 
  5831 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  5832 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  5833 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  5834 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  5835 
  5836 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  5837 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  5838 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  5839 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  5840 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  5841 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  5842 
  5843 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  5844 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  5845 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  5846 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  5847 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  5848 
  5849   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  5850 
  5851 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  5852 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  5853 this:
  5854 
  5855   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  5856 
  5857 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  5858 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  5859 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  5860 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  5861 
  5862 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  5863 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  5864 
  5865 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  5866 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  5867 
  5868 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  5869 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  5870 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  5871 batch mode.
  5872 
  5873 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  5874 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  5875 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  5876 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5877 
  5878 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  5879 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  5880 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  5881 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  5882 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  5883 
  5884 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  5885 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  5886 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  5887 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  5888 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  5889 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  5890 
  5891 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  5892 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  5893 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  5894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5895 
  5896 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  5897 "Trueprop" etc.
  5898 
  5899 
  5900 *** System ***
  5901 
  5902 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  5903 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  5904 Isabelle installations.
  5905 
  5906 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  5907 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  5908 code.
  5909 
  5910 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  5911 
  5912 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  5913 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  5914 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  5915 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  5916 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  5917 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  5918 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  5919 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  5920 Implementation manual.
  5921 
  5922 
  5923 
  5924 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  5925 ----------------------------------
  5926 
  5927 *** General ***
  5928 
  5929 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  5930 
  5931   theory <name>
  5932   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  5933   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  5934   begin
  5935 
  5936 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  5937 
  5938   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  5939 
  5940 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  5941 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5942 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5943 
  5944 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5945 relative and absolute paths.
  5946 
  5947 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5948 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5949 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5950 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5951 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5952 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5953 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5954 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5955 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5956 
  5957   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5958 
  5959 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5960 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5961 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5962 
  5963 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5964 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5965 
  5966 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5967 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5968 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5969 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5970 
  5971   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5972   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5973 
  5974 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5975 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5976 faster.
  5977 
  5978 
  5979 *** Document preparation ***
  5980 
  5981 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5982 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5983 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5984 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5985 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5986 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5987 
  5988 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5989 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5990 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5991 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5992 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5993 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5994 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5995 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5996 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5997 \isadroptag.
  5998 
  5999 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  6000 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  6001 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  6002 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  6003 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  6004 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  6005 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  6006 specified above.
  6007 
  6008 * Several new antiquotations:
  6009 
  6010   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  6011 
  6012   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  6013 
  6014   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  6015   argument is a known logical constant;
  6016 
  6017   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  6018   theorem applying a "style" to it
  6019 
  6020   @{ML text}
  6021 
  6022 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  6023 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  6024 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  6025 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  6026 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  6027 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  6028 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  6029 
  6030 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  6031 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  6032 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  6033 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  6034 
  6035 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  6036 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  6037 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  6038 
  6039 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  6040 a proof context.
  6041 
  6042 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  6043 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  6044 
  6045 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  6046 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  6047 
  6048 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  6049 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  6050 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  6051 
  6052 
  6053 *** Pure ***
  6054 
  6055 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  6056 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  6057 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  6058 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  6059 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  6060 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  6061 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  6062 
  6063 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  6064 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  6065 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  6066 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  6067 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  6068 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  6069 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  6070 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  6071 
  6072 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  6073 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  6074 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  6075 
  6076 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  6077 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  6078 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  6079 
  6080 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  6081 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  6082 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  6083 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  6084 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6085 
  6086 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  6087 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  6088 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  6089 axclasses vs. locales.
  6090 
  6091 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  6092 instead of base 26 numbers.
  6093 
  6094 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  6095 marks in schematic variable names.
  6096 
  6097 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  6098 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  6099 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  6100 
  6101   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  6102     by simp
  6103 
  6104 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  6105 
  6106 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  6107 annotations as "(00...)".
  6108 
  6109 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  6110 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  6111 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  6112 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  6113 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  6114 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  6115 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  6116 
  6117 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  6118 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  6119 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  6120 specifications.
  6121 
  6122 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  6123 locally fixed variables as well.
  6124 
  6125 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  6126 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  6127 Limit.
  6128 
  6129 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  6130 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  6131 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  6132 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  6133 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  6134 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  6135 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  6136 
  6137 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  6138 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  6139 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  6140 
  6141 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6142 
  6143 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  6144 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  6145 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  6146 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  6147 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  6148 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  6149 
  6150 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  6151 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  6152 
  6153 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  6154 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  6155 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  6156 
  6157 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  6158 
  6159 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  6160 theory development.
  6161 
  6162 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  6163 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  6164 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  6165 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  6166 
  6167 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  6168 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  6169 quoted when used as identifier.
  6170 
  6171 
  6172 *** Locales ***
  6173 
  6174 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  6175 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  6176 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  6177 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  6178 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  6179 commands is a follows:
  6180 
  6181   (1) interpretation expr inst
  6182   (2) interpretation target < expr
  6183   (3) interpret expr inst
  6184 
  6185 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  6186 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  6187 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  6188 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  6189 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  6190 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  6191 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  6192 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  6193 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  6194 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  6195 
  6196 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  6197 'interpret' instead.
  6198 
  6199 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  6200 parameters.
  6201 
  6202 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  6203 redeclaration.
  6204 
  6205 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  6206 
  6207 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  6208 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  6209 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  6210 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  6211 to attribute arguments as expected.
  6212 
  6213 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  6214 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  6215 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  6216 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  6217 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  6218 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  6219 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  6220 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  6221 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  6222 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  6223 
  6224 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  6225 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  6226 theorem statement in rare situations.
  6227 
  6228 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  6229 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  6230 
  6231 
  6232 *** Provers ***
  6233 
  6234 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  6235 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  6236 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  6237 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  6238 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  6239 
  6240 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  6241 and quasi orders.
  6242 
  6243 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  6244 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  6245 
  6246 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  6247 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  6248 
  6249 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  6250 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  6251 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6252 
  6253 
  6254 *** HOL ***
  6255 
  6256 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows: