NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Sep 29 12:44:40 2013 +0200 (2013-09-29)
changeset 53981 1f4d6870b7b2
parent 53971 c4156b37627f
child 53983 2fa984b202ae
permissions -rw-r--r--
more on text completion;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
     5 -------------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    10 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    11 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    12 
    13 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    14 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    15 
    16 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    17 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    18 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    19 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    20 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    21 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    22 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    23 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    24 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    25 syntax.
    26 
    27 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    28 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    29 
    30 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    31 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    32 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    34 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    35 
    36 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    37 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    38 
    39 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    40 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    41 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    42 
    43 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    44 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    45 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    46 
    47 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    48 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    49 
    50 
    51 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    52 
    53 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
    54 Documentation panel.
    55 
    56 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    57 documentation.
    58 
    59 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
    60 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
    61 
    62 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
    63 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
    64 normal editing and checking process.
    65 
    66 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    67 timing information.
    68 
    69 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
    70 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
    71 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
    72 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
    73 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
    74 
    75 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
    76 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
    77 such command executions while editing.
    78 
    79 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
    80 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
    81 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
    82 
    83 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
    84 document content.
    85 
    86 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
    87 toplevel theorem statements.
    88 
    89 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
    90 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size"
    91 (cf. keyboard shortcut C+0).
    92 
    93 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
    94 $ISABELLE_HOME on all platforms.  Discontinued obsolete
    95 $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
    96 
    97 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
    98 / Global Options / Appearance".
    99 
   100 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   101 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   102 
   103 
   104 *** Pure ***
   105 
   106 * Target-sensitive commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale'.
   107 Particularly, 'interpretation' now allows for non-persistent
   108 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks.  See
   109 "isar-ref" manual for details.
   110 
   111 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   112 
   113 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   114 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   115 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   116 
   117 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   119 
   120 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   121 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   122 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   123 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   124 
   125 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   126 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   127 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   128 
   129 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   130 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   131 
   132 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   133 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   134 situations.
   135 
   136 
   137 *** HOL ***
   138 
   139 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   140 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   141 
   142 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   143 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   144 to distinguish both when desired.
   145 
   146 * Code generator:
   147   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   148     'code_instance'.
   149   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   150     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   151   See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories
   152   for examples.
   153 
   154 * HOL/BNF:
   155   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including new
   156     commands "primrec_new", "primcorecursive", and "datatype_new_compat",
   157     as well as documentation. See "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   158   - Renamed keywords:
   159     data ~> datatype_new
   160     codata ~> codatatype
   161     bnf_def ~> bnf
   162   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   163     discs ~> disc
   164     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   165     map_id' ~> map_id
   166     sels ~> sel
   167     set_map' ~> set_map
   168     sets ~> set
   169 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   170 
   171 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   172 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   173 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   174 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   175 
   176 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   177 automatically generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x =
   178 t".
   179 
   180 * New command "fun_cases" derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   181 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   182 inductive_cases.  See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   183 
   184 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   185   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   186   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   187     generated code.
   188   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   189   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   190   - Fact renames:
   191     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   192     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   193     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   194 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   195 
   196 * Reification and reflection:
   197   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   198     "Reification".
   199   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   200   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202 
   203 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on sets,
   204 in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   207 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   208 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   209 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   210 
   211   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   212 
   213 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   214 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   215 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   216 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   217 
   218 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   219 
   220 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   221   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   222     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   223     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   224   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   225     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   226   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   227     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   228     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   229     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   230     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   231     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   232     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   233     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly. 
   234   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   235     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   236   - Fact renames:
   237       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   238       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   240 
   241 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   242 
   243 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   244 
   245 * Discontinued obsolete src/HOL/IsaMakefile (considered legacy since
   246 Isabelle2013).  Use "isabelle build" to operate on Isabelle sessions.
   247 
   248 * Numeric types mapped by default to target language numerals: natural
   249 (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former code_int).
   250 Conversions are available as integer_of_natural / natural_of_integer /
   251 integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   252 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   253 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   256 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   257 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   258 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259 
   260 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   261 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   262 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   266 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   267 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   268 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   269 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   270 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   271 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   272 lemmas.
   273 
   274 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   275 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   276 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   277 
   278 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top 
   279 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions. 
   280 INCOMPATIBILITY: Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   281 
   282 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   283 top and bottom elements.
   284 
   285 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   286 
   287 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   288 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   289 
   290  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and linear_continuum_topology.
   291    Allows to generalize theorems about limits and order.
   292    Instances are reals and extended reals.
   293 
   294  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   295    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.
   296    "isCont" is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   297 
   298    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an arbitrary
   299    filter.
   300 
   301  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma
   302    to prove compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   303    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a continuous
   304    function is continuous, when the function is continuous on a compact set.
   305 
   306  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   307    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   308    linear_continuum_topology).
   309 
   310  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   311    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and on
   312    all sequences converging to x.
   313 
   314  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved theorems
   315    from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the definition of DERIV on
   316    FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV which are restricted to sets,
   317    i.e. to represent derivatives from left or right.
   318 
   319  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   320 
   321      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   322 
   323  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   324    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   325 
   326  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros, continuous_intros,
   327    continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems in tendsto_intros (or
   328    FDERIV_intros) are also available as tendsto_eq_intros (or
   329    FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side is replaced by a congruence
   330    rule. This allows to apply them as intro rules and then proving
   331    equivalence by the simplifier.
   332 
   333  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   334 
   335    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   336 
   337    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   338      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   339 
   340    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   341 
   342    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces, Real_Vector_Spaces, and
   343      Limits
   344 
   345    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   346 
   347    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   348 
   349  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   350 
   351 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   352 
   353 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   354 
   355     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   356     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   357 
   358 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   359 
   360 * Nitpick:
   361   - Added option "spy"
   362   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   363 
   364 * Sledgehammer:
   365   - Renamed option:
   366       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   367     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   368   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   369   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   370   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   371 
   372 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   373 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   374 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   375 
   376 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   377 .../poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   378 src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides integration
   379 with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   380 
   381 
   382 *** ML ***
   383 
   384 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   385 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   386 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   387 Examples.thy in particular.
   388 
   389 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   390 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   391 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   392 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   393 
   394 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   395 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   396 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   397 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   399 
   400 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   401 
   402     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   403     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   404 
   405 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   406 
   407 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   408 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   409 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   410 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   411 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   412 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   413 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   414 
   415 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   416 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   417 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   418 clasets separately from the context.
   419 
   420 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   421 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   422 
   423 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   424 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   425 
   426 
   427 *** System ***
   428 
   429 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   430 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   431 
   432 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   433 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   434 
   435 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   436 settings variable.
   437 
   438 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   439 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   440 always pdf.
   441 
   442 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   443 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   444 
   445 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   446 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   447 
   448 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   449 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   450 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   451 
   452 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   453 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   454 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   455 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   456 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   457 for HTML presentation of theories.
   458 
   459 
   460 
   461 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   462 -----------------------------------
   463 
   464 *** General ***
   465 
   466 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   467 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   468 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   469 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   470 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   471 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   472 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   473 
   474 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   475 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   476 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   477 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   478 
   479 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   480 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   481 
   482 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   483 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   484 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   485 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   486 dependencies properly.
   487 
   488 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   489 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   490 
   491 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   492 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   493 
   494 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   495 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   496 and "class ... context ...".
   497 
   498 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   499 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   500 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   501 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   502 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   503 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   504 
   505 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   506 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   507 
   508 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   509 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   510 
   511 
   512 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   513 
   514 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   515 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   516 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   517 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   518 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   519 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   520 
   521 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   522 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   523 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   524 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   525 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   526 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   527 
   528 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   529 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   530 browser on demand.
   531 
   532 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   533 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   534 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   535 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   536 
   537 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   538 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   539 
   540 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   541 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   542 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   543 potentially infinite message streams.
   544 
   545 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   546 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   547 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   548 schemes.
   549 
   550 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   551 symbols.
   552 
   553 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   554 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   555 
   556 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   557 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   558 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   559 
   560 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   561 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   562 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   563 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   564 
   565 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   566 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   567 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   568 
   569 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   570 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   571 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   572 Isabelle distribution.
   573 
   574 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   575 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   576 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   577 
   578 
   579 *** Pure ***
   580 
   581 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   582 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   583 
   584 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   585 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   586 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   587 
   588 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   589 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   590 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   591 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   592 with some care where this is really required.
   593 
   594 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   595 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   596 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   597 
   598   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   599 
   600 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   601 a Hasse diagram.
   602 
   603 
   604 *** HOL ***
   605 
   606 * Sledgehammer:
   607 
   608   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   609     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   610   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   611   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   612   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   613   - Renamed options:
   614       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   615       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   616       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   617       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   618 
   619 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   620 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   621 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   622 
   623 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   625 
   626 * Lifting:
   627   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   628   - quot_del attribute
   629   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   630 
   631 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   632 expressions.
   633 
   634 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   635 pointfree expressions.
   636 
   637 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   638 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   639 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   640 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   642 
   643 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   644 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   645 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   646 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   647 accordingly.
   648 
   649 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   650 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   651 
   652 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   653 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   654 
   655 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   656 
   657 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   658 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   659 
   660 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   661 
   662 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   663 
   664   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   665   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   666 
   667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   668 
   669 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   670 
   671   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   672   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   673 
   674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   675 
   676 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   677 
   678   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   679     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   680     output f x converges to G.
   681 
   682   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   683     infinity (at_bot).
   684 
   685   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   686     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   687 
   688   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   689     at_top".
   690 
   691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   692 
   693 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   694 lattice type classes.
   695 
   696 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   697 
   698     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   699     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   700 
   701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   702 
   703 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   704 changes as follows.
   705 
   706   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   707 
   708       prefix ~> prefixeq
   709       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   710 
   711   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   712     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   713     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   714     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   715 
   716   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   717     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   718     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   719 
   720   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   721     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   722     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   723     Library/Prefix_Order.
   724 
   725   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   726     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   727 
   728       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   729       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   730       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   731       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   732       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   733       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   734       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   735       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   736       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   737       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   738       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   739       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   740       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   741       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   742       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   743       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   744 
   745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   746 
   747 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   748 
   749 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   750 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   751 
   752 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   753 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   754 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   755 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   756 
   757   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   758   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   759   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   760   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   761   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   762   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   763   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   764   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   765   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   766   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   767 
   768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   769 
   770 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   771 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   772 Data").
   773 
   774 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   775 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   776 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   777 code.
   778 
   779 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   780 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   781 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   783 
   784 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   785 
   786 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   787 
   788 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   789 
   790   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   791   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   792 
   793 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   794 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   795 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   796 
   797   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   798 
   799     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   800     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   801     cart_base i  removed
   802     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   803 
   804   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   805 
   806   Renamed lemmas:
   807 
   808     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   809     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   810     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   811     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   812     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   813     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   814     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   815     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   816     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   817     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   818 
   819 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   820 
   821 * HOL/Probability:
   822 
   823   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   824 
   825   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   826     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   827     (borel_measurable_induct).
   828 
   829   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   830     projective family).
   831 
   832 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   833 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   834 
   835 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   836 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   837 datatypes.
   838 
   839 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   840 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   841 
   842 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   843 trees for the code generator.
   844 
   845 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   846 Lifting/Transfer.
   847 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   848 
   849 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   851 
   852 
   853 *** Document preparation ***
   854 
   855 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   856 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   857 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   858 
   859 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   860 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   861 
   862 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   863 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   864 document/root.tex.
   865 
   866 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   867 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   868 
   869 
   870 *** ML ***
   871 
   872 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   873 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   874 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   875 
   876 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   877 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   878 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   879 
   880 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   881 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   882 necessarily printing visible text.
   883 
   884 
   885 *** System ***
   886 
   887 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   888 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   889 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   890 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   891 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   892 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   893 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   894 
   895 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   896 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   897 
   898   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   899 
   900 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   901 
   902 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   903 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   904 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   905 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   906 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   907 
   908 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   909 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   910 
   911 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   912 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   913 
   914 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   916 
   917 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   918 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   919 version of Isabelle.
   920 
   921 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   922 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   923 
   924 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   925 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   926 for home-made settings.
   927 
   928 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   929 
   930 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   931 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   932 configuration.
   933 
   934 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   935 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   936 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   937 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   938 bundled as Isabelle component.
   939 
   940 
   941 
   942 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   943 ------------------------------
   944 
   945 *** General ***
   946 
   947 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   948 
   949   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   950     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   951   - markup for bound variables
   952   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   953   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   954   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   955     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   956 
   957 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   958 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   959 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   960 
   961 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   962 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   963 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   964 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   965 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   966 
   967   context
   968     fixes x y z :: 'a
   969     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   970   begin
   971 
   972   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   973 
   974   end
   975 
   976   thm my_trans
   977 
   978 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   979 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   980 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   981 
   982 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   983 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   984 
   985 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   986 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   987 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   988 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   989 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   990 
   991 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   992 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   993 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   994 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   995 indices of schematic variables.
   996 
   997 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   998 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   999 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1000 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1001 etc. was exploited.
  1002 
  1003 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1004 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1005 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1006 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1007 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1008 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1009 
  1010 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1011 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1012 manual.
  1013 
  1014 
  1015 *** Pure ***
  1016 
  1017 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1018 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1019 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1020 
  1021 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1022 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1023 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1024 undocumented feature.)
  1025 
  1026 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1027 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1028 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1029 
  1030   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1031 
  1032   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1033     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1034 
  1035 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1036 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1037 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1038 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1039 
  1040 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1041 
  1042     num ~> num_token
  1043     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1044     xstr ~> str_token
  1045 
  1046 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1047 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1048 position information via constraints).
  1049 
  1050 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1051 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1052 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1053 
  1054 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1055 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1056 
  1057 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1058 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1059 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1060 
  1061 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1062 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1063 
  1064 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1065 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1066 
  1067   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1068 
  1069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1070 
  1071 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1072 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1073 
  1074 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1075 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1076 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1077 
  1078 
  1079 *** HOL ***
  1080 
  1081 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1082 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1083 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1084 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1085 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1086 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1087 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1088 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1089 possible.
  1090 
  1091 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1092 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1093 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1094 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1095 
  1096 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1097 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1098 
  1099 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1100 
  1101 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1102 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1103 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1104 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1105 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1106 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1107 
  1108   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1109     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1110 
  1111   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1112     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1113     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1114 
  1115   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1116     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1117 
  1118   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1119     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1120     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1121 
  1122   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1123     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1124 
  1125 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1126 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1127 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1128 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1129 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1130 
  1131   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1132     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1133     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1134     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1135     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1136 
  1137     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1138     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1139 
  1140   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1141     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1142     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1143     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1144     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1145     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1146     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1147     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1148 
  1149   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1150     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1151     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1152     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1153 
  1154   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1155     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1156     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1157     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1158 
  1159   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1160     from type nat to type int.
  1161 
  1162 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1163 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1164 
  1165   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1166     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1167     type.  Example syntax:
  1168 
  1169     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1170       is List.insert
  1171 
  1172     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1173     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1174     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1175     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1176     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1177     by the package.
  1178 
  1179   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1180     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1181     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1182     code generation for each constant.
  1183 
  1184   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1185     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1186     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1187     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1188     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1189 
  1190   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1191     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1192     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1193 
  1194 * Quotient package:
  1195 
  1196   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1197     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1198 
  1199   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1200     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1201 
  1202   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1203     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1204     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1205 
  1206   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1207     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1208 
  1209 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1210 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1211 
  1212 * Quickcheck:
  1213 
  1214   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1215     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1216     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1217     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1218     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1219 
  1220     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1221     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1222     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1223 
  1224     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1225     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1226 
  1227     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1228     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1229     show genuine counterexamples.
  1230 
  1231   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1232     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1233 
  1234     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1235     constructors of that type.
  1236 
  1237   - Support for multisets.
  1238 
  1239   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1240 
  1241   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1242     conjectures in a locale context.
  1243 
  1244 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1245 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1246 
  1247 * Sledgehammer:
  1248   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1249     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1250   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1251   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1252     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1253   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1254   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1255   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1256   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1257 
  1258 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1259 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1260 
  1261 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1262 
  1263 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1264 
  1265 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1266 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1267 
  1268   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1269 
  1270 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1271 a list and a nat.
  1272 
  1273 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1274 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1275 
  1276 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1277 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1278 default.
  1279 
  1280 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1281 
  1282   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1283 
  1284 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1285 
  1286 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1287 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1288 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1289 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1290 one_case.
  1291 
  1292 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1293 the result of the fact expression.
  1294 
  1295 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1296 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1297 of some relation theorems:
  1298 
  1299   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1300   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1301   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1302   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1303   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1304   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1305 
  1306 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1307 
  1308 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1309 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1310 
  1311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1312 
  1313 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1314 to match the constant's name:
  1315 
  1316   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1317   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1318   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1319   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1320   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1321   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1322   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1323   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1324   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1325   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1326   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1327   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1328   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1329   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1330   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1331   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1332   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1333   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1334   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1335   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1336   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1337   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1338   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1339   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1340 
  1341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1342 
  1343 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1344 and corresponding theorem names:
  1345 
  1346   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1347 
  1348   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1349 
  1350   - Renamed theorems:
  1351 
  1352     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1353     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1354     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1355     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1356     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1357     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1358     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1359     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1360     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1361     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1362     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1363     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1364     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1365     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1366     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1367     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1368     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1369     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1370     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1371     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1372     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1373     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1374     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1375 
  1376     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1377 
  1378     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1379 
  1380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1381 
  1382 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1383 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1384 
  1385   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1386   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1387   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1388   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1389   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1390   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1391   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1392   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1393   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1394   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1395   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1396   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1397   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1398   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1399   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1400   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1401   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1402   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1403   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1404   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1405   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1406 
  1407 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1408 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1409 
  1410 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1411 
  1412 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1413 
  1414   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1415   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1416   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1417   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1418   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1419   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1420   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1421   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1422   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1423   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1424   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1425   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1426   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1427   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1428   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1429   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1430   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1431   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1432 
  1433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1434 
  1435 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1436 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1437 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1438 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1439 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1440 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1441 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1442 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1443 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1444 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1445 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1446 
  1447 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1448 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1449 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1450 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1451 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1452 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1453 
  1454 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1455 through option types.
  1456 
  1457 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1458 relations.
  1459 
  1460 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1461 
  1462 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1463 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1464 
  1465   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1466   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1467   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1468   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1469   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1470   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1471   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1472   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1473   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1474   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1475   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1476   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1477   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1478   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1479   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1480   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1481   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1482   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1483   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1484   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1485   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1486   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1487   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1488   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1489   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1490   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1491   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1492   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1493   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1494   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1495   zless_le ~> less_le
  1496   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1497   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1498   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1499 
  1500 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1501 
  1502   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1503 
  1504 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1505 
  1506 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1507 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1508 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1509 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511 
  1512 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1513 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1514 
  1515 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1516 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1517 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1518 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1519 follows:
  1520 
  1521   Operations:
  1522   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1523   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1524   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1525   del -> rbt_del
  1526   delete -> rbt_delete
  1527   ins -> rbt_ins
  1528   insert -> rbt_insert
  1529   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1530   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1531   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1532   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1533   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1534   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1535   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1536   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1537   union -> rbt_union
  1538   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1539   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1540 
  1541   Lemmas:
  1542   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1543   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1544   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1545   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1546   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1547   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1548   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1549   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1550   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1551   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1552   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1553   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1554   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1555   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1556   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1557   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1558   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1559   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1560   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1561   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1562   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1563   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1564   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1565   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1566   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1567   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1568   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1569   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1570   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1571   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1572   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1573   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1574   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1575   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1576   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1577   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1578   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1579   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1580   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1581   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1582   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1583   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1584   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1585   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1586   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1587   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1588   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1589   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1590   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1591   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1592   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1593   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1594   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1595   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1596   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1597   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1598   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1599   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1600   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1601   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1602   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1603   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1604   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1605   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1606   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1607   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1608   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1609   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1610   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1611   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1612   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1613   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1614   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1615   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1616   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1617   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1618   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1619   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1620   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1621   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1622   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1623   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1624   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1625 
  1626 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1627 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1628 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1629 
  1630   Changed Operations:
  1631   float_abs -> abs
  1632   float_nprt -> nprt
  1633   float_pprt -> pprt
  1634   pow2 -> use powr
  1635   round_down -> float_round_down
  1636   round_up -> float_round_up
  1637   scale -> exponent
  1638 
  1639   Removed Operations:
  1640   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1641 
  1642   Renamed Lemmas:
  1643   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1644   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1645   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1646   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1647   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1648   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1649   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1650   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1651   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1652   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1653   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1654   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1655   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1656   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1657   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1658   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1659   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1660   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1661   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1662   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1663   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1664   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1665   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1666   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1667   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1668   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1669   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1670   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1671   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1672   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1673   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1674   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1675   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1676   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1677   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1678   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1679 
  1680   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1681   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1682   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1683   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1684   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1685   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1686   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1687   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1688   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1689   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1690 
  1691 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1692 association lists with distinct keys.
  1693 
  1694 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1695 annotated commands.
  1696 
  1697 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1698 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1699 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1700 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1701 
  1702 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1703 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1704 instead.
  1705 
  1706   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1707   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1708   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1709   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1710   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1711   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1712   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1713   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1714   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1715   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1716   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1717   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1718   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1719   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1720   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1721   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1722   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1723   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1724   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1725   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1726   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1727   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1728   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1729   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1730   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1731   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1732   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1733   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1734   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1735   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1736   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1737   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1738   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1739   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1740   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1741   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1742   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1743   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1744   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1745   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1746   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1747 
  1748 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1749 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1750 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1751 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1752 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1753 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1754 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1755 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1756 
  1757 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1758 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1759 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1760 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1761 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1762 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1763 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1764 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1765 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1766 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1767 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1768 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1769 
  1770   Renamed constants:
  1771   measure -> emeasure
  1772   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1773   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1774   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1775   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1776 
  1777   Removed locales:
  1778   completeable_measure_space
  1779   finite_measure_space
  1780   finite_prob_space
  1781   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1782   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1783   finite_sigma_algebra
  1784   measure_space
  1785   pair_finite_prob_space
  1786   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1787   pair_finite_space
  1788   pair_sigma_algebra
  1789   product_sigma_algebra
  1790 
  1791   Removed constants:
  1792   conditional_space
  1793   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1794   image_space
  1795   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1796   pair_measure_generator
  1797   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1798   subvimage
  1799 
  1800   Replacement theorems:
  1801   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1802   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1803   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1804   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1805   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1806   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1807   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1808   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1809   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1810   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1811   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1812   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1813   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1814   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1815   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1816   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1817   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1818   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1819   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1820   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1821   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1822   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1823   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1824   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1825   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1826   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1827   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1828   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1829   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1830   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1831   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1832   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1833   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1834   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1835   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1836   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1837   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1838   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1839   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1840   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1841   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1842   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1843   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1844   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1845   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1846   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1847   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1848   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1849   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1850   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1851   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1852   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1853   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1854   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1855   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1856   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1857   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1858   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1859   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1860   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1861   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1862   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1863   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1864   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1865   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1866   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1867   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1868   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1869   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1870   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1871   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1872   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1873   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1874   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1875   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1876   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1877   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1878   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1879   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1880   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1881   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1882   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1883   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1884   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1885   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1886   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1887   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1888   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1889   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1890   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1891   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1892   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1893   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1894   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1895   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1896   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1897   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1898   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1899   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1900   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1901   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1902   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1903   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1904   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1905   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1906   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1907   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1908   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1909   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1910   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1911   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1912   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1913   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1914   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1915   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1916   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1917   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1918   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1919   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1920   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1921   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1922   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1923   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1924   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1925   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1926   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1927   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1928   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1929 
  1930 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1931 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1932 
  1933 
  1934 *** FOL ***
  1935 
  1936 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1937 
  1938 
  1939 *** ZF ***
  1940 
  1941 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1942 analysis.
  1943 
  1944 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1945 
  1946 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1947 
  1948 
  1949 *** ML ***
  1950 
  1951 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1952 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1953 
  1954 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1955 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1956 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1957 
  1958 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1959 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1960 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1961 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1962 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1963 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1964 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1965 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1966 
  1967 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1968 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1969 
  1970 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1971 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1972 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1973 
  1974 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1975 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1976 
  1977 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1978 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1979 context as well.
  1980 
  1981 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1982 
  1983   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1984   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1985   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1986   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1987   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1988   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1989   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1990   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1991   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1992   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1993   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1994   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1995 
  1996 
  1997 *** System ***
  1998 
  1999 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2000 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2001 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2002 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2003 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2004 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2005 the generic user home was intended.
  2006 
  2007 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2008 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2009 
  2010 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2011 (not just JRE).
  2012 
  2013 
  2014 
  2015 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2016 ------------------------------------
  2017 
  2018 *** General ***
  2019 
  2020 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2021 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2022 
  2023   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2024     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2025     files for checking).
  2026 
  2027   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2028     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2029     positions.
  2030 
  2031   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2032     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2033     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2034 
  2035   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2036     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2037     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2038 
  2039   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2040     cores.
  2041 
  2042   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2043     versions (garbage collection).
  2044 
  2045 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2046 including some remaining limitations.
  2047 
  2048 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2049 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2050 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2051 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2052 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2054 
  2055 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2056 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2057 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2058 
  2059 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2060 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2061 usedir option -Q.
  2062 
  2063 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2064 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2065 
  2066   long_names   ~> names_long
  2067   short_names  ~> names_short
  2068   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2069 
  2070 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2071 
  2072   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2073 
  2074 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2075 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2076 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2077 
  2078 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2079 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2080 
  2081 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2082   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2083   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2084   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2085     "Classical Reasoner".
  2086 
  2087 
  2088 *** HOL ***
  2089 
  2090 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2091 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2092 
  2093 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2094 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2095 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2096 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2097 class complete_linorder.
  2098 
  2099 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2100 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2101 
  2102 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2103 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2104 
  2105   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2106   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2107   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2108   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2109   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2110   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2111   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2112   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2113   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2114   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2115   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2116 
  2117 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2118 
  2119   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2120   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2121   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2122   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2123   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2124   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2125   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2126   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2127   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2128   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2129   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2130   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2131   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2132   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2133   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2134   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2135 
  2136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2137 
  2138 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2140 
  2141 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2142 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2143 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2144 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2145 
  2146 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2147 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2148 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2150 
  2151 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2152 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2153 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2154 
  2155 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2156 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2157 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2158 
  2159 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2160 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2161 
  2162 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2163 
  2164     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2165     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2166 
  2167 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2168 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2169 
  2170 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2171 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2172 
  2173 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2174 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2175 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2176 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2177 
  2178   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2179   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2180   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2181   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2182   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2183   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2184   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2185 
  2186 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2187 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2188 
  2189   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2190   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2191   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2192   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2193   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2194   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2195   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2196   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2197   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2198   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2199   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2200   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2201   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2202   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2203   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2204   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2205   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2206   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2207   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2208   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2209   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2210   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2211   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2212   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2213   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2214   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2215   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2216   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2217   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2218   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2219   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2220   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2221   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2222   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2223   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2224   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2225   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2226   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2227   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2228   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2229   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2230   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2231   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2232   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2233   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2234   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2235   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2236   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2237   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2238   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2239   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2240   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2241   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2242   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2243   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2244   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2245   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2246   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2247   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2248   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2249   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2250   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2251   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2252   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2253   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2254   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2255   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2256   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2257   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2258   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2259   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2260   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2261   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2262   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2263   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2264   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2265   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2266   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2267   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2268   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2269   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2270   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2271 
  2272 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2273 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2274 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2275 
  2276 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2277 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2278 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2279 
  2280 * Code generation:
  2281 
  2282   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2283     characters in the target language.
  2284 
  2285   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2286     instead.
  2287 
  2288   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2289 
  2290   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2291     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2292 
  2293       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2294 
  2295 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2296 
  2297 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2298 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2299 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2300 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2301 syntax.
  2302 
  2303 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2304 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2305 
  2306 * Nitpick:
  2307   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2308   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2309   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2310     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2311 
  2312 * Sledgehammer:
  2313   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2314   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2315     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2316   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2317     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2318   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2319     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2320   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2321     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2322   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2323     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2324 
  2325 * Metis:
  2326   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2327   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2328     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2329 
  2330 * Command 'try':
  2331   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2332     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2333   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2334     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2335 
  2336 * Quickcheck:
  2337   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2338     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2339   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2340     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2341   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2342     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2343     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2344     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2345   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2346     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2347 
  2348 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2349 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2350 
  2351 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2352 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2353 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2354 
  2355 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2356 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2357 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2358 
  2359 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2360 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2363 arithmetic.
  2364 
  2365 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2366 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2367 and lattice type classes.
  2368 
  2369 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2370 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2371 
  2372 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2373 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2374 
  2375 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2376 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2377 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2378 
  2379   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2380   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2381   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2382   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2383 
  2384 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2385 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2386 constants:
  2387 
  2388   type inat   ~> type enat
  2389   Fin         ~> enat
  2390   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2391   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2392   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2393 
  2394 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2395 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2396 
  2397 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2398 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2399 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2400 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2401 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2402 
  2403 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2404 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2405 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2406 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2407 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2408 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2409 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2410 
  2411   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2412   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2413   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2414   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2415 
  2416 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2417 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2418 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2419 
  2420   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2421   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2422   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2423   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2424   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2425   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2426   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2427   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2428   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2429   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2430   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2431   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2432   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2433   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2434   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2435   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2436   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2437   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2438   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2439   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2440   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2441   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2442   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2443   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2444   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2445   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2446   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2447   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2448   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2449   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2450   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2451   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2452   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2453   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2454   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2455   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2456   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2457   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2458   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2459   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2460   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2461   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2462   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2463   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2464   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2465   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2466   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2467   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2468   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2469   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2470   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2471 
  2472 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2473   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2474   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2475   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2476   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2477     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2478 
  2479 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2480 
  2481   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2482   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2483   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2484   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2485   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2486   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2487   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2488   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2489   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2490   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2491   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2492   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2493   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2494   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2495   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2496   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2497   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2498   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2499   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2500   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2501   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2502   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2503   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2504   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2505   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2506 
  2507 
  2508 *** Document preparation ***
  2509 
  2510 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2511 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2512 same.
  2513 
  2514 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2515 result.
  2516 
  2517 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2518 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2519 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2520 
  2521 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2522 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2523 
  2524 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2525 like this:
  2526 
  2527   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2528   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2529 
  2530 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2531 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2532 layouts.
  2533 
  2534 
  2535 *** ML ***
  2536 
  2537 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2538 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2539 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2540 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2541 under external program control.
  2542 
  2543 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2544 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2545 
  2546 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2547 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2548 (better known as Proof General).
  2549 
  2550 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2551 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2552 
  2553 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2554 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2555 
  2556 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2557 (including quotes etc.).
  2558 
  2559 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2560 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2561 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2562 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2563 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2564 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2565 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2566 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2567 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2568 
  2569 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2570 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2571 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2572 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2573 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2574 
  2575 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2576 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2577 
  2578 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2579 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2580 
  2581 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2582 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2583 
  2584 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2585 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2586 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2587 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2588 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2589 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2590 proper Proof.context.
  2591 
  2592 
  2593 *** System ***
  2594 
  2595 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2596 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2597 
  2598 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2599 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2600 
  2601 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2602 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2603 
  2604   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2605   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2606   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2607   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2608   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2609 
  2610 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2611 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2612 
  2613 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2614 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2615 example:
  2616 
  2617   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2618 
  2619 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2620 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2621 
  2622 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2623 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2624 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2625 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2626 
  2627 
  2628 
  2629 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2630 ----------------------------------
  2631 
  2632 *** General ***
  2633 
  2634 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2635 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2636 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2637 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2638 like this:
  2639 
  2640   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2641 
  2642 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2643 
  2644 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2645 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2646 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2647 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2648 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2649 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2650 
  2651 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2652 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2653 the following package declarations:
  2654 
  2655   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2656   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2657 
  2658 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2659 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2660 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2661 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2662 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2663 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2664 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2665 
  2666 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2667 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2668 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2669 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2670 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2671 
  2672 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2673 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2674 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2675 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2676 
  2677 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2678 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2679 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2680 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2681 
  2682   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2683 
  2684   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2685   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2686   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2687   show_types                    show_types
  2688   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2689   show_consts                   show_consts
  2690   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2691 
  2692   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2693   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2694   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2695 
  2696   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2697   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2698 
  2699   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2700 
  2701   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2702   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2703   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2704   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2705   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2706 
  2707 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2708 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2709 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2710 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2711 
  2712 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2714 
  2715   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2716   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2717 
  2718 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2719 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2720 float_token.
  2721 
  2722 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2723 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2724 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2725 
  2726 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2727 DejaVu Sans.
  2728 
  2729 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2730 
  2731 
  2732 *** Pure ***
  2733 
  2734 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2735 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2736 time.
  2737 
  2738 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2739 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2740 
  2741 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2742 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2743 
  2744 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2745 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2746 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2747 command already provided this functionality.
  2748 
  2749 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2750 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2751 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2752 without interpretations.
  2753 
  2754 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2755 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2756 
  2757 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2758 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2759 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2760 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2761 
  2762 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2763 'definition' instead.
  2764 
  2765 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2766 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2767 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2768 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2769 
  2770 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2771 constructors.
  2772 
  2773 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2774 the local file system.
  2775 
  2776 
  2777 *** HOL ***
  2778 
  2779 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2780 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2781 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2782 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2783 
  2784   declare [[coercion f]]
  2785 
  2786 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2787 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2788 
  2789   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2790 
  2791 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2792 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2793 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2794 other theories like this:
  2795 
  2796   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2797 
  2798 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2799 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2800 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2801 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2802 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2803 for examples.
  2804 
  2805 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2806 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2807 
  2808 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2809 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2810 
  2811 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2812 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2813 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2814 
  2815 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2816 functorial structure of types.
  2817 
  2818 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2819 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2820 
  2821 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2822 languages.
  2823 
  2824 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2825 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2827 
  2828 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2829 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2830 
  2831 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2832 combinators any longer.
  2833 
  2834 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2835 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2836 
  2837 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2838 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2839 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2840 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2841 
  2842   record 'a foo = ...
  2843   ...
  2844   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2845 
  2846 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2847 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2849 
  2850 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2851 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2852 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2853 
  2854 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2855 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2856 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2857 
  2858 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2859 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2860 
  2861 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2862 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2863 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2864 independently.
  2865 
  2866 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2867 counter example search.
  2868 
  2869 * Sledgehammer:
  2870   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2871     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2872     sledgehammer").
  2873   - Renamed commands:
  2874     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2875     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2876     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2877     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2878   - Renamed options:
  2879     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2880     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2881     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2882     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2883     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2884 
  2885 * Nitpick:
  2886   - Renamed options:
  2887     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2888     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2889     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2890   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2891   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2892   - Added "whack" option.
  2893   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2894   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2895   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2896   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2897     higher cardinalities.
  2898   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2899 
  2900 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2901 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2902 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2903 
  2904     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2905 
  2906 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2907 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2908 
  2909 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2910 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2911 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2912 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2913 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2914 "smt_solver".
  2915 
  2916 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2917 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2918 
  2919 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2920 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2921 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2922 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2923 
  2924 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2925   - Renamed:
  2926     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2927     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2928     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2929   - Added:
  2930     smt_verbose
  2931     smt_random_seed
  2932     smt_datatypes
  2933     smt_infer_triggers
  2934     smt_monomorph_limit
  2935     cvc3_options
  2936     remote_cvc3_options
  2937     remote_z3_options
  2938     yices_options
  2939 
  2940 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2941 header.
  2942 
  2943 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2944 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2945 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2946 
  2947   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2948 
  2949 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2950 
  2951 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2952 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2953 
  2954 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2955 
  2956 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2957 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2958 
  2959 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2960 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2961 
  2962 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2963 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2964 
  2965 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2966 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2967 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2968 
  2969 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2970 
  2971 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2973 
  2974 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2975 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2976 
  2977 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2978 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2979 for congruent(2)).
  2980 
  2981 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2982 
  2983   types
  2984     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2985     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2986 
  2987   constants
  2988     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2989     True ~> HOL.True
  2990     False ~> HOL.False
  2991     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2992     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2993     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2994     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2995     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2996     The ~> HOL.The
  2997     All ~> HOL.All
  2998     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2999     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3000     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3001     If ~> HOL.If
  3002     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3003     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3004     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3005     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3006     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3007     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3008     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3009     op : ~> Set.member
  3010     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3011 
  3012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3013 
  3014 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3015 
  3016     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3017     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3018     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3019     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3020     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3021     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3022     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3023     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3024 
  3025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3026 
  3027 * More stylized fact names:
  3028 
  3029   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3030   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3031   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3032   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3033 
  3034 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3035 
  3036 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3037 
  3038   constants
  3039     null ~> List.null
  3040 
  3041   facts
  3042     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3043     null_empty ~> null_def
  3044 
  3045 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3046 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3047 generation.
  3048 
  3049 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3050 Haskell code.
  3051 
  3052 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3053 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3054 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3055 
  3056 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3057 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3058 
  3059 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3060 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3061 
  3062 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3063 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3064 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3065 
  3066 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3067 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3068 
  3069 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3071 
  3072 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3073 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3074 referred to by its qualified name.
  3075 
  3076   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3077   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3078   product ~>  Enum.product
  3079 
  3080 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3081 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3083 
  3084 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3085 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3086 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3090 sort_key.
  3091 
  3092 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094 
  3095 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3096 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3097 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3098 
  3099   types
  3100     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3101               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3102               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3103         (depends on your needs)
  3104 
  3105   constants
  3106      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3107      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3108      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3109 
  3110 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3111 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3112 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3113 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3114 
  3115 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3116 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3117 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3118 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3119 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3120 
  3121 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3123 
  3124 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3125 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3126 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3127 
  3128 
  3129 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3130 
  3131 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3132 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3133 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3134 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3135 compatibility.
  3136 
  3137 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3138 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3139 
  3140 
  3141 *** HOLCF ***
  3142 
  3143 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3144 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3145 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3146 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3147 
  3148 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3149 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3150 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3151 
  3152   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3153   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3154   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3155 
  3156 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3157 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3158 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3159 
  3160 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3161 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3162 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3163 domain definition now works:
  3164 
  3165   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3166 
  3167 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3168 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3169 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3170 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3171 
  3172   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3173     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3174 
  3175   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3176 
  3177 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3178 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3179 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3180 
  3181 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3182 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3183 
  3184 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3185 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3186 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3187 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3188 
  3189 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3190 
  3191 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3192 
  3193 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3194 
  3195 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3197 
  3198 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3199 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3200 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3201 
  3202 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3203 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3204 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3205 
  3206 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3207 still supported as an input translation.
  3208 
  3209 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3210 
  3211   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3212   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3213   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3214   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3215   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3216   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3217   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3218 
  3219 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3220 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3221 
  3222   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3223   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3224   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3225   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3226   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3227   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3228 
  3229 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3230 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3231 
  3232 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3233 
  3234   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3235   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3236   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3237   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3238 
  3239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3240 
  3241 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3242 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3245 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3248   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3249   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3250   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3251   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3252   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3253   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3254   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3255   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3256   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3257   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3258   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3259   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3260   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3261   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3262   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3263   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3264   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3265   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3266   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3267 
  3268 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269 
  3270   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3271   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3272   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3273   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3274   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3275   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3276   box_less             ~> box_below
  3277   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3278   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3279   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3280   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3281   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3282   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3283   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3284   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3285   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3286   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3287   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3288   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3289   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3290   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3291   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3292   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3293   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3294   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3295   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3296   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3297   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3298   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3299   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3300   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3301   up_less              ~> up_below
  3302   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3303   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3304   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3305   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3306   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3307   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3308   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3309   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3310   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3311   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3312   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3313   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3314   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3315 
  3316 
  3317 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3318 
  3319 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3320 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3321 
  3322 
  3323 *** ML ***
  3324 
  3325 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3326 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3327 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3328 
  3329 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3330 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3331 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3332 
  3333 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3334 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3335 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3336 
  3337 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3338 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3339 
  3340 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3341 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3342 
  3343 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3344 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3345 
  3346 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3347 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3348 
  3349 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3350 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3351 almost all situations.
  3352 
  3353 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3354 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3355 Isabelle/ML.
  3356 
  3357 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3358 meaning.
  3359 
  3360 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3361 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3362 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3363 
  3364 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3365 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3366 
  3367 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3368 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3369 
  3370 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3371 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3372 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3373 
  3374 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3375 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3376 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3377 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3378 configuration options.
  3379 
  3380 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3381 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3382 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3383 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3384 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3385 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3386 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3387 
  3388 
  3389 
  3390 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3391 ---------------------------------
  3392 
  3393 *** General ***
  3394 
  3395 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3396 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3397 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3398 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3399 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3400 their full internal name.
  3401 
  3402 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3403 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3404 Some hints on upgrading:
  3405 
  3406   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3407     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3408     which are independent of this issue.
  3409 
  3410   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3411     provides the following special forms:
  3412 
  3413       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3414       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3415       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3416 
  3417     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3418     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3419     extra variables".
  3420 
  3421     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3422     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3423     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3424     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3425     "logic".
  3426 
  3427   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3428     antiquotations:
  3429 
  3430       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3431       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3432       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3433       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3434 
  3435   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3436     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3437     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3438     antiquotations.
  3439 
  3440 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3441 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3442 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3443 diagnose syntax problems.
  3444 
  3445 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3446 
  3447 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3448 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3449 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3450 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3451 
  3452 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3453 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3454 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3455 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456 
  3457 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3458 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3459 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3460 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3461 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3462 
  3463 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3464 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3465 
  3466 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3467 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3468 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3469 
  3470   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3471 
  3472 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3473 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3474 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3475 
  3476 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3477 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3478 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3479 
  3480 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3481 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3482 
  3483 
  3484 *** Pure ***
  3485 
  3486 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3487 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3488 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3489 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3490 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3491 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3492 inspect proof terms.
  3493 
  3494 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3495 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3496 are added internally.  For example:
  3497 
  3498   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3499 
  3500 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3501 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3502 
  3503 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3504 
  3505 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3506 'class' instead.
  3507 
  3508 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3509 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511 
  3512 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3513 invariants.
  3514 
  3515 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3516 user space functionality any longer.
  3517 
  3518 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3519 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3520 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3521 
  3522 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3523 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3524 
  3525 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3526 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3527 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3528 
  3529 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3530 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3531 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3532 
  3533 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3534 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3535 
  3536 
  3537 *** HOL ***
  3538 
  3539 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3540 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3541 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3542 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3543 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3544 
  3545 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3546 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3547 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3548 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3549 
  3550   fun
  3551     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3552   where
  3553     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3554 
  3555   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3556     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3557 
  3558   quotient_definition
  3559     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3560 
  3561 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3562 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3563 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3564 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3565 
  3566 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3567 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3568 
  3569 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3570 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3571 
  3572 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3574 
  3575 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3576 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3577 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3578 
  3579 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3580 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3581 
  3582 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3584 
  3585 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3587 
  3588 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3589 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3590 
  3591 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3592 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3593 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3594 
  3595   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3596   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3597   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3598   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3599   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3600   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3601   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3602   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3603   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3604   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3605   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3606   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3607   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3608   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3609   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3610   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3611   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3612   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3613   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3614   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3615   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3616   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3617   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3618   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3619   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3620   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3621   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3622   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3623   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3624   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3625 
  3626 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3627 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3628 
  3629 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3630 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3631 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3632 
  3633 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3634 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3635 
  3636 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3637 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3640 
  3641 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3642 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3645 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3646 
  3647 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3648 
  3649 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3650 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3651 
  3652 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3653 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3654 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3655 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3656 
  3657 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3658   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3659   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3660   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3664 lattices):
  3665 
  3666     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3667     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3668 
  3669     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3670 
  3671     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3672     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3673     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3674     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3675     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3676     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3677     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3678     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3679     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3680     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3681     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3682     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3683     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3684 
  3685     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3686     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3687     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3688     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3689     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3690     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3691     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3692     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3693     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3694     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3695     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3696     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3697     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3698     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3699     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3700     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3701     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3702     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3703 
  3704   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3705   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3706 
  3707     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3708     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3709     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3710     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3711     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3712 
  3713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3714 
  3715 * Refined field classes:
  3716   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3717     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3718     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3719   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3721 
  3722 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3723   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3724   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3725   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3726     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3727   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3728     equal_neg_zero.
  3729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3730 
  3731 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3732 sets to lattices:
  3733 
  3734   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3735   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3736   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3737   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3738   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3739   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3740   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3741   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3742   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3743   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3744 
  3745 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3746 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3747 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3748 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3749 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3750 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3753 multiset order:
  3754 
  3755   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3756     <= and <;
  3757   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3758     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3759     multiset_order;
  3760   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3761     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3762     generation;
  3763   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3764     if needed.
  3765 
  3766 Renamed:
  3767 
  3768   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3769   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3770   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3771 
  3772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3773 
  3774 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3775 
  3776 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3777 
  3778 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3779 
  3780 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3781 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3782 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3783 
  3784   Constants:
  3785   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3786   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3787   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3788   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3789   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3790   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3791   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3792   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3793   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3794   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3795   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3796   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3797   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3798 
  3799   Lemmas:
  3800   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3801   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3802   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3803   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3804   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3805   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3806   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3807   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3808   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3809   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3810   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3811   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3812   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3813 
  3814 * Sledgehammer:
  3815   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3816     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3817     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3818     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3819     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3820     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3821     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3822   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3823   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3824     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3825   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3826     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3827     is still experimental.)
  3828   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3829     full-typed mode.
  3830   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3831 
  3832 * Nitpick:
  3833   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3834   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3835   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3836     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3837   - Added support for quotient types.
  3838   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3839     constructs.
  3840   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3841     "termination" proofs).
  3842   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3843   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3844   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3845   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3846     record getters.
  3847   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3848   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3849   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3850   - Added "atoms" option.
  3851   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3852     problems.
  3853   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3854     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3855     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3856   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3857     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3858   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859 
  3860 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3861   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3862   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3863   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3864   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3865   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3866   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3867   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3868   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3869   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3870 
  3871 
  3872 *** HOLCF ***
  3873 
  3874 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3875 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3876 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3877 
  3878 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3879 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3880 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3881 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3882 
  3883 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3884 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3885 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3886 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3887 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3888 
  3889 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3890 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3891 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3892 
  3893 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3894 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3895 
  3896   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3897   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3898 
  3899 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3900 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3901 
  3902   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3903   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3904   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3905   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3906   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3907 
  3908 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3909 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3910 
  3911   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3912   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3913   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3914 
  3915 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3916 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3917 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3918 
  3919 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3920 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3921 
  3922 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3923 
  3924 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3925 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3926 
  3927 
  3928 *** ML ***
  3929 
  3930 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3931 
  3932     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3933     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3934 
  3935     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3936     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3937     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3938     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3939 
  3940     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3941     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3942     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3943 
  3944 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3945 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3946 
  3947 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3948 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3949 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3950 
  3951 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3952 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3953 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3954 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3955 
  3956 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3957 the context or even global references.
  3958 
  3959 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3960 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3961 
  3962 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3963 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3964 
  3965   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3966   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3967   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3968   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3969   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3970   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3971   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3972   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3973   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3974   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3975 
  3976 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3977 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3978 
  3979 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3980 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3981 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3982 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3983 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3984 
  3985 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3986 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3987 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3988 Theory_Data version.
  3989 
  3990 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3991 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3992 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3993 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3994 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3995 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3996 explicitly in rare situations.
  3997 
  3998 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3999 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4000 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4001 
  4002 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4003 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4004 
  4005 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4006 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4007 quite rare).
  4008 
  4009 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4010 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4011 
  4012 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4013 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4014 terms.
  4015 
  4016 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4017 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4018 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4019 
  4020 
  4021 *** System ***
  4022 
  4023 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4024 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4025 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4026 
  4027 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4028 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4029 respectively.
  4030 
  4031 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4032 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4033 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4034 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4035 
  4036   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4037 
  4038 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4039 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4040 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4041 component.
  4042 
  4043 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4044 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4045 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4046 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4047 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4048 the user for manual installation.
  4049 
  4050 
  4051 
  4052 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4053 -------------------------------------
  4054 
  4055 *** General ***
  4056 
  4057 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4058 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4059 
  4060 
  4061 *** Pure ***
  4062 
  4063 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4064 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4065 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4066 
  4067 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4068 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4069 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4070 
  4071 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4072 interpretation.
  4073 
  4074 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4075 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077 
  4078 *** Document preparation ***
  4079 
  4080 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4081 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4082 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4083 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4084 
  4085 
  4086 *** HOL ***
  4087 
  4088 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4089 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4090 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4091 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4092 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4093 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4094 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4095 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4096 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4097 
  4098 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4099 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4100 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4101 
  4102 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4103 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4104 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4105 
  4106 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4107 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4108 
  4109 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4110 
  4111 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4112 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4113 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4114 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4115 
  4116 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4117 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4118 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4119 "mirabelle" utility.
  4120 
  4121 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4122 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4123 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4124 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4125 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4126 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4127 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4128 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4129 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4130 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4131 
  4132 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4133 procedure only.
  4134 
  4135 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4136 
  4137 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4138 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4139 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4140 that fail later.
  4141 
  4142 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4143 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4144 
  4145 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4146 the same method as the approximation method.
  4147 
  4148 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4149 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4150 series expansion.
  4151 
  4152 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4153 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4154 
  4155 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4156 reals.
  4157 
  4158 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4159 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4160 
  4161 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4162 fixpoint theorem.
  4163 
  4164 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4165   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4166     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4167   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4168     accordingly
  4169   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4170     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4171   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4172     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4173 
  4174 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4175 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4176 lattice.
  4177 
  4178 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4179 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4180 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4181 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4182 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4183 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4185 
  4186 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4187   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4188     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4189   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4190     le_inf_iff
  4191   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4192     sup_aci)
  4193   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4194   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4195   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4196     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4197     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4198     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4199     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4200     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4201     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4202     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4203     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4204     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4205     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4206   - authentic syntax for
  4207     Set.Pow
  4208     Set.image
  4209   - mere abbreviations:
  4210     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4211     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4212     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4213     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4214     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4215     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4216     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4217     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4218   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4219 
  4220 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4221 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4222 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4223 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4224 
  4225 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4226 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4227 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4228 
  4229 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4230 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4231 
  4232 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4233 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4234 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4235 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4236 
  4237 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4238 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4239 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4240 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4241 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4242 
  4243 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4244 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4246 
  4247 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4248 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4249 
  4250 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4251 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4252 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4253 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4254 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4255 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4256 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4258 
  4259 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4260     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4261     code_post       replaces    code post
  4262     etc.
  4263   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4264 
  4265 * Renamed methods:
  4266     sizechange -> size_change
  4267     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4268   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4269 
  4270 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4271 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4272 
  4273 * Renamed theorems:
  4274     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4275     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4276     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4277     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4278     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4279   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4280 
  4281 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4283 
  4284 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4286 
  4287 
  4288 *** HOLCF ***
  4289 
  4290 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4291 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4292 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4293 
  4294 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4295 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4296 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4297 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4298 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4299 
  4300 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4301 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4302 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4303 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4304 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4305 
  4306 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4307 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4308 constructor are pre-configured.
  4309 
  4310 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4311 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4312 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4313 
  4314 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4315 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4316 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4317 as well.)
  4318 
  4319 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4320 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4321 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4322 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4323 examples.
  4324 
  4325 
  4326 *** ML ***
  4327 
  4328 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4329 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4330 
  4331 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4332 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4333 position, logical grouping etc.
  4334 
  4335 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4336 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4337 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4338 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4339 
  4340 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4341 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4342 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4343 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4344 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4345 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4346 
  4347 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4348 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4349 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4350 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4351 experiments with references.
  4352 
  4353 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4354 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4355 
  4356 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4357 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4358 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4359 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4360 
  4361 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4362 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4363 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4364 
  4365 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4366 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4367 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4368 
  4369 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4370 
  4371 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4373 
  4374 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4375 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4376 
  4377 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4378 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4379 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4380 
  4381 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4382 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4383 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4384 
  4385 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4386 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4387 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4388 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4389 
  4390 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4391 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4392 instead of global theory.
  4393 
  4394 
  4395 *** System ***
  4396 
  4397 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4398 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4399 usedir option -q.
  4400 
  4401 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4402 also the system manual.
  4403 
  4404 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4405 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4406 
  4407 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4408 this is always enabled.
  4409 
  4410 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4411 
  4412 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4413 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4414 currently supported on Linux only.
  4415 
  4416 
  4417 
  4418 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4419 --------------------------------
  4420 
  4421 *** General ***
  4422 
  4423 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4424 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4425 
  4426   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4427     "isatool."
  4428 
  4429   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4430     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4431 
  4432   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4433     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4434 
  4435 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4436 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4437 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4438 
  4439 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4440 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4441 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4442 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4443 via "isabelle emacs".
  4444 
  4445 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4446 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4447 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4448 
  4449 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4450 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4451 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4452 
  4453 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4454 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4455 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4456 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4457 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4458 
  4459 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4460 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4461 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4462 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4463 
  4464 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4465 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4466 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4467 
  4468 
  4469 *** Pure ***
  4470 
  4471 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4472 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4473 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4474 
  4475 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4476 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4477 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4478 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4479 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4480 
  4481 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4482 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4483 useful in locale declarations.
  4484 
  4485 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4486 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4487 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4488 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4489 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4490 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4491 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4492 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4493 no longer generated.
  4494 
  4495 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4496 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4497 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4498 
  4499 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4500 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4501 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4502 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4503 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4504 
  4505 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4506 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4507 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4508 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4509 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4510 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4511 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4512 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4513 
  4514 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4515 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4516 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4517 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4518 
  4519 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4520 
  4521 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4522 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4523 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4524 
  4525 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4526 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4527 
  4528 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4529 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4530 in HOL, write
  4531 
  4532     class foo = ...
  4533 
  4534 instead of
  4535 
  4536     class foo = type + ...
  4537 
  4538 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4539 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4540 
  4541 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4542 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4543 
  4544 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4545 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4546 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4547 
  4548 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4549 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4550 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4551 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4552 directly in regular applications.
  4553 
  4554 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4555 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4556 
  4557 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4558 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4559 
  4560 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4561 theory context.
  4562 
  4563 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4564 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4565 
  4566 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4567 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4568 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4569 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4570 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4571 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4572 
  4573   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4574 
  4575 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4576 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4577 normalization.
  4578 
  4579 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4580 addressing etc.
  4581 
  4582 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4583 
  4584   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4585   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4586 
  4587 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4588 
  4589   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4590      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4591      parts of the code generator framework).
  4592 
  4593   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4594      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4595      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4596 
  4597 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4598 
  4599 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4600 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4601 
  4602 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4603 patterns, e.g.
  4604 
  4605     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4606 
  4607 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4608 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4609 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4610 hyphen:
  4611 
  4612     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4613 
  4614 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4615 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4616 
  4617 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4618 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4619 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4620 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4621 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4622 higher-order unification.
  4623 
  4624 
  4625 *** Document preparation ***
  4626 
  4627 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4628 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4629 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4630 
  4631 
  4632 *** HOL ***
  4633 
  4634 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4635 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4636 
  4637 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4638 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4639 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4640 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4641 Main, as before.
  4642 
  4643 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4644 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4645 
  4646 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4647 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4648 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4649 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4650 
  4651 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4652 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4653 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4654 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4655 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4656 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4657 
  4658 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4659 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4660 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4661 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4662 
  4663 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4664 menu.
  4665 
  4666 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4667 (contains the empty clause).
  4668 
  4669 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4670 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4671 
  4672 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4673 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4674 
  4675 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4676 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4677 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4678 
  4679 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4680 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4681 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4682 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4683 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4684 
  4685 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4686 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4687 
  4688 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4689 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4690 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4691 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4692 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4693 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4694 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4695 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4696 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4697 
  4698 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4699 
  4700 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4701 
  4702 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4703 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4704 
  4705 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4706 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4707 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4708 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4709 
  4710 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4711 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4712 
  4713     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4714     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4715     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4716     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4717     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4718     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4719     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4720     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4721 
  4722 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4723 theory Set.
  4724 
  4725 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4726 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4727 
  4728 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4729 
  4730 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4731 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4732 
  4733 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4734 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4735 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4736 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4737 allowed. For examples see
  4738 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4739 
  4740 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4741 
  4742 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4744 
  4745 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4746 structure:
  4747 
  4748     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4749     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4750     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4751     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4752     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4753     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4754     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4755     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4756     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4757     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4758     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4759     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4760     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4761     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4762     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4763     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4764     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4765     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4766     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4767     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4768     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4769     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4770     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4771     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4772     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4773     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4774     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4775     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4776     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4777     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4778     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4779     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4780     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4781 
  4782     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4783     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4784     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4785     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4786     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4787     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4788     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4789     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4790     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4791     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4792 
  4793     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4794     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4795     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4796     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4797     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4798     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4799 
  4800 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4801 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4802 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4803 
  4804 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4805 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4806 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4807 
  4808 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4809 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4810 
  4811 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4812 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4813 
  4814 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4815 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4816 proofs, e.g.
  4817 
  4818   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4819 
  4820 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4821 
  4822 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4823 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4824 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4825 
  4826 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4827 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4829 
  4830 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4831 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4832 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4834 
  4835 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4836 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4837 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4838 preorder_class.*.
  4839 
  4840 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4841 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4842 
  4843 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4844 
  4845   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4846 
  4847 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4848 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4849 fold_image.
  4850 
  4851 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4852 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4853 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4854 the former will disappear at some point.
  4855 
  4856 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4857 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4858 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4859 
  4860 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4861 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4862 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4863 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4864 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4865 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4866 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4867 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4868 
  4869 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4870 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4871 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4872 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4873 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4874 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4875 
  4876     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4877     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4878     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4879     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4880     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4881     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4882     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4883 
  4884 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4885 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4886 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4887 
  4888 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4889 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4890 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4891 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4892 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4893 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4894 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4895 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4896 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4897 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4898 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4899 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4900 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4901 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4902 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4903 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4904 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4905 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4906 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4907 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4908 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4909 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4910 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4911 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4912 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4913 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4914 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4915 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4916 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4917 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4918 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4919 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4920 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4921 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4922 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4923 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4924 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4925 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4926 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4927 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4928 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4929 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4930 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4931 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4932 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4933 
  4934 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4935 
  4936 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4937 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4938 
  4939 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4940 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4941 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4942 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4943 
  4944 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4945 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4946 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4947 theory RealVector.
  4948 
  4949 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4950 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4951 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4952 and inner products are included.
  4953 
  4954 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4955 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4956 supported.
  4957 
  4958 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4959 first diagonalization argument.
  4960 
  4961 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4962 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4963 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4964 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4965 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4966 
  4967     hide (open) const gcd
  4968     abbreviation gcd where
  4969       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4970     notation (output)
  4971       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4972 
  4973 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4974 
  4975 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4976 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4977 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4978 
  4979 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4980 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4981 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4982 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4983 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4984 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4985 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4986 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4987 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4988 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4989 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4990 cases.
  4991 
  4992 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4993 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4994 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4995 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4996 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4997 
  4998     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4999     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5000     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5001     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5002     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5003 
  5004 
  5005 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5006 
  5007 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5008 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5009 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5010 
  5011 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5012 
  5013 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5014 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5015 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5016 
  5017 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5018 
  5019 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5020 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5021 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5022 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5023 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5024 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5025 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5026 
  5027 
  5028 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5029 
  5030 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5031 
  5032 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5033 theory targets.
  5034 
  5035 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5036 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5037 'inductive' etc.
  5038 
  5039 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5040 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5041 
  5042 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5043 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5044 
  5045 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5046 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5047 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5048 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5049 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5050 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5051 the algorithm W:
  5052 
  5053  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5054  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5055          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5056 
  5057 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5058 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5059 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5060 
  5061 
  5062 *** HOLCF ***
  5063 
  5064 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5065 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5066 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5067 
  5068 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5069 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5070 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5071 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5072 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5073 
  5074 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5075 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5076 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5077 
  5078 
  5079 *** ZF ***
  5080 
  5081 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5082 
  5083 
  5084 *** ML ***
  5085 
  5086 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5087 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5088 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5089 5.2.1!
  5090 
  5091 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5092 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5093 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5094 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5095 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5096 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5097 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5098 
  5099 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5100 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5101 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5102 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5103 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5104 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5105 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5106 
  5107 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5108 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5109 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5110 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5111 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5112 
  5113 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5114 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5115 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5116 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5117 Method.add_method.
  5118 
  5119 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5120 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5121 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5122 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5123 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5124 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5125 
  5126 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5127 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5128 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5129 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5130 examples.
  5131 
  5132 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5133 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5134 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5135 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5136 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5137 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5138 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5139 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5140 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5141 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5142 
  5143 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5144 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5145 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5146 
  5147 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5148 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5149 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5150 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5151 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5152 resort for legacy applications.
  5153 
  5154 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5155 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5156 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5157 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5158 explicit runtime argument.
  5159 
  5160 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5161 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5162 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5163 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5164 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5165 
  5166 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5167 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5168 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5169 theory state.
  5170 
  5171 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5172 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5173 
  5174   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5175   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5176   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5177   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5178   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5179   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5180   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5181   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5182   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5183   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5184 
  5185 
  5186 *** System ***
  5187 
  5188 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5189 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5190 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5191 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5192 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5193 
  5194 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5195 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5196 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5197 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5198 
  5199 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5200 
  5201 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5202 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5203 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5204 prover operations.
  5205 
  5206 
  5207 
  5208 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5209 -------------------------------
  5210 
  5211 *** General ***
  5212 
  5213 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5214 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5215 
  5216 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5217 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5218 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5219 provides a proper context already.
  5220 
  5221 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5222 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5223 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5224 
  5225 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5226 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5227 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5228 swap theory imports.
  5229 
  5230 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5231 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5232 
  5233 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5234 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5235 white space without escapes.
  5236 
  5237 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5238 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5239 "foo_bar".
  5240 
  5241 
  5242 *** Pure ***
  5243 
  5244 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5245 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5246 
  5247 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5248 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5249 
  5250 (1) unused_thms
  5251      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5252 
  5253 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5254      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5255      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5256 
  5257 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5258      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5259      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5260      their ancestors.
  5261 
  5262 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5263 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5264 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5265 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5266 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5267 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5268 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5269 
  5270 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5271 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5272 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5273 
  5274 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5275 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5276 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5277 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5278 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5279 
  5280 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5281 
  5282 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5283 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5284 update of theories within ML code.
  5285 
  5286 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5287 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5288 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5289 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5290 
  5291 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5292 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5293 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5295 
  5296 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5297 
  5298 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5299 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5300 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5301 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5302 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5303 
  5304 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5305 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5306 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5307 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5308 situations.
  5309 
  5310 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5311 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5312 proof text.
  5313 
  5314 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5315 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5316 
  5317 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5318 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5319 predicates.
  5320 
  5321 
  5322 *** Document preparation ***
  5323 
  5324 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5325 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5326 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5327 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5328 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5329 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5330 
  5331 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5332 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5333 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5334 
  5335 
  5336 *** HOL ***
  5337 
  5338 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5339 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5340 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5341 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5342 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5343 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5344 
  5345 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5346 with multithreading.
  5347 
  5348 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5349 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5350 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5351 
  5352 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5353 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5354 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5355 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5356 
  5357 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5358 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5359 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5360 and makes them available separately.  See
  5361 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5362 
  5363 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5364 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5365 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5366 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5367 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5368 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5369 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5370 the declared rules.
  5371 
  5372 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5373 
  5374   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5375 
  5376 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5377 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5378 
  5379 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5380 
  5381   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5382 
  5383   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5384     definitions on => and bool.
  5385 
  5386   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5387     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5388     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5389 
  5390       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5391       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5392       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5393       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5394       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5395       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5396       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5397       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5398 
  5399   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5400     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5401     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5402 
  5403   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5404     The proof pattern
  5405 
  5406       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5407       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5408 
  5409     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5410     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5411 
  5412       have "EX S. P S"
  5413       proof
  5414         show "P S" <...>
  5415       qed
  5416 
  5417   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5418     The proof pattern
  5419 
  5420       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5421       also have "S = T" <...>
  5422       finally have "P T" .
  5423 
  5424     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5425     must be replaced by something like
  5426 
  5427       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5428       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5429       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5430 
  5431   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5432     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5433 
  5434       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5435 
  5436     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5437     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5438     type of the form
  5439 
  5440       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5441 
  5442     rather than
  5443 
  5444       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5445 
  5446 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5447 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5448 
  5449 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5450 
  5451 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5452 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5454 
  5455 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5456 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5457 
  5458 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5459 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5460 
  5461 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5462 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5463 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5464 
  5465 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5466 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5467 
  5468   less_trans
  5469   less_linear
  5470   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5471   le_less_trans
  5472   less_le_trans
  5473   less_not_sym
  5474   less_asym
  5475 
  5476 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5477 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5478 and different variable names.
  5479 
  5480 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5481 
  5482 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5483 finite maps.
  5484 
  5485 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5486 
  5487 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5488 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5489 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5490 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5491 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5492 accordingly.
  5493 
  5494 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5495 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5496 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5497 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5498 
  5499 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5500 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5501 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5502 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5503 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5505 
  5506 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5507 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5508 
  5509 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5510 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5511 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5512 
  5513 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5515 
  5516 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5517 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5518 
  5519 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5520 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5521 
  5522 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5523 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5524 
  5525 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5526 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5527 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5528 
  5529 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5530 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5531 
  5532 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5533 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5534 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5535 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5536 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5537 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5538 
  5539 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5540 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5541 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5542 
  5543 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5544 
  5545 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5546 
  5547 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5548 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5549 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5550 
  5551 
  5552 *** ZF ***
  5553 
  5554 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5555 same session:
  5556 
  5557   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5558   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5559   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5560   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5561   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5562   List      -> List_ZF
  5563   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5564 
  5565 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5566 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5567 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5568 
  5569 
  5570 *** ML ***
  5571 
  5572 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5573 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5574 
  5575 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5576 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5577 
  5578 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5579 
  5580 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5581 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5582 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5583 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5584 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5585 
  5586 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5587 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5588 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5589 
  5590 
  5591 *** System ***
  5592 
  5593 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5594 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5595 
  5596 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5597 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5598 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5599 
  5600 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5601 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5602 
  5603 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5604 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5605 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5606 
  5607 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5608 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5609 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5610 
  5611 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5612 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5613 
  5614 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5615 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5616 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5617 script.
  5618 
  5619 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5620 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5621 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5622 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5623 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5624 
  5625 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5626 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5627 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5628 
  5629 
  5630 
  5631 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5632 -----------------------------------
  5633 
  5634 *** General ***
  5635 
  5636 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5637 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5638 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5639 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5640 
  5641 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5642 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5643 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5644 
  5645 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5646 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5647 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5648 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5649 
  5650 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5651 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5652 quotes.
  5653 
  5654 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5655 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5656 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5657 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5658 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5659 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5660 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5661 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5662 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5663 
  5664 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5665 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5666 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5667 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5668 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5669 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5670 
  5671 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5672 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5673 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5674 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5675 
  5676 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5677 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5678 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5679 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5680 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5681 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5682 
  5683 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5684 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5685 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5686 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5687 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5688 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5689 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5690 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5691 
  5692 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5693 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5694 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5695 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5696 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5697 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5698 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5699 
  5700 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5701 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5702 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5703 
  5704 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5705 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5706 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5707 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5708 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5709 limit is imposed.
  5710 
  5711 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5712 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5713 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5714 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5715 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5716 and scalability.
  5717 
  5718 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5719 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5720 
  5721 
  5722 *** Document preparation ***
  5723 
  5724 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5725 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5726 current context.
  5727 
  5728 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5729 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5730 
  5731 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5732 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5733 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5734 
  5735 
  5736 *** Pure ***
  5737 
  5738 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5739 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5740 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5741 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5742 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5743 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5744 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5745 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5746 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5747 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5748 
  5749 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5750 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5751 sketch:
  5752 
  5753     internal compilation:
  5754         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5755     writing SML code to a file:
  5756         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5757     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5758         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5759     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5760         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5761 
  5762     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5763         method ``eval''
  5764 
  5765 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5766 
  5767 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5768 
  5769     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5770     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5771     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5772     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5773 
  5774 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5775 
  5776     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5777       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5778 
  5779     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5780       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5781 
  5782     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5783       {(target)}+
  5784         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5785 
  5786     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5787       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5788         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5789 
  5790 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5791 
  5792 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5793 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5794 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5795 codegen".
  5796 
  5797 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5798 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5799 annotations).
  5800 
  5801 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5802 syntax.
  5803 
  5804 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5805 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5806 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5807 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5808 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5809 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5810 
  5811 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5812 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5813 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5814 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5815 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5816 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5817 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5818 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5819 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5820 equations, see section "definitions".
  5821 
  5822 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5823 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5824 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5825 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5826 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5827 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5828 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5829 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5830 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5831 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5832 
  5833 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5834 configuration options:
  5835 
  5836   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5837   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5838   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5839   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5840   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5841   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5842   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5843   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5844   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5845 
  5846 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5847 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5848 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5849 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5850 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5851 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5852 order.
  5853 
  5854 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5855 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5856 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5857 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5858 context encountered later on.
  5859 
  5860 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5861 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5862 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5863 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5864 
  5865 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5866 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5867 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5868 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5869 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5870 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5871 
  5872 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5873 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5874 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5875 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5876 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5877 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5878 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5879 more permissive.
  5880 
  5881 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5882 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5883 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5884 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5885 maintainability of proof texts.
  5886 
  5887 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5888 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5889 
  5890   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5891   then guess x and y by clarify
  5892 
  5893 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5894 proof tools being involved here.
  5895 
  5896 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5897 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5898 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5899 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5900 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5901 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5902 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5903 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5904 
  5905 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5906 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5907 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5908 
  5909   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5910   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5911   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5912   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5913 
  5914 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5915 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5916 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5917 
  5918 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5919 both named and unnamed ones.
  5920 
  5921 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5922 
  5923   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5924 
  5925 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5926 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5927 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5928 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5929 
  5930 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5931 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5932 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5933 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5934 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5935 
  5936 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5937 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5938 
  5939 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5940 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5941 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5942 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5943 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5944 originally first one.
  5945 
  5946 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5947 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5948 expected.
  5949 
  5950 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5951 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5952 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5953 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5954 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5955 
  5956   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5957     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5958     obtains x where "P x"
  5959 
  5960   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5961     assumes "A & B"
  5962     obtains A and B
  5963 
  5964   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5965     assumes "A | B"
  5966     obtains
  5967       A
  5968     | B
  5969 
  5970 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5971 explicitly:
  5972 
  5973   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5974     obtains "~ thesis"
  5975 
  5976   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5977     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5978 
  5979 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5980 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5981 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5982 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5983 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5984 case_names).
  5985 
  5986 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5987 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5988 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5989 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5990 
  5991 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5992 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5993 top-level lemma.
  5994 
  5995 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5996 introduction rule (default "that").
  5997 
  5998 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5999 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6000 to occur.
  6001 
  6002 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6003 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6004 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6005 representations independently of name spaces.
  6006 
  6007 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6008 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6009 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6010 
  6011 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6012 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6013 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6014 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6015 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6016 current context.
  6017 
  6018 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6019 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6020 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6021 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6022 
  6023   axiomatization
  6024     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6025     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6026 
  6027   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6028   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6029 
  6030   abbreviation
  6031     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6032     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6033 
  6034 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6035 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6036 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6037 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6038 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6039 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6040 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6041 
  6042 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6043 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6044 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6045 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6046 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6047 
  6048 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6049 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6050 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6051 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6052 
  6053 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6054 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6055 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6056 
  6057   definition "K x _ = x"
  6058 
  6059   inductive conj for A B
  6060   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6061 
  6062 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6063 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6064 abbreviations on output.
  6065 
  6066 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6067 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6068 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6069 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6070 
  6071 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6072 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6073 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6074 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6075 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6076 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6077 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6078 
  6079 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6080 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6081 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6082 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6083 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6084 
  6085 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6086 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6087 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6088 
  6089 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6090 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6091 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6092 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6093 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6094 
  6095   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6096     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6097 
  6098 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6099 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6100 partial_order.
  6101 
  6102 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6103 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6104 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6105 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6106 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6107 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6108 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6109 examples.
  6110 
  6111 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6112 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6113 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6114 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6115 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6116 
  6117 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6118 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6119 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6120 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6121 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6122 
  6123   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6124   (induct set: foo bar)
  6125   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6126   (induct type: foo bar)
  6127 
  6128 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6129 new format.
  6130 
  6131 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6132 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6133 
  6134 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6135 considered a legacy feature.
  6136 
  6137 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6138 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6139 
  6140 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6141 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6142 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6143 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6144   
  6145 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6146 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6147 manipulating the claset.
  6148 
  6149 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6150 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6151 least one premise.
  6152 
  6153 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6154 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6155 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6156 rule steps.
  6157 
  6158 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6159 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6160 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6161 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6162 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6163 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6164 
  6165 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6166 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6167 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6168 
  6169 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6170 the graph browser tool.
  6171 
  6172 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6173 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6174 
  6175 
  6176 *** HOL ***
  6177 
  6178 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  6179 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  6180 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  6181 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  6182 multi-threading.
  6183   
  6184 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  6185 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  6186 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  6187 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  6188 work with multi-threading.
  6189 
  6190 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  6191 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  6192 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  6193 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  6194 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  6195 
  6196 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  6197 
  6198 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  6199 equality.
  6200 
  6201 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  6202 the new 'class' package:
  6203 
  6204     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  6205     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  6206     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  6207     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  6208     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  6209     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  6210     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  6211     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  6212     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  6213     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  6214     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  6215     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  6216     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  6217     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  6218     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  6219     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  6220     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  6221     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  6222     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  6223     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  6224 
  6225 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  6226 
  6227 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  6228 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  6229 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  6230 names.
  6231 
  6232 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  6233 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  6234 
  6235 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  6236 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  6237 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  6238 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  6239 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  6240 
  6241 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  6242 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  6243 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  6244 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  6245 
  6246 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  6247 
  6248 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  6249 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  6250 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  6251 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  6252 INCOMPATIBILITY.