NEWS
author haftmann
Sun Feb 23 10:33:43 2014 +0100 (2014-02-23)
changeset 55677 1f89921f3e75
parent 55668 6e97c1766500
child 55686 e99ed112d303
permissions -rw-r--r--
dropped long-unused option
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 
    29 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    30 
    31 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    32 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    33 
    34 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    35 auxiliary ML files.
    36 
    37 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    38 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols for
    39 languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol completion for ML source,
    40 but within ML strings, comments, antiquotations.
    41 
    42 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    43 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    44 
    45 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    46 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    47 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    48 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    49 
    50 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    51 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    52 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    53 
    54 
    55 *** Pure ***
    56 
    57 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    58 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    59 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    60 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    61 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    62 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    63 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    64 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    65 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    66 
    67 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    68 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    69 instantiated theorem.
    70 
    71 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    72 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    73 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    74 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    75 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    76 
    77   attribute_setup standard =
    78     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    79 
    80 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    81 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    82 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    83 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    84 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    85 
    86 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    87 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    88 differently).
    89 
    90 
    91 *** HOL ***
    92 
    93 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
    94 
    95 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
    96 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    97 
    98 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
    99   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   100   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
   101   "Main".
   102   Theory renamings:
   103     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   104     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   105     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   106     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   107     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   108     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   109     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   110     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   111     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   112     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   113     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   114     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   115     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   116     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   117     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   118     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   119     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   120     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   121     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   122     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   123     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   124     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   125   New theories:
   126     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   127     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   128     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   129     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   130     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   131   Discontinued theories:
   132     BNF/BNF.thy
   133     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   134   Renamed commands:
   135     datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   136     primrec_new ~> primrec
   137     wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   138   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   139 
   140 * Old datatype package:
   141   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   142     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   143     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   144 
   145 * Old and new (co)datatype packages:
   146   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   147     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   148     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   149 
   150 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   151   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   152   datatype package.
   153   Renamed constants:
   154     Option.set ~> set_option
   155     Option.map ~> map_option
   156     option_rel ~> rel_option
   157   Renamed theorems:
   158     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   159     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   160     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   161     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   162     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   163     map.simps ~> list.map
   164     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   165     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   166     the.simps ~> option.sel
   167   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168 
   169 * New theory:
   170     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   171 
   172 * Theory reorganizations:
   173   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   174 
   175 * Sledgehammer:
   176   - New option:
   177       smt_proofs
   178   - Renamed options:
   179       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   180       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   181     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183 * Metis:
   184   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   185     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186 
   187 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   188 
   189 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   190 
   191 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   192 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   193 
   194 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   195 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   196 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   197 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   198 
   199 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   201 
   202 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   203 with the given constants.
   204 
   205 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   206 
   207 Fact consolidations:
   208     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   209     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   210     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   211     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   212     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   213     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   214     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   215     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   216     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   217     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   218     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   219     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   220     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   221     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   222     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   223     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   224     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   225     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   226     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   227     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   228     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   229     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   230     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   231     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   232     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   233     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   234     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   235     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   236     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   237     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   238     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   239     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   240     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   241     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   242     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   243     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   244     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   245     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   246     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   247     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   248 
   249 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   250 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   251 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   252 
   253 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   254 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   255 
   256 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   257 
   258 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   259 
   260 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   262 
   263 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   265 
   266 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   267 operations on records.
   268 
   269 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   270 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   271 
   272 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   273     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   275 
   276 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   277     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   278     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   280 
   281 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   282   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   283   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   284   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   285     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   286   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   287     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   288   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   289 INCOMPATBILITY.
   290 
   291 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   292     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   293     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   294     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   295     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   297 
   298 * Fact name consolidation:
   299     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   300     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   301     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   302     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   303     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   305 
   306 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   307 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   308 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   309 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   310 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   311 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   312 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   313 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   314 
   315 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   316 
   317 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   318 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   319 
   320 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   321 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   322 
   323 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   324 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   325 or the brute way with
   326 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   327 
   328 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   329 
   330 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   331 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   332 
   333 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   334 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   335 
   336 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   337 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   338 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   339 INCOMPATIBILITY
   340 
   341 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   342 
   343 * Nitpick:
   344   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   345     infinite values.
   346 
   347 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   348   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   349   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   350     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   351     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   352     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   353     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   354     intervals.
   355 
   356 
   357 *** Scala ***
   358 
   359 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   360 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   361 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   362 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   363 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   364 
   365 
   366 *** ML ***
   367 
   368 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   369 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   370 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   371 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   372 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   373 of schematic variables.
   374 
   375 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   376 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   377 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   378 formal context.
   379 
   380 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   381 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   382 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   383 actually belongs to it).
   384 
   385 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   386 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   387 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   388 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   389 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   390 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   391 
   392 
   393 *** System ***
   394 
   395 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   396 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   397 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   398 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   399 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   400 
   401 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   402 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   403 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   404 
   405 
   406 
   407 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   408 -------------------------------------
   409 
   410 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   411 
   412 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   413 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   414 
   415 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   416 after edits surrounding the command location.
   417 
   418 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   419 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   420 e.g. out-of-memory).
   421 
   422 
   423 *** System ***
   424 
   425 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   426 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   427 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   428 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   429 
   430 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   431 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   432 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   433 
   434 
   435 
   436 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   437 -------------------------------------
   438 
   439 *** General ***
   440 
   441 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   442 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   443 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   444 
   445 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   446 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   447 
   448 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   449 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   450 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   451 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   452 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   453 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   454 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   455 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   456 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   457 syntax.
   458 
   459 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   460 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   461 
   462 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   463 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   464 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   465 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   466 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   467 
   468 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   470 
   471 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   472 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   473 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   474 
   475 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   476 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   477 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   478 
   479 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   480 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   481 
   482 
   483 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   484 
   485 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   486 Documentation panel.
   487 
   488 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   489 documentation.
   490 
   491 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   492 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   493 
   494 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   495 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   496 normal editing and checking process.
   497 
   498 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   499 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   500 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   501 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   502 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   503 
   504 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   505 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   506 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   507 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   508 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   509 
   510 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   511 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   512 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   513 
   514 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   515 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   516 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   517 to resolve conflict.
   518 
   519 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   520 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   521 
   522 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   523 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   524 such command executions while editing.
   525 
   526 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   527 document content.
   528 
   529 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   530 toplevel theorem statements.
   531 
   532 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   533 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   534 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   535 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   536 
   537 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   538 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   539 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   540 
   541 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   542 / Global Options / Appearance".
   543 
   544 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   545 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   546 
   547 
   548 *** Pure ***
   549 
   550 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   551 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   552 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   553 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   554 details.
   555 
   556 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   557 
   558 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   559 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   560 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   561 
   562 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   563 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   564 
   565 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   566 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   567 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   568 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   569 
   570 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   571 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   572 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   573 
   574 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   575 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   576 
   577 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   578 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   579 situations.
   580 
   581 
   582 *** HOL ***
   583 
   584 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   585 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   587 
   588 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   589 
   590 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   591 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   592 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   593 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   594 
   595   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   596 
   597 * Code generator:
   598   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   599     'code_instance'.
   600   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   601     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   602 
   603 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   604 examples.
   605 
   606 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   607 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   608 to distinguish both when desired.
   609 
   610 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   611 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   612 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   613 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   614 
   615 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   616 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   617 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   618 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   619 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   620 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   621 
   622 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   623 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   624 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   625 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   626 
   627 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   628 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   629 
   630 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   631 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   632 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   633 
   634 * Lifting:
   635   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   636     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   637       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   638       transfer rules
   639     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   640       correspondence relation can be generated
   641     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   642       parametricity
   643     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   644   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   645   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   646     copies
   647   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   648     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   649     anonymous context)
   650   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   651     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   652   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   653     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   654   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   655     INCOMPATIBILITY
   656 
   657 * Transfer:
   658   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   659     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   660   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   661   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   662     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   663   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   664 
   665 * Reification and reflection:
   666   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   667     "Reification".
   668   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   669   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   671 
   672 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   673   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   674     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   675     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   676   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   677     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   678   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   679     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   680     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   681     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   682     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   683     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   684     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   685     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   686   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   687     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   688   - Fact renames:
   689       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   690       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   692 
   693 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   694 
   695 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   696 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   697 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   698 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   699 
   700 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   701 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   702 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   703 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   704 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   705 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   706 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   707 lemmas.
   708 
   709 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   710 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   711 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   712 
   713 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   714 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   715 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   716 
   717 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   718 top and bottom elements.
   719 
   720 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   721 
   722 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   723 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   724 
   725  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   726    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   727    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   728 
   729  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   730    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   731    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   732 
   733    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   734    arbitrary filter.
   735 
   736  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   737    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   738    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   739    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   740    on a compact set.
   741 
   742  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   743    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   744    linear_continuum_topology).
   745 
   746  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   747    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   748    on all sequences converging to x.
   749 
   750  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   751    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   752    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   753    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   754    left or right.
   755 
   756  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   757 
   758      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   759 
   760  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   761    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   762 
   763  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   764    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   765    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   766    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   767    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   768    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   769 
   770  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   771 
   772    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   773 
   774    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   775      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   776 
   777    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   778 
   779    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   780      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   781 
   782    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   783 
   784    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   785 
   786  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   787 
   788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   789 
   790 * Nitpick:
   791   - Added option "spy"
   792   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   793 
   794 * Sledgehammer:
   795   - Renamed option:
   796       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   797     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   798   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   799   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   800   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   801 
   802 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   803 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   804 
   805 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   806   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   807   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   808     generated code.
   809   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   810   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   811   - Fact renames:
   812     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   813     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   814     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   815 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   816 
   817 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   818 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   819 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   820 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   821 
   822 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   823 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   824 
   825 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   826 
   827 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   828 
   829     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   830     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   831 
   832 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   833 
   834 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   835 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   836 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   837 
   838 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   839 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   840 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   841 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   842 
   843 * HOL-BNF:
   844   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   845     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   846     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   847     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   848   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   849     coinduct).
   850   - Renamed keywords:
   851     data ~> datatype_new
   852     codata ~> codatatype
   853     bnf_def ~> bnf
   854   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   855     discs ~> disc
   856     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   857     map_id' ~> map_id
   858     sels ~> sel
   859     set_map' ~> set_map
   860     sets ~> set
   861 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   862 
   863 
   864 *** ML ***
   865 
   866 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   867 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   868 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   869 Examples.thy in particular.
   870 
   871 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   872 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   873 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   874 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   875 
   876 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   877 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   878 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   879 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   880 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   881 
   882 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   883 
   884     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   885     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   886 
   887 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   888 
   889 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   890 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   891 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   892 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   893 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   894 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   895 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   896 
   897 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   898 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   899 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   900 clasets separately from the context.
   901 
   902 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   903 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   904 
   905 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   906 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   907 
   908 
   909 *** System ***
   910 
   911 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   912 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   913 
   914 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   915 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   916 
   917 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   918 settings variable.
   919 
   920 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   921 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   922 always pdf.
   923 
   924 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   925 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   926 
   927 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   928 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   929 
   930 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   931 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   932 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   933 
   934 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   935 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   936 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   937 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   938 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   939 for HTML presentation of theories.
   940 
   941 
   942 
   943 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   944 -----------------------------------
   945 
   946 *** General ***
   947 
   948 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   949 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   950 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   951 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   952 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   953 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   954 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   955 
   956 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   957 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   958 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   959 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   960 
   961 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   962 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   963 
   964 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   965 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   966 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   967 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   968 dependencies properly.
   969 
   970 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   971 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   972 
   973 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   974 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   975 
   976 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   977 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   978 and "class ... context ...".
   979 
   980 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   981 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   982 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   983 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   984 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   985 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   986 
   987 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   988 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   989 
   990 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   991 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   992 
   993 
   994 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   995 
   996 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   997 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   998 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   999 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1000 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1001 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1002 
  1003 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1004 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1005 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1006 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1007 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1008 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1009 
  1010 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1011 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1012 browser on demand.
  1013 
  1014 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1015 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1016 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1017 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1018 
  1019 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1020 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1021 
  1022 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1023 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1024 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1025 potentially infinite message streams.
  1026 
  1027 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1028 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1029 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1030 schemes.
  1031 
  1032 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1033 symbols.
  1034 
  1035 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1036 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1037 
  1038 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1039 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1040 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1041 
  1042 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1043 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1044 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1045 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1046 
  1047 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1048 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1049 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1050 
  1051 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1052 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1053 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1054 Isabelle distribution.
  1055 
  1056 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1057 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1058 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1059 
  1060 
  1061 *** Pure ***
  1062 
  1063 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1064 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1065 
  1066 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1067 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1068 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1069 
  1070 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1071 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1072 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1073 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1074 with some care where this is really required.
  1075 
  1076 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1077 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1078 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1079 
  1080   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1081 
  1082 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1083 a Hasse diagram.
  1084 
  1085 
  1086 *** HOL ***
  1087 
  1088 * Sledgehammer:
  1089 
  1090   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1091     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1092   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1093   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1094   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1095   - Renamed options:
  1096       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1097       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1098       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1099       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1100 
  1101 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1102 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1103 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1104 
  1105 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1107 
  1108 * Lifting:
  1109   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1110   - quot_del attribute
  1111   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1112 
  1113 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1114 expressions.
  1115 
  1116 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1117 pointfree expressions.
  1118 
  1119 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1120 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1121 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1122 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1123 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1124 
  1125 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1126 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1127 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1128 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1129 accordingly.
  1130 
  1131 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1132 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1133 
  1134 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1135 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1136 
  1137 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1138 
  1139 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1140 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1141 
  1142 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1143 
  1144 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1145 
  1146   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1147   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1148 
  1149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1150 
  1151 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1152 
  1153   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1154   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1155 
  1156 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1157 
  1158 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1159 
  1160   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1161     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1162     output f x converges to G.
  1163 
  1164   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1165     infinity (at_bot).
  1166 
  1167   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1168     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1169 
  1170   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1171     at_top".
  1172 
  1173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1174 
  1175 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1176 lattice type classes.
  1177 
  1178 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1179 
  1180     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1181     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1182 
  1183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1184 
  1185 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1186 changes as follows.
  1187 
  1188   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1189 
  1190       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1191       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1192 
  1193   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1194     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1195     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1196     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1197 
  1198   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1199     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1200     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1201 
  1202   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1203     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1204     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1205     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1206 
  1207   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1208     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1209 
  1210       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1211       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1212       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1213       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1214       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1215       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1216       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1217       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1218       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1219       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1220       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1221       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1222       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1223       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1224       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1225       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1226 
  1227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1228 
  1229 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1230 
  1231 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1232 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1233 
  1234 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1235 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1236 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1237 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1238 
  1239   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1240   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1241   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1242   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1243   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1244   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1245   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1246   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1247   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1248   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1249 
  1250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1251 
  1252 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1253 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1254 Data").
  1255 
  1256 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1257 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1258 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1259 code.
  1260 
  1261 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1262 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1263 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1265 
  1266 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1267 
  1268 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1269 
  1270 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1271 
  1272   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1273   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1274 
  1275 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1276 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1277 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1278 
  1279   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1280 
  1281     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1282     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1283     cart_base i  removed
  1284     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1285 
  1286   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1287 
  1288   Renamed lemmas:
  1289 
  1290     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1291     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1292     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1293     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1294     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1295     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1296     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1297     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1298     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1299     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1300 
  1301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1302 
  1303 * HOL/Probability:
  1304 
  1305   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1306 
  1307   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1308     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1309     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1310 
  1311   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1312     projective family).
  1313 
  1314 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1315 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1316 
  1317 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1318 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1319 datatypes.
  1320 
  1321 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1322 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1323 
  1324 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1325 trees for the code generator.
  1326 
  1327 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1328 Lifting/Transfer.
  1329 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1330 
  1331 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1333 
  1334 
  1335 *** Document preparation ***
  1336 
  1337 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1338 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1339 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1340 
  1341 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1342 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1343 
  1344 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1345 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1346 document/root.tex.
  1347 
  1348 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1349 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1350 
  1351 
  1352 *** ML ***
  1353 
  1354 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1355 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1356 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1357 
  1358 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1359 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1360 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1361 
  1362 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1363 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1364 necessarily printing visible text.
  1365 
  1366 
  1367 *** System ***
  1368 
  1369 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1370 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1371 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1372 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1373 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1374 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1375 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1376 
  1377 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1378 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1379 
  1380   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1381 
  1382 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1383 
  1384 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1385 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1386 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1387 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1388 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1389 
  1390 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1391 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1392 
  1393 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1394 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1395 
  1396 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1398 
  1399 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1400 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1401 version of Isabelle.
  1402 
  1403 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1404 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1405 
  1406 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1407 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1408 for home-made settings.
  1409 
  1410 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1411 
  1412 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1413 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1414 configuration.
  1415 
  1416 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1417 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1418 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1419 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1420 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1421 
  1422 
  1423 
  1424 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1425 ------------------------------
  1426 
  1427 *** General ***
  1428 
  1429 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1430 
  1431   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1432     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1433   - markup for bound variables
  1434   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1435   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1436   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1437     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1438 
  1439 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1440 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1441 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1442 
  1443 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1444 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1445 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1446 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1447 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1448 
  1449   context
  1450     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1451     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1452   begin
  1453 
  1454   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1455 
  1456   end
  1457 
  1458   thm my_trans
  1459 
  1460 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1461 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1462 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1463 
  1464 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1465 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1466 
  1467 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1468 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1469 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1470 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1471 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1472 
  1473 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1474 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1475 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1476 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1477 indices of schematic variables.
  1478 
  1479 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1480 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1481 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1482 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1483 etc. was exploited.
  1484 
  1485 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1486 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1487 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1488 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1489 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1490 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1491 
  1492 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1493 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1494 manual.
  1495 
  1496 
  1497 *** Pure ***
  1498 
  1499 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1500 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1501 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1502 
  1503 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1504 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1505 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1506 undocumented feature.)
  1507 
  1508 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1509 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1510 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1511 
  1512   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1513 
  1514   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1515     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1516 
  1517 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1518 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1519 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1520 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1521 
  1522 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1523 
  1524     num ~> num_token
  1525     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1526     xstr ~> str_token
  1527 
  1528 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1529 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1530 position information via constraints).
  1531 
  1532 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1533 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1534 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1535 
  1536 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1537 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1538 
  1539 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1540 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1541 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1542 
  1543 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1544 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1545 
  1546 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1547 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1548 
  1549   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1550 
  1551 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1552 
  1553 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1554 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1555 
  1556 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1557 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1558 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1559 
  1560 
  1561 *** HOL ***
  1562 
  1563 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1564 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1565 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1566 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1567 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1568 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1569 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1570 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1571 possible.
  1572 
  1573 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1574 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1575 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1576 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1577 
  1578 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1579 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1580 
  1581 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1582 
  1583 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1584 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1585 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1586 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1587 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1588 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1589 
  1590   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1591     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1592 
  1593   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1594     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1595     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1596 
  1597   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1598     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1599 
  1600   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1601     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1602     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1603 
  1604   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1605     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1606 
  1607 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1608 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1609 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1610 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1611 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1612 
  1613   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1614     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1615     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1616     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1617     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1618 
  1619     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1620     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1621 
  1622   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1623     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1624     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1625     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1626     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1627     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1628     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1629     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1630 
  1631   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1632     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1633     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1634     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1635 
  1636   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1637     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1638     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1639     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1640 
  1641   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1642     from type nat to type int.
  1643 
  1644 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1645 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1646 
  1647   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1648     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1649     type.  Example syntax:
  1650 
  1651     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1652       is List.insert
  1653 
  1654     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1655     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1656     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1657     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1658     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1659     by the package.
  1660 
  1661   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1662     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1663     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1664     code generation for each constant.
  1665 
  1666   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1667     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1668     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1669     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1670     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1671 
  1672   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1673     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1674     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1675 
  1676 * Quotient package:
  1677 
  1678   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1679     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1680 
  1681   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1682     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1683 
  1684   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1685     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1686     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1687 
  1688   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1689     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1690 
  1691 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1692 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1693 
  1694 * Quickcheck:
  1695 
  1696   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1697     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1698     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1699     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1700     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1701 
  1702     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1703     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1704     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1705 
  1706     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1707     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1708 
  1709     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1710     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1711     show genuine counterexamples.
  1712 
  1713   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1714     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1715 
  1716     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1717     constructors of that type.
  1718 
  1719   - Support for multisets.
  1720 
  1721   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1722 
  1723   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1724     conjectures in a locale context.
  1725 
  1726 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1727 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1728 
  1729 * Sledgehammer:
  1730   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1731     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1732   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1733   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1734     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1735   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1736   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1737   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1738   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1739 
  1740 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1741 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1742 
  1743 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1744 
  1745 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1746 
  1747 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1748 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1749 
  1750   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1751 
  1752 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1753 a list and a nat.
  1754 
  1755 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1756 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1757 
  1758 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1759 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1760 default.
  1761 
  1762 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1763 
  1764   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1765 
  1766 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1767 
  1768 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1769 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1770 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1771 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1772 one_case.
  1773 
  1774 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1775 the result of the fact expression.
  1776 
  1777 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1778 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1779 of some relation theorems:
  1780 
  1781   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1782   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1783   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1784   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1785   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1786   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1787 
  1788 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1789 
  1790 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1791 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1792 
  1793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1794 
  1795 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1796 to match the constant's name:
  1797 
  1798   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1799   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1800   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1801   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1802   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1803   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1804   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1805   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1806   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1807   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1808   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1809   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1810   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1811   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1812   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1813   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1814   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1815   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1816   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1817   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1818   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1819   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1820   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1821   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1822 
  1823 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1824 
  1825 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1826 and corresponding theorem names:
  1827 
  1828   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1829 
  1830   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1831 
  1832   - Renamed theorems:
  1833 
  1834     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1835     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1836     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1837     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1838     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1839     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1840     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1841     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1842     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1843     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1844     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1845     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1846     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1847     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1848     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1849     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1850     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1851     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1852     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1853     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1854     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1855     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1856     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1857 
  1858     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1859 
  1860     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1861 
  1862 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1863 
  1864 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1865 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1866 
  1867   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1868   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1869   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1870   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1871   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1872   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1873   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1874   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1875   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1876   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1877   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1878   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1879   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1880   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1881   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1882   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1883   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1884   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1885   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1886   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1887   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1888 
  1889 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1890 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1891 
  1892 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1893 
  1894 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1895 
  1896   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1897   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1898   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1899   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1900   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1901   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1902   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1903   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1904   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1905   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1906   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1907   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1908   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1909   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1910   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1911   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1912   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1913   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1914 
  1915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1916 
  1917 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1918 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1919 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1920 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1921 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1922 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1923 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1924 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1925 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1926 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1927 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1928 
  1929 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1930 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1931 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1932 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1933 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1934 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1935 
  1936 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1937 through option types.
  1938 
  1939 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1940 relations.
  1941 
  1942 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1943 
  1944 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1945 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1946 
  1947   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1948   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1949   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1950   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1951   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1952   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1953   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1954   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1955   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1956   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1957   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1958   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1959   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1960   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1961   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1962   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1963   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1964   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1965   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1966   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1967   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1968   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1969   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1970   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1971   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1972   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1973   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1974   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1975   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1976   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1977   zless_le ~> less_le
  1978   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1979   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1980   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1981 
  1982 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1983 
  1984   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1985 
  1986 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1987 
  1988 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1989 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1990 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1991 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1993 
  1994 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1995 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1996 
  1997 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1998 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1999 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2000 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2001 follows:
  2002 
  2003   Operations:
  2004   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2005   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2006   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2007   del -> rbt_del
  2008   delete -> rbt_delete
  2009   ins -> rbt_ins
  2010   insert -> rbt_insert
  2011   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2012   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2013   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2014   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2015   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2016   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2017   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2018   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2019   union -> rbt_union
  2020   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2021   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2022 
  2023   Lemmas:
  2024   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2025   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2026   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2027   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2028   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2029   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2030   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2031   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2032   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2033   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2034   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2035   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2036   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2037   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2038   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2039   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2040   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2041   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2042   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2043   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2044   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2045   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2046   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2047   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2048   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2049   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2050   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2051   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2052   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2053   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2054   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2055   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2056   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2057   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2058   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2059   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2060   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2061   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2062   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2063   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2064   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2065   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2066   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2067   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2068   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2069   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2070   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2071   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2072   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2073   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2074   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2075   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2076   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2077   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2078   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2079   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2080   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2081   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2082   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2083   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2084   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2085   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2086   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2087   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2088   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2089   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2090   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2091   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2092   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2093   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2094   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2095   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2096   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2097   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2098   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2099   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2100   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2101   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2102   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2103   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2104   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2105   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2106   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2107 
  2108 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2109 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2110 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2111 
  2112   Changed Operations:
  2113   float_abs -> abs
  2114   float_nprt -> nprt
  2115   float_pprt -> pprt
  2116   pow2 -> use powr
  2117   round_down -> float_round_down
  2118   round_up -> float_round_up
  2119   scale -> exponent
  2120 
  2121   Removed Operations:
  2122   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2123 
  2124   Renamed Lemmas:
  2125   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2126   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2127   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2128   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2129   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2130   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2131   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2132   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2133   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2134   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2135   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2136   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2137   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2138   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2139   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2140   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2141   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2142   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2143   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2144   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2145   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2146   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2147   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2148   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2149   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2150   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2151   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2152   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2153   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2154   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2155   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2156   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2157   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2158   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2159   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2160   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2161 
  2162   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2163   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2164   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2165   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2166   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2167   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2168   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2169   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2170   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2171   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2172 
  2173 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2174 association lists with distinct keys.
  2175 
  2176 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2177 annotated commands.
  2178 
  2179 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2180 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2181 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2182 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2183 
  2184 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2185 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2186 instead.
  2187 
  2188   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2189   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2190   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2191   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2192   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2193   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2194   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2195   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2196   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2197   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2198   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2199   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2200   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2201   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2202   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2203   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2204   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2205   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2206   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2207   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2208   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2209   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2210   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2211   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2212   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2213   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2214   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2215   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2216   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2217   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2218   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2219   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2220   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2221   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2222   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2223   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2224   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2225   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2226   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2227   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2228   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2229 
  2230 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2231 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2232 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2233 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2234 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2235 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2236 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2237 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2238 
  2239 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2240 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2241 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2242 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2243 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2244 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2245 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2246 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2247 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2248 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2249 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2250 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2251 
  2252   Renamed constants:
  2253   measure -> emeasure
  2254   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2255   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2256   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2257   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2258 
  2259   Removed locales:
  2260   completeable_measure_space
  2261   finite_measure_space
  2262   finite_prob_space
  2263   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2264   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2265   finite_sigma_algebra
  2266   measure_space
  2267   pair_finite_prob_space
  2268   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2269   pair_finite_space
  2270   pair_sigma_algebra
  2271   product_sigma_algebra
  2272 
  2273   Removed constants:
  2274   conditional_space
  2275   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2276   image_space
  2277   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2278   pair_measure_generator
  2279   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2280   subvimage
  2281 
  2282   Replacement theorems:
  2283   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2284   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2285   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2286   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2287   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2288   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2289   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2290   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2291   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2292   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2293   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2294   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2295   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2296   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2297   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2298   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2299   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2300   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2301   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2302   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2303   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2304   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2305   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2306   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2307   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2308   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2309   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2310   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2311   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2312   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2313   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2314   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2315   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2316   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2317   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2318   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2319   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2320   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2321   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2322   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2323   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2324   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2325   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2326   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2327   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2328   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2329   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2330   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2331   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2332   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2333   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2334   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2335   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2336   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2337   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2338   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2339   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2340   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2341   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2342   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2343   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2344   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2345   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2346   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2347   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2348   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2349   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2350   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2351   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2352   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2353   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2354   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2355   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2356   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2357   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2358   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2359   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2360   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2361   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2362   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2363   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2364   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2365   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2366   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2367   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2368   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2369   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2370   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2371   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2372   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2373   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2374   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2375   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2376   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2377   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2378   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2379   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2380   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2381   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2382   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2383   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2384   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2385   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2386   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2387   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2388   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2389   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2390   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2391   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2392   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2393   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2394   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2395   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2396   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2397   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2398   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2399   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2400   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2401   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2402   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2403   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2404   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2405   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2406   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2407   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2408   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2409   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2410   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2411 
  2412 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2413 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2414 
  2415 
  2416 *** FOL ***
  2417 
  2418 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2419 
  2420 
  2421 *** ZF ***
  2422 
  2423 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2424 analysis.
  2425 
  2426 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2427 
  2428 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2429 
  2430 
  2431 *** ML ***
  2432 
  2433 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2434 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2435 
  2436 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2437 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2438 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2439 
  2440 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2441 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2442 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2443 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2444 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2445 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2446 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2447 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2448 
  2449 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2450 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2451 
  2452 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2453 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2454 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2455 
  2456 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2457 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2458 
  2459 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2460 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2461 context as well.
  2462 
  2463 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2464 
  2465   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2466   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2467   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2468   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2469   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2470   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2471   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2472   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2473   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2474   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2475   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2476   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2477 
  2478 
  2479 *** System ***
  2480 
  2481 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2482 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2483 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2484 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2485 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2486 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2487 the generic user home was intended.
  2488 
  2489 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2490 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2491 
  2492 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2493 (not just JRE).
  2494 
  2495 
  2496 
  2497 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2498 ------------------------------------
  2499 
  2500 *** General ***
  2501 
  2502 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2503 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2504 
  2505   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2506     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2507     files for checking).
  2508 
  2509   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2510     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2511     positions.
  2512 
  2513   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2514     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2515     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2516 
  2517   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2518     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2519     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2520 
  2521   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2522     cores.
  2523 
  2524   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2525     versions (garbage collection).
  2526 
  2527 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2528 including some remaining limitations.
  2529 
  2530 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2531 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2532 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2533 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2534 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2536 
  2537 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2538 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2539 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2540 
  2541 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2542 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2543 usedir option -Q.
  2544 
  2545 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2546 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2547 
  2548   long_names   ~> names_long
  2549   short_names  ~> names_short
  2550   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2551 
  2552 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2553 
  2554   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2555 
  2556 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2557 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2558 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2559 
  2560 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2561 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2562 
  2563 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2564   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2565   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2566   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2567     "Classical Reasoner".
  2568 
  2569 
  2570 *** HOL ***
  2571 
  2572 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2573 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2574 
  2575 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2576 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2577 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2578 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2579 class complete_linorder.
  2580 
  2581 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2582 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2583 
  2584 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2585 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2586 
  2587   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2588   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2589   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2590   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2591   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2592   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2593   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2594   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2595   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2596   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2597   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2598 
  2599 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2600 
  2601   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2602   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2603   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2604   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2605   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2606   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2607   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2608   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2609   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2610   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2611   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2612   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2613   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2614   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2615   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2616   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2617 
  2618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2619 
  2620 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2622 
  2623 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2624 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2625 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2626 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2627 
  2628 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2629 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2630 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2632 
  2633 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2634 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2635 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2636 
  2637 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2638 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2639 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2640 
  2641 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2642 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2643 
  2644 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2645 
  2646     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2647     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2648 
  2649 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2650 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2651 
  2652 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2653 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2654 
  2655 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2656 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2657 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2658 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2659 
  2660   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2661   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2662   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2663   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2664   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2665   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2666   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2667 
  2668 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2669 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2670 
  2671   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2672   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2673   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2674   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2675   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2676   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2677   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2678   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2679   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2680   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2681   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2682   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2683   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2684   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2685   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2686   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2687   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2688   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2689   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2690   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2691   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2692   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2693   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2694   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2695   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2696   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2697   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2698   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2699   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2700   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2701   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2702   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2703   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2704   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2705   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2706   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2707   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2708   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2709   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2710   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2711   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2712   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2713   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2714   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2715   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2716   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2717   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2718   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2719   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2720   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2721   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2722   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2723   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2724   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2725   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2726   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2727   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2728   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2729   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2730   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2731   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2732   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2733   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2734   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2735   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2736   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2737   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2738   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2739   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2740   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2741   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2742   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2743   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2744   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2745   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2746   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2747   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2748   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2749   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2750   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2751   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2752   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2753 
  2754 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2755 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2756 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2757 
  2758 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2759 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2760 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2761 
  2762 * Code generation:
  2763 
  2764   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2765     characters in the target language.
  2766 
  2767   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2768     instead.
  2769 
  2770   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2771 
  2772   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2773     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2774 
  2775       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2776 
  2777 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2778 
  2779 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2780 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2781 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2782 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2783 syntax.
  2784 
  2785 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2786 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2787 
  2788 * Nitpick:
  2789   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2790   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2791   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2792     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2793 
  2794 * Sledgehammer:
  2795   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2796   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2797     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2798   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2799     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2800   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2801     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2802   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2803     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2804   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2805     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2806 
  2807 * Metis:
  2808   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2809   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2810     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2811 
  2812 * Command 'try':
  2813   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2814     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2815   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2816     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2817 
  2818 * Quickcheck:
  2819   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2820     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2821   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2822     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2823   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2824     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2825     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2826     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2827   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2828     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2829 
  2830 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2831 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2832 
  2833 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2834 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2835 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2836 
  2837 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2838 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2840 
  2841 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2842 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2843 
  2844 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2845 arithmetic.
  2846 
  2847 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2848 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2849 and lattice type classes.
  2850 
  2851 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2852 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2853 
  2854 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2855 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2856 
  2857 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2858 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2859 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2860 
  2861   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2862   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2863   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2864   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2865 
  2866 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2867 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2868 constants:
  2869 
  2870   type inat   ~> type enat
  2871   Fin         ~> enat
  2872   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2873   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2874   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2875 
  2876 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2877 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2878 
  2879 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2880 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2881 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2882 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2883 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2884 
  2885 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2886 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2887 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2888 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2889 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2890 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2891 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2892 
  2893   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2894   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2895   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2896   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2897 
  2898 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2899 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2900 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2901 
  2902   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2903   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2904   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2905   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2906   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2907   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2908   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2909   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2910   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2911   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2912   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2913   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2914   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2915   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2916   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2917   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2918   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2919   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2920   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2921   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2922   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2923   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2924   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2925   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2926   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2927   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2928   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2929   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2930   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2931   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2932   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2933   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2934   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2935   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2936   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2937   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2938   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2939   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2940   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2941   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2942   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2943   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2944   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2945   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2946   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2947   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2948   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2949   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2950   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2951   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2952   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2953 
  2954 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2955   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2956   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2957   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2958   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2959     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2960 
  2961 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2962 
  2963   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2964   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2965   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2966   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2967   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2968   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2969   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2970   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2971   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2972   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2973   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2974   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2975   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2976   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2977   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2978   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2979   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2980   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2981   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2982   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2983   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2984   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2985   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2986   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2987   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2988 
  2989 
  2990 *** Document preparation ***
  2991 
  2992 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2993 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2994 same.
  2995 
  2996 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2997 result.
  2998 
  2999 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3000 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3001 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3002 
  3003 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3004 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3005 
  3006 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3007 like this:
  3008 
  3009   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3010   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3011 
  3012 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3013 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3014 layouts.
  3015 
  3016 
  3017 *** ML ***
  3018 
  3019 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3020 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3021 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3022 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3023 under external program control.
  3024 
  3025 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3026 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3027 
  3028 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3029 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3030 (better known as Proof General).
  3031 
  3032 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3033 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3034 
  3035 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3036 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3037 
  3038 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3039 (including quotes etc.).
  3040 
  3041 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3042 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3043 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3044 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3045 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3046 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3047 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3048 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3049 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3050 
  3051 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3052 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3053 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3054 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3055 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3056 
  3057 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3058 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3059 
  3060 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3061 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3062 
  3063 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3064 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3065 
  3066 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3067 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3068 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3069 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3070 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3071 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3072 proper Proof.context.
  3073 
  3074 
  3075 *** System ***
  3076 
  3077 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3078 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3079 
  3080 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3081 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3082 
  3083 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3084 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3085 
  3086   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3087   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3088   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3089   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3090   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3091 
  3092 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3093 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094 
  3095 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3096 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3097 example:
  3098 
  3099   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3100 
  3101 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3102 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3103 
  3104 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3105 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3106 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3107 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3108 
  3109 
  3110 
  3111 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3112 ----------------------------------
  3113 
  3114 *** General ***
  3115 
  3116 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3117 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3118 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3119 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3120 like this:
  3121 
  3122   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3123 
  3124 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3125 
  3126 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3127 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3128 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3129 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3130 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3131 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3132 
  3133 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3134 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3135 the following package declarations:
  3136 
  3137   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3138   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3139 
  3140 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3141 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3142 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3143 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3144 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3145 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3146 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3147 
  3148 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3149 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3150 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3151 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3152 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3153 
  3154 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3155 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3156 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3157 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3158 
  3159 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3160 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3161 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3162 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3163 
  3164   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3165 
  3166   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3167   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3168   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3169   show_types                    show_types
  3170   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3171   show_consts                   show_consts
  3172   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3173 
  3174   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3175   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3176   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3177 
  3178   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3179   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3180 
  3181   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3182 
  3183   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3184   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3185   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3186   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3187   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3188 
  3189 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3190 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3191 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3192 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3193 
  3194 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3196 
  3197   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3198   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3199 
  3200 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3201 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3202 float_token.
  3203 
  3204 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3205 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3207 
  3208 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3209 DejaVu Sans.
  3210 
  3211 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3212 
  3213 
  3214 *** Pure ***
  3215 
  3216 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3217 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3218 time.
  3219 
  3220 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3221 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3222 
  3223 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3224 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3225 
  3226 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3227 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3228 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3229 command already provided this functionality.
  3230 
  3231 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3232 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3233 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3234 without interpretations.
  3235 
  3236 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3237 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3238 
  3239 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3240 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3241 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3242 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3243 
  3244 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3245 'definition' instead.
  3246 
  3247 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3248 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3249 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3250 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3251 
  3252 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3253 constructors.
  3254 
  3255 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3256 the local file system.
  3257 
  3258 
  3259 *** HOL ***
  3260 
  3261 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3262 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3263 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3264 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3265 
  3266   declare [[coercion f]]
  3267 
  3268 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3269 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3270 
  3271   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3272 
  3273 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3274 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3275 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3276 other theories like this:
  3277 
  3278   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3279 
  3280 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3281 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3282 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3283 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3284 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3285 for examples.
  3286 
  3287 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3288 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3289 
  3290 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3291 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3292 
  3293 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3294 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3295 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3296 
  3297 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3298 functorial structure of types.
  3299 
  3300 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3301 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3302 
  3303 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3304 languages.
  3305 
  3306 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3307 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3309 
  3310 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3311 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3312 
  3313 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3314 combinators any longer.
  3315 
  3316 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3317 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3318 
  3319 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3320 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3321 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3322 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3323 
  3324   record 'a foo = ...
  3325   ...
  3326   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3327 
  3328 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3329 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3331 
  3332 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3333 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3334 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3335 
  3336 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3337 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3338 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3339 
  3340 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3341 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3342 
  3343 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3344 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3345 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3346 independently.
  3347 
  3348 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3349 counter example search.
  3350 
  3351 * Sledgehammer:
  3352   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3353     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3354     sledgehammer").
  3355   - Renamed commands:
  3356     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3357     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3358     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3359     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360   - Renamed options:
  3361     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3362     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3363     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3364     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3365     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3366 
  3367 * Nitpick:
  3368   - Renamed options:
  3369     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3370     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3371     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3372   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3373   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3374   - Added "whack" option.
  3375   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3376   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3377   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3378   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3379     higher cardinalities.
  3380   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3381 
  3382 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3383 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3384 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3385 
  3386     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3387 
  3388 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3389 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3390 
  3391 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3392 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3393 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3394 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3395 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3396 "smt_solver".
  3397 
  3398 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3399 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3400 
  3401 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3402 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3403 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3404 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3405 
  3406 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3407   - Renamed:
  3408     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3409     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3410     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3411   - Added:
  3412     smt_verbose
  3413     smt_random_seed
  3414     smt_datatypes
  3415     smt_infer_triggers
  3416     smt_monomorph_limit
  3417     cvc3_options
  3418     remote_cvc3_options
  3419     remote_z3_options
  3420     yices_options
  3421 
  3422 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3423 header.
  3424 
  3425 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3426 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3427 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3428 
  3429   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3430 
  3431 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3434 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3435 
  3436 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3439 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440 
  3441 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3442 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3443 
  3444 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3445 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3446 
  3447 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3448 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3449 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450 
  3451 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3452 
  3453 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3455 
  3456 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3457 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3458 
  3459 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3460 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3461 for congruent(2)).
  3462 
  3463 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3464 
  3465   types
  3466     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3467     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3468 
  3469   constants
  3470     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3471     True ~> HOL.True
  3472     False ~> HOL.False
  3473     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3474     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3475     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3476     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3477     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3478     The ~> HOL.The
  3479     All ~> HOL.All
  3480     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3481     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3482     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3483     If ~> HOL.If
  3484     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3485     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3486     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3487     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3488     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3489     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3490     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3491     op : ~> Set.member
  3492     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3493 
  3494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3495 
  3496 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3497 
  3498     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3499     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3500     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3501     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3502     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3503     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3504     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3505     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3506 
  3507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * More stylized fact names:
  3510 
  3511   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3512   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3513   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3514   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3515 
  3516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3517 
  3518 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3519 
  3520   constants
  3521     null ~> List.null
  3522 
  3523   facts
  3524     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3525     null_empty ~> null_def
  3526 
  3527 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3528 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3529 generation.
  3530 
  3531 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3532 Haskell code.
  3533 
  3534 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3535 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3536 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3537 
  3538 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3539 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3542 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3543 
  3544 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3545 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3546 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3547 
  3548 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3549 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3550 
  3551 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3552 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3553 
  3554 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3555 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3556 referred to by its qualified name.
  3557 
  3558   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3559   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3560   product ~>  Enum.product
  3561 
  3562 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3563 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3565 
  3566 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3567 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3568 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3570 
  3571 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3572 sort_key.
  3573 
  3574 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3576 
  3577 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3578 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3579 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3580 
  3581   types
  3582     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3583               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3584               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3585         (depends on your needs)
  3586 
  3587   constants
  3588      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3589      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3590      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3591 
  3592 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3593 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3594 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3595 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3596 
  3597 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3598 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3599 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3600 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3601 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3602 
  3603 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3605 
  3606 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3607 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3608 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3609 
  3610 
  3611 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3612 
  3613 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3614 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3615 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3616 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3617 compatibility.
  3618 
  3619 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3620 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3621 
  3622 
  3623 *** HOLCF ***
  3624 
  3625 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3626 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3627 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3628 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3629 
  3630 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3631 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3632 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3633 
  3634   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3635   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3636   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3637 
  3638 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3639 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3640 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3641 
  3642 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3643 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3644 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3645 domain definition now works:
  3646 
  3647   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3648 
  3649 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3650 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3651 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3652 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3653 
  3654   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3655     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3656 
  3657   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3658 
  3659 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3660 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3661 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3664 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3665 
  3666 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3667 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3668 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3669 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3670 
  3671 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3672 
  3673 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3674 
  3675 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3676 
  3677 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3678 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3679 
  3680 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3681 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3682 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3683 
  3684 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3685 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3686 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3687 
  3688 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3689 still supported as an input translation.
  3690 
  3691 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3692 
  3693   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3694   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3695   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3696   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3697   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3698   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3699   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3700 
  3701 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3702 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3703 
  3704   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3705   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3706   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3707   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3708   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3709   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3710 
  3711 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3712 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3713 
  3714 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3715 
  3716   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3717   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3718   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3719   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3720 
  3721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3722 
  3723 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3724 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3725 
  3726 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3727 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3728 
  3729   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3730   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3731   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3732   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3733   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3734   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3735   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3736   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3737   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3738   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3739   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3740   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3741   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3742   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3743   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3744   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3745   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3746   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3747   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3748   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3749 
  3750 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3753   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3754   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3755   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3756   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3757   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3758   box_less             ~> box_below
  3759   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3760   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3761   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3762   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3763   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3764   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3765   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3766   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3767   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3768   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3769   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3770   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3771   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3772   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3773   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3774   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3775   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3776   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3777   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3778   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3779   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3780   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3781   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3782   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3783   up_less              ~> up_below
  3784   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3785   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3786   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3787   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3788   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3789   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3790   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3791   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3792   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3793   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3794   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3795   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3796   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3797 
  3798 
  3799 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3800 
  3801 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3802 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3803 
  3804 
  3805 *** ML ***
  3806 
  3807 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3808 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3809 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3810 
  3811 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3812 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3813 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3814 
  3815 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3816 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3817 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3818 
  3819 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3820 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3821 
  3822 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3823 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3824 
  3825 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3826 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3827 
  3828 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3829 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3830 
  3831 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3832 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3833 almost all situations.
  3834 
  3835 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3836 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3837 Isabelle/ML.
  3838 
  3839 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3840 meaning.
  3841 
  3842 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3843 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3844 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3845 
  3846 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3847 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3848 
  3849 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3850 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3851 
  3852 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3853 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3854 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3855 
  3856 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3857 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3858 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3859 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3860 configuration options.
  3861 
  3862 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3863 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3864 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3865 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3866 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3867 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3868 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3869 
  3870 
  3871 
  3872 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3873 ---------------------------------
  3874 
  3875 *** General ***
  3876 
  3877 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3878 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3879 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3880 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3881 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3882 their full internal name.
  3883 
  3884 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3885 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3886 Some hints on upgrading:
  3887 
  3888   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3889     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3890     which are independent of this issue.
  3891 
  3892   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3893     provides the following special forms:
  3894 
  3895       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3896       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3897       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3898 
  3899     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3900     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3901     extra variables".
  3902 
  3903     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3904     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3905     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3906     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3907     "logic".
  3908 
  3909   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3910     antiquotations:
  3911 
  3912       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3913       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3914       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3915       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3916 
  3917   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3918     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3919     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3920     antiquotations.
  3921 
  3922 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3923 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3924 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3925 diagnose syntax problems.
  3926 
  3927 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3928 
  3929 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3930 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3931 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3932 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3933 
  3934 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3935 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3936 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3937 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3938 
  3939 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3940 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3941 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3942 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3943 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3944 
  3945 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3946 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3947 
  3948 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3949 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3950 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3951 
  3952   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3953 
  3954 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3955 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3956 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3957 
  3958 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3959 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3961 
  3962 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3963 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3964 
  3965 
  3966 *** Pure ***
  3967 
  3968 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3969 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3970 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3971 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3972 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3973 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3974 inspect proof terms.
  3975 
  3976 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3977 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3978 are added internally.  For example:
  3979 
  3980   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3981 
  3982 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3983 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3984 
  3985 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3988 'class' instead.
  3989 
  3990 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3991 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3993 
  3994 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3995 invariants.
  3996 
  3997 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3998 user space functionality any longer.
  3999 
  4000 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4001 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4003 
  4004 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4005 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4006 
  4007 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4008 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4009 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4010 
  4011 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4012 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4013 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4014 
  4015 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4016 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4017 
  4018 
  4019 *** HOL ***
  4020 
  4021 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4022 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4023 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4024 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4025 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4026 
  4027 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4028 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4029 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4030 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4031 
  4032   fun
  4033     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4034   where
  4035     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4036 
  4037   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4038     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4039 
  4040   quotient_definition
  4041     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4042 
  4043 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4044 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4045 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4046 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4047 
  4048 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4049 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4050 
  4051 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4052 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4053 
  4054 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4055 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4056 
  4057 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4058 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4059 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4060 
  4061 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4062 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4063 
  4064 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4065 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4066 
  4067 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4069 
  4070 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4071 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4072 
  4073 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4074 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4075 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4078   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4079   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4080   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4081   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4082   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4083   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4084   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4085   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4086   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4087   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4088   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4089   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4090   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4091   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4092   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4093   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4094   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4095   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4096   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4097   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4098   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4099   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4100   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4101   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4102   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4103   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4104   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4105   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4106   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4107 
  4108 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4109 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4110 
  4111 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4112 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4113 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4114 
  4115 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4116 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4117 
  4118 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4119 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4120 
  4121 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4122 
  4123 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4124 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4125 
  4126 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4127 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4128 
  4129 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4130 
  4131 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4132 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4133 
  4134 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4135 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4136 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4137 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4138 
  4139 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4140   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4141   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4142   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4144 
  4145 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4146 lattices):
  4147 
  4148     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4149     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4150 
  4151     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4152 
  4153     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4154     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4155     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4156     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4157     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4158     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4159     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4160     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4161     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4162     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4163     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4164     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4165     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4166 
  4167     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4168     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4169     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4170     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4171     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4172     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4173     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4174     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4175     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4176     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4177     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4178     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4179     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4180     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4181     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4182     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4183     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4184     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4185 
  4186   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4187   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4188 
  4189     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4190     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4191     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4192     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4193     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4194 
  4195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4196 
  4197 * Refined field classes:
  4198   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4199     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4200     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4201   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4203 
  4204 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4205   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4206   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4207   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4208     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4209   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4210     equal_neg_zero.
  4211 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4212 
  4213 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4214 sets to lattices:
  4215 
  4216   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4217   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4218   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4219   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4220   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4221   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4222   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4223   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4224   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4225   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4226 
  4227 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4228 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4229 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4230 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4231 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4232 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4233 
  4234 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4235 multiset order:
  4236 
  4237   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4238     <= and <;
  4239   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4240     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4241     multiset_order;
  4242   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4243     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4244     generation;
  4245   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4246     if needed.
  4247 
  4248 Renamed:
  4249 
  4250   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4251   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4252   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4253 
  4254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4255 
  4256 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4257 
  4258 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4259 
  4260 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4261 
  4262 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4263 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4264 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4265 
  4266   Constants:
  4267   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4268   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4269   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4270   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4271   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4272   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4273   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4274   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4275   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4276   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4277   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4278   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4279   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4280 
  4281   Lemmas:
  4282   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4283   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4284   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4285   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4286   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4287   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4288   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4289   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4290   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4291   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4292   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4293   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4294   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4295 
  4296 * Sledgehammer:
  4297   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4298     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4299     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4300     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4301     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4302     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4303     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4304   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4305   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4306     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4307   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4308     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4309     is still experimental.)
  4310   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4311     full-typed mode.
  4312   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4313 
  4314 * Nitpick:
  4315   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4316   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4317   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4318     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4319   - Added support for quotient types.
  4320   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4321     constructs.
  4322   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4323     "termination" proofs).
  4324   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4325   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4326   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4327   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4328     record getters.
  4329   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4330   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4331   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4332   - Added "atoms" option.
  4333   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4334     problems.
  4335   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4336     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4337     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4338   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4339     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4340   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4341 
  4342 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4343   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4344   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4345   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4346   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4347   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4348   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4349   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4350   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4351   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4352 
  4353 
  4354 *** HOLCF ***
  4355 
  4356 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4357 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4358 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4359 
  4360 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4361 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4362 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4363 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4364 
  4365 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4366 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4367 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4368 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4369 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4370 
  4371 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4372 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4373 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4374 
  4375 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4376 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4377 
  4378   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4379   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4380 
  4381 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4382 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4383 
  4384   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4385   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4386   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4387   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4388   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4389 
  4390 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4391 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4392 
  4393   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4394   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4395   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4396 
  4397 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4398 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4399 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4400 
  4401 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4402 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4403 
  4404 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4405 
  4406 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4407 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4408 
  4409 
  4410 *** ML ***
  4411 
  4412 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4413 
  4414     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4415     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4416 
  4417     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4418     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4419     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4420     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4421 
  4422     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4423     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4424     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4425 
  4426 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4427 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4428 
  4429 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4430 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4431 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4432 
  4433 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4434 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4435 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4436 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4437 
  4438 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4439 the context or even global references.
  4440 
  4441 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4442 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4443 
  4444 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4445 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4446 
  4447   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4448   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4449   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4450   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4451   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4452   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4453   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4454   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4455   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4456   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4457 
  4458 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4459 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4460 
  4461 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4462 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4463 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4464 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4465 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4466 
  4467 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4468 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4469 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4470 Theory_Data version.
  4471 
  4472 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4473 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4474 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4475 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4476 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4477 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4478 explicitly in rare situations.
  4479 
  4480 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4481 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4483 
  4484 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4485 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4486 
  4487 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4488 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4489 quite rare).
  4490 
  4491 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4492 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4493 
  4494 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4495 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4496 terms.
  4497 
  4498 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4499 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4500 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4501 
  4502 
  4503 *** System ***
  4504 
  4505 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4506 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4507 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4508 
  4509 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4510 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4511 respectively.
  4512 
  4513 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4514 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4515 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4516 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4517 
  4518   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4519 
  4520 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4521 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4522 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4523 component.
  4524 
  4525 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4526 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4527 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4528 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4529 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4530 the user for manual installation.
  4531 
  4532 
  4533 
  4534 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4535 -------------------------------------
  4536 
  4537 *** General ***
  4538 
  4539 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4540 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4541 
  4542 
  4543 *** Pure ***
  4544 
  4545 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4546 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4547 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4548 
  4549 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4550 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4551 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4552 
  4553 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4554 interpretation.
  4555 
  4556 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4557 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4558 
  4559 
  4560 *** Document preparation ***
  4561 
  4562 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4563 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4564 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4565 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4566 
  4567 
  4568 *** HOL ***
  4569 
  4570 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4571 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4572 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4573 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4574 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4575 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4576 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4577 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4578 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4579 
  4580 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4581 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4582 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4583 
  4584 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4585 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4586 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4587 
  4588 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4589 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4590 
  4591 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4592 
  4593 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4594 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4595 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4596 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4597 
  4598 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4599 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4600 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4601 "mirabelle" utility.
  4602 
  4603 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4604 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4605 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4606 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4607 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4608 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4609 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4610 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4611 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4612 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4613 
  4614 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4615 procedure only.
  4616 
  4617 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4618 
  4619 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4620 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4621 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4622 that fail later.
  4623 
  4624 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4625 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4626 
  4627 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4628 the same method as the approximation method.
  4629 
  4630 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4631 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4632 series expansion.
  4633 
  4634 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4635 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4636 
  4637 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4638 reals.
  4639 
  4640 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4641 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4642 
  4643 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4644 fixpoint theorem.
  4645 
  4646 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4647   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4648     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4649   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4650     accordingly
  4651   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4652     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4653   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4654     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4655 
  4656 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4657 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4658 lattice.
  4659 
  4660 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4661 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4662 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4663 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4664 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4665 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4667 
  4668 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4669   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4670     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4671   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4672     le_inf_iff
  4673   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4674     sup_aci)
  4675   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4676   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4677   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4678     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4679     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4680     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4681     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4682     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4683     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4684     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4685     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4686     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4687     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4688   - authentic syntax for
  4689     Set.Pow
  4690     Set.image
  4691   - mere abbreviations:
  4692     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4693     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4694     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4695     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4696     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4697     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4698     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4699     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4700   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4701 
  4702 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4703 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4704 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4705 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4706 
  4707 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4708 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4709 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4710 
  4711 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4712 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4713 
  4714 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4715 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4716 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4717 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4718 
  4719 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4720 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4721 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4722 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4723 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4724 
  4725 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4726 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4728 
  4729 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4730 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4731 
  4732 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4733 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4734 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4735 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4736 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4737 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4738 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4739 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4740 
  4741 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4742     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4743     code_post       replaces    code post
  4744     etc.
  4745   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4746 
  4747 * Renamed methods:
  4748     sizechange -> size_change
  4749     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4750   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4751 
  4752 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4753 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4754 
  4755 * Renamed theorems:
  4756     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4757     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4758     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4759     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4760     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4761   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4762 
  4763 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4765 
  4766 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4768 
  4769 
  4770 *** HOLCF ***
  4771 
  4772 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4773 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4774 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4775 
  4776 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4777 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4778 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4779 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4780 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4781 
  4782 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4783 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4784 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4785 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4786 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4787 
  4788 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4789 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4790 constructor are pre-configured.
  4791 
  4792 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4793 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4794 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4795 
  4796 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4797 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4798 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4799 as well.)
  4800 
  4801 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4802 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4803 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4804 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4805 examples.
  4806 
  4807 
  4808 *** ML ***
  4809 
  4810 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4811 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4812 
  4813 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4814 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4815 position, logical grouping etc.
  4816 
  4817 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4818 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4819 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4820 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4821 
  4822 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4823 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4824 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4825 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4826 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4827 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4828 
  4829 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4830 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4831 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4832 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4833 experiments with references.
  4834 
  4835 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4836 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4837 
  4838 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4839 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4840 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4841 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4842 
  4843 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4844 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4845 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4846 
  4847 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4848 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4849 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4850 
  4851 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4852 
  4853 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4855 
  4856 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4857 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4858 
  4859 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4860 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4861 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4862 
  4863 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4864 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4865 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4866 
  4867 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4868 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4869 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4871 
  4872 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4873 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4874 instead of global theory.
  4875 
  4876 
  4877 *** System ***
  4878 
  4879 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4880 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4881 usedir option -q.
  4882 
  4883 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4884 also the system manual.
  4885 
  4886 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4887 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4888 
  4889 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4890 this is always enabled.
  4891 
  4892 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4893 
  4894 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4895 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4896 currently supported on Linux only.
  4897 
  4898 
  4899 
  4900 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4901 --------------------------------
  4902 
  4903 *** General ***
  4904 
  4905 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4906 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4907 
  4908   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4909     "isatool."
  4910 
  4911   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4912     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4913 
  4914   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4915     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4916 
  4917 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4918 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4919 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4920 
  4921 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4922 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4923 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4924 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4925 via "isabelle emacs".
  4926 
  4927 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4928 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4929 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4930 
  4931 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4932 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4933 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4934 
  4935 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4936 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4937 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4938 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4939 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4940 
  4941 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4942 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4943 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4944 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4945 
  4946 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4947 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4948 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4949 
  4950 
  4951 *** Pure ***
  4952 
  4953 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4954 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4955 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4956 
  4957 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4958 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4959 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4960 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4961 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4962 
  4963 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4964 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4965 useful in locale declarations.
  4966 
  4967 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4968 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4969 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4970 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4971 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4972 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4973 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4974 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4975 no longer generated.
  4976 
  4977 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4978 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4979 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4980 
  4981 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4982 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4983 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4984 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4985 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4986 
  4987 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4988 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4989 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4990 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4991 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4992 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4993 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4994 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4995 
  4996 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4997 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4998 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4999 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5000 
  5001 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5002 
  5003 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5004 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5005 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5006 
  5007 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5008 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5009 
  5010 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5011 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5012 in HOL, write
  5013 
  5014     class foo = ...
  5015 
  5016 instead of
  5017 
  5018     class foo = type + ...
  5019 
  5020 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5021 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5022 
  5023 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5024 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5025 
  5026 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5027 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5028 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5029 
  5030 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5031 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5032 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5033 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5034 directly in regular applications.
  5035 
  5036 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5037 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5038 
  5039 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5040 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5041 
  5042 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5043 theory context.
  5044 
  5045 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5046 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5047 
  5048 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5049 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5050 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5051 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5052 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5053 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5054 
  5055   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5056 
  5057 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5058 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5059 normalization.
  5060 
  5061 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5062 addressing etc.
  5063 
  5064 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5065 
  5066   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5067   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5068 
  5069 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5070 
  5071   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5072      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5073      parts of the code generator framework).
  5074 
  5075   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5076      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5077      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5078 
  5079 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5080 
  5081 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5082 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5083 
  5084 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5085 patterns, e.g.
  5086 
  5087     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5088 
  5089 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5090 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5091 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5092 hyphen:
  5093 
  5094     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5095 
  5096 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5097 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5098 
  5099 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5100 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5101 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5102 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5103 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5104 higher-order unification.
  5105 
  5106 
  5107 *** Document preparation ***
  5108 
  5109 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5110 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5111 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5112 
  5113 
  5114 *** HOL ***
  5115 
  5116 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5117 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5118 
  5119 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5120 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5121 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5122 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5123 Main, as before.
  5124 
  5125 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5126 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5127 
  5128 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5129 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5130 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5131 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5132 
  5133 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5134 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5135 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5136 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5137 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5138 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5139 
  5140 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5141 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5142 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5143 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5144 
  5145 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5146 menu.
  5147 
  5148 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5149 (contains the empty clause).
  5150 
  5151 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5152 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5153 
  5154 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5155 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5156 
  5157 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5158 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5159 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5160 
  5161 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5162 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5163 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5164 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5165 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5166 
  5167 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5168 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5169 
  5170 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5171 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5172 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5173 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5174 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5175 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5176 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5177 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5178 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5179 
  5180 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5181 
  5182 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5183 
  5184 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5185 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5186 
  5187 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5188 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5189 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5190 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5191 
  5192 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5193 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5194 
  5195     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5196     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5197     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5198     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5199     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5200     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5201     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5202     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5203 
  5204 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5205 theory Set.
  5206 
  5207 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5208 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5209 
  5210 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5211 
  5212 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5213 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5214 
  5215 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5216 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5217 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5218 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5219 allowed. For examples see
  5220 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5221 
  5222 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5223 
  5224 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5226 
  5227 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5228 structure:
  5229 
  5230     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5231     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5232     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5233     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5234     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5235     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5236     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5237     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5238     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5239     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5240     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5241     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5242     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5243     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5244     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5245     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5246     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5247     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5248     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5249     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5250     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5251     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5252     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5253     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5254     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5255     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5256     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5257     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5258     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5259     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5260     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5261     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5262     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5263 
  5264     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5265     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5266     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5267     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5268     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5269     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5270     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5271     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5272     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5273     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5274 
  5275     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5276     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5277     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5278     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5279     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5280     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5281 
  5282 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5283 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5284 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5285 
  5286 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5287 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5288 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5289 
  5290 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5291 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5292 
  5293 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5294 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5295 
  5296 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5297 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5298 proofs, e.g.
  5299 
  5300   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5301 
  5302 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5303 
  5304 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5305 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5306 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5307 
  5308 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5309 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5311 
  5312 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5313 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5314 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5315 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5316 
  5317 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5318 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5319 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5320 preorder_class.*.
  5321 
  5322 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5323 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5324 
  5325 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5326 
  5327   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5328 
  5329 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5330 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5331 fold_image.
  5332 
  5333 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5334 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5335 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5336 the former will disappear at some point.
  5337 
  5338 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5339 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5340 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5341 
  5342 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5343 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5344 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5345 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5346 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5347 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5348 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5349 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5350 
  5351 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5352 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5353 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5354 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5355 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5356 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5357 
  5358     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5359     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5360     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5361     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5362     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5363     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5364     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5365 
  5366 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5367 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5368 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5369 
  5370 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5371 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5372 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5373 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5374 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5375 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5376 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5377 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5378 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5379 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5380 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5381 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5382 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5383 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5384 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5385 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5386 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5387 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5388 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5389 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5390 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5391 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5392 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5393 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5394 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5395 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5396 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5397 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5398 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5399 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5400 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5401 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5402 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5403 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5404 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5405 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5406 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5407 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5408 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5409 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5410 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5411 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5412 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5413 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5414 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5415 
  5416 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5417 
  5418 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5419 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5420 
  5421 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5422 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5423 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5424 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5425 
  5426 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5427 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5428 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5429 theory RealVector.
  5430 
  5431 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5432 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5433 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5434 and inner products are included.
  5435 
  5436 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5437 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5438 supported.
  5439 
  5440 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5441 first diagonalization argument.
  5442 
  5443 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5444 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5445 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5446 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5447 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5448 
  5449     hide (open) const gcd
  5450     abbreviation gcd where
  5451       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5452     notation (output)
  5453       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5454 
  5455 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5456 
  5457 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5458 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5459 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5460 
  5461 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5462 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5463 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5464 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5465 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5466 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5467 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5468 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5469 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5470 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5471 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5472 cases.
  5473 
  5474 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5475 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5476 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5477 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5478 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5479 
  5480     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5481     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5482     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5483     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5484     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5485 
  5486 
  5487 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5488 
  5489 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5490 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5491 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5492 
  5493 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5494 
  5495 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5496 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5497 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5498 
  5499 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5500 
  5501 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5502 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5503 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5504 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5505 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5506 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5507 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5508 
  5509 
  5510 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5511 
  5512 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5513 
  5514 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5515 theory targets.
  5516 
  5517 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5518 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5519 'inductive' etc.
  5520 
  5521 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5522 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5523 
  5524 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5525 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5526 
  5527 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5528 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5529 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5530 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5531 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5532 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5533 the algorithm W:
  5534 
  5535  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5536  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5537          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5538 
  5539 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5540 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5541 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5542 
  5543 
  5544 *** HOLCF ***
  5545 
  5546 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5547 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5548 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5549 
  5550 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5551 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5552 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5553 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5554 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5555 
  5556 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5557 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5558 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5559 
  5560 
  5561 *** ZF ***
  5562 
  5563 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5564 
  5565 
  5566 *** ML ***
  5567 
  5568 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5569 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5570 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5571 5.2.1!
  5572 
  5573 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5574 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5575 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5576 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5577 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5578 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5579 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5580 
  5581 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5582 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5583 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5584 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5585 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5586 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5587 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5588 
  5589 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5590 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5591 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5592 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5593 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5594 
  5595 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5596 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5597 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5598 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5599 Method.add_method.
  5600 
  5601 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5602 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5603 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5604 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5605 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5606 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5607 
  5608 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5609 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5610 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5611 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5612 examples.
  5613 
  5614 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5615 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5616 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5617 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5618 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5619 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5620 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5621 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5622 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5623 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5624 
  5625 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5626 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5627 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5628 
  5629 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5630 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5631 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5632 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5633 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5634 resort for legacy applications.
  5635 
  5636 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5637 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5638 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5639 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5640 explicit runtime argument.
  5641 
  5642 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5643 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5644 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5645 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5646 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5647 
  5648 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5649 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5650 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5651 theory state.
  5652 
  5653 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5654 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5655 
  5656   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5657   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5658   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5659   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5660   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5661   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5662   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5663   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5664   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5665   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5666 
  5667 
  5668 *** System ***
  5669 
  5670 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5671 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5672 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5673 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5674 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5675 
  5676 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5677 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5678 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5679 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5680 
  5681 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5682 
  5683 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5684 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5685 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5686 prover operations.
  5687 
  5688 
  5689 
  5690 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5691 -------------------------------
  5692 
  5693 *** General ***
  5694 
  5695 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5696 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5697 
  5698 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5699 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5700 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5701 provides a proper context already.
  5702 
  5703 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5704 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5705 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5706 
  5707 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5708 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5709 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5710 swap theory imports.
  5711 
  5712 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5713 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5714 
  5715 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5716 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5717 white space without escapes.
  5718 
  5719 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5720 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5721 "foo_bar".
  5722 
  5723 
  5724 *** Pure ***
  5725 
  5726 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5727 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5728 
  5729 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5730 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5731 
  5732 (1) unused_thms
  5733      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5734 
  5735 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5736      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5737      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5738 
  5739 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5740      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5741      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5742      their ancestors.
  5743 
  5744 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5745 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5746 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5747 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5748 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5749 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5750 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5751 
  5752 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5753 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5754 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5755 
  5756 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5757 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5758 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5759 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5760 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5761 
  5762 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5763 
  5764 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5765 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5766 update of theories within ML code.
  5767 
  5768 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5769 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5770 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5771 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5772 
  5773 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5774 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5775 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5776 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5777 
  5778 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5779 
  5780 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5781 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5782 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5783 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5784 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5785 
  5786 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5787 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5788 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5789 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5790 situations.
  5791 
  5792 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5793 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5794 proof text.
  5795 
  5796 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5797 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5798 
  5799 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5800 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5801 predicates.
  5802 
  5803 
  5804 *** Document preparation ***
  5805 
  5806 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5807 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5808 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5809 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5810 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5811 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5812 
  5813 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5814 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5815 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5816 
  5817 
  5818 *** HOL ***
  5819 
  5820 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5821 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5822 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5823 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5824 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5825 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5826 
  5827 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5828 with multithreading.
  5829 
  5830 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5831 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5832 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5833 
  5834 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5835 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5836 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5837 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5838 
  5839 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5840 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5841 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5842 and makes them available separately.  See
  5843 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5844 
  5845 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5846 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5847 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5848 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5849 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5850 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5851 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5852 the declared rules.
  5853 
  5854 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5855 
  5856   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5857 
  5858 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5859 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5860 
  5861 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5862 
  5863   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5864 
  5865   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5866     definitions on => and bool.
  5867 
  5868   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5869     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5870     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5871 
  5872       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5873       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5874       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5875       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5876       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5877       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5878       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5879       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5880 
  5881   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5882     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5883     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5884 
  5885   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5886     The proof pattern
  5887 
  5888       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5889       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5890 
  5891     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5892     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5893 
  5894       have "EX S. P S"
  5895       proof
  5896         show "P S" <...>
  5897       qed
  5898 
  5899   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5900     The proof pattern
  5901 
  5902       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5903       also have "S = T" <...>
  5904       finally have "P T" .
  5905 
  5906     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5907     must be replaced by something like
  5908 
  5909       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5910       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5911       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5912 
  5913   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5914     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5915 
  5916       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5917 
  5918     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5919     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5920     type of the form
  5921 
  5922       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5923 
  5924     rather than
  5925 
  5926       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5927 
  5928 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5929 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5930 
  5931 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5932 
  5933 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5934 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5936 
  5937 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5938 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5939 
  5940 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5941 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5942 
  5943 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5944 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5945 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5946 
  5947 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5948 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5949 
  5950   less_trans
  5951   less_linear
  5952   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5953   le_less_trans
  5954   less_le_trans
  5955   less_not_sym
  5956   less_asym
  5957 
  5958 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5959 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5960 and different variable names.
  5961 
  5962 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5963 
  5964 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5965 finite maps.
  5966 
  5967 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5968 
  5969 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5970 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5971 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5972 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5973 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5974 accordingly.
  5975 
  5976 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5977 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5978 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5979 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5980 
  5981 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5982 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5983 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5984 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5985 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5986 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5987 
  5988 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5989 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5990 
  5991 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5992 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5993 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5994 
  5995 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5996 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5997 
  5998 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5999 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6000 
  6001 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6002 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6003 
  6004 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6005 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6006 
  6007 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6008 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6010 
  6011 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6012 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6013 
  6014 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6015 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6016 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6017 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6018 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6019 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6020 
  6021 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6022 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6023 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6024 
  6025 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6026 
  6027 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6028 
  6029 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6030 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6031 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6032 
  6033 
  6034 *** ZF ***
  6035 
  6036 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6037 same session:
  6038 
  6039   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6040   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6041   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6042   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6043   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6044   List      -> List_ZF
  6045   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6046 
  6047 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6048 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6049 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6050 
  6051 
  6052 *** ML ***
  6053 
  6054 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6055 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6056 
  6057 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6058 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6059 
  6060 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6061 
  6062 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6063 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6064 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6065 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6066 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6067 
  6068 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6069 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6070 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6071 
  6072 
  6073 *** System ***
  6074 
  6075 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6076 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6077 
  6078 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6079 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6080 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6081 
  6082 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6083 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6084 
  6085 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6086 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6087 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6088 
  6089 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6090 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6091 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6092 
  6093 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6094 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6095 
  6096 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6097 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6098 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6099 script.
  6100 
  6101 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6102 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6103 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6104 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6105 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6106 
  6107 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6108 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6109 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6110 
  6111 
  6112 
  6113 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6114 -----------------------------------
  6115 
  6116 *** General ***
  6117 
  6118 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6119 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6120 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6121 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6122 
  6123 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6124 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6125 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6126 
  6127 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6128 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6129 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6130 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6131 
  6132 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6133 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6134 quotes.
  6135 
  6136 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6137 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6138 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6139 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6140 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6141 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6142 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6143 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6144 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6145 
  6146 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6147 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6148 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6149 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6150 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6151 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6152 
  6153 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6154 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6155 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6156 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6157 
  6158 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6159 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6160 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6161 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6162 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6163 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6164 
  6165 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6166 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6167 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6168 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6169 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6170 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6171 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6172 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6173 
  6174 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6175 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6176 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6177 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6178 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6179 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6180 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6181 
  6182 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6183 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6184 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6185 
  6186 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6187 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6188 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6189 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6190 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6191 limit is imposed.
  6192 
  6193 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6194 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6195 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6196 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6197 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6198 and scalability.
  6199 
  6200 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6201 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6202 
  6203 
  6204 *** Document preparation ***
  6205 
  6206 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6207 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6208 current context.
  6209 
  6210 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6211 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6212 
  6213 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6214 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6215 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6216 
  6217 
  6218 *** Pure ***
  6219 
  6220 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6221 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6222 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6223 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6224 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6225 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6226 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6227 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6228 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6229 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6230 
  6231 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6232 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6233 sketch:
  6234 
  6235     internal compilation:
  6236         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6237     writing SML code to a file:
  6238         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6239     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6240         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6241     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6242         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6243 
  6244     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6245         method ``eval''
  6246 
  6247 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6248 
  6249 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6250 
  6251     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6252     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6253     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6254     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6255 
  6256 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6257 
  6258     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6259       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6260 
  6261     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6262       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6263 
  6264     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6265       {(target)}+
  6266         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6267 
  6268     code_class <and_list of classes>