NEWS
author blanchet
Mon May 26 16:32:55 2014 +0200 (2014-05-26)
changeset 57091 1fa9c19ba2c9
parent 57089 353652f47974
child 57094 589ec121ce1a
permissions -rw-r--r--
got rid of '=:' squiggly
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Support for path completion within the formal text, based on
    93     file-system content.
    94 
    95   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    96     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    97     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    98 
    99   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
   100     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   101 
   102 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   103 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   104 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   105 
   106 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   107 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   110 auxiliary ML files.
   111 
   112 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   113 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   114 
   115 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   116 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   117 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   118 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   119 
   120 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   121 to highlight text via regular expression.
   122 
   123 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   124 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   125 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   126 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   127 
   128 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   129 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   130 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   131 
   132 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   133 
   134 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   135 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   136 
   137 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   138 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   139 
   140 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   141 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   142 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   143 
   144 
   145 *** Pure ***
   146 
   147 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   148 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   149 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   150 renaming needs to be applied:
   151 
   152   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   153   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   154   all            ~>  Pure.all
   155   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   156   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   157 
   158 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   159 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   160 old constants:
   161 
   162 setup {*
   163   fn thy => thy
   164     |> Sign.root_path
   165     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   166     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   167     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   168     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   169 *}
   170 
   171 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   172 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   173 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   174 
   175 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   176 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   177 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   178 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   179 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   180 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   181 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   182 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   183 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   184 
   185 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   186 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   187 instantiated theorem.
   188 
   189 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   190 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   191 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   192 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   193 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   194 
   195   attribute_setup standard =
   196     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   197 
   198 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   199 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   200 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   201 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   202 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   203 
   204 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   205 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   206 differently).
   207 
   208 
   209 *** HOL ***
   210 
   211 * Command and antiquotation ''value'' are hardcoded against nbe and
   212 ML now.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Separate command ''approximate'' for approximative computation
   215 in Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216 
   217 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   218   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   219   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   220   and SUP instead uniformly.
   221   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   222   or SUP and Sup.
   223   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   224   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   225   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   226   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   227   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   229 
   230 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   231   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   232   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   233   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   234   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   235   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236 
   237 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   238   can now deal with conjunctions.
   239   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   240   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   241   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   242 
   243 * HOL-Word:
   244   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   245   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   246   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   247   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   248   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   249 
   250 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   251 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   257 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   260 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   263 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   266   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   267   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   268   Theory renamings:
   269     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   270     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   271     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   272     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   273     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   274     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   275     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   276     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   277     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   278     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   279     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   280     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   281     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   282     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   283     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   284     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   285     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   286     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   287     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   288     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   289     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   290     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   291   New theories:
   292     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   293     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   294     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   295     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   296     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   297   Discontinued theories:
   298     BNF/BNF.thy
   299     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   300   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302 * New (co)datatype package:
   303   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   304   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   305     required by "fun".
   306   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   307     with Transfer.
   308   * Renamed commands:
   309       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   310       primrec_new ~> primrec
   311       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   312     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   314     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   315     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   316   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   317     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   318     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   319   * No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by default,
   320     eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   321     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322 
   323 * Old datatype package:
   324   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   325     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   326     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   327   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   328     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   329     "case_prod").
   330     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   331 
   332 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   333   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   334   datatype package.
   335   Renamed constants:
   336     Option.set ~> set_option
   337     Option.map ~> map_option
   338     option_rel ~> rel_option
   339   Renamed theorems:
   340     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   341     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   342     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   343     option.recs ~> option.rec
   344     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   345     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   346     map.simps ~> list.map
   347     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   348     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   349     the.simps ~> option.sel
   350   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   351 
   352 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   353     sum_map ~> map_sum
   354     map_pair ~> map_prod
   355     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   356     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   357     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   358     set_rel ~> rel_set
   359     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   360     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   361     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   362     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   363 
   364 * New theory:
   365     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   366 
   367 * Theory reorganizations:
   368   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   369 
   370 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof traces.
   371   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   372   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   373   use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now the default SAT
   374   solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and corresponding tactics;
   375   the old default can be restored using
   376   "declare [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   377 
   378 * SMT module:
   379   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   380     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   381     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   382     elsewhere.
   383 
   384 * Sledgehammer:
   385   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   386   - MaSh overhaul:
   387       - New SML-based learning engines eliminate the dependency on Python
   388         and increase performance and reliability.
   389       - Activation of MaSh now works via the "MaSh" system option (without
   390         requiring restart), instead of former settings variable "MASH".
   391         The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu Plugin
   392         Options / Isabelle / General. Allowed values include "sml" (for the
   393         default SML engine), "py" (for the old Python engine), and "none".
   394   - New option:
   395       smt_proofs
   396   - Renamed options:
   397       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   398       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   399     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   400 
   401 * Metis:
   402   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   403     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   404 
   405 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   406 
   407 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   408 
   409 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   410 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   411 
   412 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   413 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   414 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   415 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   416 
   417 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   418 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   419 
   420 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   421 with the given constants.
   422 
   423 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   424 
   425 Fact consolidations:
   426     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   427     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   428     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   429     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   430     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   431     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   432     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   433     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   434     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   435     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   436     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   437     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   438     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   439     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   440     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   441     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   442     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   443     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   444     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   445     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   446     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   447     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   448     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   449     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   450     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   451     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   452     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   453     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   454     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   455     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   456     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   457     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   458     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   459     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   460     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   461     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   462     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   463     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   464     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   465     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   466 
   467 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   468 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   469 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   470 
   471 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   472 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   473 
   474 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   475 
   476 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   477 
   478 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   480 
   481 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   483 
   484 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   485 operations on records.
   486 
   487 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   489 
   490 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   491     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   493 
   494 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   495     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   496     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   498 
   499 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   500   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   501   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   502   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   503     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   504   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   505     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   506   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   508 
   509 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   510     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   511     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   512     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   513     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   515 
   516 * Fact name consolidation:
   517     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   518     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   519     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   520     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   521     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   523 
   524 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   525 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   526 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   527 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   528 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   529 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   530 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   531 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   534 
   535 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   536 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   537 
   538 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   539 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   540 
   541 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   542 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   543 or the brute way with
   544 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   545 
   546 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   547 
   548 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   549 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   550 
   551 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   552 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   553 
   554 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   555 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   556 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   557 INCOMPATIBILITY
   558 
   559 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   560   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   561   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   562   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   563   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   564   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   565   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   566   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   567   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   568   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   569   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   570   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   571 
   572   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   573 
   574   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   575     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   576     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   577     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   578     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   579 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   580 
   581 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   582   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   583 
   584   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   585 
   586   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   587 
   588   - removed constant isDiff
   589 
   590   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   591     syntax.
   592 
   593   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   594 
   595   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   596 
   597   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   598 
   599   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   600 
   601   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   602     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   603 
   604   - Other renamings:
   605     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   606     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   607     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   608     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   609     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   610     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   611     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   613 
   614 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   615   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   616 
   617 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im, the Complex
   618   constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use primcorec to defined the
   619   behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   620 
   621   Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they are
   622   available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This especially
   623   removes
   624     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   625 
   626   Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   627     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   628 
   629   Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   630 
   631   Renamings:
   632     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   633     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   634     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   635     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   636     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   637     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   638     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   639     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   640     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   641     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   642     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   643     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   644 
   645     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   646     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   647     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   648 
   649   Removed theorems:
   650     complex_zero_def
   651     complex_add_def
   652     complex_minus_def
   653     complex_diff_def
   654     complex_one_def
   655     complex_mult_def
   656     complex_inverse_def
   657     complex_scaleR_def
   658 
   659 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   660 
   661 * Nitpick:
   662   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   663     infinite values.
   664   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   665     "Rep_Integ".
   666   - Removed "std" option.
   667   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   668     "hide_types".
   669 
   670 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   671   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   672   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   673     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   674     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   675     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   676     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   677     intervals.
   678 
   679   - renamed theorems:
   680     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   681     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   682     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   683 
   684 * HOL-Probability:
   685   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general Bochner
   686     integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   687 
   688     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   689     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   690     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   691     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   692     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   693     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   694     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   695     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   696     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   697     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   698     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   699     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   700     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   701     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   702     integral_indicator          ~>
   703          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   704     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   705     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   706     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   707 
   708     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   709          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   710 
   711     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   712          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   713 
   714     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   715          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   716 
   717     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   718          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   719          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   720 
   721     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   722          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   723 
   724     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   725          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   726 
   727     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   728          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   729          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   730 
   731     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   732          positive_integral_real_affine
   733 
   734     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   735          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   736 
   737     The following theorems where removed:
   738 
   739     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   740     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   741     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   742     lebesgue_integral_multc
   743     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   744     integral_cmul_indicator
   745     integral_real
   746 
   747   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
   748 
   749     * Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
   750       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
   751 
   752     * Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
   753 
   754 *** Scala ***
   755 
   756 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   757 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   758 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   759 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   760 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   761 
   762 
   763 *** ML ***
   764 
   765 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   766 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   767 
   768 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   769 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   770 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 
   772 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   774 
   775 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   776 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   777 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   779 
   780 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   781 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   782 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   783 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   784 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   785 of schematic variables.
   786 
   787 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   788 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   789 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   790 formal context.
   791 
   792 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   793 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   794 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   795 actually belongs to it).
   796 
   797 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   798 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   799 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   800 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   801 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   802 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   803 
   804 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   805 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   806 
   807 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   808 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   809 
   810 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   811 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   812 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   813 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   814 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   815 
   816 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   817 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   818 purposes.
   819 
   820 
   821 *** System ***
   822 
   823 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   824 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   825 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   826 processing is started.
   827 
   828 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   829 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   830 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   831 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   832 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   833 
   834 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   835 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   836 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   837 
   838 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   839 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   840 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   841 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   842 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   843 settings variable yet.
   844 
   845 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar
   846 functionality may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   847 
   848 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
   849 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
   850 
   851 
   852 
   853 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   854 -------------------------------------
   855 
   856 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   857 
   858 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   859 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   860 
   861 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   862 after edits surrounding the command location.
   863 
   864 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   865 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   866 e.g. out-of-memory).
   867 
   868 
   869 *** System ***
   870 
   871 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   872 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   873 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   874 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   875 
   876 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   877 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   878 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   879 
   880 
   881 
   882 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   883 -------------------------------------
   884 
   885 *** General ***
   886 
   887 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   888 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   889 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   890 
   891 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   892 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   893 
   894 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   895 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   896 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   897 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   898 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   899 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   900 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   901 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   902 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   903 syntax.
   904 
   905 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   906 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   907 
   908 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   909 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   910 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   911 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   912 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   913 
   914 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   916 
   917 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   918 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   919 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   920 
   921 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   922 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   923 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   924 
   925 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   926 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   927 
   928 
   929 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   930 
   931 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   932 Documentation panel.
   933 
   934 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   935 documentation.
   936 
   937 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   938 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   939 
   940 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   941 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   942 normal editing and checking process.
   943 
   944 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   945 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   946 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   947 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   948 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   949 
   950 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   951 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   952 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   953 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   954 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   955 
   956 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   957 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   958 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   959 
   960 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   961 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   962 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   963 to resolve conflict.
   964 
   965 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   966 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   967 
   968 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   969 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   970 such command executions while editing.
   971 
   972 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   973 document content.
   974 
   975 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   976 toplevel theorem statements.
   977 
   978 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   979 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   980 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   981 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   982 
   983 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   984 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   985 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   986 
   987 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   988 / Global Options / Appearance".
   989 
   990 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   991 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   992 
   993 
   994 *** Pure ***
   995 
   996 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   997 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   998 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   999 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1000 details.
  1001 
  1002 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1003 
  1004 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1005 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1006 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1007 
  1008 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1010 
  1011 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1012 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1013 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1014 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1015 
  1016 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1017 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1018 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1019 
  1020 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1021 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1022 
  1023 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1024 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1025 situations.
  1026 
  1027 
  1028 *** HOL ***
  1029 
  1030 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1031 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1033 
  1034 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1035 
  1036 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1037 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1038 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1039 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1040 
  1041   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1042 
  1043 * Code generator:
  1044   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1045     'code_instance'.
  1046   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1047     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1048 
  1049 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1050 examples.
  1051 
  1052 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1053 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1054 to distinguish both when desired.
  1055 
  1056 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1057 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1058 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1059 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1060 
  1061 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1062 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1063 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1064 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1065 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1066 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1067 
  1068 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1069 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1070 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1071 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1072 
  1073 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1074 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1075 
  1076 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1077 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1078 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1079 
  1080 * Lifting:
  1081   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1082     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1083       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1084       transfer rules
  1085     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1086       correspondence relation can be generated
  1087     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1088       parametricity
  1089     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1090   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1091   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1092     copies
  1093   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1094     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1095     anonymous context)
  1096   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1097     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1098   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1099     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1100   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1101     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1102 
  1103 * Transfer:
  1104   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1105     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1106   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1107   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1108     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1109   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1110 
  1111 * Reification and reflection:
  1112   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1113     "Reification".
  1114   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1115   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1117 
  1118 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1119   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1120     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1121     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1122   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1123     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1124   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1125     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1126     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1127     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1128     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1129     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1130     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1131     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1132   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1133     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1134   - Fact renames:
  1135       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1136       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1138 
  1139 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1140 
  1141 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1142 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1143 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1145 
  1146 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1147 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1148 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1149 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1150 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1151 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1152 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1153 lemmas.
  1154 
  1155 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1156 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1157 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1158 
  1159 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1160 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1161 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1162 
  1163 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1164 top and bottom elements.
  1165 
  1166 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1167 
  1168 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1169 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1170 
  1171  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1172    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1173    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1174 
  1175  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1176    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1177    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1178 
  1179    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1180    arbitrary filter.
  1181 
  1182  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1183    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1184    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1185    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1186    on a compact set.
  1187 
  1188  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1189    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1190    linear_continuum_topology).
  1191 
  1192  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1193    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1194    on all sequences converging to x.
  1195 
  1196  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1197    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1198    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1199    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1200    left or right.
  1201 
  1202  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1203 
  1204      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1205 
  1206  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1207    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1208 
  1209  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1210    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1211    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1212    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1213    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1214    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1215 
  1216  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1217 
  1218    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1219 
  1220    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1221      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1222 
  1223    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1224 
  1225    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1226      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1227 
  1228    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1229 
  1230    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1231 
  1232  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1233 
  1234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1235 
  1236 * Nitpick:
  1237   - Added option "spy".
  1238   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1239 
  1240 * Sledgehammer:
  1241   - Renamed option:
  1242       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1243     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1244   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1245   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1246   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1247 
  1248 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1249 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1250 
  1251 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1252   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1253   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1254     generated code.
  1255   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1256   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1257   - Fact renames:
  1258     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1259     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1260     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1261 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1262 
  1263 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1264 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1265 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1266 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1267 
  1268 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1269 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1270 
  1271 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1272 
  1273 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1274 
  1275     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1276     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1277 
  1278 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1279 
  1280 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1281 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1282 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1283 
  1284 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1285 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1286 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1287 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1288 
  1289 * HOL-BNF:
  1290   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1291     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1292     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1293     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1294   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1295     coinduct).
  1296   - Renamed keywords:
  1297     data ~> datatype_new
  1298     codata ~> codatatype
  1299     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1300   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1301     discs ~> disc
  1302     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1303     map_id' ~> map_id
  1304     sels ~> sel
  1305     set_map' ~> set_map
  1306     sets ~> set
  1307 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1308 
  1309 
  1310 *** ML ***
  1311 
  1312 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1313 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1314 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1315 Examples.thy in particular.
  1316 
  1317 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1318 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1319 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1320 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1321 
  1322 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1323 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1324 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1325 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1327 
  1328 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1329 
  1330     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1331     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1332 
  1333 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1334 
  1335 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1336 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1337 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1338 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1339 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1340 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1341 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1342 
  1343 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1344 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1345 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1346 clasets separately from the context.
  1347 
  1348 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1349 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1350 
  1351 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1352 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1353 
  1354 
  1355 *** System ***
  1356 
  1357 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1358 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1359 
  1360 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1361 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1362 
  1363 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1364 settings variable.
  1365 
  1366 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1367 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1368 always pdf.
  1369 
  1370 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1371 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1372 
  1373 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1374 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1375 
  1376 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1377 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1378 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1379 
  1380 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1381 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1382 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1383 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1384 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1385 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1386 
  1387 
  1388 
  1389 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1390 -----------------------------------
  1391 
  1392 *** General ***
  1393 
  1394 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1395 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1396 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1397 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1398 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1399 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1400 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1401 
  1402 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1403 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1404 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1405 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1406 
  1407 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1408 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1409 
  1410 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1411 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1412 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1413 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1414 dependencies properly.
  1415 
  1416 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1417 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1418 
  1419 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1420 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1421 
  1422 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1423 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1424 and "class ... context ...".
  1425 
  1426 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1427 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1428 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1429 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1430 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1431 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1432 
  1433 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1434 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1435 
  1436 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1437 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1438 
  1439 
  1440 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1441 
  1442 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1443 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1444 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1445 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1446 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1447 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1448 
  1449 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1450 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1451 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1452 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1453 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1454 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1455 
  1456 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1457 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1458 browser on demand.
  1459 
  1460 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1461 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1462 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1463 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1464 
  1465 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1466 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1467 
  1468 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1469 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1470 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1471 potentially infinite message streams.
  1472 
  1473 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1474 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1475 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1476 schemes.
  1477 
  1478 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1479 symbols.
  1480 
  1481 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1482 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1483 
  1484 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1485 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1486 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1487 
  1488 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1489 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1490 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1491 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1492 
  1493 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1494 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1495 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1496 
  1497 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1498 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1499 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1500 Isabelle distribution.
  1501 
  1502 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1503 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1504 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1505 
  1506 
  1507 *** Pure ***
  1508 
  1509 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1510 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1511 
  1512 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1513 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1514 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1515 
  1516 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1517 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1518 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1519 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1520 with some care where this is really required.
  1521 
  1522 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1523 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1524 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1525 
  1526   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1527 
  1528 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1529 a Hasse diagram.
  1530 
  1531 
  1532 *** HOL ***
  1533 
  1534 * Sledgehammer:
  1535 
  1536   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1537     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1538   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1539   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1540   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1541   - Renamed options:
  1542       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1543       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1544       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1545       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1546 
  1547 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1548 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1549 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1550 
  1551 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1552 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1553 
  1554 * Lifting:
  1555   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1556   - quot_del attribute
  1557   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1558 
  1559 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1560 expressions.
  1561 
  1562 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1563 pointfree expressions.
  1564 
  1565 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1566 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1567 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1568 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1570 
  1571 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1572 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1573 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1574 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1575 accordingly.
  1576 
  1577 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1578 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1581 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1582 
  1583 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1586 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1587 
  1588 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1589 
  1590 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1591 
  1592   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1593   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1594 
  1595 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1596 
  1597 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1598 
  1599   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1600   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1601 
  1602 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1603 
  1604 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1605 
  1606   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1607     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1608     output f x converges to G.
  1609 
  1610   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1611     infinity (at_bot).
  1612 
  1613   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1614     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1615 
  1616   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1617     at_top".
  1618 
  1619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1620 
  1621 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1622 lattice type classes.
  1623 
  1624 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1625 
  1626     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1627     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1628 
  1629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1630 
  1631 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1632 changes as follows.
  1633 
  1634   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1635 
  1636       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1637       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1638 
  1639   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1640     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1641     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1642     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1643 
  1644   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1645     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1646     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1647 
  1648   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1649     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1650     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1651     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1652 
  1653   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1654     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1655 
  1656       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1657       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1658       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1659       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1660       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1661       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1662       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1663       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1664       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1665       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1666       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1667       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1668       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1669       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1670       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1671       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1672 
  1673 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1674 
  1675 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1676 
  1677 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1678 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1679 
  1680 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1681 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1682 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1683 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1684 
  1685   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1686   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1687   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1688   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1689   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1690   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1691   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1692   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1693   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1694   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1695 
  1696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1697 
  1698 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1699 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1700 Data").
  1701 
  1702 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1703 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1704 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1705 code.
  1706 
  1707 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1708 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1709 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1710 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1711 
  1712 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1713 
  1714 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1715 
  1716 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1717 
  1718   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1719   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1720 
  1721 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1722 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1723 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1724 
  1725   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1726 
  1727     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1728     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1729     cart_base i  removed
  1730     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1731 
  1732   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1733 
  1734   Renamed lemmas:
  1735 
  1736     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1737     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1738     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1739     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1740     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1741     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1742     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1743     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1744     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1745     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1746 
  1747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1748 
  1749 * HOL/Probability:
  1750 
  1751   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1752 
  1753   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1754     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1755     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1756 
  1757   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1758     projective family).
  1759 
  1760 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1761 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1762 
  1763 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1764 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1765 datatypes.
  1766 
  1767 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1768 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1769 
  1770 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1771 trees for the code generator.
  1772 
  1773 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1774 Lifting/Transfer.
  1775 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1776 
  1777 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1779 
  1780 
  1781 *** Document preparation ***
  1782 
  1783 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1784 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1785 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1786 
  1787 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1788 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1789 
  1790 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1791 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1792 document/root.tex.
  1793 
  1794 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1795 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1796 
  1797 
  1798 *** ML ***
  1799 
  1800 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1801 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1802 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1803 
  1804 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1805 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1806 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1807 
  1808 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1809 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1810 necessarily printing visible text.
  1811 
  1812 
  1813 *** System ***
  1814 
  1815 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1816 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1817 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1818 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1819 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1820 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1821 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1822 
  1823 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1824 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1825 
  1826   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1827 
  1828 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1829 
  1830 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1831 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1832 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1833 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1834 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1835 
  1836 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1837 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1838 
  1839 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1840 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1841 
  1842 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1843 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1844 
  1845 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1846 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1847 version of Isabelle.
  1848 
  1849 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1850 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1851 
  1852 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1853 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1854 for home-made settings.
  1855 
  1856 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1857 
  1858 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1859 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1860 configuration.
  1861 
  1862 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1863 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1864 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1865 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1866 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1867 
  1868 
  1869 
  1870 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1871 ------------------------------
  1872 
  1873 *** General ***
  1874 
  1875 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1876 
  1877   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1878     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1879   - markup for bound variables
  1880   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1881   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1882   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1883     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1884 
  1885 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1886 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1887 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1888 
  1889 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1890 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1891 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1892 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1893 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1894 
  1895   context
  1896     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1897     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1898   begin
  1899 
  1900   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1901 
  1902   end
  1903 
  1904   thm my_trans
  1905 
  1906 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1907 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1908 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1909 
  1910 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1911 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1912 
  1913 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1914 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1915 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1916 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1917 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1918 
  1919 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1920 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1921 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1922 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1923 indices of schematic variables.
  1924 
  1925 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1926 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1927 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1928 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1929 etc. was exploited.
  1930 
  1931 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1932 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1933 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1934 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1935 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1936 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1937 
  1938 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1939 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1940 manual.
  1941 
  1942 
  1943 *** Pure ***
  1944 
  1945 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1946 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1947 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1948 
  1949 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1950 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1951 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1952 undocumented feature.)
  1953 
  1954 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1955 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1956 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1957 
  1958   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1959 
  1960   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1961     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1962 
  1963 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1964 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1965 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1966 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1967 
  1968 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1969 
  1970     num ~> num_token
  1971     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1972     xstr ~> str_token
  1973 
  1974 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1975 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1976 position information via constraints).
  1977 
  1978 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1979 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1980 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1981 
  1982 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1983 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1984 
  1985 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1986 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1987 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1988 
  1989 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1990 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1991 
  1992 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1993 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1994 
  1995   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1996 
  1997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1998 
  1999 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2000 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2001 
  2002 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2003 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2004 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2005 
  2006 
  2007 *** HOL ***
  2008 
  2009 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2010 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2011 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2012 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2013 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2014 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2015 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2016 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2017 possible.
  2018 
  2019 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2020 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2021 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2022 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2023 
  2024 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2025 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2026 
  2027 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2028 
  2029 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2030 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2031 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2032 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2033 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2034 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2035 
  2036   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2037     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2038 
  2039   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2040     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2041     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2042 
  2043   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2044     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2045 
  2046   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2047     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2048     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2049 
  2050   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2051     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2052 
  2053 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2054 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2055 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2056 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2057 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2058 
  2059   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2060     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2061     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2062     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2063     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2064 
  2065     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2066     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2067 
  2068   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2069     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2070     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2071     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2072     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2073     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2074     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2075     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2076 
  2077   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2078     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2079     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2080     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2081 
  2082   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2083     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2084     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2085     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2086 
  2087   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2088     from type nat to type int.
  2089 
  2090 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2091 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2092 
  2093   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2094     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2095     type.  Example syntax:
  2096 
  2097     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2098       is List.insert
  2099 
  2100     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2101     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2102     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2103     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2104     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2105     by the package.
  2106 
  2107   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2108     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2109     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2110     code generation for each constant.
  2111 
  2112   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2113     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2114     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2115     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2116     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2117 
  2118   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2119     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2120     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2121 
  2122 * Quotient package:
  2123 
  2124   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2125     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2126 
  2127   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2128     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2129 
  2130   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2131     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2132     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2133 
  2134   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2135     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2136 
  2137 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2138 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2139 
  2140 * Quickcheck:
  2141 
  2142   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2143     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2144     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2145     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2146     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2147 
  2148     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2149     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2150     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2151 
  2152     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2153     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2154 
  2155     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2156     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2157     show genuine counterexamples.
  2158 
  2159   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2160     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2161 
  2162     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2163     constructors of that type.
  2164 
  2165   - Support for multisets.
  2166 
  2167   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2168 
  2169   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2170     conjectures in a locale context.
  2171 
  2172 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2173 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2174 
  2175 * Sledgehammer:
  2176   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2177     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2178   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2179   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2180     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2181   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2182   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2183   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2184   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2185 
  2186 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2187 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2188 
  2189 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2190 
  2191 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2192 
  2193 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2194 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2195 
  2196   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2197 
  2198 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2199 a list and a nat.
  2200 
  2201 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2202 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2203 
  2204 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2205 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2206 default.
  2207 
  2208 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2209 
  2210   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2211 
  2212 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2213 
  2214 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2215 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2216 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2217 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2218 one_case.
  2219 
  2220 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2221 the result of the fact expression.
  2222 
  2223 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2224 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2225 of some relation theorems:
  2226 
  2227   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2228   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2229   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2230   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2231   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2232   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2233 
  2234 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2235 
  2236 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2237 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2238 
  2239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2240 
  2241 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2242 to match the constant's name:
  2243 
  2244   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2245   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2246   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2247   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2248   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2249   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2250   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2251   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2252   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2253   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2254   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2255   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2256   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2257   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2258   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2259   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2260   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2261   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2262   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2263   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2264   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2265   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2266   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2267   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2268 
  2269 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2270 
  2271 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2272 and corresponding theorem names:
  2273 
  2274   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2275 
  2276   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2277 
  2278   - Renamed theorems:
  2279 
  2280     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2281     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2282     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2283     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2284     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2285     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2286     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2287     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2288     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2289     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2290     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2291     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2292     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2293     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2294     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2295     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2296     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2297     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2298     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2299     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2300     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2301     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2302     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2303 
  2304     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2305 
  2306     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2307 
  2308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2309 
  2310 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2311 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2312 
  2313   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2314   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2315   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2316   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2317   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2318   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2319   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2320   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2321   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2322   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2323   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2324   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2325   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2326   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2327   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2328   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2329   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2330   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2331   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2332   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2333   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2334 
  2335 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2336 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2337 
  2338 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2339 
  2340 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2341 
  2342   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2343   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2344   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2345   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2346   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2347   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2348   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2349   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2350   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2351   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2352   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2353   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2354   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2355   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2356   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2357   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2358   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2359   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2360 
  2361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2362 
  2363 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2364 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2365 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2366 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2367 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2368 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2369 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2370 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2371 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2372 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2373 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2374 
  2375 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2376 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2377 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2378 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2379 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2380 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2381 
  2382 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2383 through option types.
  2384 
  2385 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2386 relations.
  2387 
  2388 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2389 
  2390 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2391 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2392 
  2393   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2394   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2395   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2396   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2397   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2398   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2399   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2400   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2401   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2402   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2403   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2404   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2405   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2406   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2407   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2408   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2409   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2410   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2411   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2412   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2413   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2414   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2415   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2416   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2417   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2418   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2419   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2420   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2421   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2422   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2423   zless_le ~> less_le
  2424   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2425   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2426   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2427 
  2428 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2429 
  2430   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2431 
  2432 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2433 
  2434 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2435 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2436 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2437 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2439 
  2440 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2441 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2442 
  2443 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2444 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2445 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2446 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2447 follows:
  2448 
  2449   Operations:
  2450   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2451   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2452   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2453   del -> rbt_del
  2454   delete -> rbt_delete
  2455   ins -> rbt_ins
  2456   insert -> rbt_insert
  2457   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2458   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2459   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2460   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2461   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2462   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2463   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2464   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2465   union -> rbt_union
  2466   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2467   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2468 
  2469   Lemmas:
  2470   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2471   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2472   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2473   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2474   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2475   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2476   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2477   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2478   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2479   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2480   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2481   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2482   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2483   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2484   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2485   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2486   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2487   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2488   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2489   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2490   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2491   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2492   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2493   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2494   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2495   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2496   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2497   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2498   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2499   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2500   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2501   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2502   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2503   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2504   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2505   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2506   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2507   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2508   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2509   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2510   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2511   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2512   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2513   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2514   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2515   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2516   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2517   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2518   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2519   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2520   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2521   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2522   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2523   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2524   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2525   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2526   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2527   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2528   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2529   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2530   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2531   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2532   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2533   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2534   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2535   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2536   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2537   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2538   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2539   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2540   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2541   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2542   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2543   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2544   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2545   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2546   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2547   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2548   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2549   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2550   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2551   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2552   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2553 
  2554 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2555 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2556 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2557 
  2558   Changed Operations:
  2559   float_abs -> abs
  2560   float_nprt -> nprt
  2561   float_pprt -> pprt
  2562   pow2 -> use powr
  2563   round_down -> float_round_down
  2564   round_up -> float_round_up
  2565   scale -> exponent
  2566 
  2567   Removed Operations:
  2568   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2569 
  2570   Renamed Lemmas:
  2571   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2572   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2573   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2574   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2575   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2576   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2577   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2578   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2579   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2580   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2581   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2582   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2583   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2584   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2585   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2586   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2587   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2588   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2589   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2590   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2591   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2592   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2593   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2594   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2595   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2596   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2597   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2598   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2599   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2600   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2601   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2602   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2603   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2604   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2605   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2606   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2607 
  2608   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2609   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2610   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2611   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2612   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2613   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2614   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2615   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2616   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2617   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2618 
  2619 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2620 association lists with distinct keys.
  2621 
  2622 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2623 annotated commands.
  2624 
  2625 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2626 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2627 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2628 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2629 
  2630 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2631 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2632 instead.
  2633 
  2634   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2635   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2636   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2637   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2638   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2639   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2640   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2641   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2642   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2643   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2644   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2645   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2646   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2647   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2648   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2649   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2650   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2651   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2652   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2653   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2654   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2655   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2656   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2657   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2658   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2659   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2660   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2661   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2662   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2663   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2664   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2665   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2666   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2667   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2668   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2669   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2670   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2671   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2672   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2673   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2674   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2675 
  2676 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2677 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2678 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2679 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2680 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2681 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2682 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2683 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2684 
  2685 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2686 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2687 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2688 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2689 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2690 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2691 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2692 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2693 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2694 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2695 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2696 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2697 
  2698   Renamed constants:
  2699   measure -> emeasure
  2700   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2701   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2702   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2703   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2704 
  2705   Removed locales:
  2706   completeable_measure_space
  2707   finite_measure_space
  2708   finite_prob_space
  2709   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2710   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2711   finite_sigma_algebra
  2712   measure_space
  2713   pair_finite_prob_space
  2714   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2715   pair_finite_space
  2716   pair_sigma_algebra
  2717   product_sigma_algebra
  2718 
  2719   Removed constants:
  2720   conditional_space
  2721   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2722   image_space
  2723   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2724   pair_measure_generator
  2725   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2726   subvimage
  2727 
  2728   Replacement theorems:
  2729   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2730   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2731   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2732   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2733   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2734   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2735   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2736   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2737   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2738   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2739   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2740   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2741   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2742   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2743   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2744   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2745   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2746   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2747   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2748   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2749   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2750   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2751   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2752   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2753   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2754   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2755   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2756   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2757   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2758   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2759   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2760   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2761   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2762   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2763   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2764   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2765   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2766   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2767   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2768   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2769   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2770   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2771   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2772   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2773   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2774   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2775   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2776   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2777   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2778   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2779   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2780   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2781   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2782   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2783   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2784   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2785   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2786   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2787   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2788   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2789   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2790   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2791   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2792   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2793   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2794   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2795   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2796   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2797   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2798   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2799   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2800   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2801   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2802   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2803   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2804   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2805   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2806   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2807   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2808   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2809   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2810   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2811   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2812   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2813   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2814   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2815   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2816   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2817   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2818   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2819   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2820   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2821   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2822   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2823   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2824   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2825   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2826   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2827   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2828   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2829   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2830   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2831   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2832   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2833   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2834   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2835   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2836   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2837   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2838   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2839   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2840   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2841   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2842   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2843   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2844   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2845   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2846   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2847   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2848   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2849   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2850   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2851   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2852   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2853   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2854   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2855   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2856   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2857 
  2858 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2859 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2860 
  2861 
  2862 *** FOL ***
  2863 
  2864 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2865 
  2866 
  2867 *** ZF ***
  2868 
  2869 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2870 analysis.
  2871 
  2872 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2873 
  2874 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2875 
  2876 
  2877 *** ML ***
  2878 
  2879 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2880 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2881 
  2882 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2883 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2884 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2885 
  2886 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2887 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2888 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2889 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2890 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2891 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2892 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2893 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2894 
  2895 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2896 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2897 
  2898 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2899 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2900 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2901 
  2902 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2903 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2904 
  2905 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2906 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2907 context as well.
  2908 
  2909 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2910 
  2911   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2912   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2913   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2914   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2915   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2916   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2917   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2918   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2919   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2920   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2921   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2922   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2923 
  2924 
  2925 *** System ***
  2926 
  2927 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2928 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2929 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2930 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2931 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2932 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2933 the generic user home was intended.
  2934 
  2935 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2936 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2937 
  2938 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2939 (not just JRE).
  2940 
  2941 
  2942 
  2943 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2944 ------------------------------------
  2945 
  2946 *** General ***
  2947 
  2948 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2949 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2950 
  2951   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2952     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2953     files for checking).
  2954 
  2955   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2956     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2957     positions.
  2958 
  2959   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2960     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2961     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2962 
  2963   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2964     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2965     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2966 
  2967   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2968     cores.
  2969 
  2970   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2971     versions (garbage collection).
  2972 
  2973 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2974 including some remaining limitations.
  2975 
  2976 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2977 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2978 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2979 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2980 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2981 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2982 
  2983 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2984 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2985 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2986 
  2987 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2988 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2989 usedir option -Q.
  2990 
  2991 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2992 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2993 
  2994   long_names   ~> names_long
  2995   short_names  ~> names_short
  2996   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2997 
  2998 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2999 
  3000   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3001 
  3002 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3003 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3004 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3005 
  3006 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3007 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3008 
  3009 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3010   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3011   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3012   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3013     "Classical Reasoner".
  3014 
  3015 
  3016 *** HOL ***
  3017 
  3018 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3019 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3020 
  3021 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3022 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3023 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3024 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3025 class complete_linorder.
  3026 
  3027 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3028 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3029 
  3030 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3031 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3032 
  3033   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3034   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3035   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3036   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3037   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3038   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3039   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3040   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3041   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3042   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3043   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3044 
  3045 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3046 
  3047   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3048   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3049   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3050   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3051   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3052   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3053   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3054   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3055   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3056   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3057   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3058   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3059   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3060   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3061   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3062   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3063 
  3064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3065 
  3066 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3067 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3068 
  3069 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3070 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3071 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3072 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3073 
  3074 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3075 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3076 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3078 
  3079 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3080 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3081 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3082 
  3083 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3084 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3085 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3086 
  3087 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3088 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3089 
  3090 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3091 
  3092     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3093     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3094 
  3095 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3096 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3097 
  3098 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3099 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3100 
  3101 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3102 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3103 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3104 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3105 
  3106   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3107   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3108   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3109   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3110   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3111   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3112   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3113 
  3114 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3115 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3116 
  3117   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3118   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3119   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3120   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3121   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3122   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3123   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3124   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3125   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3126   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3127   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3128   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3129   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3130   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3131   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3132   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3133   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3134   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3135   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3136   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3137   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3138   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3139   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3140   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3141   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3142   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3143   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3144   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3145   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3146   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3147   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3148   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3149   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3150   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3151   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3152   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3153   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3154   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3155   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3156   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3157   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3158   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3159   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3160   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3161   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3162   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3163   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3164   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3165   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3166   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3167   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3168   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3169   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3170   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3171   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3172   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3173   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3174   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3175   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3176   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3177   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3178   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3179   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3180   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3181   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3182   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3183   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3184   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3185   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3186   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3187   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3188   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3189   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3190   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3191   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3192   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3193   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3194   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3195   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3196   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3197   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3198   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3199 
  3200 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3201 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3202 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3203 
  3204 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3205 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3206 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3207 
  3208 * Code generation:
  3209 
  3210   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3211     characters in the target language.
  3212 
  3213   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3214     instead.
  3215 
  3216   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3217 
  3218   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3219     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3220 
  3221       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3222 
  3223 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3224 
  3225 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3226 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3227 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3228 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3229 syntax.
  3230 
  3231 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3232 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3233 
  3234 * Nitpick:
  3235   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3236   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3237   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3238     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3239 
  3240 * Sledgehammer:
  3241   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3242   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3243     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3244   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3245     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3246   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3247     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3248   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3249     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3250   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3251     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3252 
  3253 * Metis:
  3254   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3255   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3256     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3257 
  3258 * Command 'try':
  3259   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3260     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3262     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3263 
  3264 * Quickcheck:
  3265   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3266     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3267   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3268     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3269   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3270     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3271     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3272     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3273   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3274     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3275 
  3276 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3277 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3278 
  3279 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3280 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3281 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3282 
  3283 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3284 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3286 
  3287 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3288 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3289 
  3290 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3291 arithmetic.
  3292 
  3293 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3294 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3295 and lattice type classes.
  3296 
  3297 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3298 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3299 
  3300 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3301 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3302 
  3303 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3304 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3305 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3308   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3309   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3310   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3311 
  3312 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3313 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3314 constants:
  3315 
  3316   type inat   ~> type enat
  3317   Fin         ~> enat
  3318   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3319   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3320   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3321 
  3322 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3323 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3324 
  3325 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3326 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3327 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3328 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3329 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3330 
  3331 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3332 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3333 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3334 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3335 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3336 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3337 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3338 
  3339   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3340   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3341   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3342   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3343 
  3344 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3345 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3346 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3347 
  3348   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3349   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3350   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3351   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3352   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3353   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3354   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3355   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3356   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3357   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3358   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3359   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3360   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3361   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3362   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3363   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3364   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3365   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3366   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3367   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3368   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3369   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3370   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3371   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3372   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3373   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3374   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3375   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3376   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3377   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3378   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3379   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3380   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3381   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3382   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3383   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3384   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3385   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3386   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3387   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3388   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3389   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3390   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3391   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3392   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3393   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3394   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3395   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3396   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3397   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3398   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3399 
  3400 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3401   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3402   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3403   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3404   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3405     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3406 
  3407 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3408 
  3409   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3410   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3411   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3412   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3413   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3414   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3415   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3416   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3417   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3418   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3419   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3420   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3421   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3422   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3423   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3424   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3425   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3426   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3427   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3428   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3429   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3430   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3431   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3432   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3433   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3434 
  3435 
  3436 *** Document preparation ***
  3437 
  3438 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3439 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3440 same.
  3441 
  3442 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3443 result.
  3444 
  3445 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3446 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3447 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3448 
  3449 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3450 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3451 
  3452 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3453 like this:
  3454 
  3455   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3456   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3457 
  3458 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3459 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3460 layouts.
  3461 
  3462 
  3463 *** ML ***
  3464 
  3465 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3466 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3467 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3468 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3469 under external program control.
  3470 
  3471 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3472 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3473 
  3474 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3475 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3476 (better known as Proof General).
  3477 
  3478 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3479 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3480 
  3481 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3482 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3483 
  3484 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3485 (including quotes etc.).
  3486 
  3487 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3488 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3489 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3490 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3491 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3492 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3493 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3494 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3495 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3496 
  3497 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3498 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3499 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3500 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3501 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3502 
  3503 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3504 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3505 
  3506 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3507 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3508 
  3509 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3510 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3511 
  3512 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3513 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3514 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3515 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3516 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3517 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3518 proper Proof.context.
  3519 
  3520 
  3521 *** System ***
  3522 
  3523 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3524 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3525 
  3526 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3527 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3528 
  3529 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3530 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3531 
  3532   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3533   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3534   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3535   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3536   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3537 
  3538 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3539 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3542 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3543 example:
  3544 
  3545   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3546 
  3547 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3548 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3549 
  3550 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3551 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3552 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3553 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3554 
  3555 
  3556 
  3557 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3558 ----------------------------------
  3559 
  3560 *** General ***
  3561 
  3562 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3563 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3564 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3565 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3566 like this:
  3567 
  3568   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3569 
  3570 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3571 
  3572 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3573 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3574 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3575 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3576 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3577 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3578 
  3579 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3580 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3581 the following package declarations:
  3582 
  3583   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3584   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3585 
  3586 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3587 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3588 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3589 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3590 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3591 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3592 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3593 
  3594 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3595 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3596 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3597 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3598 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3599 
  3600 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3601 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3602 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3603 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3604 
  3605 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3606 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3607 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3608 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3609 
  3610   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3611 
  3612   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3613   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3614   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3615   show_types                    show_types
  3616   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3617   show_consts                   show_consts
  3618   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3619 
  3620   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3621   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3622   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3623 
  3624   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3625   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3626 
  3627   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3628 
  3629   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3630   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3631   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3632   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3633   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3634 
  3635 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3636 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3637 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3638 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3639 
  3640 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3642 
  3643   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3644   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3645 
  3646 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3647 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3648 float_token.
  3649 
  3650 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3651 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3653 
  3654 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3655 DejaVu Sans.
  3656 
  3657 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3658 
  3659 
  3660 *** Pure ***
  3661 
  3662 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3663 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3664 time.
  3665 
  3666 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3667 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3668 
  3669 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3670 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3671 
  3672 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3673 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3674 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3675 command already provided this functionality.
  3676 
  3677 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3678 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3679 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3680 without interpretations.
  3681 
  3682 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3683 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3684 
  3685 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3686 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3687 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3688 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3689 
  3690 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3691 'definition' instead.
  3692 
  3693 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3694 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3695 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3696 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3697 
  3698 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3699 constructors.
  3700 
  3701 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3702 the local file system.
  3703 
  3704 
  3705 *** HOL ***
  3706 
  3707 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3708 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3709 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3710 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3711 
  3712   declare [[coercion f]]
  3713 
  3714 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3715 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3716 
  3717   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3718 
  3719 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3720 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3721 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3722 other theories like this:
  3723 
  3724   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3725 
  3726 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3727 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3728 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3729 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3730 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3731 for examples.
  3732 
  3733 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3734 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3735 
  3736 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3737 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3738 
  3739 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3740 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3741 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3742 
  3743 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3744 functorial structure of types.
  3745 
  3746 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3747 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3748 
  3749 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3750 languages.
  3751 
  3752 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3753 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3755 
  3756 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3757 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3758 
  3759 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3760 combinators any longer.
  3761 
  3762 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3763 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3764 
  3765 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3766 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3767 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3768 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3769 
  3770   record 'a foo = ...
  3771   ...
  3772   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3773 
  3774 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3775 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3776 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3777 
  3778 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3779 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3780 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3781 
  3782 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3783 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3784 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3785 
  3786 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3787 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3790 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3791 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3792 independently.
  3793 
  3794 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3795 counter example search.
  3796 
  3797 * Sledgehammer:
  3798   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3799     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3800     sledgehammer").
  3801   - Renamed commands:
  3802     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3803     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3804     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3805     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3806   - Renamed options:
  3807     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3808     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3809     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3810     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3811     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * Nitpick:
  3814   - Renamed options:
  3815     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3816     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3817     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3818   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3819   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3820   - Added "whack" option.
  3821   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3822   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3823   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3824   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3825     higher cardinalities.
  3826   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3827 
  3828 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3829 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3830 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3831 
  3832     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3833 
  3834 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3835 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3836 
  3837 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3838 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3839 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3840 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3841 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3842 "smt_solver".
  3843 
  3844 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3845 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3846 
  3847 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3848 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3849 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3850 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3851 
  3852 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3853   - Renamed:
  3854     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3855     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3856     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3857   - Added:
  3858     smt_verbose
  3859     smt_random_seed
  3860     smt_datatypes
  3861     smt_infer_triggers
  3862     smt_monomorph_limit
  3863     cvc3_options
  3864     remote_cvc3_options
  3865     remote_z3_options
  3866     yices_options
  3867 
  3868 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3869 header.
  3870 
  3871 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3872 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3873 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3874 
  3875   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3876 
  3877 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3878 
  3879 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3880 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3881 
  3882 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3883 
  3884 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3885 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3886 
  3887 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3888 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3889 
  3890 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3891 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3892 
  3893 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3894 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3895 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3896 
  3897 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3901 
  3902 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3903 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3906 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3907 for congruent(2)).
  3908 
  3909 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3910 
  3911   types
  3912     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3913     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3914 
  3915   constants
  3916     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3917     True ~> HOL.True
  3918     False ~> HOL.False
  3919     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3920     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3921     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3922     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3923     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3924     The ~> HOL.The
  3925     All ~> HOL.All
  3926     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3927     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3928     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3929     If ~> HOL.If
  3930     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3931     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3932     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3933     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3934     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3935     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3936     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3937     op : ~> Set.member
  3938     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3939 
  3940 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3941 
  3942 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3943 
  3944     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3945     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3946     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3947     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3948     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3949     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3950     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3951     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3952 
  3953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954 
  3955 * More stylized fact names:
  3956 
  3957   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3958   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3959   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3960   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3961 
  3962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3963 
  3964 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3965 
  3966   constants
  3967     null ~> List.null
  3968 
  3969   facts
  3970     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3971     null_empty ~> null_def
  3972 
  3973 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3974 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3975 generation.
  3976 
  3977 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3978 Haskell code.
  3979 
  3980 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3981 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3982 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983 
  3984 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3985 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3988 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3989 
  3990 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3991 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3992 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3993 
  3994 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3995 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3996 
  3997 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4001 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4002 referred to by its qualified name.
  4003 
  4004   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4005   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4006   product ~>  Enum.product
  4007 
  4008 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4009 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4010 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4011 
  4012 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4013 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4014 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4016 
  4017 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4018 sort_key.
  4019 
  4020 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022 
  4023 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4024 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4025 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4026 
  4027   types
  4028     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4029               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4030               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4031         (depends on your needs)
  4032 
  4033   constants
  4034      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4035      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4036      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4037 
  4038 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4039 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4040 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4041 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4042 
  4043 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4044 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4045 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4046 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4047 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 
  4049 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4050 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4051 
  4052 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4053 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4054 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4055 
  4056 
  4057 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4058 
  4059 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4060 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4061 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4062 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4063 compatibility.
  4064 
  4065 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4066 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4067 
  4068 
  4069 *** HOLCF ***
  4070 
  4071 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4072 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4073 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4075 
  4076 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4077 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4078 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4079 
  4080   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4081   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4082   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4083 
  4084 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4085 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4086 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4087 
  4088 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4089 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4090 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4091 domain definition now works:
  4092 
  4093   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4094 
  4095 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4096 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4097 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4098 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4099 
  4100   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4101     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4102 
  4103   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4104 
  4105 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4106 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4107 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4108 
  4109 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4110 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4111 
  4112 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4113 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4114 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4115 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4116 
  4117 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4118 
  4119 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4120 
  4121 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4122 
  4123 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4125 
  4126 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4127 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4128 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4129 
  4130 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4131 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4132 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4133 
  4134 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4135 still supported as an input translation.
  4136 
  4137 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4138 
  4139   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4140   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4141   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4142   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4143   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4144   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4145   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4146 
  4147 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4148 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4149 
  4150   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4151   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4152   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4153   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4154   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4155   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4156 
  4157 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4158 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4159 
  4160 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4161 
  4162   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4163   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4164   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4165   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4166 
  4167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4168 
  4169 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4170 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4171 
  4172 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4173 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4174 
  4175   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4176   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4177   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4178   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4179   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4180   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4181   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4182   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4183   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4184   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4185   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4186   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4187   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4188   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4189   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4190   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4191   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4192   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4193   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4194   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4195 
  4196 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4197 
  4198   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4199   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4200   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4201   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4202   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4203   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4204   box_less             ~> box_below
  4205   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4206   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4207   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4208   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4209   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4210   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4211   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4212   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4213   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4214   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4215   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4216   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4217   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4218   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4219   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4220   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4221   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4222   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4223   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4224   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4225   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4226   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4227   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4228   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4229   up_less              ~> up_below
  4230   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4231   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4232   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4233   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4234   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4235   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4236   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4237   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4238   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4239   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4240   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4241   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4242   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4243 
  4244 
  4245 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4246 
  4247 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4248 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4249 
  4250 
  4251 *** ML ***
  4252 
  4253 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4254 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4255 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4256 
  4257 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4258 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4259 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4260 
  4261 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4262 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4263 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4264 
  4265 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4266 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4267 
  4268 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4269 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4270 
  4271 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4272 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4273 
  4274 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4275 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4276 
  4277 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4278 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4279 almost all situations.
  4280 
  4281 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4282 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4283 Isabelle/ML.
  4284 
  4285 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4286 meaning.
  4287 
  4288 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4289 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4290 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4291 
  4292 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4293 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4294 
  4295 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4296 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4297 
  4298 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4299 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4300 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4301 
  4302 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4303 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4304 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4305 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4306 configuration options.
  4307 
  4308 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4309 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4310 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4311 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4312 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4313 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4314 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4315 
  4316 
  4317 
  4318 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4319 ---------------------------------
  4320 
  4321 *** General ***
  4322 
  4323 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4324 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4325 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4326 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4327 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4328 their full internal name.
  4329 
  4330 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4331 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4332 Some hints on upgrading:
  4333 
  4334   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4335     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4336     which are independent of this issue.
  4337 
  4338   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4339     provides the following special forms:
  4340 
  4341       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4342       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4343       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4344 
  4345     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4346     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4347     extra variables".
  4348 
  4349     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4350     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4351     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4352     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4353     "logic".
  4354 
  4355   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4356     antiquotations:
  4357 
  4358       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4359       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4360       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4361       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4362 
  4363   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4364     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4365     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4366     antiquotations.
  4367 
  4368 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4369 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4370 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4371 diagnose syntax problems.
  4372 
  4373 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4374 
  4375 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4376 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4377 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4378 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4379 
  4380 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4381 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4382 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4383 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4384 
  4385 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4386 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4387 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4388 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4389 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4390 
  4391 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4392 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4393 
  4394 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4395 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4396 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4397 
  4398   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4399 
  4400 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4401 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4402 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4403 
  4404 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4405 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4406 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4407 
  4408 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4409 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4410 
  4411 
  4412 *** Pure ***
  4413 
  4414 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4415 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4416 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4417 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4418 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4419 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4420 inspect proof terms.
  4421 
  4422 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4423 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4424 are added internally.  For example:
  4425 
  4426   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4427 
  4428 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4429 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4430 
  4431 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4432 
  4433 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4434 'class' instead.
  4435 
  4436 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4437 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4439 
  4440 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4441 invariants.
  4442 
  4443 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4444 user space functionality any longer.
  4445 
  4446 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4447 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4449 
  4450 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4451 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4452 
  4453 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4454 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4455 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4456 
  4457 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4458 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4459 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4460 
  4461 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4462 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4463 
  4464 
  4465 *** HOL ***
  4466 
  4467 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4468 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4469 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4470 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4471 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4472 
  4473 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4474 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4475 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4476 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4477 
  4478   fun
  4479     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4480   where
  4481     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4482 
  4483   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4484     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4485 
  4486   quotient_definition
  4487     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4488 
  4489 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4490 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4491 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4492 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4493 
  4494 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4495 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4496 
  4497 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4498 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4499 
  4500 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4502 
  4503 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4504 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4505 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4506 
  4507 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4508 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4509 
  4510 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4512 
  4513 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4515 
  4516 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4517 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4518 
  4519 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4520 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4521 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4522 
  4523   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4524   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4525   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4526   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4527   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4528   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4529   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4530   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4531   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4532   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4533   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4534   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4535   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4536   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4537   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4538   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4539   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4540   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4541   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4542   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4543   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4544   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4545   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4546   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4547   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4548   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4549   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4550   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4551   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4552   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4553 
  4554 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4555 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4556 
  4557 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4558 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4559 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4560 
  4561 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4562 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4563 
  4564 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4565 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 
  4567 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4568 
  4569 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4570 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4571 
  4572 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4573 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4574 
  4575 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4576 
  4577 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4578 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4579 
  4580 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4581 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4582 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4583 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4586   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4587   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4588   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4589 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4590 
  4591 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4592 lattices):
  4593 
  4594     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4595     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4596 
  4597     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4598 
  4599     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4600     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4601     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4602     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4603     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4604     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4605     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4606     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4607     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4608     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4609     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4610     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4611     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4612 
  4613     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4614     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4615     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4616     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4617     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4618     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4619     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4620     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4621     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4622     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4623     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4624     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4625     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4626     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4627     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4628     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4629     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4630     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4631 
  4632   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4633   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4634 
  4635     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4636     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4637     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4638     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4639     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4640 
  4641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4642 
  4643 * Refined field classes:
  4644   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4645     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4646     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4647   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4648 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4649 
  4650 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4651   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4652   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4653   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4654     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4655   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4656     equal_neg_zero.
  4657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4658 
  4659 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4660 sets to lattices:
  4661 
  4662   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4663   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4664   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4665   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4666   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4667   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4668   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4669   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4670   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4671   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4672 
  4673 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4674 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4675 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4676 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4677 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4678 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4679 
  4680 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4681 multiset order:
  4682 
  4683   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4684     <= and <;
  4685   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4686     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4687     multiset_order;
  4688   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4689     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4690     generation;
  4691   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4692     if needed.
  4693 
  4694 Renamed:
  4695 
  4696   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4697   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4698   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4699 
  4700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4701 
  4702 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4703 
  4704 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4705 
  4706 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4707 
  4708 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4709 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4710 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4711 
  4712   Constants:
  4713   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4714   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4715   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4716   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4717   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4718   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4719   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4720   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4721   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4722   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4723   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4724   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4725   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4726 
  4727   Lemmas:
  4728   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4729   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4730   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4731   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4732   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4733   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4734   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4735   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4736   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4737   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4738   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4739   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4740   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4741 
  4742 * Sledgehammer:
  4743   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4744     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4745     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4746     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4747     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4748     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4749     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4750   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4751   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4752     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4753   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4754     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4755     is still experimental.)
  4756   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4757     full-typed mode.
  4758   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4759 
  4760 * Nitpick:
  4761   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4762   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4763   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4764     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4765   - Added support for quotient types.
  4766   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4767     constructs.
  4768   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4769     "termination" proofs).
  4770   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4771   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4772   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4773   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4774     record getters.
  4775   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4776   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4777   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4778   - Added "atoms" option.
  4779   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4780     problems.
  4781   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4782     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4783     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4784   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4785     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4786   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4787 
  4788 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4789   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4790   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4791   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4792   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4793   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4794   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4795   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4796   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4797   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4798 
  4799 
  4800 *** HOLCF ***
  4801 
  4802 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4803 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4804 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4805 
  4806 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4807 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4808 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4809 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4810 
  4811 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4812 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4813 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4814 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4815 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4816 
  4817 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4818 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4819 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4820 
  4821 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4822 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4823 
  4824   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4825   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4826 
  4827 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4828 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4829 
  4830   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4831   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4832   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4833   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4834   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4835 
  4836 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4837 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4838 
  4839   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4840   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4841   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4842 
  4843 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4844 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4846 
  4847 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4848 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4849 
  4850 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4851 
  4852 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4853 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4854 
  4855 
  4856 *** ML ***
  4857 
  4858 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4859 
  4860     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4861     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4862 
  4863     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4864     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4865     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4866     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4867 
  4868     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4869     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4870     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4871 
  4872 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4873 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4874 
  4875 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4876 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4877 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4878 
  4879 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4880 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4881 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4882 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4883 
  4884 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4885 the context or even global references.
  4886 
  4887 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4888 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4889 
  4890 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4891 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4892 
  4893   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4894   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4895   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4896   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4897   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4898   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4899   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4900   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4901   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4902   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4903 
  4904 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4905 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4906 
  4907 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4908 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4909 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4910 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4911 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4912 
  4913 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4914 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4915 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4916 Theory_Data version.
  4917 
  4918 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4919 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4920 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4921 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4922 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4923 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4924 explicitly in rare situations.
  4925 
  4926 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4927 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4928 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4929 
  4930 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4931 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4932 
  4933 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4934 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4935 quite rare).
  4936 
  4937 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4938 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4939 
  4940 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4941 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4942 terms.
  4943 
  4944 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4945 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4946 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4947 
  4948 
  4949 *** System ***
  4950 
  4951 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4952 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4953 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4954 
  4955 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4956 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4957 respectively.
  4958 
  4959 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4960 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4961 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4962 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4963 
  4964   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4965 
  4966 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4967 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4968 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4969 component.
  4970 
  4971 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4972 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4973 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4974 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4975 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4976 the user for manual installation.
  4977 
  4978 
  4979 
  4980 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4981 -------------------------------------
  4982 
  4983 *** General ***
  4984 
  4985 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4986 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4987 
  4988 
  4989 *** Pure ***
  4990 
  4991 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4992 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4993 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4994 
  4995 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4996 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4997 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4998 
  4999 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5000 interpretation.
  5001 
  5002 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5003 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5004 
  5005 
  5006 *** Document preparation ***
  5007 
  5008 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5009 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5010 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5011 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5012 
  5013 
  5014 *** HOL ***
  5015 
  5016 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5017 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5018 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5019 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5020 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5021 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5022 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5023 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5024 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5025 
  5026 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5027 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5028 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5029 
  5030 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5031 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5032 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5033 
  5034 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5035 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5036 
  5037 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5038 
  5039 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5040 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5041 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5042 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5043 
  5044 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5045 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5046 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5047 "mirabelle" utility.
  5048 
  5049 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5050 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5051 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5052 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5053 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5054 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5055 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5056 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5057 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5058 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5059 
  5060 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5061 procedure only.
  5062 
  5063 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5064 
  5065 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5066 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5067 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5068 that fail later.
  5069 
  5070 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5071 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5072 
  5073 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5074 the same method as the approximation method.
  5075 
  5076 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5077 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5078 series expansion.
  5079 
  5080 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5081 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5082 
  5083 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5084 reals.
  5085 
  5086 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5087 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5088 
  5089 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5090 fixpoint theorem.
  5091 
  5092 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5093   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5094     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5095   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5096     accordingly
  5097   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5098     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5099   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5100     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5101 
  5102 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5103 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5104 lattice.
  5105 
  5106 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5107 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5108 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5109 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5110 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5111 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5113 
  5114 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5115   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5116     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5117   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5118     le_inf_iff
  5119   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5120     sup_aci)
  5121   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5122   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5123   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5124     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5125     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5126     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5127     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5128     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5129     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5130     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5131     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5132     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5133     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5134   - authentic syntax for
  5135     Set.Pow
  5136     Set.image
  5137   - mere abbreviations:
  5138     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5139     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5140     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5141     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5142     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5143     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5144     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5145     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5146   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5147 
  5148 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5149 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5150 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5151 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5152 
  5153 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5154 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5155 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5156 
  5157 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5158 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5159 
  5160 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5161 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5162 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5163 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5164 
  5165 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5166 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5167 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5168 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5169 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5170 
  5171 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5172 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5174 
  5175 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5176 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5177 
  5178 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5179 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5180 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5181 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5182 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5183 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5184 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5186 
  5187 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5188     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5189     code_post       replaces    code post
  5190     etc.
  5191   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5192 
  5193 * Renamed methods:
  5194     sizechange -> size_change
  5195     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5196   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5197 
  5198 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5199 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5200 
  5201 * Renamed theorems:
  5202     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5203     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5204     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5205     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5206     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5207   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5208 
  5209 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5211 
  5212 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5214 
  5215 
  5216 *** HOLCF ***
  5217 
  5218 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5219 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5220 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5221 
  5222 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5223 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5224 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5225 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5226 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5227 
  5228 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5229 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5230 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5231 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5232 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5233 
  5234 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5235 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5236 constructor are pre-configured.
  5237 
  5238 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5239 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5240 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5241 
  5242 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5243 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5244 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5245 as well.)
  5246 
  5247 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5248 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5249 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5250 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5251 examples.
  5252 
  5253 
  5254 *** ML ***
  5255 
  5256 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5257 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5258 
  5259 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5260 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5261 position, logical grouping etc.
  5262 
  5263 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5264 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5265 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5266 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5267 
  5268 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5269 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5270 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5271 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5272 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5273 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5274 
  5275 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5276 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5277 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5278 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5279 experiments with references.
  5280 
  5281 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5282 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5283 
  5284 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5285 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5286 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5287 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5288 
  5289 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5290 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5291 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5292 
  5293 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5294 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5295 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5296 
  5297 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5298 
  5299 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5301 
  5302 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5303 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5304 
  5305 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5306 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5307 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5308 
  5309 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5310 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5311 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5312 
  5313 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5314 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5315 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5317 
  5318 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5319 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5320 instead of global theory.
  5321 
  5322 
  5323 *** System ***
  5324 
  5325 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5326 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5327 usedir option -q.
  5328 
  5329 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5330 also the system manual.
  5331 
  5332 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5333 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5334 
  5335 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5336 this is always enabled.
  5337 
  5338 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5339 
  5340 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5341 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5342 currently supported on Linux only.
  5343 
  5344 
  5345 
  5346 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5347 --------------------------------
  5348 
  5349 *** General ***
  5350 
  5351 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5352 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5353 
  5354   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5355     "isatool."
  5356 
  5357   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5358     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5359 
  5360   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5361     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5362 
  5363 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5364 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5365 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5366 
  5367 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5368 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5369 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5370 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5371 via "isabelle emacs".
  5372 
  5373 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5374 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5375 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5376 
  5377 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5378 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5379 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5380 
  5381 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5382 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5383 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5384 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5385 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5386 
  5387 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5388 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5389 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5390 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5391 
  5392 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5393 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5394 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5395 
  5396 
  5397 *** Pure ***
  5398 
  5399 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5400 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5401 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5402 
  5403 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5404 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5405 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5406 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5407 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5408 
  5409 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5410 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5411 useful in locale declarations.
  5412 
  5413 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5414 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5415 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5416 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5417 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5418 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5419 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5420 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5421 no longer generated.
  5422 
  5423 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5424 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5425 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5426 
  5427 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5428 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5429 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5430 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5431 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5432 
  5433 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5434 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5435 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5436 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5437 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5438 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5439 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5440 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5441 
  5442 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5443 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5444 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5445 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5446 
  5447 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5448 
  5449 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5450 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5451 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5452 
  5453 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5454 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5455 
  5456 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5457 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5458 in HOL, write
  5459 
  5460     class foo = ...
  5461 
  5462 instead of
  5463 
  5464     class foo = type + ...
  5465 
  5466 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5467 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5468 
  5469 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5470 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5471 
  5472 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5473 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5474 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5475 
  5476 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5477 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5478 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5479 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5480 directly in regular applications.
  5481 
  5482 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5483 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5484 
  5485 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5486 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5487 
  5488 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5489 theory context.
  5490 
  5491 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5492 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5493 
  5494 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5495 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5496 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5497 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5498 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5499 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5500 
  5501   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5502 
  5503 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5504 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5505 normalization.
  5506 
  5507 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5508 addressing etc.
  5509 
  5510 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5511 
  5512   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5513   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5514 
  5515 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5516 
  5517   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5518      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5519      parts of the code generator framework).
  5520 
  5521   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5522      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5523      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5524 
  5525 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5526 
  5527 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5528 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5529 
  5530 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5531 patterns, e.g.
  5532 
  5533     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5534 
  5535 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5536 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5537 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5538 hyphen:
  5539 
  5540     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5541 
  5542 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5543 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5544 
  5545 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5546 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5547 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5548 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5549 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5550 higher-order unification.
  5551 
  5552 
  5553 *** Document preparation ***
  5554 
  5555 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5556 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5557 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5558 
  5559 
  5560 *** HOL ***
  5561 
  5562 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5563 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5564 
  5565 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5566 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5567 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5568 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5569 Main, as before.
  5570 
  5571 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5572 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5573 
  5574 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5575 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5576 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5577 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5578 
  5579 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5580 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5581 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5582 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5583 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5584 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5585 
  5586 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5587 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5588 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5589 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5590 
  5591 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5592 menu.
  5593 
  5594 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5595 (contains the empty clause).
  5596 
  5597 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5598 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5599 
  5600 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5601 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5602 
  5603 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5604 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5605 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5606 
  5607 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5608 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5609 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5610 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5611 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5612 
  5613 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5614 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5615 
  5616 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5617 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5618 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5619 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5620 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5621 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5622 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5623 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5624 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5625 
  5626 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5627 
  5628 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5629 
  5630 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5631 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5632 
  5633 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5634 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5635 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5636 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5637 
  5638 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5639 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5640 
  5641     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5642     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5643     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5644     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5645     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5646     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5647     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5648     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5649 
  5650 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5651 theory Set.
  5652 
  5653 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5654 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5655 
  5656 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5657 
  5658 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5659 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5660 
  5661 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5662 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5663 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5664 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5665 allowed. For examples see
  5666 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5667 
  5668 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5669 
  5670 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5671 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5672 
  5673 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5674 structure:
  5675 
  5676     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5677     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5678     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5679     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5680     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5681     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5682     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5683     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5684     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5685     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5686     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5687     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5688     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5689     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5690     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5691     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5692     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5693     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5694     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5695     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5696     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5697     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5698     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5699     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5700     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5701     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5702     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5703     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5704     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5705     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5706     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5707     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5708     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5709 
  5710     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5711     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5712     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5713     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5714     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5715     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5716     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5717     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5718     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5719     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5720 
  5721     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5722     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5723     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5724     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5725     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5726     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5727 
  5728 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5729 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5730 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5731 
  5732 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5733 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5734 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5735 
  5736 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5737 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5738 
  5739 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5740 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5741 
  5742 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5743 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5744 proofs, e.g.
  5745 
  5746   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5747 
  5748 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5749 
  5750 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5751 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5752 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5753 
  5754 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5755 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5757 
  5758 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5759 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5760 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5762 
  5763 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5764 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5765 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5766 preorder_class.*.
  5767 
  5768 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5769 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5770 
  5771 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5772 
  5773   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5774 
  5775 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5776 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5777 fold_image.
  5778 
  5779 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5780 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5781 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5782 the former will disappear at some point.
  5783 
  5784 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5785 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5786 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5787 
  5788 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5789 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5790 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5791 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5792 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5793 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5794 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5795 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5796 
  5797 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5798 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5799 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5800 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5801 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5802 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5803 
  5804     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5805     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5806     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5807     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5808     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5809     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5810     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5811 
  5812 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5813 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5814 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5815 
  5816 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5817 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5818 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5819 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5820 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5821 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5822 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5823 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5824 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5825 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5826 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5827 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5828 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5829 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5830 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5831 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5832 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5833 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5834 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5835 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5836 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5837 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5838 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5839 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5840 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5841 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5842 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5843 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5844 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5845 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5846 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5847 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5848 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5849 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5850 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5851 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5852 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5853 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5854 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5855 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5856 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5857 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5858 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5859 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5860 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5861 
  5862 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5863 
  5864 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5865 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5866 
  5867 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5868 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5869 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5870 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5871 
  5872 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5873 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5874 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5875 theory RealVector.
  5876 
  5877 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5878 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5879 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5880 and inner products are included.
  5881 
  5882 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5883 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5884 supported.
  5885 
  5886 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5887 first diagonalization argument.
  5888 
  5889 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5890 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5891 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5892 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5893 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5894 
  5895     hide (open) const gcd
  5896     abbreviation gcd where
  5897       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5898     notation (output)
  5899       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5900 
  5901 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5902 
  5903 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5904 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5905 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5906 
  5907 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5908 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5909 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5910 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5911 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5912 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5913 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5914 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5915 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5916 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5917 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5918 cases.
  5919 
  5920 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5921 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5922 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5923 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5924 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5925 
  5926     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5927     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5928     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5929     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5930     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5931 
  5932 
  5933 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5934 
  5935 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5936 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5937 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5938 
  5939 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5940 
  5941 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5942 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5943 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5944 
  5945 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5946 
  5947 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5948 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5949 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5950 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5951 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5952 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5953 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5954 
  5955 
  5956 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5957 
  5958 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5959 
  5960 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5961 theory targets.
  5962 
  5963 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5964 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5965 'inductive' etc.
  5966 
  5967 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5968 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5969 
  5970 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5971 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5972 
  5973 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5974 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5975 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5976 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5977 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5978 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5979 the algorithm W:
  5980 
  5981  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5982  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5983          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5984 
  5985 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5986 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5987 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5988 
  5989 
  5990 *** HOLCF ***
  5991 
  5992 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5993 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5994 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5995 
  5996 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5997 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5998 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5999 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  6000 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6001 
  6002 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  6003 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6004 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6005 
  6006 
  6007 *** ZF ***
  6008 
  6009 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  6010 
  6011 
  6012 *** ML ***
  6013 
  6014 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  6015 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  6016 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  6017 5.2.1!
  6018 
  6019 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  6020 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  6021 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  6022 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6023 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6024 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6025 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6026 
  6027 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6028 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6029 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6030 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6031 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6032 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6033 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6034 
  6035 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6036 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6037 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6038 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6039 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6040 
  6041 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6042 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6043 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6044 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6045 Method.add_method.
  6046 
  6047 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6048 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6049 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6050 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6051 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6052 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6053 
  6054 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6055 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6056 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6057 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6058 examples.
  6059 
  6060 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6061 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6062 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6063 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  6064 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  6065 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  6066 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  6067 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  6068 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  6069 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  6070 
  6071 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  6072 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  6073 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  6074 
  6075 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  6076 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  6077 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  6078 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  6079 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  6080 resort for legacy applications.
  6081 
  6082 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  6083 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  6084 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  6085 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  6086 explicit runtime argument.
  6087 
  6088 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  6089 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  6090 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  6091 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  6092 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6093 
  6094 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  6095 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  6096 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  6097 theory state.
  6098 
  6099 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  6100 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  6101 
  6102   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  6103   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  6104   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  6105   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  6106   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  6107   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  6108   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  6109   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  6110   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  6111   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  6112 
  6113 
  6114 *** System ***
  6115 
  6116 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  6117 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  6118 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  6119 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  6120 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  6121 
  6122 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  6123 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  6124 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  6125 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  6126 
  6127 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  6128 
  6129 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  6130 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  6131 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  6132 prover operations.
  6133 
  6134 
  6135 
  6136 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  6137 -------------------------------
  6138 
  6139 *** General ***
  6140 
  6141 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  6142 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  6143 
  6144 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6145 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6146 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6147 provides a proper context already.
  6148 
  6149 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6150 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6151 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6152 
  6153 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6154 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6155 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6156 swap theory imports.
  6157 
  6158 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6159 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6160 
  6161 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6162 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6163 white space without escapes.
  6164 
  6165 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6166 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6167 "foo_bar".
  6168 
  6169 
  6170 *** Pure ***
  6171 
  6172 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6173 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6174 
  6175 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6176 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6177 
  6178 (1) unused_thms
  6179      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6180 
  6181 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6182      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6183      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6184 
  6185 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6186      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6187      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6188      their ancestors.
  6189 
  6190 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6191 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6192 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6193 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6194 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6195 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6196 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6197 
  6198 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6199 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6200 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6201 
  6202 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6203 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6204 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6205 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6206 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6207 
  6208 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6209 
  6210 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6211 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6212 update of theories within ML code.
  6213 
  6214 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6215 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6216 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6217 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6218 
  6219 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6220 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6221 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6222 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6223 
  6224 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6225 
  6226 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6227 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6228 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6229 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6230 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6231 
  6232 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6233 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6234 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6235 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6236 situations.
  6237 
  6238 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6239 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6240 proof text.
  6241 
  6242 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6243 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6244 
  6245 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6246 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6247 predicates.
  6248 
  6249 
  6250 *** Document preparation ***
  6251 
  6252 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6253 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6254 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6255 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  6256 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  6257 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  6258 
  6259 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6260 method