NEWS
author haftmann
Sat Sep 15 20:14:29 2012 +0200 (2012-09-15)
changeset 49388 1ffd5a055acf
parent 49365 8aebe857aaaa
child 49481 818bf31759e7
permissions -rw-r--r--
typeclass formalising bounded subtraction
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    10 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    11 
    12 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    13 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    14 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    15 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    16 dependencies properly.
    17 
    18 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    19 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    20 
    21 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    22 in old "ref" manual.
    23 
    24 
    25 *** Pure ***
    26 
    27 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    28 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    29 
    30 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    31 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    32 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    34 
    35 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    36 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    37 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    38 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    39 with some care where this is really required.
    40 
    41 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
    42 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
    43 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
    44 
    45   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
    46 
    47 
    48 *** HOL ***
    49 
    50 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalised properties of bounded
    51 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
    52 
    53 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
    54 to lattice type classes.
    55 
    56 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a option".
    57 
    58 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
    59 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
    60 
    61   - Renamed constants:
    62 
    63       prefix ~> prefixeq
    64       strict_prefix ~> prefix
    65 
    66     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
    67 
    68   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
    69     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
    70     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
    71     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    72 
    73   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
    74     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
    75 
    76   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
    77     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
    78     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
    79     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
    80 
    81   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
    82     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
    83 
    84       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
    85       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
    86       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
    87       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
    88       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
    89       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
    90       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
    91       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
    92       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
    93       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
    94       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
    95       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
    96       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
    97       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
    98       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
    99       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   100 
   101     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   102 
   103 * HOL/Codatatype: New (co)datatype package with support for mixed,
   104 nested recursion and interesting non-free datatypes.
   105 
   106 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   107 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   108 
   109 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   110 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   111 
   112 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   113 expressions.
   114 
   115 * Quickcheck:
   116 
   117   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   118     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   119     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   120 
   121 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   122 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   123 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   124 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   125 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   126 
   127 * Sledgehammer:
   128 
   129   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   130     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   131   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   132   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   133   - Renamed options:
   134       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   135       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   136 
   137 
   138 *** Document preparation ***
   139 
   140 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   141 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   142 
   143 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   144 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   145 document/root.tex.
   146 
   147 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   148 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   149 
   150 
   151 *** ML ***
   152 
   153 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   154 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   155 necessarily printing visible text.
   156 
   157 
   158 *** System ***
   159 
   160 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   161 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   162 for home-made configurations.
   163 
   164 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   165 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   166 
   167 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   168 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   169 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   170 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   171 
   172 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   173 
   174 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   175 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   176 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   177 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   178 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   179 
   180 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   181 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   182 
   183   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   184 
   185 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   186 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   187 
   188 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   189 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   190 "isabelle usedir".
   191 
   192 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   193 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   194 version of Isabelle.
   195 
   196 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   197 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   198 configuration.
   199 
   200 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   201 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   202 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   203 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   204 bundled as Isabelle component.
   205 
   206 
   207 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   208 ------------------------------
   209 
   210 *** General ***
   211 
   212 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   213 
   214   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   215     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   216   - markup for bound variables
   217   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   218   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   219   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   220     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   221 
   222 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   223 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   224 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   225 
   226 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   227 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   228 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   229 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   230 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   231 
   232   context
   233     fixes x y z :: 'a
   234     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   235   begin
   236 
   237   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   238 
   239   end
   240 
   241   thm my_trans
   242 
   243 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   244 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   245 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   246 
   247 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   248 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   249 
   250 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   251 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   252 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   253 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   254 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   255 
   256 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   257 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   258 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   259 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   260 indices of schematic variables.
   261 
   262 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   263 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   264 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   265 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   266 etc. was exploited.
   267 
   268 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   269 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   270 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   271 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   272 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   273 of the material of that old tutorial.
   274 
   275 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   276 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   277 manual.
   278 
   279 
   280 *** Pure ***
   281 
   282 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   283 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   284 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   285 
   286 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   287 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   288 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   289 undocumented feature.)
   290 
   291 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   292 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   293 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   294 
   295   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   296 
   297   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   298     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   299 
   300 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   301 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   302 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   303 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   304 
   305 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   306 
   307     num ~> num_token
   308     xnum ~> xnum_token
   309     xstr ~> str_token
   310 
   311 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   312 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   313 position information via constraints).
   314 
   315 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   316 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   317 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   318 
   319 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   320 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   321 
   322 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   323 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   324 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   325 
   326 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   327 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   328 
   329 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   330 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   331 
   332   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   333 
   334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   335 
   336 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   337 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   338 
   339 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   340 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   341 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   342 
   343 
   344 *** HOL ***
   345 
   346 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   347 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   348 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   349 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   350 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   351 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   352 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   353 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   354 possible.
   355 
   356 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   357 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   358 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   359 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   360 
   361 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   362 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   363 
   364 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   365 
   366 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   367 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   368 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   369 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   370 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   371 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   372 
   373   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   374     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   375 
   376   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   377     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   378     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   379 
   380   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   381     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   382 
   383   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   384     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   385     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   386 
   387   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   388     Redefine using other integer operations.
   389 
   390 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   391 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   392 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   393 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   394 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   395 
   396   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   397     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   398     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   399     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   400     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   401 
   402     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   403     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   404 
   405   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   406     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   407     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   408     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   409     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   410     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   411     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   412     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   413 
   414   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   415     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   416     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   417     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   418 
   419   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   420     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   421     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   422     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   423 
   424   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   425     from type nat to type int.
   426 
   427 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   428 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   429 
   430   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   431     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   432     type.  Example syntax:
   433 
   434     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   435       is List.insert
   436 
   437     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   438     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   439     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   440     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   441     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   442     by the package.
   443 
   444   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   445     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   446     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   447     code generation for each constant.
   448 
   449   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   450     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   451     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   452     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   453     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   454 
   455   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   456     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   457     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   458 
   459 * Quotient package:
   460 
   461   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   462     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   463 
   464   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   465     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   466 
   467   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   468     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   469     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   470 
   471   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   472     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   473 
   474 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   475 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   476 
   477 * Quickcheck:
   478 
   479   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   480     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   481     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   482     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   483     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   484 
   485     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   486     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   487     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   488 
   489     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   490     continues searching for genuine ones.
   491 
   492     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   493     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   494     show genuine counterexamples.
   495 
   496   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   497     value generators for a given type and operations.
   498 
   499     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   500     constructors of that type.
   501 
   502   - Support for multisets.
   503 
   504   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   505 
   506   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   507     conjectures in a locale context.
   508 
   509 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   510 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   511 
   512 * Sledgehammer:
   513   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   514     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   515   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   516   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   517     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   518   - Sped up the minimizer.
   519   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   520   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   521   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   522 
   523 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   524 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   525 
   526 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   527 
   528 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   529 
   530 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   531 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   532 
   533   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   534 
   535 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   536 a list and a nat.
   537 
   538 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   539 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   540 
   541 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   542 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   543 default.
   544 
   545 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   546 
   547   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   548 
   549 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   550 
   551 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   552 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   553 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   554 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   555 one_case.
   556 
   557 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   558 the result of the fact expression.
   559 
   560 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   561 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   562 of some relation theorems:
   563 
   564   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   565   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   566   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   567   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   568   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   569   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   570 
   571 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   572 
   573 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   574 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   575 
   576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   577 
   578 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   579 to match the constant's name:
   580 
   581   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   582   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   583   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   584   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   585   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   586   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   587   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   588   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   589   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   590   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   591   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   592   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   593   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   594   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   595   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   596   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   597   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   598   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   599   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   600   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   601   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   602   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   603   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   604   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   605 
   606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   607 
   608 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   609 and corresponding theorem names:
   610 
   611   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   612 
   613   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   614 
   615   - Renamed theorems:
   616 
   617     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   618     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   619     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   620     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   621     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   622     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   623     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   624     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   625     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   626     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   627     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   628     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   629     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   630     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   631     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   632     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   633     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   634     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   635     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   636     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   637     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   638     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   639     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   640 
   641     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   642 
   643     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   644 
   645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   646 
   647 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   648 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   649 
   650   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   651   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   652   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   653   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   654   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   655   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   656   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   657   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   658   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   659   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   660   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   661   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   662   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   663   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   664   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   665   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   666   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   667   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   668   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   669   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   670   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   671 
   672 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   673 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   674 
   675 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   676 
   677 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   678 
   679   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   680   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   681   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   682   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   683   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   684   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   685   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   686   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   687   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   688   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   689   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   690   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   691   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   692   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   693   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   694   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   695   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   696   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   697 
   698 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   699 
   700 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   701 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   702 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   703 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   704 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   705 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   706 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   707 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   708 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   709 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   710 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   711 
   712 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   713 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   714 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   715 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   716 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   717 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   718 
   719 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   720 through option types.
   721 
   722 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   723 relations.
   724 
   725 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   726 
   727 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   728 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   729 
   730   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   731   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   732   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   733   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   734   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   735   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   736   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   737   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   738   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   739   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   740   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   741   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   742   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   743   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   744   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   745   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   746   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   747   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   748   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   749   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   750   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   751   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   752   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   753   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   754   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   755   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   756   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   757   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   758   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   759   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   760   zless_le ~> less_le
   761   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   762   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   763   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   764 
   765 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   766 
   767   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   768 
   769 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   770 
   771 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   772 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   773 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   774 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   776 
   777 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   778 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   779 
   780 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   781 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   782 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   783 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   784 follows:
   785 
   786   Operations:
   787   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   788   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   789   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   790   del -> rbt_del
   791   delete -> rbt_delete
   792   ins -> rbt_ins
   793   insert -> rbt_insert
   794   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   795   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   796   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   797   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   798   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   799   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   800   tree_less -> rbt_less
   801   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   802   union -> rbt_union
   803   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   804   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   805 
   806   Lemmas:
   807   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   808   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   809   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   810   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   811   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   812   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   813   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   814   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   815   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   816   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   817   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   818   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   819   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   820   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   821   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   822   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   823   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   824   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   825   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   826   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   827   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   828   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   829   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   830   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   831   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   832   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   833   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   834   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   835   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   836   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   837   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   838   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   839   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   840   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   841   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   842   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   843   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   844   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   845   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   846   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   847   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   848   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   849   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   850   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   851   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   852   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   853   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   854   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   855   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   856   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   857   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   858   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   859   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   860   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   861   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   862   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   863   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   864   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   865   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   866   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   867   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   868   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   869   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   870   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   871   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   872   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   873   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   874   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   875   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   876   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   877   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   878   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   879   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   880   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   881   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   882   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   883   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   884   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   885   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   886   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   887   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   888   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   889   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   890 
   891 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   892 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   893 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   894 
   895   Changed Operations:
   896   float_abs -> abs
   897   float_nprt -> nprt
   898   float_pprt -> pprt
   899   pow2 -> use powr
   900   round_down -> float_round_down
   901   round_up -> float_round_up
   902   scale -> exponent
   903 
   904   Removed Operations:
   905   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   906 
   907   Renamed Lemmas:
   908   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   909   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   910   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   911   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   912   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   913   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   914   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   915   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   916   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   917   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   918   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   919   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   920   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   921   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   922   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   923   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   924   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   925   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   926   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   927   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   928   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   929   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   930   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   931   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   932   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   933   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   934   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   935   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   936   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   937   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   938   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   939   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   940   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   941   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   942   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   943   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   944 
   945   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   946   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   947   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   948   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   949   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   950   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   951   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   952   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   953   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   954   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   955 
   956 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   957 association lists with distinct keys.
   958 
   959 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   960 annotated commands.
   961 
   962 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   963 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   964 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   965 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   966 
   967 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   968 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   969 instead.
   970 
   971   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   972   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   973   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   974   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   975   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   976   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   977   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   978   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   979   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   980   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   981   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   982   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   983   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   984   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   985   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   986   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   987   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   988   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   989   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   990   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   991   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   992   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   993   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   994   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   995   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   996   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   997   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   998   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   999   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1000   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1001   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1002   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1003   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1004   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1005   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1006   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1007   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1008   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1009   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1010   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1011   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1012 
  1013 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1014 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1015 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1016 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1017 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1018 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1019 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1020 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1021 
  1022 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1023 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1024 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1025 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1026 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1027 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1028 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1029 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1030 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1031 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1032 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1033 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1034 
  1035   Renamed constants:
  1036   measure -> emeasure
  1037   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1038   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1039   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1040   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1041 
  1042   Removed locales:
  1043   completeable_measure_space
  1044   finite_measure_space
  1045   finite_prob_space
  1046   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1047   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1048   finite_sigma_algebra
  1049   measure_space
  1050   pair_finite_prob_space
  1051   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1052   pair_finite_space
  1053   pair_sigma_algebra
  1054   product_sigma_algebra
  1055 
  1056   Removed constants:
  1057   conditional_space
  1058   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1059   image_space
  1060   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1061   pair_measure_generator
  1062   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1063   subvimage
  1064 
  1065   Replacement theorems:
  1066   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1067   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1068   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1069   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1070   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1071   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1072   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1073   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1074   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1075   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1076   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1077   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1078   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1079   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1080   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1081   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1082   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1083   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1084   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1085   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1086   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1087   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1088   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1089   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1090   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1091   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1092   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1093   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1094   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1095   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1096   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1097   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1098   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1099   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1100   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1101   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1102   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1103   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1104   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1105   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1106   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1107   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1108   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1109   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1110   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1111   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1112   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1113   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1114   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1115   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1116   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1117   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1118   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1119   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1120   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1121   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1122   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1123   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1124   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1125   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1126   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1127   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1128   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1129   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1130   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1131   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1132   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1133   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1134   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1135   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1136   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1137   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1138   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1139   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1140   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1141   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1142   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1143   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1144   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1145   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1146   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1147   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1148   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1149   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1150   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1151   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1152   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1153   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1154   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1155   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1156   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1157   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1158   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1159   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1160   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1161   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1162   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1163   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1164   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1165   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1166   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1167   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1168   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1169   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1170   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1171   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1172   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1173   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1174   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1175   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1176   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1177   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1178   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1179   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1180   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1181   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1182   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1183   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1184   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1185   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1186   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1187   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1188   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1189   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1190   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1191   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1192   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1193   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1194 
  1195 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1196 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1197 
  1198 
  1199 *** FOL ***
  1200 
  1201 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1202 
  1203 
  1204 *** ZF ***
  1205 
  1206 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1207 analysis.
  1208 
  1209 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1210 
  1211 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1212 
  1213 
  1214 *** ML ***
  1215 
  1216 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1217 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1218 
  1219 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1220 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1221 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1222 
  1223 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1224 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1225 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1226 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1227 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1228 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1229 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1230 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1231 
  1232 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1233 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1234 
  1235 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1236 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1237 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1238 
  1239 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1240 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1241 
  1242 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1243 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1244 context as well.
  1245 
  1246 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1247 
  1248   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1249   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1250   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1251   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1252   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1253   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1254   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1255   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1256   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1257   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1258   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1259   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1260 
  1261 
  1262 *** System ***
  1263 
  1264 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1265 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1266 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1267 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1268 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1269 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1270 the generic user home was intended.
  1271 
  1272 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1273 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1274 
  1275 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1276 (not just JRE).
  1277 
  1278 
  1279 
  1280 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1281 ------------------------------------
  1282 
  1283 *** General ***
  1284 
  1285 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1286 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1287 
  1288   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1289     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1290     files for checking).
  1291 
  1292   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1293     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1294     positions.
  1295 
  1296   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1297     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1298     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1299 
  1300   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1301     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1302     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1303 
  1304   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1305     cores.
  1306 
  1307   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1308     versions (garbage collection).
  1309 
  1310 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1311 including some remaining limitations.
  1312 
  1313 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1314 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1315 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1316 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1317 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1321 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1322 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1323 
  1324 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1325 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1326 usedir option -Q.
  1327 
  1328 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1329 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1330 
  1331   long_names   ~> names_long
  1332   short_names  ~> names_short
  1333   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1334 
  1335 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1336 
  1337   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1338 
  1339 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1340 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1341 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1342 
  1343 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1344 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1345 
  1346 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1347   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1348   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1349   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1350     "Classical Reasoner".
  1351 
  1352 
  1353 *** HOL ***
  1354 
  1355 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1356 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1357 
  1358 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1359 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1360 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1361 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1362 class complete_linorder.
  1363 
  1364 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1365 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1366 
  1367 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1368 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1369 
  1370   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1371   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1372   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1373   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1374   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1375   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1376   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1377   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1378   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1379   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1380   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1381 
  1382 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1383 
  1384   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1385   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1386   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1387   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1388   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1389   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1390   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1391   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1392   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1393   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1394   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1395   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1396   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1397   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1398   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1399   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1400 
  1401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1402 
  1403 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1404 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1405 
  1406 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1407 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1408 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1409 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1410 
  1411 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1412 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1413 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1414 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1415 
  1416 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1417 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1418 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1419 
  1420 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1421 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1422 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1423 
  1424 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1425 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1426 
  1427 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1428 
  1429     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1430     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1431 
  1432 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1433 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1434 
  1435 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1436 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1437 
  1438 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1439 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1440 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1441 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1442 
  1443   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1444   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1445   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1446   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1447   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1448   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1449   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1450 
  1451 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1452 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1453 
  1454   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1455   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1456   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1457   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1458   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1459   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1460   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1461   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1462   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1463   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1464   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1465   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1466   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1467   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1468   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1469   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1470   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1471   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1472   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1473   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1474   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1475   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1476   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1477   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1478   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1479   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1480   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1481   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1482   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1483   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1484   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1485   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1486   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1487   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1488   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1489   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1490   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1491   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1492   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1493   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1494   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1495   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1496   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1497   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1498   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1499   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1500   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1501   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1502   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1503   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1504   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1505   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1506   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1507   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1508   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1509   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1510   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1511   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1512   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1513   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1514   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1515   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1516   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1517   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1518   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1519   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1520   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1521   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1522   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1523   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1524   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1525   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1526   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1527   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1528   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1529   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1530   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1531   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1532   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1533   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1534   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1535   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1536 
  1537 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1538 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1539 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1540 
  1541 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1542 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1543 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1544 
  1545 * Code generation:
  1546 
  1547   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1548     characters in the target language.
  1549 
  1550   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1551     instead.
  1552 
  1553   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1554 
  1555   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1556     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1557 
  1558       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1559 
  1560 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1561 
  1562 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1563 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1564 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1565 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1566 syntax.
  1567 
  1568 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1569 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1570 
  1571 * Nitpick:
  1572   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1573   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1574   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1575     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1576 
  1577 * Sledgehammer:
  1578   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1579   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1580     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1581   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1582     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1583   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1584     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1585   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1586     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1587   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1588     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1589 
  1590 * Metis:
  1591   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1592   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1593     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1594 
  1595 * Command 'try':
  1596   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1597     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1598   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1599     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1600 
  1601 * Quickcheck:
  1602   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1603     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1604   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1605     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1606   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1607     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1608     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1609     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1610   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1611     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1612 
  1613 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1614 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1615 
  1616 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1617 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1618 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1619 
  1620 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1621 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1623 
  1624 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1625 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1626 
  1627 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1628 arithmetic.
  1629 
  1630 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1631 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1632 and lattice type classes.
  1633 
  1634 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1635 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1636 
  1637 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1638 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1639 
  1640 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1641 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1642 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1643 
  1644   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1645   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1646   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1647   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1648 
  1649 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1650 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1651 constants:
  1652 
  1653   type inat   ~> type enat
  1654   Fin         ~> enat
  1655   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1656   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1657   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1658 
  1659 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1660 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1661 
  1662 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1663 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1664 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1665 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1666 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1667 
  1668 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1669 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1670 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1671 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1672 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1673 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1674 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1675 
  1676   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1677   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1678   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1679   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1680 
  1681 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1682 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1683 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1686   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1687   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1688   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1689   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1690   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1691   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1692   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1693   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1694   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1695   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1696   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1697   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1698   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1699   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1700   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1701   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1702   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1703   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1704   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1705   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1706   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1707   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1708   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1709   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1710   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1711   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1712   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1713   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1714   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1715   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1716   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1717   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1718   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1719   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1720   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1721   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1722   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1723   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1724   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1725   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1726   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1727   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1728   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1729   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1730   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1731   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1732   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1733   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1734   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1735   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1736 
  1737 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1738   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1739   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1740   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1741   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1742     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1743 
  1744 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1745 
  1746   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1747   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1748   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1749   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1750   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1751   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1752   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1753   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1754   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1755   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1756   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1757   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1758   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1759   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1760   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1761   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1762   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1763   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1764   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1765   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1766   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1767   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1768   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1769   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1770   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1771 
  1772 
  1773 *** Document preparation ***
  1774 
  1775 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1776 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1777 same.
  1778 
  1779 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1780 result.
  1781 
  1782 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1783 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1784 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1785 
  1786 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1787 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1788 
  1789 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1790 like this:
  1791 
  1792   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1793   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1794 
  1795 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1796 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1797 layouts.
  1798 
  1799 
  1800 *** ML ***
  1801 
  1802 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1803 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1804 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1805 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1806 under external program control.
  1807 
  1808 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1809 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1810 
  1811 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1812 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1813 (better known as Proof General).
  1814 
  1815 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1816 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1817 
  1818 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1819 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1820 
  1821 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1822 (including quotes etc.).
  1823 
  1824 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1825 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1826 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1827 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1828 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1829 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1830 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1831 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1832 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1833 
  1834 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1835 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1836 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1837 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1838 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1839 
  1840 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1841 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1842 
  1843 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1844 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1845 
  1846 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1847 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1848 
  1849 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1850 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1851 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1852 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1853 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1854 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1855 proper Proof.context.
  1856 
  1857 
  1858 *** System ***
  1859 
  1860 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1861 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1862 
  1863 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1864 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1865 
  1866 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1867 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1868 
  1869   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1870   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1871   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1872   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1873   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1874 
  1875 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1876 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1877 
  1878 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1879 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1880 example:
  1881 
  1882   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1883 
  1884 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1885 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1886 
  1887 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1888 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1889 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1890 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1891 
  1892 
  1893 
  1894 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1895 ----------------------------------
  1896 
  1897 *** General ***
  1898 
  1899 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1900 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1901 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1902 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1903 like this:
  1904 
  1905   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1906 
  1907 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1908 
  1909 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1910 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1911 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1912 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1913 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1914 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1915 
  1916 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1917 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1918 the following package declarations:
  1919 
  1920   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1921   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1922 
  1923 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1924 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1925 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1926 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1927 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1928 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1929 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1930 
  1931 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1932 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1933 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1934 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1935 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1936 
  1937 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1938 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1939 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1940 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1941 
  1942 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1943 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1944 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1945 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1946 
  1947   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1948 
  1949   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1950   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1951   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1952   show_types                    show_types
  1953   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1954   show_consts                   show_consts
  1955   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1956 
  1957   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1958   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1959   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1960 
  1961   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1962   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1963 
  1964   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1965 
  1966   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1967   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1968   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1969   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1970   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1971 
  1972 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1973 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1974 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1975 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1976 
  1977 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1979 
  1980   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1981   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1982 
  1983 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1984 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1985 float_token.
  1986 
  1987 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1988 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1990 
  1991 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1992 DejaVu Sans.
  1993 
  1994 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1995 
  1996 
  1997 *** Pure ***
  1998 
  1999 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2000 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2001 time.
  2002 
  2003 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2004 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2005 
  2006 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2007 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2008 
  2009 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2010 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2011 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2012 command already provided this functionality.
  2013 
  2014 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2015 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2016 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2017 without interpretations.
  2018 
  2019 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2020 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2021 
  2022 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2023 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2024 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2025 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2026 
  2027 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2028 'definition' instead.
  2029 
  2030 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2031 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2032 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2033 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2034 
  2035 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2036 constructors.
  2037 
  2038 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2039 the local file system.
  2040 
  2041 
  2042 *** HOL ***
  2043 
  2044 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2045 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2046 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2047 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2048 
  2049   declare [[coercion f]]
  2050 
  2051 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2052 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2053 
  2054   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2055 
  2056 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2057 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2058 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2059 other theories like this:
  2060 
  2061   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2062 
  2063 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2064 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2065 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2066 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2067 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2068 for examples.
  2069 
  2070 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2071 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2072 
  2073 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2074 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2075 
  2076 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2077 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2078 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2079 
  2080 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2081 functorial structure of types.
  2082 
  2083 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2084 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2085 
  2086 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2087 languages.
  2088 
  2089 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2090 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2092 
  2093 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2094 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2095 
  2096 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2097 combinators any longer.
  2098 
  2099 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2100 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2101 
  2102 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2103 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2104 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2105 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2106 
  2107   record 'a foo = ...
  2108   ...
  2109   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2110 
  2111 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2112 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2114 
  2115 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2116 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2117 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2118 
  2119 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2120 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2121 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2122 
  2123 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2124 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2125 
  2126 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2127 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2128 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2129 independently.
  2130 
  2131 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2132 counter example search.
  2133 
  2134 * Sledgehammer:
  2135   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2136     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2137     sledgehammer").
  2138   - Renamed commands:
  2139     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2140     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2141     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2142     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2143   - Renamed options:
  2144     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2145     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2146     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2147     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2148     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2149 
  2150 * Nitpick:
  2151   - Renamed options:
  2152     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2153     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2154     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2155   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2156   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2157   - Added "whack" option.
  2158   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2159   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2160   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2161   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2162     higher cardinalities.
  2163   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2164 
  2165 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2166 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2167 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2168 
  2169     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2170 
  2171 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2172 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2173 
  2174 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2175 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2176 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2177 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2178 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2179 "smt_solver".
  2180 
  2181 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2182 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2183 
  2184 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2185 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2186 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2187 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2188 
  2189 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2190   - Renamed:
  2191     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2192     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2193     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2194   - Added:
  2195     smt_verbose
  2196     smt_random_seed
  2197     smt_datatypes
  2198     smt_infer_triggers
  2199     smt_monomorph_limit
  2200     cvc3_options
  2201     remote_cvc3_options
  2202     remote_z3_options
  2203     yices_options
  2204 
  2205 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2206 header.
  2207 
  2208 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2209 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2210 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2211 
  2212   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2213 
  2214 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2215 
  2216 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2217 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2218 
  2219 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2220 
  2221 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2222 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2223 
  2224 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2225 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2226 
  2227 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2228 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2229 
  2230 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2231 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2232 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2233 
  2234 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2235 
  2236 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2237 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2238 
  2239 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2240 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2241 
  2242 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2243 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2244 for congruent(2)).
  2245 
  2246 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2247 
  2248   types
  2249     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2250     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2251 
  2252   constants
  2253     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2254     True ~> HOL.True
  2255     False ~> HOL.False
  2256     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2257     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2258     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2259     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2260     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2261     The ~> HOL.The
  2262     All ~> HOL.All
  2263     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2264     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2265     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2266     If ~> HOL.If
  2267     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2268     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2269     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2270     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2271     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2272     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2273     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2274     op : ~> Set.member
  2275     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2276 
  2277 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2278 
  2279 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2280 
  2281     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2282     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2283     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2284     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2285     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2286     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2287     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2288     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2289 
  2290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2291 
  2292 * More stylized fact names:
  2293 
  2294   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2295   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2296   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2297   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2298 
  2299 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2300 
  2301 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2302 
  2303   constants
  2304     null ~> List.null
  2305 
  2306   facts
  2307     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2308     null_empty ~> null_def
  2309 
  2310 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2311 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2312 generation.
  2313 
  2314 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2315 Haskell code.
  2316 
  2317 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2318 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2319 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2320 
  2321 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2322 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2323 
  2324 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2325 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2326 
  2327 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2328 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2329 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2330 
  2331 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2332 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2333 
  2334 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2336 
  2337 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2338 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2339 referred to by its qualified name.
  2340 
  2341   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2342   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2343   product ~>  Enum.product
  2344 
  2345 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2346 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2347 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2348 
  2349 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2350 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2351 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2352 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2353 
  2354 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2355 sort_key.
  2356 
  2357 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2358 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2359 
  2360 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2361 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2362 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2363 
  2364   types
  2365     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2366               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2367               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2368         (depends on your needs)
  2369 
  2370   constants
  2371      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2372      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2373      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2374 
  2375 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2376 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2377 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2378 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2379 
  2380 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2381 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2382 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2383 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2384 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2385 
  2386 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2388 
  2389 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2390 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2391 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2392 
  2393 
  2394 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2395 
  2396 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2397 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2398 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2399 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2400 compatibility.
  2401 
  2402 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2403 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2404 
  2405 
  2406 *** HOLCF ***
  2407 
  2408 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2409 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2410 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2412 
  2413 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2414 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2415 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2416 
  2417   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2418   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2419   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2420 
  2421 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2422 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2423 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2424 
  2425 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2426 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2427 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2428 domain definition now works:
  2429 
  2430   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2431 
  2432 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2433 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2434 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2435 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2436 
  2437   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2438     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2439 
  2440   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2441 
  2442 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2443 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2444 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2445 
  2446 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2447 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2448 
  2449 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2450 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2451 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2452 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2453 
  2454 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2455 
  2456 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2457 
  2458 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2459 
  2460 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2462 
  2463 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2464 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2465 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2466 
  2467 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2468 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2469 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2470 
  2471 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2472 still supported as an input translation.
  2473 
  2474 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2475 
  2476   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2477   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2478   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2479   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2480   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2481   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2482   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2483 
  2484 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2485 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2486 
  2487   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2488   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2489   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2490   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2491   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2492   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2493 
  2494 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2495 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2496 
  2497 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2498 
  2499   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2500   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2501   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2502   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2503 
  2504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2505 
  2506 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2507 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2508 
  2509 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2510 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2511 
  2512   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2513   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2514   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2515   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2516   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2517   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2518   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2519   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2520   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2521   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2522   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2523   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2524   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2525   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2526   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2527   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2528   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2529   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2530   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2531   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2532 
  2533 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2534 
  2535   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2536   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2537   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2538   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2539   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2540   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2541   box_less             ~> box_below
  2542   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2543   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2544   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2545   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2546   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2547   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2548   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2549   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2550   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2551   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2552   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2553   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2554   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2555   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2556   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2557   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2558   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2559   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2560   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2561   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2562   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2563   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2564   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2565   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2566   up_less              ~> up_below
  2567   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2568   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2569   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2570   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2571   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2572   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2573   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2574   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2575   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2576   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2577   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2578   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2579   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2580 
  2581 
  2582 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2583 
  2584 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2585 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2586 
  2587 
  2588 *** ML ***
  2589 
  2590 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2591 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2592 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2593 
  2594 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2595 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2596 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2597 
  2598 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2599 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2600 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2601 
  2602 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2603 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2604 
  2605 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2606 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2607 
  2608 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2609 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2610 
  2611 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2612 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2613 
  2614 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2615 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2616 almost all situations.
  2617 
  2618 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2619 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2620 Isabelle/ML.
  2621 
  2622 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2623 meaning.
  2624 
  2625 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2626 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2627 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2628 
  2629 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2630 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2631 
  2632 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2633 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2634 
  2635 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2636 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2637 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2638 
  2639 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2640 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2641 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2642 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2643 configuration options.
  2644 
  2645 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2646 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2647 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2648 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2649 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2650 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2651 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2652 
  2653 
  2654 
  2655 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2656 ---------------------------------
  2657 
  2658 *** General ***
  2659 
  2660 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2661 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2662 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2663 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2664 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2665 their full internal name.
  2666 
  2667 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2668 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2669 Some hints on upgrading:
  2670 
  2671   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2672     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2673     which are independent of this issue.
  2674 
  2675   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2676     provides the following special forms:
  2677 
  2678       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2679       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2680       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2681 
  2682     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2683     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2684     extra variables".
  2685 
  2686     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2687     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2688     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2689     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2690     "logic".
  2691 
  2692   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2693     antiquotations:
  2694 
  2695       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2696       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2697       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2698       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2699 
  2700   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2701     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2702     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2703     antiquotations.
  2704 
  2705 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2706 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2707 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2708 diagnose syntax problems.
  2709 
  2710 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2711 
  2712 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2713 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2714 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2715 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2716 
  2717 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2718 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2719 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2720 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2721 
  2722 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2723 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2724 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2725 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2726 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2727 
  2728 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2729 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2730 
  2731 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2732 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2733 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2734 
  2735   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2736 
  2737 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2738 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2739 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2740 
  2741 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2742 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2746 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2747 
  2748 
  2749 *** Pure ***
  2750 
  2751 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2752 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2753 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2754 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2755 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2756 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2757 inspect proof terms.
  2758 
  2759 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2760 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2761 are added internally.  For example:
  2762 
  2763   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2764 
  2765 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2766 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2767 
  2768 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2769 
  2770 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2771 'class' instead.
  2772 
  2773 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2774 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2776 
  2777 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2778 invariants.
  2779 
  2780 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2781 user space functionality any longer.
  2782 
  2783 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2784 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2785 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2786 
  2787 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2788 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2789 
  2790 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2791 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2792 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2793 
  2794 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2795 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2796 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2797 
  2798 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2799 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2800 
  2801 
  2802 *** HOL ***
  2803 
  2804 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2805 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2806 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2807 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2808 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2809 
  2810 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2811 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2812 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2813 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2814 
  2815   fun
  2816     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2817   where
  2818     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2819 
  2820   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2821     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2822 
  2823   quotient_definition
  2824     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2825 
  2826 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2827 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2828 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2829 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2830 
  2831 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2832 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2833 
  2834 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2835 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2836 
  2837 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2838 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2839 
  2840 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2841 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2842 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2843 
  2844 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2845 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2846 
  2847 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2849 
  2850 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2852 
  2853 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2854 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2855 
  2856 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2857 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2858 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2859 
  2860   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2861   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2862   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2863   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2864   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2865   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2866   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2867   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2868   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2869   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2870   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2871   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2872   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2873   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2874   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2875   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2876   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2877   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2878   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2879   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2880   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2881   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2882   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2883   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2884   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2885   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2886   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2887   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2888   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2889   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2890 
  2891 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2892 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2893 
  2894 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2895 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2896 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2897 
  2898 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2899 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2900 
  2901 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2902 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2903 
  2904 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2905 
  2906 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2907 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2908 
  2909 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2910 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2911 
  2912 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2913 
  2914 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2915 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2916 
  2917 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2918 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2919 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2920 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2921 
  2922 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2923   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2924   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2925   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2927 
  2928 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2929 lattices):
  2930 
  2931     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2932     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2933 
  2934     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2935 
  2936     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2937     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2938     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2939     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2940     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2941     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2942     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2943     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2944     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2945     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2946     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2947     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2948     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2949 
  2950     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2951     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2952     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2953     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2954     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2955     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2956     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2957     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2958     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2959     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2960     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2961     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2962     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2963     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2964     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2965     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2966     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2967     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2968 
  2969   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2970   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2971 
  2972     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2973     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2974     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2975     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2976     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2977 
  2978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2979 
  2980 * Refined field classes:
  2981   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2982     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2983     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2984   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2986 
  2987 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2988   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2989   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2990   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2991     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2992   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2993     equal_neg_zero.
  2994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2995 
  2996 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2997 sets to lattices:
  2998 
  2999   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3000   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3001   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3002   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3003   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3004   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3005   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3006   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3007   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3008   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3009 
  3010 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3011 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3012 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3013 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3014 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3015 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3016 
  3017 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3018 multiset order:
  3019 
  3020   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3021     <= and <;
  3022   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3023     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3024     multiset_order;
  3025   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3026     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3027     generation;
  3028   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3029     if needed.
  3030 
  3031 Renamed:
  3032 
  3033   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3034   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3035   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3036 
  3037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3038 
  3039 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3040 
  3041 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3042 
  3043 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3044 
  3045 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3046 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3047 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3048 
  3049   Constants:
  3050   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3051   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3052   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3053   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3054   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3055   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3056   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3057   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3058   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3059   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3060   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3061   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3062   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3063 
  3064   Lemmas:
  3065   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3066   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3067   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3068   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3069   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3070   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3071   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3072   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3073   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3074   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3075   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3076   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3077   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3078 
  3079 * Sledgehammer:
  3080   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3081     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3082     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3083     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3084     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3085     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3086     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3087   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3088   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3089     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3090   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3091     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3092     is still experimental.)
  3093   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3094     full-typed mode.
  3095   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3096 
  3097 * Nitpick:
  3098   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3099   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3100   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3101     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3102   - Added support for quotient types.
  3103   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3104     constructs.
  3105   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3106     "termination" proofs).
  3107   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3108   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3109   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3110   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3111     record getters.
  3112   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3113   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3114   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3115   - Added "atoms" option.
  3116   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3117     problems.
  3118   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3119     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3120     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3122     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3123   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3124 
  3125 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3126   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3127   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3128   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3129   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3130   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3131   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3132   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3133   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3134   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3135 
  3136 
  3137 *** HOLCF ***
  3138 
  3139 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3140 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3141 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3142 
  3143 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3144 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3145 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3146 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3147 
  3148 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3149 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3150 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3151 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3152 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3153 
  3154 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3155 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3156 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3157 
  3158 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3159 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160 
  3161   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3162   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3163 
  3164 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3165 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3166 
  3167   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3168   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3169   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3170   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3171   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3172 
  3173 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3174 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3175 
  3176   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3177   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3178   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3179 
  3180 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3181 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3183 
  3184 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3185 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186 
  3187 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3188 
  3189 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3190 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3191 
  3192 
  3193 *** ML ***
  3194 
  3195 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3196 
  3197     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3198     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3199 
  3200     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3201     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3202     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3203     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3204 
  3205     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3206     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3207     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3208 
  3209 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3210 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3211 
  3212 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3213 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3214 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3215 
  3216 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3217 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3218 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3219 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3220 
  3221 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3222 the context or even global references.
  3223 
  3224 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3225 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3226 
  3227 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3228 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3229 
  3230   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3231   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3232   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3233   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3234   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3235   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3236   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3237   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3238   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3239   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3240 
  3241 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3242 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3243 
  3244 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3245 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3246 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3247 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3248 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3249 
  3250 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3251 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3252 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3253 Theory_Data version.
  3254 
  3255 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3256 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3257 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3258 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3259 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3260 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3261 explicitly in rare situations.
  3262 
  3263 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3264 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3265 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3268 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269 
  3270 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3271 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3272 quite rare).
  3273 
  3274 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3275 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3276 
  3277 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3278 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3279 terms.
  3280 
  3281 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3282 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3283 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3284 
  3285 
  3286 *** System ***
  3287 
  3288 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3289 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3290 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3291 
  3292 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3293 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3294 respectively.
  3295 
  3296 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3297 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3298 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3299 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3300 
  3301   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3302 
  3303 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3304 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3305 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3306 component.
  3307 
  3308 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3309 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3310 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3311 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3312 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3313 the user for manual installation.
  3314 
  3315 
  3316 
  3317 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3318 -------------------------------------
  3319 
  3320 *** General ***
  3321 
  3322 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3323 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3324 
  3325 
  3326 *** Pure ***
  3327 
  3328 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3329 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3330 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3331 
  3332 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3333 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3334 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3335 
  3336 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3337 interpretation.
  3338 
  3339 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3340 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3341 
  3342 
  3343 *** Document preparation ***
  3344 
  3345 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3346 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3347 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3348 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3349 
  3350 
  3351 *** HOL ***
  3352 
  3353 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3354 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3355 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3356 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3357 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3358 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3359 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3360 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3361 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3362 
  3363 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3364 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3365 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3366 
  3367 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3368 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3369 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3370 
  3371 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3372 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3373 
  3374 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3375 
  3376 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3377 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3378 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3379 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3380 
  3381 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3382 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3383 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3384 "mirabelle" utility.
  3385 
  3386 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3387 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3388 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3389 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3390 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3391 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3392 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3393 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3394 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3395 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3396 
  3397 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3398 procedure only.
  3399 
  3400 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3401 
  3402 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3403 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3404 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3405 that fail later.
  3406 
  3407 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3408 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3409 
  3410 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3411 the same method as the approximation method.
  3412 
  3413 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3414 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3415 series expansion.
  3416 
  3417 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3418 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3419 
  3420 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3421 reals.
  3422 
  3423 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3424 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3425 
  3426 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3427 fixpoint theorem.
  3428 
  3429 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3430   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3431     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3432   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3433     accordingly
  3434   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3435     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3436   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3437     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3438 
  3439 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3440 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3441 lattice.
  3442 
  3443 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3444 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3445 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3446 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3447 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3448 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450 
  3451 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3452   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3453     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3454   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3455     le_inf_iff
  3456   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3457     sup_aci)
  3458   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3459   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3460   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3461     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3462     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3463     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3464     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3465     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3466     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3467     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3468     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3469     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3470     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3471   - authentic syntax for
  3472     Set.Pow
  3473     Set.image
  3474   - mere abbreviations:
  3475     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3476     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3477     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3478     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3479     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3480     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3481     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3482     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3483   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3484 
  3485 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3486 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3487 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3488 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3489 
  3490 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3491 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3492 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3493 
  3494 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3495 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3496 
  3497 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3498 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3499 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3500 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3501 
  3502 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3503 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3504 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3505 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3506 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3507 
  3508 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3509 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511 
  3512 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3513 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3514 
  3515 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3516 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3517 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3518 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3519 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3520 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3521 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3525     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3526     code_post       replaces    code post
  3527     etc.
  3528   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3529 
  3530 * Renamed methods:
  3531     sizechange -> size_change
  3532     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3533   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3534 
  3535 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3536 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3537 
  3538 * Renamed theorems:
  3539     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3540     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3541     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3542     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3543     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3544   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3547 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552 
  3553 *** HOLCF ***
  3554 
  3555 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3556 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3557 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3558 
  3559 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3560 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3561 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3562 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3563 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3564 
  3565 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3566 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3567 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3568 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3569 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3570 
  3571 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3572 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3573 constructor are pre-configured.
  3574 
  3575 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3576 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3577 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3578 
  3579 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3580 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3581 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3582 as well.)
  3583 
  3584 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3585 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3586 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3587 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3588 examples.
  3589 
  3590 
  3591 *** ML ***
  3592 
  3593 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3594 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3595 
  3596 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3597 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3598 position, logical grouping etc.
  3599 
  3600 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3601 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3602 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3603 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3604 
  3605 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3606 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3607 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3608 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3609 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3610 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3611 
  3612 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3613 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3614 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3615 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3616 experiments with references.
  3617 
  3618 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3619 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3620 
  3621 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3622 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3623 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3624 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3625 
  3626 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3627 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3628 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3629 
  3630 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3631 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3632 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3633 
  3634 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3635 
  3636 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3640 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3641 
  3642 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3643 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3644 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3645 
  3646 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3647 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3648 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3649 
  3650 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3651 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3652 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3653 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3654 
  3655 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3656 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3657 instead of global theory.
  3658 
  3659 
  3660 *** System ***
  3661 
  3662 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3663 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3664 usedir option -q.
  3665 
  3666 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3667 also the system manual.
  3668 
  3669 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3670 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3671 
  3672 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3673 this is always enabled.
  3674 
  3675 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3676 
  3677 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3678 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3679 currently supported on Linux only.
  3680 
  3681 
  3682 
  3683 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3684 --------------------------------
  3685 
  3686 *** General ***
  3687 
  3688 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3689 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3690 
  3691   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3692     "isatool."
  3693 
  3694   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3695     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3696 
  3697   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3698     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3699 
  3700 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3701 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3702 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3703 
  3704 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3705 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3706 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3707 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3708 via "isabelle emacs".
  3709 
  3710 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3711 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3712 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3713 
  3714 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3715 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3716 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3717 
  3718 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3719 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3720 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3721 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3722 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3723 
  3724 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3725 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3726 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3727 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3728 
  3729 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3730 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3731 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3732 
  3733 
  3734 *** Pure ***
  3735 
  3736 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3737 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3738 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3739 
  3740 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3741 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3742 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3743 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3744 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3745 
  3746 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3747 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3748 useful in locale declarations.
  3749 
  3750 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3751 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3752 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3753 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3754 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3755 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3756 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3757 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3758 no longer generated.
  3759 
  3760 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3761 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3762 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3763 
  3764 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3765 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3766 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3767 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3768 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3769 
  3770 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3771 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3772 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3773 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3774 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3775 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3776 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3777 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3778 
  3779 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3780 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3781 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3782 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3783 
  3784 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3785 
  3786 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3787 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3788 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3789 
  3790 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3791 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3792 
  3793 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3794 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3795 in HOL, write
  3796 
  3797     class foo = ...
  3798 
  3799 instead of
  3800 
  3801     class foo = type + ...
  3802 
  3803 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3804 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3805 
  3806 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3807 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3808 
  3809 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3810 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3811 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3812 
  3813 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3814 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3815 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3816 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3817 directly in regular applications.
  3818 
  3819 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3820 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3821 
  3822 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3823 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3824 
  3825 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3826 theory context.
  3827 
  3828 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3829 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3830 
  3831 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3832 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3833 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3834 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3835 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3836 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3837 
  3838   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3839 
  3840 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3841 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3842 normalization.
  3843 
  3844 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3845 addressing etc.
  3846 
  3847 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3848 
  3849   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3850   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3851 
  3852 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3853 
  3854   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3855      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3856      parts of the code generator framework).
  3857 
  3858   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3859      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3860      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3861 
  3862 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3863 
  3864 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3865 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3866 
  3867 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3868 patterns, e.g.
  3869 
  3870     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3871 
  3872 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3873 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3874 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3875 hyphen:
  3876 
  3877     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3878 
  3879 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3880 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3881 
  3882 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3883 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3884 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3885 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3886 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3887 higher-order unification.
  3888 
  3889 
  3890 *** Document preparation ***
  3891 
  3892 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3893 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3894 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3895 
  3896 
  3897 *** HOL ***
  3898 
  3899 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3900 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3901 
  3902 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3903 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3904 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3905 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3906 Main, as before.
  3907 
  3908 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3909 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3910 
  3911 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3912 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3913 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3914 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3915 
  3916 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3917 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3918 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3919 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3920 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3921 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3922 
  3923 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3924 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3925 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3926 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3927 
  3928 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3929 menu.
  3930 
  3931 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3932 (contains the empty clause).
  3933 
  3934 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3935 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3936 
  3937 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3938 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3939 
  3940 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3941 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3942 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3943 
  3944 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3945 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3946 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3947 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3948 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3949 
  3950 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3951 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3952 
  3953 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3954 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3955 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3956 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3957 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3958 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3959 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3960 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3961 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3962 
  3963 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3964 
  3965 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3966 
  3967 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3968 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3969 
  3970 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3971 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3972 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3973 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3974 
  3975 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3976 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3977 
  3978     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3979     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3980     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3981     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3982     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3983     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3984     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3985     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3986 
  3987 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3988 theory Set.
  3989 
  3990 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3991 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3992 
  3993 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3994 
  3995 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3996 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3997 
  3998 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3999 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4000 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4001 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4002 allowed. For examples see
  4003 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4004 
  4005 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4006 
  4007 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4009 
  4010 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4011 structure:
  4012 
  4013     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4014     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4015     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4016     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4017     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4018     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4019     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4020     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4021     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4022     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4023     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4024     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4025     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4026     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4027     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4028     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4029     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4030     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4031     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4032     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4033     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4034     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4035     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4036     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4037     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4038     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4039     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4040     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4041     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4042     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4043     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4044     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4045     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4046 
  4047     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4048     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4049     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4050     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4051     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4052     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4053     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4054     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4055     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4056     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4057 
  4058     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4059     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4060     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4061     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4062     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4063     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4064 
  4065 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4066 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4067 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4068 
  4069 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4070 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4071 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4072 
  4073 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4074 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4075 
  4076 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4077 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4078 
  4079 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4080 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4081 proofs, e.g.
  4082 
  4083   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4084 
  4085 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4086 
  4087 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4088 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4089 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4090 
  4091 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4092 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094 
  4095 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4096 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4097 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4101 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4102 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4103 preorder_class.*.
  4104 
  4105 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4106 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4107 
  4108 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4109 
  4110   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4111 
  4112 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4113 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4114 fold_image.
  4115 
  4116 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4117 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4118 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4119 the former will disappear at some point.
  4120 
  4121 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4122 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4123 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4124 
  4125 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4126 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4127 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4128 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4129 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4130 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4131 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4132 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4133 
  4134 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4135 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4136 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4137 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4138 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4139 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4140 
  4141     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4142     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4143     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4144     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4145     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4146     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4147     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4148 
  4149 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4150 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4151 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4152 
  4153 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4154 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4155 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4156 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4157 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4158 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4159 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4160 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4161 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4162 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4163 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4164 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4165 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4166 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4167 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4168 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4169 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4170 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4171 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4172 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4173 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4174 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4175 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4176 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4177 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4178 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4179 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4180 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4181 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4182 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4183 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4184 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4185 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4186 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4187 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4188 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4189 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4190 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4191 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4192 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4193 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4194 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4195 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4196 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4197 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4198 
  4199 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4200 
  4201 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4202 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4203 
  4204 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4205 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4206 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4207 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4208 
  4209 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4210 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4211 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4212 theory RealVector.
  4213 
  4214 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4215 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4216 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4217 and inner products are included.
  4218 
  4219 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4220 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4221 supported.
  4222 
  4223 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4224 first diagonalization argument.
  4225 
  4226 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4227 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4228 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4229 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4230 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4231 
  4232     hide (open) const gcd
  4233     abbreviation gcd where
  4234       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4235     notation (output)
  4236       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4237 
  4238 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4239 
  4240 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4241 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4242 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4243 
  4244 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4245 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4246 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4247 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4248 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4249 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4250 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4251 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4252 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4253 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4254 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4255 cases.
  4256 
  4257 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4258 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4259 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4260 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4261 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4262 
  4263     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4264     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4265     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4266     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4267     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4268 
  4269 
  4270 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4271 
  4272 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4273 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4274 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4275 
  4276 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4277 
  4278 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4279 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4280 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4281 
  4282 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4283 
  4284 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4285 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4286 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4287 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4288 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4289 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4290 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4291 
  4292 
  4293 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4294 
  4295 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4296 
  4297 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4298 theory targets.
  4299 
  4300 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4301 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4302 'inductive' etc.
  4303 
  4304 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4305 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4306 
  4307 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4308 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4309 
  4310 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4311 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4312 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4313 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4314 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4315 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4316 the algorithm W:
  4317 
  4318  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4319  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4320          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4321 
  4322 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4323 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4324 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4325 
  4326 
  4327 *** HOLCF ***
  4328 
  4329 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4330 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4331 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4332 
  4333 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4334 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4335 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4336 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4337 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4338 
  4339 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4340 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4341 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4342 
  4343 
  4344 *** ZF ***
  4345 
  4346 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4347 
  4348 
  4349 *** ML ***
  4350 
  4351 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4352 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4353 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4354 5.2.1!
  4355 
  4356 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4357 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4358 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4359 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4360 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4361 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4362 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4363 
  4364 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4365 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4366 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4367 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4368 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4369 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4370 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4371 
  4372 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4373 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4374 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4375 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4376 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4377 
  4378 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4379 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4380 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4381 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4382 Method.add_method.
  4383 
  4384 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4385 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4386 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4387 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4388 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4389 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4390 
  4391 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4392 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4393 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4394 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4395 examples.
  4396 
  4397 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4398 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4399 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4400 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4401 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4402 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4403 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4404 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4405 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4406 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4407 
  4408 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4409 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4410 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4411 
  4412 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4413 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4414 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4415 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4416 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4417 resort for legacy applications.
  4418 
  4419 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4420 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4421 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4422 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4423 explicit runtime argument.
  4424 
  4425 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4426 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4427 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4428 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4429 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4430 
  4431 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4432 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4433 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4434 theory state.
  4435 
  4436 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4437 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4438 
  4439   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4440   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4441   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4442   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4443   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4444   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4445   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4446   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4447   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4448   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4449 
  4450 
  4451 *** System ***
  4452 
  4453 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4454 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4455 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4456 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4457 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4458 
  4459 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4460 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4461 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4462 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4463 
  4464 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4465 
  4466 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4467 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4468 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4469 prover operations.
  4470 
  4471 
  4472 
  4473 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4474 -------------------------------
  4475 
  4476 *** General ***
  4477 
  4478 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4479 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4480 
  4481 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4482 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4483 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4484 provides a proper context already.
  4485 
  4486 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4487 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4488 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4489 
  4490 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4491 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4492 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4493 swap theory imports.
  4494 
  4495 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4496 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4497 
  4498 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4499 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4500 white space without escapes.
  4501 
  4502 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4503 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4504 "foo_bar".
  4505 
  4506 
  4507 *** Pure ***
  4508 
  4509 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4510 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4511 
  4512 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4513 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4514 
  4515 (1) unused_thms
  4516      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4517 
  4518 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4519      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4520      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4521 
  4522 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4523      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4524      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4525      their ancestors.
  4526 
  4527 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4528 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4529 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4530 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4531 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4532 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4533 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4534 
  4535 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4536 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4537 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4538 
  4539 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4540 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4541 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4542 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4543 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4544 
  4545 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4546 
  4547 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4548 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4549 update of theories within ML code.
  4550 
  4551 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4552 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4553 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4554 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4555 
  4556 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4557 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4558 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4559 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4560 
  4561 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4562 
  4563 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4564 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4565 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4566 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4567 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4568 
  4569 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4570 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4571 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4572 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4573 situations.
  4574 
  4575 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4576 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4577 proof text.
  4578 
  4579 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4580 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4581 
  4582 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4583 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4584 predicates.
  4585 
  4586 
  4587 *** Document preparation ***
  4588 
  4589 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4590 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4591 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4592 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4593 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4594 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4595 
  4596 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4597 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4598 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4599 
  4600 
  4601 *** HOL ***
  4602 
  4603 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4604 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4605 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4606 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4607 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4608 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4609 
  4610 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4611 with multithreading.
  4612 
  4613 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4614 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4615 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4616 
  4617 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4618 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4619 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4620 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4621 
  4622 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4623 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4624 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4625 and makes them available separately.  See
  4626 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4627 
  4628 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4629 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4630 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4631 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4632 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4633 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4634 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4635 the declared rules.
  4636 
  4637 This setup also deals with rules like
  4638 
  4639   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4640 
  4641 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4642 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4643 
  4644 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4645 
  4646   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4647 
  4648   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4649     definitions on => and bool.
  4650 
  4651   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4652     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4653     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4654 
  4655       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4656       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4657       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4658       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4659       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4660       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4661       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4662       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4663 
  4664   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4665     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4666     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4667 
  4668   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4669     The proof pattern
  4670 
  4671       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4672       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4673 
  4674     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4675     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4676 
  4677       have "EX S. P S"
  4678       proof
  4679         show "P S" <...>
  4680       qed
  4681 
  4682   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4683     The proof pattern
  4684 
  4685       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4686       also have "S = T" <...>
  4687       finally have "P T" .
  4688 
  4689     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4690     must be replaced by something like
  4691 
  4692       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4693       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4694       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4695 
  4696   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4697     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4698 
  4699       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4700 
  4701     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4702     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4703     type of the form
  4704 
  4705       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4706 
  4707     rather than
  4708 
  4709       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4710 
  4711 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4712 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4713 
  4714 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4715 
  4716 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4717 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4718 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4719 
  4720 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4721 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4722 
  4723 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4724 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4725 
  4726 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4727 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4728 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4729 
  4730 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4731 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4732 
  4733   less_trans
  4734   less_linear
  4735   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4736   le_less_trans
  4737   less_le_trans
  4738   less_not_sym
  4739   less_asym
  4740 
  4741 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4742 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4743 and different variable names.
  4744 
  4745 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4746 
  4747 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4748 finite maps.
  4749 
  4750 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4751 
  4752 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4753 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4754 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4755 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4756 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4757 accordingly.
  4758 
  4759 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4760 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4761 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4762 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4763 
  4764 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4765 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4766 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4767 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4768 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4770 
  4771 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4772 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4773 
  4774 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4775 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4776 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4777 
  4778 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4779 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4780 
  4781 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4782 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4783 
  4784 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4785 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4786 
  4787 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4788 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4789 
  4790 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4791 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4793 
  4794 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4795 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4796 
  4797 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4798 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4799 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4800 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4801 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4802 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4803 
  4804 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4805 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4806 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4807 
  4808 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4809 
  4810 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4811 
  4812 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4813 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4814 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4815 
  4816 
  4817 *** ZF ***
  4818 
  4819 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4820 same session:
  4821 
  4822   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4823   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4824   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4825   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4826   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4827   List      -> List_ZF
  4828   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4829 
  4830 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4831 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4832 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4833 
  4834 
  4835 *** ML ***
  4836 
  4837 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4838 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4839 
  4840 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4841 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4842 
  4843 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4844 
  4845 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4846 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4847 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4848 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4849 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4850 
  4851 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4852 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4853 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4854 
  4855 
  4856 *** System ***
  4857 
  4858 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4859 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4860 
  4861 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4862 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4863 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4864 
  4865 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4866 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4867 
  4868 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4869 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4870 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4871 
  4872 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4873 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4874 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4875 
  4876 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4877 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4878 
  4879 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4880 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4881 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4882 script.
  4883 
  4884 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4885 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4886 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4887 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4888 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4889 
  4890 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4891 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4892 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4893 
  4894 
  4895 
  4896 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4897 -----------------------------------
  4898 
  4899 *** General ***
  4900 
  4901 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4902 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4903 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4904 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4905 
  4906 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4907 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4908 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4909 
  4910 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4911 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4912 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4913 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4914 
  4915 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4916 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4917 quotes.
  4918 
  4919 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4920 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4921 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4922 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4923 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4924 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4925 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4926 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4927 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4928 
  4929 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4930 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4931 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4932 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4933 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4934 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4935 
  4936 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4937 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4938 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4939 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4940 
  4941 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4942 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4943 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4944 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4945 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4946 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4947 
  4948 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4949 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4950 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4951 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4952 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4953 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4954 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4955 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4956 
  4957 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4958 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4959 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4960 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4961 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4962 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4963 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4964 
  4965 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4966 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4967 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4968 
  4969 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4970 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4971 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4972 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4973 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4974 limit is imposed.
  4975 
  4976 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4977 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4978 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4979 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4980 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4981 and scalability.
  4982 
  4983 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4984 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4985 
  4986 
  4987 *** Document preparation ***
  4988 
  4989 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4990 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4991 current context.
  4992 
  4993 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4994 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4995 
  4996 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4997 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4998 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4999 
  5000 
  5001 *** Pure ***
  5002 
  5003 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5004 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5005 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5006 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5007 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5008 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5009 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5010 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5011 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5012 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5013 
  5014 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5015 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5016 sketch:
  5017 
  5018     internal compilation:
  5019         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5020     writing SML code to a file:
  5021         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5022     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5023         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5024     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5025         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5026 
  5027     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5028         method ``eval''
  5029 
  5030 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5031 
  5032 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5033 
  5034     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5035     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5036     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5037     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5038 
  5039 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5040 
  5041     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5042       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5043 
  5044     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5045       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5046 
  5047     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5048       {(target)}+
  5049         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5050 
  5051     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5052       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5053         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5054 
  5055 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5056 
  5057 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5058 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5059 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5060 codegen".
  5061 
  5062 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5063 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5064 annotations).
  5065 
  5066 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5067 syntax.
  5068 
  5069 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5070 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5071 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5072 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5073 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5074 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5075 
  5076 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5077 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5078 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5079 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5080 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5081 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5082 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5083 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5084 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5085 equations, see section "definitions".
  5086 
  5087 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5088 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5089 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5090 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5091 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5092 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5093 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5094 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5095 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5096 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5097 
  5098 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5099 configuration options:
  5100 
  5101   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5102   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5103   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5104   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5105   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5106   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5107   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5108   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5109   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5110 
  5111 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5112 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5113 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5114 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5115 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5116 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5117 order.
  5118 
  5119 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5120 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5121 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5122 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5123 context encountered later on.
  5124 
  5125 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5126 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5127 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5128 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5129 
  5130 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5131 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5132 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5133 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5134 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5135 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5136 
  5137 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5138 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5139 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5140 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5141 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5142 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5143 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5144 more permissive.
  5145 
  5146 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5147 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5148 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5149 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5150 maintainability of proof texts.
  5151 
  5152 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5153 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5154 
  5155   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5156   then guess x and y by clarify
  5157 
  5158 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5159 proof tools being involved here.
  5160 
  5161 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5162 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5163 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5164 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5165 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5166 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5167 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5168 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5169 
  5170 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5171 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5172 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5173 
  5174   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5175   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5176   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5177   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5178 
  5179 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5180 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5181 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5182 
  5183 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5184 both named and unnamed ones.
  5185 
  5186 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5187 
  5188   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5189 
  5190 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5191 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5192 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5193 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5194 
  5195 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5196 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5197 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5198 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5199 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5200 
  5201 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5202 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5203 
  5204 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5205 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5206 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5207 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5208 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5209 originally first one.
  5210 
  5211 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5212 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5213 expected.
  5214 
  5215 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5216 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5217 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5218 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5219 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5220 
  5221   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5222     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5223     obtains x where "P x"
  5224 
  5225   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5226     assumes "A & B"
  5227     obtains A and B
  5228 
  5229   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5230     assumes "A | B"
  5231     obtains
  5232       A
  5233     | B
  5234 
  5235 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5236 explicitly:
  5237 
  5238   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5239     obtains "~ thesis"
  5240 
  5241   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5242     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5243 
  5244 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5245 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5246 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5247 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5248 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5249 case_names).
  5250 
  5251 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5252 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5253 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5254 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5255 
  5256 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5257 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5258 top-level lemma.
  5259 
  5260 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5261 introduction rule (default "that").
  5262 
  5263 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5264 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5265 to occur.
  5266 
  5267 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5268 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5269 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5270 representations independently of name spaces.
  5271 
  5272 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5273 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5274 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5275 
  5276 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5277 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5278 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5279 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5280 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5281 current context.
  5282 
  5283 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5284 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5285 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5286 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5287 
  5288   axiomatization
  5289     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5290     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5291 
  5292   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5293   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5294 
  5295   abbreviation
  5296     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5297     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5298 
  5299 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5300 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5301 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5302 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5303 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5304 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5305 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5306 
  5307 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5308 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5309 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5310 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5311 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5312 
  5313 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5314 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5315 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5316 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5317 
  5318 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5319 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5320 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5321 
  5322   definition "K x _ = x"
  5323 
  5324   inductive conj for A B
  5325   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5326 
  5327 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5328 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5329 abbreviations on output.
  5330 
  5331 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5332 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5333 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5334 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5335 
  5336 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5337 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5338 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5339 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5340 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5341 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5342 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5343 
  5344 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5345 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5346 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5347 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5348 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5349 
  5350 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5351 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5352 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5353 
  5354 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5355 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5356 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5357 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5358 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5359 
  5360   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5361     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5362 
  5363 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5364 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5365 partial_order.
  5366 
  5367 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5368 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5369 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5370 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5371 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5372 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5373 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5374 examples.
  5375 
  5376 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5377 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5378 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5379 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5380 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5381 
  5382 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5383 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5384 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5385 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5386 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5387 
  5388   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5389   (induct set: foo bar)
  5390   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5391   (induct type: foo bar)
  5392 
  5393 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5394 new format.
  5395 
  5396 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5397 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5398 
  5399 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5400 considered a legacy feature.
  5401 
  5402 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5403 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5404 
  5405 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5406 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5407 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5408 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5409 
  5410 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5411 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5412 manipulating the claset.
  5413 
  5414 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5415 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5416 least one premise.
  5417 
  5418 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5419 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5420 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5421 rule steps.
  5422 
  5423 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5424 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5425 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5426 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5427 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5428 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5429 
  5430 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5431 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5432 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5433 
  5434 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5435 the graph browser tool.
  5436 
  5437 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5438 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5439 
  5440 
  5441 *** HOL ***
  5442 
  5443 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5444 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5445 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5446 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5447 multi-threading.
  5448 
  5449 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5450 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5451 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5452 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5453 work with multi-threading.
  5454 
  5455 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5456 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5457 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5458 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5459 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5460 
  5461 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5462 
  5463 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5464 equality.
  5465 
  5466 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5467 the new 'class' package:
  5468 
  5469     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5470     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5471     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5472     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5473     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5474     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5475     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5476     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5477     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5478     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5479     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5480     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5481     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5482     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5483     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5484     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5485     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5486     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5487     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5488     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5489 
  5490 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5491 
  5492 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5493 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5494 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5495 names.
  5496 
  5497 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5498 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5499 
  5500 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5501 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5502 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5503 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5504 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5505 
  5506 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5507 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5508 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5509 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5510 
  5511 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5512 
  5513 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5514 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5515 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5516 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5518 
  5519 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5520 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5521 
  5522 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5523 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5524 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5525 
  5526 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5527 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5528 
  5529 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5530 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5531 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5532 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5533 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5534 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5535 in the current context.
  5536 
  5537 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5538 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5540 
  5541 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5542 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5543 
  5544 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5545 
  5546     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5547     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5548 
  5549     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5550       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5551     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5552     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5553 
  5554     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5555     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5556 
  5557   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5558 
  5559     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5560     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5561     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5562     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5563     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5564     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5565     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5566     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5567     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5568     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5569     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5570     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5571     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5572     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5573     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5574     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5575     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5576     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5577     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5578     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5579     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5580     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5581     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5582     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5583     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5584     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5585     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5586     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5587     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5588     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5589     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5590     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5591     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5592     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5593     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5594 
  5595     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5596     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5597     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5598     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5599     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5600     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5601     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5602     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5603     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5604     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5605     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5606     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5607     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5608     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5609     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5610     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5611     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5612 
  5613     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5614     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5615     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5616     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5617     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5618     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5619     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5620     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5621     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5622     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5623     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5624     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5625     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5626     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5627     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5628     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5629     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5630     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5631     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5632     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5633     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5634     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5635     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5636     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5637     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5638     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5639     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5640     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5641 
  5642     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5643     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5644     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5645     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5646     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5647     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5648 
  5649     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5650     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5651     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5652     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5653 
  5654     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5655     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5656 
  5657     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5658     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5659 
  5660 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5661 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5662 
  5663 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5664 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5665 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5666 "*.size".
  5667 
  5668 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5669 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5670 
  5671 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5672 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5673 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5674 
  5675 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5676 
  5677 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5678 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5679 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5680 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5681 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5682 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5683 numerals on all operations.
  5684 
  5685 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5686 
  5687 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5688 
  5689 * Code generator library theories:
  5690   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5691     languages.
  5692   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5693     languages.
  5694   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5695     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5696   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5697   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5698     denominator).
  5699   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5700     representable by rational numbers.
  5701   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5702     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5703     includes Code_Integer.
  5704   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5705     target-language built-in integers.
  5706   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5707     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5708 
  5709 * New package for inductive predicates
  5710 
  5711   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5712 
  5713     inductive
  5714       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5715       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5716     where
  5717       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5718     | ...
  5719 
  5720   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5721 
  5722     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5723 
  5724     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5725     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5726 
  5727     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5728     intros
  5729       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5730       ...
  5731 
  5732   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5733   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5734 
  5735     inductive_set
  5736       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5737       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5738     where
  5739       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5740     | ...
  5741 
  5742   or
  5743 
  5744     inductive_set
  5745       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5746       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5747       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5748     where
  5749       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5750     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5751     | ...
  5752 
  5753   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5754 
  5755   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5756   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5757 
  5758   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5759 
  5760   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5761     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5762     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5763     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5764     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5765 
  5766   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5767     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5768     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5769     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5770     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5771     statements of the form
  5772 
  5773       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5774 
  5775     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5776     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5777 
  5778       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5779 
  5780   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5781 
  5782       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5783         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5784         ==> ... ==> P
  5785 
  5786     for predicates and
  5787 
  5788       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5789         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5790         ==> ... ==> P
  5791 
  5792     for sets rather than
  5793 
  5794       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5795         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5796         ==> ... ==> P
  5797 
  5798     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5799     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5800     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5801 
  5802   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5803     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5804     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5805 
  5806 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5807 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5808 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5809 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5810 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5811 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5812 
  5813 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5814 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5815 
  5816 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5817 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5818 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5819 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5820 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5821 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5822 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5823 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5824 variable.
  5825 
  5826 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5827 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5828 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5829 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5830   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5831   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5832 
  5833 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5834 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5835 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5836 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5837 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5838 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5839 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5840 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5841 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5842 
  5843 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5844 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5845 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5846 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5847 rat, etc.
  5848 
  5849 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5850 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5851 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5852 
  5853 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5854 
  5855 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5856 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5857 
  5858 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5859 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5860 
  5861 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5862 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5863 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5864 
  5865 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5866 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5868 
  5869 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5870 
  5871 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5872 
  5873 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5874 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5875 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5876 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5877 
  5878 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5879 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5880 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5881 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5882 
  5883 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5884 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5885 algebraic operations.
  5886 
  5887 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5889 
  5890 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5891 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5892 
  5893 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5894 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5895 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5896 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5897 adapted.
  5898 
  5899 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5900 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5901 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5902 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5903 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5904 
  5905 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5906 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5907 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5908 
  5909 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5910 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5911 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5912 
  5913 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5914 
  5915 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5916 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5917 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5918   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5919       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5920   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5921   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5922   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5923 
  5924 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5925 
  5926 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5927 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5928 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5929 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5930 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5931 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5932 
  5933 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5934 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5935 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5936 
  5937 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5938 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5939 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5940 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5941 
  5942 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5943 
  5944 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5945 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5946 
  5947 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5948 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5949 
  5950 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5951 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5952 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5953 
  5954 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5955 True/False.
  5956 
  5957 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5958 
  5959 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5960 
  5961 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5962 ``rule'' method.
  5963 
  5964 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5965 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5966 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5967 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5968 
  5969 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5970 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5971 
  5972 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5973 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5974 
  5975 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5976 Library.
  5977 
  5978 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5979 
  5980 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5981 as greatest fixed-point.
  5982 
  5983 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5984 association lists.
  5985 
  5986 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5987 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5988 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5989 
  5990 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5991 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5992 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5993 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5994 behavior.
  5995 
  5996 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5997 
  5998 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5999 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6000 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6001 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6002 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6003 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6004 
  6005 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6006 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6007 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6008 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6009 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6010 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6011 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6012 
  6013 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6014 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6015 
  6016 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6017 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6018 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6019 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6020 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6021 
  6022 
  6023 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6024 
  6025 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6026 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6027 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6028 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6029 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6030 
  6031 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6032 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6033 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6034 
  6035 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6036 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6037 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6038 
  6039 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6040 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6041 
  6042 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6043 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6044 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6046 
  6047   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6048   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6049   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6050   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6051   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6052   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6053   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6054   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6055   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6056   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6057   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6058   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6059   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6060   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6061   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6062 
  6063 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6064 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6065 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6066 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6067 
  6068   approx        <-- capprox
  6069   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6070   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6071   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6072   monad         <-- cmonad
  6073   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6074   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6075   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6076   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6077 
  6078 
  6079 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6080 
  6081 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6082 
  6083 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6084 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6085 
  6086 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6087 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6088 
  6089 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6090 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6091 of algebraic structures.
  6092 
  6093 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6094 
  6095 
  6096 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6097 
  6098 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6099 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6100 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6101 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6102 
  6103 
  6104 *** ML ***
  6105 
  6106 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6107 (even on SML/NJ).
  6108 
  6109 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6110 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6111 compile-time.  For example:
  6112 
  6113 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6114 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6115 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6116 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6117 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6118 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6119 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6120 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6121 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6122 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6123 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6124 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6125 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6126 ML {* @{context} *}
  6127 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6128 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6129 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6130 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6131 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6132 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6133 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6134 
  6135 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6136 
  6137 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6138 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6139 
  6140 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6141 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6142 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6143 
  6144 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6145 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6146 
  6147 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6148 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6149 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6150 
  6151 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6152 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6153 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6154 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6155 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6156 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6157 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6158 declarations and definitions.
  6159 
  6160 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6161 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6162 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6163 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6164 
  6165 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6166 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6167 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6168 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6169 
  6170 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6171 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6172 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6173 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6174 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6175 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6176 
  6177 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6178 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6179 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6180 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6181 attributes, methods, etc.
  6182 
  6183 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6184 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6185 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6186 fold_map combinators.
  6187 
  6188 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6189 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6190 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6191 derivation.
  6192 
  6193 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6194 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6195 achieve the old behaviour.
  6196 
  6197 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6198 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6199 statements.
  6200 
  6201 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6202 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6203 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6204 
  6205 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6206 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6207 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6208 
  6209   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6210   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6211   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6212 
  6213 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6214 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6215 
  6216 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6217 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6218 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6219 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6220 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6221 
  6222 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6223 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6224 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6225 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6226 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6227 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6228 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6229 in a locale context).
  6230 
  6231 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6232 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6233 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6234 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6235 
  6236 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6237 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6238 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6239 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still