NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed Oct 09 23:11:56 2013 +0200 (2013-10-09)
changeset 54319 219dd1028399
parent 54305 d2def195bb6b
child 54332 a38160ad741c
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
     5 -------------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    10 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    11 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    12 
    13 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    14 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    15 
    16 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    17 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    18 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    19 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    20 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    21 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    22 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    23 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    24 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    25 syntax.
    26 
    27 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    28 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    29 
    30 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    31 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    32 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    34 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    35 
    36 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    37 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    38 
    39 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    40 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    41 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    42 
    43 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    44 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    45 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    46 
    47 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    48 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    49 
    50 
    51 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    52 
    53 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
    54 Documentation panel.
    55 
    56 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    57 documentation.
    58 
    59 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
    60 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
    61 
    62 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
    63 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
    64 normal editing and checking process.
    65 
    66 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    67 timing information.
    68 
    69 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
    70 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
    71 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
    72 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
    73 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
    74 
    75 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
    76 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
    77 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
    78 
    79 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
    80 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
    81 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
    82 to resolve conflict.
    83 
    84 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
    85 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
    86 
    87 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
    88 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
    89 such command executions while editing.
    90 
    91 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
    92 document content.
    93 
    94 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
    95 toplevel theorem statements.
    96 
    97 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
    98 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size"
    99 (cf. keyboard shortcut C+0).
   100 
   101 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   102 $ISABELLE_HOME on all platforms.  Discontinued obsolete
   103 $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   104 
   105 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   106 / Global Options / Appearance".
   107 
   108 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   109 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   110 
   111 
   112 *** Pure ***
   113 
   114 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   115 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   116 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   117 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   118 details.
   119 
   120 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   121 
   122 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   123 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   124 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   125 
   126 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   128 
   129 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   130 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   131 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   132 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   133 
   134 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   135 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   136 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   137 
   138 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   139 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   140 
   141 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   142 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   143 situations.
   144 
   145 
   146 *** HOL ***
   147 
   148 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   149 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   151 
   152 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   153 
   154 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   155 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   156 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   157 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   158 
   159   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   160 
   161 * Code generator:
   162   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   163     'code_instance'.
   164   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   165     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   166 
   167 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   168 examples.
   169 
   170 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   171 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   172 to distinguish both when desired.
   173 
   174 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   175 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   176 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   177 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   180 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   181 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   182 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   183 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   184 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185 
   186 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   187 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   188 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   189 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   190 
   191 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   192 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   193 
   194 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   195 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   196 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   197 
   198 * Lifting:
   199   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   200     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in 
   201       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   202       transfer rules
   203     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   204       correspondence relation can be generated
   205     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   206       parametricity
   207     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   208   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   209   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   210     copies
   211   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   212     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   213     anonymous context)
   214   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in 
   215     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   216   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   217     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   218   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps. 
   219     INCOMPATIBILITY
   220 
   221 * Transfer:
   222   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T 
   223     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   224   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   225   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   226     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   227   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   228 
   229 * Reification and reflection:
   230   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   231     "Reification".
   232   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   233   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   237   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   238     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   239     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   240   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   241     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   242   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   243     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   244     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   245     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   246     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   247     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   248     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   249     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   250   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   251     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   252   - Fact renames:
   253       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   254       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   256 
   257 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   258 
   259 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   260 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   261 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   263 
   264 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   265 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   266 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   267 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   268 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   269 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   270 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   271 lemmas.
   272 
   273 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   274 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   275 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   278 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   279 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   280 
   281 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   282 top and bottom elements.
   283 
   284 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   285 
   286 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   287 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   288 
   289  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   290    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   291    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   292 
   293  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   294    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   295    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   296 
   297    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   298    arbitrary filter.
   299 
   300  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   301    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   302    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   303    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   304    on a compact set.
   305 
   306  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   307    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   308    linear_continuum_topology).
   309 
   310  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   311    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   312    on all sequences converging to x.
   313 
   314  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   315    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   316    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   317    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   318    left or right.
   319 
   320  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   321 
   322      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   323 
   324  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   325    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   326 
   327  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   328    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   329    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   330    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   331    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   332    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   333 
   334  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   335 
   336    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   337 
   338    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   339      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   340 
   341    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   342 
   343    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   344      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   345 
   346    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   347 
   348    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   349 
   350  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   351 
   352 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   353 
   354 * Nitpick:
   355   - Added option "spy"
   356   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   357 
   358 * Sledgehammer:
   359   - Renamed option:
   360       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   361     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   362   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   363   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   364   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   365 
   366 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   367 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   368 
   369 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   370   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   371   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   372     generated code.
   373   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   374   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   375   - Fact renames:
   376     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   377     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   378     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   379 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   380 
   381 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   382 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   383 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   384 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   385 
   386 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   387 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   388 
   389 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   390 
   391 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   392 
   393     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   394     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   395 
   396 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   397 
   398 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   399 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   400 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   401 
   402 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   403 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   404 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   405 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   406 
   407 * HOL-BNF:
   408   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   409     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   410     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   411     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   412   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   413     coinduct).
   414   - Renamed keywords:
   415     data ~> datatype_new
   416     codata ~> codatatype
   417     bnf_def ~> bnf
   418   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   419     discs ~> disc
   420     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   421     map_id' ~> map_id
   422     sels ~> sel
   423     set_map' ~> set_map
   424     sets ~> set
   425 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   426 
   427 
   428 *** ML ***
   429 
   430 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   431 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   432 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   433 Examples.thy in particular.
   434 
   435 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   436 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   437 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   438 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   439 
   440 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   441 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   442 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   443 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   444 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   445 
   446 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   447 
   448     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   449     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   450 
   451 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   452 
   453 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   454 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   455 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   456 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   457 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   458 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   459 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   460 
   461 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   462 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   463 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   464 clasets separately from the context.
   465 
   466 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   467 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   468 
   469 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   470 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   471 
   472 
   473 *** System ***
   474 
   475 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   476 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   477 
   478 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   479 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   480 
   481 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   482 settings variable.
   483 
   484 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   485 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   486 always pdf.
   487 
   488 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   489 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   490 
   491 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   492 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   493 
   494 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   495 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   496 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   497 
   498 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   499 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   500 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   501 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   502 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   503 for HTML presentation of theories.
   504 
   505 
   506 
   507 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   508 -----------------------------------
   509 
   510 *** General ***
   511 
   512 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   513 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   514 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   515 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   516 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   517 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   518 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   519 
   520 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   521 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   522 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   523 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   524 
   525 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   526 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   527 
   528 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   529 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   530 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   531 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   532 dependencies properly.
   533 
   534 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   535 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   536 
   537 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   538 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   539 
   540 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   541 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   542 and "class ... context ...".
   543 
   544 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   545 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   546 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   547 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   548 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   549 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   550 
   551 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   552 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   553 
   554 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   555 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   556 
   557 
   558 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   559 
   560 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   561 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   562 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   563 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   564 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   565 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   566 
   567 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   568 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   569 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   570 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   571 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   572 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   573 
   574 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   575 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   576 browser on demand.
   577 
   578 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   579 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   580 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   581 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   582 
   583 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   584 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   585 
   586 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   587 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   588 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   589 potentially infinite message streams.
   590 
   591 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   592 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   593 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   594 schemes.
   595 
   596 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   597 symbols.
   598 
   599 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   600 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   601 
   602 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   603 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   604 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   605 
   606 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   607 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   608 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   609 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   610 
   611 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   612 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   613 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   614 
   615 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   616 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   617 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   618 Isabelle distribution.
   619 
   620 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   621 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   622 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   623 
   624 
   625 *** Pure ***
   626 
   627 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   628 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   629 
   630 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   631 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   632 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   633 
   634 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   635 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   636 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   637 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   638 with some care where this is really required.
   639 
   640 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   641 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   642 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   643 
   644   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   645 
   646 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   647 a Hasse diagram.
   648 
   649 
   650 *** HOL ***
   651 
   652 * Sledgehammer:
   653 
   654   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   655     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   656   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   657   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   658   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   659   - Renamed options:
   660       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   661       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   662       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   663       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   664 
   665 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   666 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   667 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   668 
   669 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   671 
   672 * Lifting:
   673   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   674   - quot_del attribute
   675   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   676 
   677 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   678 expressions.
   679 
   680 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   681 pointfree expressions.
   682 
   683 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   684 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   685 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   686 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   688 
   689 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   690 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   691 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   692 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   693 accordingly.
   694 
   695 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   696 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   697 
   698 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   699 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   700 
   701 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   702 
   703 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   704 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   705 
   706 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   707 
   708 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   709 
   710   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   711   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   712 
   713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   714 
   715 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   716 
   717   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   718   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   719 
   720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   721 
   722 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   723 
   724   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   725     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   726     output f x converges to G.
   727 
   728   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   729     infinity (at_bot).
   730 
   731   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   732     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   733 
   734   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   735     at_top".
   736 
   737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   738 
   739 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   740 lattice type classes.
   741 
   742 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   743 
   744     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   745     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   746 
   747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   748 
   749 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   750 changes as follows.
   751 
   752   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   753 
   754       prefix ~> prefixeq
   755       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   756 
   757   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   758     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   759     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   760     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   761 
   762   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   763     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   764     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   765 
   766   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   767     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   768     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   769     Library/Prefix_Order.
   770 
   771   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   772     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   773 
   774       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   775       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   776       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   777       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   778       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   779       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   780       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   781       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   782       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   783       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   784       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   785       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   786       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   787       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   788       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   789       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   790 
   791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   792 
   793 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   794 
   795 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   796 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   797 
   798 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   799 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   800 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   801 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   802 
   803   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   804   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   805   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   806   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   807   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   808   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   809   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   810   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   811   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   812   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   813 
   814 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   815 
   816 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   817 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   818 Data").
   819 
   820 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   821 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   822 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   823 code.
   824 
   825 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   826 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   827 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   829 
   830 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   831 
   832 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   833 
   834 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   835 
   836   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   837   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   838 
   839 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   840 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   841 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   842 
   843   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   844 
   845     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   846     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   847     cart_base i  removed
   848     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   849 
   850   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   851 
   852   Renamed lemmas:
   853 
   854     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   855     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   856     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   857     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   858     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   859     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   860     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   861     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   862     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   863     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   864 
   865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   866 
   867 * HOL/Probability:
   868 
   869   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   870 
   871   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   872     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   873     (borel_measurable_induct).
   874 
   875   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   876     projective family).
   877 
   878 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   879 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   880 
   881 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   882 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   883 datatypes.
   884 
   885 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   886 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   887 
   888 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   889 trees for the code generator.
   890 
   891 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   892 Lifting/Transfer.
   893 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   894 
   895 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   896 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   897 
   898 
   899 *** Document preparation ***
   900 
   901 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   902 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   903 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   904 
   905 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   906 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   907 
   908 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   909 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   910 document/root.tex.
   911 
   912 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   913 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   914 
   915 
   916 *** ML ***
   917 
   918 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   919 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   920 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   921 
   922 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   923 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   924 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   925 
   926 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   927 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   928 necessarily printing visible text.
   929 
   930 
   931 *** System ***
   932 
   933 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   934 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   935 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   936 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   937 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   938 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   939 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   940 
   941 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   942 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   943 
   944   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   945 
   946 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   947 
   948 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   949 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   950 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   951 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   952 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   953 
   954 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   955 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   956 
   957 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   958 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   959 
   960 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   962 
   963 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   964 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   965 version of Isabelle.
   966 
   967 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   968 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   969 
   970 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   971 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   972 for home-made settings.
   973 
   974 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   975 
   976 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   977 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   978 configuration.
   979 
   980 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   981 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   982 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   983 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   984 bundled as Isabelle component.
   985 
   986 
   987 
   988 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   989 ------------------------------
   990 
   991 *** General ***
   992 
   993 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   994 
   995   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   996     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   997   - markup for bound variables
   998   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   999   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1000   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1001     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1002 
  1003 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1004 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1005 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1006 
  1007 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1008 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1009 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1010 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1011 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1012 
  1013   context
  1014     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1015     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1016   begin
  1017 
  1018   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1019 
  1020   end
  1021 
  1022   thm my_trans
  1023 
  1024 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1025 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1026 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1027 
  1028 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1029 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1030 
  1031 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1032 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1033 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1034 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1035 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1036 
  1037 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1038 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1039 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1040 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1041 indices of schematic variables.
  1042 
  1043 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1044 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1045 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1046 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1047 etc. was exploited.
  1048 
  1049 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1050 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1051 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1052 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1053 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1054 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1055 
  1056 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1057 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1058 manual.
  1059 
  1060 
  1061 *** Pure ***
  1062 
  1063 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1064 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1065 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1066 
  1067 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1068 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1069 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1070 undocumented feature.)
  1071 
  1072 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1073 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1074 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1075 
  1076   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1077 
  1078   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1079     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1080 
  1081 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1082 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1083 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1084 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1085 
  1086 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1087 
  1088     num ~> num_token
  1089     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1090     xstr ~> str_token
  1091 
  1092 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1093 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1094 position information via constraints).
  1095 
  1096 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1097 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1098 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1099 
  1100 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1101 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1102 
  1103 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1104 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1105 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1106 
  1107 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1108 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1109 
  1110 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1111 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1112 
  1113   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1114 
  1115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1116 
  1117 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1118 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1119 
  1120 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1121 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1122 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1123 
  1124 
  1125 *** HOL ***
  1126 
  1127 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1128 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1129 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1130 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1131 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1132 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1133 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1134 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1135 possible.
  1136 
  1137 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1138 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1139 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1140 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1141 
  1142 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1143 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1144 
  1145 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1146 
  1147 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1148 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1149 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1150 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1151 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1152 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1153 
  1154   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1155     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1156 
  1157   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1158     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1159     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1160 
  1161   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1162     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1163 
  1164   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1165     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1166     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1167 
  1168   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1169     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1170 
  1171 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1172 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1173 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1174 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1175 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1176 
  1177   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1178     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1179     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1180     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1181     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1182 
  1183     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1184     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1185 
  1186   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1187     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1188     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1189     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1190     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1191     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1192     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1193     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1194 
  1195   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1196     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1197     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1198     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1199 
  1200   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1201     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1202     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1203     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1204 
  1205   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1206     from type nat to type int.
  1207 
  1208 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1209 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1210 
  1211   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1212     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1213     type.  Example syntax:
  1214 
  1215     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1216       is List.insert
  1217 
  1218     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1219     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1220     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1221     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1222     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1223     by the package.
  1224 
  1225   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1226     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1227     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1228     code generation for each constant.
  1229 
  1230   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1231     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1232     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1233     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1234     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1235 
  1236   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1237     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1238     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1239 
  1240 * Quotient package:
  1241 
  1242   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1243     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1244 
  1245   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1246     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1247 
  1248   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1249     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1250     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1251 
  1252   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1253     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1254 
  1255 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1256 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1257 
  1258 * Quickcheck:
  1259 
  1260   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1261     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1262     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1263     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1264     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1265 
  1266     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1267     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1268     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1269 
  1270     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1271     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1272 
  1273     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1274     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1275     show genuine counterexamples.
  1276 
  1277   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1278     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1279 
  1280     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1281     constructors of that type.
  1282 
  1283   - Support for multisets.
  1284 
  1285   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1286 
  1287   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1288     conjectures in a locale context.
  1289 
  1290 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1291 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1292 
  1293 * Sledgehammer:
  1294   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1295     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1296   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1297   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1298     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1299   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1300   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1301   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1302   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1303 
  1304 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1305 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1306 
  1307 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1308 
  1309 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1310 
  1311 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1312 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1313 
  1314   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1315 
  1316 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1317 a list and a nat.
  1318 
  1319 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1320 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1321 
  1322 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1323 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1324 default.
  1325 
  1326 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1327 
  1328   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1329 
  1330 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1331 
  1332 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1333 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1334 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1335 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1336 one_case.
  1337 
  1338 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1339 the result of the fact expression.
  1340 
  1341 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1342 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1343 of some relation theorems:
  1344 
  1345   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1346   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1347   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1348   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1349   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1350   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1351 
  1352 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1353 
  1354 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1355 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1356 
  1357 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1358 
  1359 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1360 to match the constant's name:
  1361 
  1362   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1363   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1364   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1365   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1366   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1367   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1368   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1369   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1370   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1371   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1372   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1373   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1374   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1375   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1376   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1377   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1378   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1379   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1380   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1381   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1382   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1383   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1384   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1385   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1386 
  1387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1388 
  1389 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1390 and corresponding theorem names:
  1391 
  1392   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1393 
  1394   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1395 
  1396   - Renamed theorems:
  1397 
  1398     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1399     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1400     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1401     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1402     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1403     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1404     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1405     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1406     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1407     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1408     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1409     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1410     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1411     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1412     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1413     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1414     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1415     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1416     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1417     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1418     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1419     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1420     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1421 
  1422     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1423 
  1424     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1425 
  1426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1427 
  1428 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1429 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1430 
  1431   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1432   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1433   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1434   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1435   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1436   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1437   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1438   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1439   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1440   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1441   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1442   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1443   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1444   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1445   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1446   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1447   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1448   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1449   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1450   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1451   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1452 
  1453 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1454 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1455 
  1456 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1457 
  1458 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1459 
  1460   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1461   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1462   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1463   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1464   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1465   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1466   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1467   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1468   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1469   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1470   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1471   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1472   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1473   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1474   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1475   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1476   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1477   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1478 
  1479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1480 
  1481 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1482 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1483 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1484 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1485 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1486 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1487 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1488 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1489 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1490 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1491 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1492 
  1493 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1494 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1495 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1496 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1497 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1498 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1499 
  1500 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1501 through option types.
  1502 
  1503 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1504 relations.
  1505 
  1506 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1507 
  1508 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1509 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1510 
  1511   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1512   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1513   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1514   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1515   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1516   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1517   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1518   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1519   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1520   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1521   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1522   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1523   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1524   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1525   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1526   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1527   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1528   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1529   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1530   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1531   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1532   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1533   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1534   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1535   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1536   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1537   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1538   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1539   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1540   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1541   zless_le ~> less_le
  1542   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1543   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1544   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1545 
  1546 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1547 
  1548   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1549 
  1550 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1551 
  1552 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1553 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1554 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1555 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1557 
  1558 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1559 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1560 
  1561 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1562 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1563 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1564 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1565 follows:
  1566 
  1567   Operations:
  1568   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1569   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1570   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1571   del -> rbt_del
  1572   delete -> rbt_delete
  1573   ins -> rbt_ins
  1574   insert -> rbt_insert
  1575   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1576   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1577   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1578   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1579   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1580   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1581   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1582   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1583   union -> rbt_union
  1584   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1585   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1586 
  1587   Lemmas:
  1588   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1589   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1590   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1591   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1592   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1593   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1594   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1595   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1596   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1597   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1598   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1599   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1600   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1601   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1602   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1603   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1604   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1605   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1606   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1607   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1608   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1609   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1610   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1611   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1612   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1613   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1614   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1615   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1616   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1617   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1618   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1619   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1620   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1621   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1622   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1623   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1624   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1625   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1626   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1627   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1628   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1629   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1630   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1631   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1632   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1633   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1634   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1635   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1636   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1637   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1638   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1639   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1640   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1641   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1642   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1643   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1644   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1645   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1646   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1647   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1648   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1649   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1650   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1651   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1652   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1653   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1654   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1655   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1656   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1657   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1658   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1659   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1660   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1661   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1662   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1663   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1664   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1665   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1666   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1667   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1668   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1669   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1670   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1671 
  1672 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1673 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1674 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1675 
  1676   Changed Operations:
  1677   float_abs -> abs
  1678   float_nprt -> nprt
  1679   float_pprt -> pprt
  1680   pow2 -> use powr
  1681   round_down -> float_round_down
  1682   round_up -> float_round_up
  1683   scale -> exponent
  1684 
  1685   Removed Operations:
  1686   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1687 
  1688   Renamed Lemmas:
  1689   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1690   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1691   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1692   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1693   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1694   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1695   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1696   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1697   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1698   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1699   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1700   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1701   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1702   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1703   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1704   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1705   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1706   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1707   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1708   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1709   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1710   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1711   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1712   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1713   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1714   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1715   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1716   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1717   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1718   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1719   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1720   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1721   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1722   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1723   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1724   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1725 
  1726   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1727   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1728   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1729   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1730   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1731   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1732   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1733   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1734   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1735   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1736 
  1737 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1738 association lists with distinct keys.
  1739 
  1740 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1741 annotated commands.
  1742 
  1743 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1744 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1745 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1746 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1747 
  1748 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1749 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1750 instead.
  1751 
  1752   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1753   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1754   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1755   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1756   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1757   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1758   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1759   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1760   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1761   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1762   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1763   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1764   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1765   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1766   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1767   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1768   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1769   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1770   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1771   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1772   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1773   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1774   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1775   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1776   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1777   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1778   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1779   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1780   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1781   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1782   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1783   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1784   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1785   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1786   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1787   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1788   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1789   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1790   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1791   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1792   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1793 
  1794 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1795 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1796 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1797 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1798 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1799 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1800 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1801 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1802 
  1803 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1804 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1805 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1806 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1807 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1808 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1809 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1810 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1811 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1812 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1813 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1814 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1815 
  1816   Renamed constants:
  1817   measure -> emeasure
  1818   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1819   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1820   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1821   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1822 
  1823   Removed locales:
  1824   completeable_measure_space
  1825   finite_measure_space
  1826   finite_prob_space
  1827   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1828   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1829   finite_sigma_algebra
  1830   measure_space
  1831   pair_finite_prob_space
  1832   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1833   pair_finite_space
  1834   pair_sigma_algebra
  1835   product_sigma_algebra
  1836 
  1837   Removed constants:
  1838   conditional_space
  1839   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1840   image_space
  1841   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1842   pair_measure_generator
  1843   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1844   subvimage
  1845 
  1846   Replacement theorems:
  1847   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1848   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1849   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1850   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1851   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1852   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1853   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1854   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1855   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1856   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1857   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1858   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1859   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1860   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1861   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1862   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1863   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1864   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1865   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1866   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1867   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1868   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1869   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1870   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1871   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1872   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1873   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1874   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1875   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1876   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1877   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1878   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1879   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1880   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1881   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1882   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1883   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1884   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1885   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1886   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1887   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1888   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1889   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1890   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1891   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1892   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1893   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1894   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1895   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1896   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1897   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1898   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1899   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1900   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1901   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1902   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1903   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1904   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1905   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1906   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1907   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1908   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1909   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1910   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1911   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1912   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1913   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1914   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1915   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1916   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1917   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1918   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1919   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1920   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1921   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1922   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1923   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1924   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1925   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1926   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1927   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1928   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1929   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1930   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1931   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1932   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1933   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1934   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1935   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1936   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1937   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1938   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1939   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1940   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1941   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1942   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1943   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1944   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1945   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1946   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1947   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1948   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1949   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1950   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1951   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1952   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1953   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1954   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1955   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1956   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1957   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1958   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1959   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1960   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1961   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1962   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1963   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1964   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1965   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1966   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1967   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1968   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1969   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1970   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1971   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1972   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1973   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1974   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1975 
  1976 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1977 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1978 
  1979 
  1980 *** FOL ***
  1981 
  1982 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1983 
  1984 
  1985 *** ZF ***
  1986 
  1987 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1988 analysis.
  1989 
  1990 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1991 
  1992 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1993 
  1994 
  1995 *** ML ***
  1996 
  1997 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1998 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1999 
  2000 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2001 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2002 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2003 
  2004 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2005 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2006 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2007 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2008 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2009 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2010 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2011 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2012 
  2013 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2014 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2015 
  2016 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2017 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2018 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2019 
  2020 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2021 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2022 
  2023 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2024 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2025 context as well.
  2026 
  2027 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2028 
  2029   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2030   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2031   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2032   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2033   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2034   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2035   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2036   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2037   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2038   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2039   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2040   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2041 
  2042 
  2043 *** System ***
  2044 
  2045 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2046 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2047 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2048 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2049 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2050 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2051 the generic user home was intended.
  2052 
  2053 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2054 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2055 
  2056 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2057 (not just JRE).
  2058 
  2059 
  2060 
  2061 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2062 ------------------------------------
  2063 
  2064 *** General ***
  2065 
  2066 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2067 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2068 
  2069   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2070     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2071     files for checking).
  2072 
  2073   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2074     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2075     positions.
  2076 
  2077   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2078     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2079     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2080 
  2081   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2082     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2083     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2084 
  2085   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2086     cores.
  2087 
  2088   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2089     versions (garbage collection).
  2090 
  2091 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2092 including some remaining limitations.
  2093 
  2094 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2095 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2096 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2097 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2098 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2099 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2100 
  2101 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2102 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2103 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2104 
  2105 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2106 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2107 usedir option -Q.
  2108 
  2109 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2110 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2111 
  2112   long_names   ~> names_long
  2113   short_names  ~> names_short
  2114   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2115 
  2116 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2117 
  2118   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2119 
  2120 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2121 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2122 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2123 
  2124 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2125 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2126 
  2127 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2128   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2129   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2130   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2131     "Classical Reasoner".
  2132 
  2133 
  2134 *** HOL ***
  2135 
  2136 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2137 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2138 
  2139 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2140 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2141 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2142 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2143 class complete_linorder.
  2144 
  2145 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2146 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2147 
  2148 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2149 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2150 
  2151   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2152   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2153   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2154   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2155   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2156   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2157   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2158   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2159   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2160   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2161   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2162 
  2163 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2164 
  2165   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2166   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2167   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2168   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2169   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2170   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2171   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2172   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2173   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2174   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2175   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2176   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2177   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2178   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2179   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2180   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2181 
  2182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2183 
  2184 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2186 
  2187 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2188 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2189 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2190 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2191 
  2192 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2193 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2194 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2196 
  2197 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2198 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2199 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2200 
  2201 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2202 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2203 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2204 
  2205 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2206 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2207 
  2208 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2209 
  2210     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2211     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2212 
  2213 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2214 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2215 
  2216 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2217 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2218 
  2219 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2220 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2221 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2222 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2223 
  2224   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2225   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2226   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2227   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2228   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2229   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2230   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2231 
  2232 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2233 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2234 
  2235   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2236   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2237   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2238   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2239   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2240   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2241   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2242   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2243   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2244   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2245   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2246   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2247   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2248   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2249   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2250   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2251   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2252   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2253   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2254   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2255   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2256   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2257   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2258   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2259   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2260   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2261   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2262   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2263   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2264   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2265   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2266   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2267   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2268   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2269   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2270   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2271   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2272   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2273   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2274   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2275   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2276   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2277   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2278   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2279   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2280   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2281   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2282   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2283   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2284   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2285   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2286   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2287   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2288   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2289   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2290   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2291   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2292   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2293   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2294   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2295   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2296   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2297   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2298   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2299   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2300   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2301   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2302   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2303   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2304   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2305   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2306   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2307   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2308   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2309   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2310   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2311   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2312   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2313   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2314   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2315   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2316   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2317 
  2318 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2319 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2320 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2321 
  2322 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2323 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2324 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2325 
  2326 * Code generation:
  2327 
  2328   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2329     characters in the target language.
  2330 
  2331   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2332     instead.
  2333 
  2334   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2335 
  2336   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2337     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2338 
  2339       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2340 
  2341 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2342 
  2343 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2344 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2345 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2346 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2347 syntax.
  2348 
  2349 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2350 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2351 
  2352 * Nitpick:
  2353   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2354   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2355   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2356     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2357 
  2358 * Sledgehammer:
  2359   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2360   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2361     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2362   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2363     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2364   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2365     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2367     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2368   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2369     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2370 
  2371 * Metis:
  2372   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2373   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2374     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376 * Command 'try':
  2377   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2378     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2379   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2380     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2381 
  2382 * Quickcheck:
  2383   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2384     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2385   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2386     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2387   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2388     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2389     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2390     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2391   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2392     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2393 
  2394 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2395 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2396 
  2397 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2398 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2399 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2400 
  2401 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2402 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2404 
  2405 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2406 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2407 
  2408 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2409 arithmetic.
  2410 
  2411 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2412 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2413 and lattice type classes.
  2414 
  2415 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2416 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2417 
  2418 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2419 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2420 
  2421 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2422 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2423 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2424 
  2425   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2426   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2427   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2428   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2429 
  2430 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2431 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2432 constants:
  2433 
  2434   type inat   ~> type enat
  2435   Fin         ~> enat
  2436   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2437   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2438   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2439 
  2440 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2441 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2442 
  2443 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2444 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2445 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2446 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2447 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2448 
  2449 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2450 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2451 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2452 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2453 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2454 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2455 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2456 
  2457   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2458   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2459   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2460   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2461 
  2462 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2463 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2464 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2465 
  2466   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2467   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2468   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2469   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2470   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2471   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2472   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2473   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2474   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2475   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2476   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2477   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2478   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2479   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2480   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2481   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2482   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2483   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2484   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2485   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2486   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2487   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2488   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2489   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2490   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2491   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2492   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2493   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2494   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2495   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2496   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2497   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2498   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2499   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2500   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2501   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2502   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2503   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2504   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2505   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2506   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2507   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2508   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2509   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2510   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2511   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2512   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2513   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2514   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2515   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2516   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2517 
  2518 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2519   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2520   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2521   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2522   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2523     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2524 
  2525 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2526 
  2527   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2528   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2529   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2530   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2531   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2532   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2533   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2534   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2535   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2536   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2537   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2538   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2539   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2540   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2541   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2542   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2543   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2544   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2545   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2546   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2547   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2548   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2549   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2550   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2551   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2552 
  2553 
  2554 *** Document preparation ***
  2555 
  2556 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2557 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2558 same.
  2559 
  2560 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2561 result.
  2562 
  2563 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2564 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2565 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2566 
  2567 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2568 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2569 
  2570 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2571 like this:
  2572 
  2573   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2574   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2575 
  2576 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2577 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2578 layouts.
  2579 
  2580 
  2581 *** ML ***
  2582 
  2583 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2584 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2585 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2586 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2587 under external program control.
  2588 
  2589 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2590 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2591 
  2592 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2593 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2594 (better known as Proof General).
  2595 
  2596 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2597 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2598 
  2599 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2600 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2601 
  2602 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2603 (including quotes etc.).
  2604 
  2605 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2606 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2607 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2608 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2609 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2610 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2611 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2612 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2613 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2614 
  2615 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2616 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2617 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2618 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2619 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2620 
  2621 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2622 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2623 
  2624 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2625 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2626 
  2627 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2628 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2629 
  2630 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2631 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2632 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2633 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2634 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2635 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2636 proper Proof.context.
  2637 
  2638 
  2639 *** System ***
  2640 
  2641 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2642 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2643 
  2644 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2645 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2646 
  2647 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2648 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2649 
  2650   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2651   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2652   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2653   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2654   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2655 
  2656 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2657 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658 
  2659 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2660 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2661 example:
  2662 
  2663   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2664 
  2665 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2666 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2667 
  2668 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2669 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2670 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2671 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2672 
  2673 
  2674 
  2675 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2676 ----------------------------------
  2677 
  2678 *** General ***
  2679 
  2680 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2681 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2682 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2683 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2684 like this:
  2685 
  2686   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2687 
  2688 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2689 
  2690 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2691 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2692 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2693 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2694 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2695 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2696 
  2697 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2698 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2699 the following package declarations:
  2700 
  2701   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2702   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2703 
  2704 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2705 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2706 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2707 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2708 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2709 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2710 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2711 
  2712 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2713 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2714 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2715 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2716 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2717 
  2718 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2719 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2720 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2721 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2722 
  2723 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2724 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2725 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2726 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2727 
  2728   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2729 
  2730   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2731   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2732   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2733   show_types                    show_types
  2734   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2735   show_consts                   show_consts
  2736   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2737 
  2738   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2739   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2740   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2741 
  2742   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2743   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2744 
  2745   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2746 
  2747   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2748   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2749   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2750   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2751   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2752 
  2753 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2754 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2755 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2756 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2757 
  2758 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2760 
  2761   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2762   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2763 
  2764 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2765 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2766 float_token.
  2767 
  2768 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2769 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2771 
  2772 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2773 DejaVu Sans.
  2774 
  2775 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2776 
  2777 
  2778 *** Pure ***
  2779 
  2780 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2781 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2782 time.
  2783 
  2784 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2785 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2786 
  2787 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2788 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2789 
  2790 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2791 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2792 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2793 command already provided this functionality.
  2794 
  2795 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2796 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2797 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2798 without interpretations.
  2799 
  2800 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2801 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2802 
  2803 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2804 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2805 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2806 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2807 
  2808 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2809 'definition' instead.
  2810 
  2811 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2812 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2813 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2814 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2815 
  2816 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2817 constructors.
  2818 
  2819 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2820 the local file system.
  2821 
  2822 
  2823 *** HOL ***
  2824 
  2825 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2826 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2827 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2828 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2829 
  2830   declare [[coercion f]]
  2831 
  2832 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2833 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2834 
  2835   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2836 
  2837 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2838 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2839 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2840 other theories like this:
  2841 
  2842   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2843 
  2844 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2845 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2846 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2847 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2848 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2849 for examples.
  2850 
  2851 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2852 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2853 
  2854 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2855 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2856 
  2857 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2858 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2859 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2860 
  2861 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2862 functorial structure of types.
  2863 
  2864 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2865 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2866 
  2867 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2868 languages.
  2869 
  2870 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2871 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2872 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2873 
  2874 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2875 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2876 
  2877 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2878 combinators any longer.
  2879 
  2880 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2881 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2882 
  2883 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2884 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2885 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2886 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2887 
  2888   record 'a foo = ...
  2889   ...
  2890   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2891 
  2892 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2893 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2895 
  2896 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2897 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2898 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2899 
  2900 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2901 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2902 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2903 
  2904 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2905 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2906 
  2907 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2908 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2909 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2910 independently.
  2911 
  2912 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2913 counter example search.
  2914 
  2915 * Sledgehammer:
  2916   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2917     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2918     sledgehammer").
  2919   - Renamed commands:
  2920     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2921     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2922     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2923     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2924   - Renamed options:
  2925     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2926     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2927     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2928     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2929     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2930 
  2931 * Nitpick:
  2932   - Renamed options:
  2933     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2934     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2935     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2936   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2937   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2938   - Added "whack" option.
  2939   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2940   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2941   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2942   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2943     higher cardinalities.
  2944   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2945 
  2946 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2947 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2948 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2949 
  2950     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2951 
  2952 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2953 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2954 
  2955 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2956 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2957 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2958 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2959 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2960 "smt_solver".
  2961 
  2962 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2963 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2964 
  2965 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2966 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2967 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2968 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2969 
  2970 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2971   - Renamed:
  2972     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2973     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2974     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2975   - Added:
  2976     smt_verbose
  2977     smt_random_seed
  2978     smt_datatypes
  2979     smt_infer_triggers
  2980     smt_monomorph_limit
  2981     cvc3_options
  2982     remote_cvc3_options
  2983     remote_z3_options
  2984     yices_options
  2985 
  2986 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2987 header.
  2988 
  2989 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2990 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2991 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2992 
  2993   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2994 
  2995 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2996 
  2997 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2998 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2999 
  3000 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001 
  3002 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3003 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3004 
  3005 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3006 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3007 
  3008 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3009 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3010 
  3011 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3012 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3013 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3014 
  3015 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3016 
  3017 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3019 
  3020 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3021 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3022 
  3023 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3024 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3025 for congruent(2)).
  3026 
  3027 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3028 
  3029   types
  3030     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3031     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3032 
  3033   constants
  3034     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3035     True ~> HOL.True
  3036     False ~> HOL.False
  3037     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3038     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3039     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3040     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3041     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3042     The ~> HOL.The
  3043     All ~> HOL.All
  3044     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3045     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3046     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3047     If ~> HOL.If
  3048     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3049     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3050     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3051     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3052     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3053     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3054     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3055     op : ~> Set.member
  3056     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3057 
  3058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3059 
  3060 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3061 
  3062     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3063     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3064     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3065     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3066     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3067     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3068     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3069     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3070 
  3071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3072 
  3073 * More stylized fact names:
  3074 
  3075   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3076   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3077   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3078   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3079 
  3080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3081 
  3082 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3083 
  3084   constants
  3085     null ~> List.null
  3086 
  3087   facts
  3088     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3089     null_empty ~> null_def
  3090 
  3091 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3092 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3093 generation.
  3094 
  3095 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3096 Haskell code.
  3097 
  3098 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3099 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3100 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3103 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3104 
  3105 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3106 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3107 
  3108 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3109 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3110 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3111 
  3112 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3113 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3114 
  3115 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3117 
  3118 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3119 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3120 referred to by its qualified name.
  3121 
  3122   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3123   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3124   product ~>  Enum.product
  3125 
  3126 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3127 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3129 
  3130 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3131 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3132 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3134 
  3135 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3136 sort_key.
  3137 
  3138 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3140 
  3141 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3142 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3143 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3144 
  3145   types
  3146     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3147               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3148               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3149         (depends on your needs)
  3150 
  3151   constants
  3152      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3153      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3154      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3155 
  3156 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3157 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3158 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3159 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160 
  3161 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3162 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3163 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3164 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3165 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3166 
  3167 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3169 
  3170 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3171 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3172 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3173 
  3174 
  3175 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3176 
  3177 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3178 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3179 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3180 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3181 compatibility.
  3182 
  3183 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3184 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3185 
  3186 
  3187 *** HOLCF ***
  3188 
  3189 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3190 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3191 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3193 
  3194 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3195 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3196 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3197 
  3198   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3199   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3200   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3201 
  3202 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3203 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3204 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3205 
  3206 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3207 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3208 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3209 domain definition now works:
  3210 
  3211   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3212 
  3213 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3214 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3215 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3216 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3217 
  3218   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3219     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3220 
  3221   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3222 
  3223 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3224 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3225 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3226 
  3227 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3228 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3229 
  3230 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3231 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3232 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3233 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3234 
  3235 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3236 
  3237 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3238 
  3239 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3240 
  3241 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3245 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3246 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3247 
  3248 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3249 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3250 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3251 
  3252 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3253 still supported as an input translation.
  3254 
  3255 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3256 
  3257   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3258   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3259   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3260   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3261   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3262   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3263   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3264 
  3265 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3266 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3269   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3270   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3271   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3272   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3273   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3274 
  3275 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3276 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277 
  3278 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3279 
  3280   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3281   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3282   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3283   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3284 
  3285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3286 
  3287 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3288 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3289 
  3290 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3291 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292 
  3293   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3294   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3295   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3296   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3297   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3298   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3299   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3300   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3301   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3302   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3303   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3304   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3305   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3306   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3307   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3308   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3309   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3310   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3311   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3312   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3313 
  3314 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315 
  3316   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3317   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3318   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3319   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3320   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3321   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3322   box_less             ~> box_below
  3323   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3324   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3325   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3326   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3327   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3328   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3329   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3330   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3331   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3332   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3333   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3334   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3335   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3336   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3337   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3338   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3339   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3340   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3341   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3342   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3343   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3344   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3345   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3346   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3347   up_less              ~> up_below
  3348   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3349   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3350   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3351   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3352   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3353   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3354   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3355   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3356   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3357   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3358   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3359   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3360   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3361 
  3362 
  3363 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3364 
  3365 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3366 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3367 
  3368 
  3369 *** ML ***
  3370 
  3371 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3372 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3373 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3374 
  3375 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3376 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3377 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3378 
  3379 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3380 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3381 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3382 
  3383 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3384 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3385 
  3386 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3387 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3388 
  3389 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3390 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3391 
  3392 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3393 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3394 
  3395 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3396 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3397 almost all situations.
  3398 
  3399 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3400 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3401 Isabelle/ML.
  3402 
  3403 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3404 meaning.
  3405 
  3406 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3407 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3408 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3409 
  3410 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3411 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3412 
  3413 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3414 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3415 
  3416 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3417 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3418 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3419 
  3420 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3421 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3422 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3423 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3424 configuration options.
  3425 
  3426 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3427 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3428 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3429 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3430 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3431 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3432 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3433 
  3434 
  3435 
  3436 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3437 ---------------------------------
  3438 
  3439 *** General ***
  3440 
  3441 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3442 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3443 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3444 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3445 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3446 their full internal name.
  3447 
  3448 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3449 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3450 Some hints on upgrading:
  3451 
  3452   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3453     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3454     which are independent of this issue.
  3455 
  3456   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3457     provides the following special forms:
  3458 
  3459       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3460       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3461       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3462 
  3463     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3464     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3465     extra variables".
  3466 
  3467     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3468     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3469     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3470     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3471     "logic".
  3472 
  3473   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3474     antiquotations:
  3475 
  3476       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3477       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3478       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3479       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3480 
  3481   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3482     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3483     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3484     antiquotations.
  3485 
  3486 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3487 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3488 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3489 diagnose syntax problems.
  3490 
  3491 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3492 
  3493 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3494 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3495 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3496 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3497 
  3498 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3499 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3500 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3501 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3502 
  3503 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3504 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3505 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3506 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3507 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3510 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3511 
  3512 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3513 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3514 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3515 
  3516   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3517 
  3518 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3519 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3520 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3521 
  3522 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3523 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3525 
  3526 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3527 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3528 
  3529 
  3530 *** Pure ***
  3531 
  3532 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3533 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3534 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3535 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3536 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3537 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3538 inspect proof terms.
  3539 
  3540 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3541 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3542 are added internally.  For example:
  3543 
  3544   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3545 
  3546 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3547 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3550 
  3551 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3552 'class' instead.
  3553 
  3554 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3555 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3557 
  3558 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3559 invariants.
  3560 
  3561 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3562 user space functionality any longer.
  3563 
  3564 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3565 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3567 
  3568 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3569 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3570 
  3571 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3572 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3573 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3574 
  3575 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3576 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3577 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3578 
  3579 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3580 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3581 
  3582 
  3583 *** HOL ***
  3584 
  3585 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3586 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3587 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3588 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3589 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3590 
  3591 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3592 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3593 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3594 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3595 
  3596   fun
  3597     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3598   where
  3599     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3600 
  3601   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3602     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3603 
  3604   quotient_definition
  3605     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3606 
  3607 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3608 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3609 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3610 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3611 
  3612 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3613 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3614 
  3615 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3616 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3617 
  3618 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3620 
  3621 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3622 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3623 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3624 
  3625 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3626 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3627 
  3628 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3633 
  3634 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3635 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3636 
  3637 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3638 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3639 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3640 
  3641   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3642   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3643   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3644   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3645   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3646   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3647   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3648   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3649   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3650   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3651   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3652   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3653   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3654   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3655   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3656   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3657   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3658   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3659   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3660   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3661   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3662   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3663   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3664   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3665   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3666   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3667   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3668   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3669   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3670   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3671 
  3672 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3673 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3674 
  3675 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3676 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3677 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3678 
  3679 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3680 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3681 
  3682 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3683 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3684 
  3685 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3686 
  3687 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3688 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3689 
  3690 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3691 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3692 
  3693 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3696 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3697 
  3698 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3699 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3700 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3701 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3702 
  3703 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3704   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3705   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3706   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3707 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3708 
  3709 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3710 lattices):
  3711 
  3712     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3713     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3714 
  3715     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3716 
  3717     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3718     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3719     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3720     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3721     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3722     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3723     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3724     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3725     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3726     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3727     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3728     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3729     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3730 
  3731     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3732     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3733     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3734     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3735     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3736     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3737     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3738     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3739     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3740     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3741     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3742     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3743     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3744     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3745     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3746     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3747     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3748     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3749 
  3750   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3751   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3752 
  3753     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3754     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3755     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3756     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3757     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3758 
  3759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3760 
  3761 * Refined field classes:
  3762   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3763     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3764     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3765   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3767 
  3768 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3769   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3770   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3771   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3772     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3773   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3774     equal_neg_zero.
  3775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3776 
  3777 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3778 sets to lattices:
  3779 
  3780   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3781   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3782   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3783   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3784   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3785   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3786   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3787   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3788   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3789   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3790 
  3791 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3792 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3793 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3794 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3795 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3796 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3797 
  3798 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3799 multiset order:
  3800 
  3801   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3802     <= and <;
  3803   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3804     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3805     multiset_order;
  3806   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3807     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3808     generation;
  3809   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3810     if needed.
  3811 
  3812 Renamed:
  3813 
  3814   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3815   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3816   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3817 
  3818 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819 
  3820 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3821 
  3822 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3823 
  3824 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3825 
  3826 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3827 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3828 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3829 
  3830   Constants:
  3831   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3832   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3833   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3834   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3835   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3836   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3837   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3838   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3839   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3840   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3841   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3842   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3843   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3844 
  3845   Lemmas:
  3846   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3847   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3848   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3849   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3850   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3851   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3852   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3853   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3854   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3855   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3856   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3857   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3858   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3859 
  3860 * Sledgehammer:
  3861   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3862     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3863     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3864     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3865     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3866     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3867     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3868   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3869   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3870     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3871   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3872     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3873     is still experimental.)
  3874   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3875     full-typed mode.
  3876   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3877 
  3878 * Nitpick:
  3879   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3880   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3881   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3882     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3883   - Added support for quotient types.
  3884   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3885     constructs.
  3886   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3887     "termination" proofs).
  3888   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3889   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3890   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3891   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3892     record getters.
  3893   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3894   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3895   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3896   - Added "atoms" option.
  3897   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3898     problems.
  3899   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3900     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3901     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3902   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3903     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3905 
  3906 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3907   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3908   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3909   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3910   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3911   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3912   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3913   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3914   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3915   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3916 
  3917 
  3918 *** HOLCF ***
  3919 
  3920 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3921 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3922 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3923 
  3924 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3925 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3926 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3927 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3928 
  3929 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3930 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3931 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3932 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3933 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3934 
  3935 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3936 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3937 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3938 
  3939 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3940 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3941 
  3942   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3943   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3944 
  3945 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3946 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3947 
  3948   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3949   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3950   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3951   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3952   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3953 
  3954 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3955 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956 
  3957   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3958   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3959   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3960 
  3961 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3962 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3963 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3964 
  3965 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3966 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3969 
  3970 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3971 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3972 
  3973 
  3974 *** ML ***
  3975 
  3976 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3977 
  3978     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3979     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3980 
  3981     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3982     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3983     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3984     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3985 
  3986     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3987     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3988     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3989 
  3990 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3991 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3992 
  3993 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3994 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3995 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3996 
  3997 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3998 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3999 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4000 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4001 
  4002 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4003 the context or even global references.
  4004 
  4005 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4006 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4007 
  4008 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4009 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4010 
  4011   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4012   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4013   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4014   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4015   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4016   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4017   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4018   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4019   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4020   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4021 
  4022 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4023 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4024 
  4025 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4026 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4027 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4028 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4029 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4030 
  4031 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4032 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4033 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4034 Theory_Data version.
  4035 
  4036 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4037 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4038 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4039 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4040 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4041 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4042 explicitly in rare situations.
  4043 
  4044 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4045 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4047 
  4048 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4049 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4050 
  4051 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4052 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4053 quite rare).
  4054 
  4055 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4056 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4057 
  4058 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4059 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4060 terms.
  4061 
  4062 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4063 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4064 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4065 
  4066 
  4067 *** System ***
  4068 
  4069 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4070 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4071 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4072 
  4073 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4074 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4075 respectively.
  4076 
  4077 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4078 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4079 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4080 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4081 
  4082   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4083 
  4084 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4085 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4086 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4087 component.
  4088 
  4089 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4090 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4091 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4092 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4093 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4094 the user for manual installation.
  4095 
  4096 
  4097 
  4098 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4099 -------------------------------------
  4100 
  4101 *** General ***
  4102 
  4103 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4104 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4105 
  4106 
  4107 *** Pure ***
  4108 
  4109 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4110 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4111 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4112 
  4113 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4114 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4115 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4116 
  4117 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4118 interpretation.
  4119 
  4120 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4121 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4122 
  4123 
  4124 *** Document preparation ***
  4125 
  4126 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4127 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4128 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4129 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4130 
  4131 
  4132 *** HOL ***
  4133 
  4134 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4135 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4136 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4137 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4138 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4139 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4140 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4141 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4142 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4143 
  4144 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4145 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4146 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4147 
  4148 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4149 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4150 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4151 
  4152 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4153 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4154 
  4155 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4156 
  4157 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4158 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4159 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4160 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4161 
  4162 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4163 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4164 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4165 "mirabelle" utility.
  4166 
  4167 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4168 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4169 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4170 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4171 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4172 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4173 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4174 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4175 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4176 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4177 
  4178 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4179 procedure only.
  4180 
  4181 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4182 
  4183 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4184 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4185 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4186 that fail later.
  4187 
  4188 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4189 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4190 
  4191 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4192 the same method as the approximation method.
  4193 
  4194 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4195 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4196 series expansion.
  4197 
  4198 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4199 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4200 
  4201 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4202 reals.
  4203 
  4204 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4205 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4206 
  4207 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4208 fixpoint theorem.
  4209 
  4210 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4211   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4212     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4213   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4214     accordingly
  4215   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4216     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4217   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4218     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4219 
  4220 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4221 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4222 lattice.
  4223 
  4224 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4225 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4226 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4227 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4228 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4229 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4231 
  4232 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4233   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4234     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4235   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4236     le_inf_iff
  4237   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4238     sup_aci)
  4239   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4240   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4241   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4242     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4243     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4244     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4245     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4246     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4247     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4248     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4249     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4250     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4251     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4252   - authentic syntax for
  4253     Set.Pow
  4254     Set.image
  4255   - mere abbreviations:
  4256     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4257     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4258     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4259     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4260     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4261     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4262     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4263     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4264   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4265 
  4266 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4267 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4268 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4269 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4270 
  4271 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4272 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4273 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4274 
  4275 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4276 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4277 
  4278 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4279 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4280 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4281 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4282 
  4283 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4284 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4285 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4286 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4287 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4288 
  4289 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4290 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4292 
  4293 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4294 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4295 
  4296 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4297 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4298 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4299 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4300 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4301 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4302 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4304 
  4305 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4306     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4307     code_post       replaces    code post
  4308     etc.
  4309   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4310 
  4311 * Renamed methods:
  4312     sizechange -> size_change
  4313     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4314   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4315 
  4316 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4317 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4318 
  4319 * Renamed theorems:
  4320     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4321     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4322     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4323     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4324     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4325   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4326 
  4327 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4329 
  4330 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4332 
  4333 
  4334 *** HOLCF ***
  4335 
  4336 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4337 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4338 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4339 
  4340 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4341 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4342 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4343 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4344 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4345 
  4346 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4347 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4348 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4349 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4350 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4351 
  4352 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4353 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4354 constructor are pre-configured.
  4355 
  4356 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4357 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4358 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4359 
  4360 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4361 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4362 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4363 as well.)
  4364 
  4365 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4366 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4367 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4368 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4369 examples.
  4370 
  4371 
  4372 *** ML ***
  4373 
  4374 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4375 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4376 
  4377 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4378 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4379 position, logical grouping etc.
  4380 
  4381 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4382 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4383 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4384 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4385 
  4386 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4387 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4388 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4389 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4390 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4391 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4392 
  4393 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4394 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4395 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4396 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4397 experiments with references.
  4398 
  4399 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4400 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4401 
  4402 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4403 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4404 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4405 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4406 
  4407 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4408 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4409 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4410 
  4411 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4412 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4413 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4414 
  4415 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4416 
  4417 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4418 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4419 
  4420 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4421 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4422 
  4423 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4424 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4425 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4426 
  4427 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4428 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4429 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4430 
  4431 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4432 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4433 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4434 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4435 
  4436 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4437 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4438 instead of global theory.
  4439 
  4440 
  4441 *** System ***
  4442 
  4443 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4444 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4445 usedir option -q.
  4446 
  4447 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4448 also the system manual.
  4449 
  4450 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4451 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4452 
  4453 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4454 this is always enabled.
  4455 
  4456 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4457 
  4458 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4459 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4460 currently supported on Linux only.
  4461 
  4462 
  4463 
  4464 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4465 --------------------------------
  4466 
  4467 *** General ***
  4468 
  4469 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4470 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4471 
  4472   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4473     "isatool."
  4474 
  4475   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4476     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4477 
  4478   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4479     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4480 
  4481 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4482 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4483 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4484 
  4485 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4486 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4487 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4488 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4489 via "isabelle emacs".
  4490 
  4491 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4492 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4493 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4494 
  4495 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4496 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4497 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4498 
  4499 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4500 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4501 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4502 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4503 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4504 
  4505 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4506 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4507 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4508 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4509 
  4510 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4511 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4512 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4513 
  4514 
  4515 *** Pure ***
  4516 
  4517 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4518 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4519 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4520 
  4521 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4522 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4523 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4524 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4525 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4526 
  4527 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4528 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4529 useful in locale declarations.
  4530 
  4531 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4532 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4533 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4534 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4535 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4536 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4537 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4538 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4539 no longer generated.
  4540 
  4541 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4542 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4543 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4544 
  4545 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4546 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4547 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4548 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4549 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4550 
  4551 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4552 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4553 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4554 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4555 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4556 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4557 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4558 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4559 
  4560 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4561 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4562 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4563 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4564 
  4565 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 
  4567 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4568 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4569 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4570 
  4571 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4572 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4573 
  4574 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4575 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4576 in HOL, write
  4577 
  4578     class foo = ...
  4579 
  4580 instead of
  4581 
  4582     class foo = type + ...
  4583 
  4584 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4585 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4586 
  4587 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4588 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4589 
  4590 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4591 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4592 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4593 
  4594 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4595 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4596 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4597 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4598 directly in regular applications.
  4599 
  4600 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4601 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4602 
  4603 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4604 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4605 
  4606 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4607 theory context.
  4608 
  4609 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4610 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4611 
  4612 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4613 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4614 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4615 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4616 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4617 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4618 
  4619   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4620 
  4621 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4622 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4623 normalization.
  4624 
  4625 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4626 addressing etc.
  4627 
  4628 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4629 
  4630   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4631   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4632 
  4633 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4634 
  4635   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4636      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4637      parts of the code generator framework).
  4638 
  4639   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4640      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4641      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4642 
  4643 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4644 
  4645 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4646 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4647 
  4648 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4649 patterns, e.g.
  4650 
  4651     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4652 
  4653 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4654 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4655 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4656 hyphen:
  4657 
  4658     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4659 
  4660 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4661 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4662 
  4663 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4664 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4665 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4666 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4667 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4668 higher-order unification.
  4669 
  4670 
  4671 *** Document preparation ***
  4672 
  4673 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4674 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4675 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4676 
  4677 
  4678 *** HOL ***
  4679 
  4680 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4681 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4682 
  4683 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4684 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4685 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4686 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4687 Main, as before.
  4688 
  4689 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4690 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4691 
  4692 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4693 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4694 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4695 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4696 
  4697 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4698 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4699 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4700 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4701 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4702 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4703 
  4704 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4705 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4706 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4707 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4708 
  4709 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4710 menu.
  4711 
  4712 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4713 (contains the empty clause).
  4714 
  4715 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4716 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4717 
  4718 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4719 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4720 
  4721 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4722 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4723 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4724 
  4725 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4726 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4727 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4728 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4729 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4730 
  4731 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4732 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4733 
  4734 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4735 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4736 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4737 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4738 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4739 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4740 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4741 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4742 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4743 
  4744 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4745 
  4746 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4747 
  4748 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4749 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4750 
  4751 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4752 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4753 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4754 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4755 
  4756 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4757 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4758 
  4759     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4760     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4761     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4762     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4763     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4764     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4765     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4766     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4767 
  4768 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4769 theory Set.
  4770 
  4771 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4772 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4773 
  4774 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4775 
  4776 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4777 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4778 
  4779 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4780 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4781 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4782 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4783 allowed. For examples see
  4784 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4785 
  4786 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4787 
  4788 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4790 
  4791 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4792 structure:
  4793 
  4794     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4795     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4796     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4797     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4798     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4799     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4800     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4801     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4802     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4803     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4804     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4805     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4806     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4807     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4808     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4809     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4810     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4811     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4812     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4813     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4814     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4815     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4816     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4817     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4818     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4819     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4820     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4821     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4822     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4823     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4824     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4825     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4826     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4827 
  4828     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4829     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4830     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4831     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4832     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4833     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4834     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4835     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4836     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4837     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4838 
  4839     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4840     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4841     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4842     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4843     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4844     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4845 
  4846 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4847 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4848 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4849 
  4850 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4851 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4852 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4853 
  4854 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4855 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4856 
  4857 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4858 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4859 
  4860 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4861 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4862 proofs, e.g.
  4863 
  4864   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4865 
  4866 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4867 
  4868 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4869 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4870 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4871 
  4872 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4873 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4874 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4875 
  4876 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4877 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4878 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4880 
  4881 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4882 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4883 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4884 preorder_class.*.
  4885 
  4886 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4887 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4888 
  4889 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4890 
  4891   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4892 
  4893 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4894 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4895 fold_image.
  4896 
  4897 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4898 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4899 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4900 the former will disappear at some point.
  4901 
  4902 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4903 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4904 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4905 
  4906 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4907 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4908 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4909 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4910 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4911 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4912 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4913 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4914 
  4915 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4916 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4917 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4918 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4919 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4920 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4921 
  4922     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4923     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4924     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4925     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4926     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4927     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4928     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4929 
  4930 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4931 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4932 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4933 
  4934 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4935 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4936 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4937 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4938 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4939 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4940 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4941 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4942 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4943 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4944 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4945 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4946 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4947 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4948 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4949 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4950 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4951 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4952 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4953 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4954 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4955 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4956 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4957 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4958 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4959 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4960 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4961 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4962 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4963 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4964 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4965 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4966 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4967 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4968 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4969 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4970 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4971 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4972 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4973 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4974 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4975 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4976 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4977 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4978 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4979 
  4980 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4981 
  4982 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4983 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4984 
  4985 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4986 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4987 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4988 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4989 
  4990 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4991 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4992 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4993 theory RealVector.
  4994 
  4995 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4996 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4997 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4998 and inner products are included.
  4999 
  5000 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5001 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5002 supported.
  5003 
  5004 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5005 first diagonalization argument.
  5006 
  5007 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5008 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5009 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5010 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5011 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5012 
  5013     hide (open) const gcd
  5014     abbreviation gcd where
  5015       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5016     notation (output)
  5017       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5018 
  5019 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5020 
  5021 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5022 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5023 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5024 
  5025 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5026 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5027 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5028 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5029 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5030 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5031 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5032 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5033 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5034 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5035 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5036 cases.
  5037 
  5038 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5039 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5040 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5041 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5042 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5043 
  5044     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5045     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5046     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5047     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5048     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5049 
  5050 
  5051 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5052 
  5053 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5054 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5055 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5056 
  5057 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5058 
  5059 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5060 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5061 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5062 
  5063 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5064 
  5065 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5066 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5067 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5068 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5069 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5070 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5071 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5072 
  5073 
  5074 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5075 
  5076 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5077 
  5078 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5079 theory targets.
  5080 
  5081 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5082 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5083 'inductive' etc.
  5084 
  5085 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5086 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5087 
  5088 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5089 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5090 
  5091 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5092 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5093 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5094 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5095 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5096 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5097 the algorithm W:
  5098 
  5099  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5100  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5101          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5102 
  5103 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5104 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5105 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5106 
  5107 
  5108 *** HOLCF ***
  5109 
  5110 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5111 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5112 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5113 
  5114 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5115 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5116 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5117 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5118 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5119 
  5120 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5121 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5122 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5123 
  5124 
  5125 *** ZF ***
  5126 
  5127 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5128 
  5129 
  5130 *** ML ***
  5131 
  5132 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5133 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5134 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5135 5.2.1!
  5136 
  5137 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5138 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5139 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5140 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5141 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5142 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5143 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5144 
  5145 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5146 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5147 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5148 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5149 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5150 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5151 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5152 
  5153 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5154 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5155 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5156 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5157 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5158 
  5159 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5160 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5161 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5162 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5163 Method.add_method.
  5164 
  5165 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5166 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5167 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5168 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5169 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5170 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5171 
  5172 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5173 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5174 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5175 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5176 examples.
  5177 
  5178 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5179 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5180 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5181 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5182 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5183 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5184 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5185 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5186 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5187 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5188 
  5189 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5190 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5191 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5192 
  5193 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5194 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5195 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5196 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5197 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5198 resort for legacy applications.
  5199 
  5200 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5201 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5202 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5203 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5204 explicit runtime argument.
  5205 
  5206 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5207 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5208 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5209 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5210 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5211 
  5212 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5213 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5214 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5215 theory state.
  5216 
  5217 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5218 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5219 
  5220   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5221   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5222   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5223   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5224   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5225   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5226   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5227   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5228   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5229   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5230 
  5231 
  5232 *** System ***
  5233 
  5234 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5235 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5236 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5237 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5238 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5239 
  5240 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5241 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5242 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5243 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5244 
  5245 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5246 
  5247 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5248 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5249 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5250 prover operations.
  5251 
  5252 
  5253 
  5254 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5255 -------------------------------
  5256 
  5257 *** General ***
  5258 
  5259 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5260 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5261 
  5262 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5263 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5264 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5265 provides a proper context already.
  5266 
  5267 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5268 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5269 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5270 
  5271 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5272 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5273 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5274 swap theory imports.
  5275 
  5276 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5277 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5278 
  5279 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5280 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5281 white space without escapes.
  5282 
  5283 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5284 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5285 "foo_bar".
  5286 
  5287 
  5288 *** Pure ***
  5289 
  5290 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5291 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5292 
  5293 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5294 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5295 
  5296 (1) unused_thms
  5297      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5298 
  5299 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5300      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5301      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5302 
  5303 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5304      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5305      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5306      their ancestors.
  5307 
  5308 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5309 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5310 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5311 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5312 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5313 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5314 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5315 
  5316 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5317 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5318 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5319 
  5320 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5321 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5322 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5323 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5324 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5325 
  5326 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5327 
  5328 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5329 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5330 update of theories within ML code.
  5331 
  5332 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5333 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5334 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5335 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5336 
  5337 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5338 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5339 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5341 
  5342 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5343 
  5344 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5345 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5346 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5347 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5348 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5349 
  5350 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5351 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5352 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5353 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5354 situations.
  5355 
  5356 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5357 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5358 proof text.
  5359 
  5360 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5361 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5362 
  5363 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5364 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5365 predicates.
  5366 
  5367 
  5368 *** Document preparation ***
  5369 
  5370 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5371 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5372 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5373 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5374 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5375 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5376 
  5377 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5378 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5379 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5380 
  5381 
  5382 *** HOL ***
  5383 
  5384 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5385 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5386 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5387 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5388 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5389 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5390 
  5391 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5392 with multithreading.
  5393 
  5394 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5395 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5396 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5397 
  5398 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5399 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5400 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5401 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5402 
  5403 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5404 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5405 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5406 and makes them available separately.  See
  5407 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5408 
  5409 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5410 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5411 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5412 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5413 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5414 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5415 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5416 the declared rules.
  5417 
  5418 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5419 
  5420   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5421 
  5422 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5423 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5424 
  5425 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5426 
  5427   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5428 
  5429   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5430     definitions on => and bool.
  5431 
  5432   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5433     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5434     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5435 
  5436       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5437       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5438       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5439       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5440       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5441       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5442       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5443       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5444 
  5445   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5446     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5447     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5448 
  5449   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5450     The proof pattern
  5451 
  5452       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5453       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5454 
  5455     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5456     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5457 
  5458       have "EX S. P S"
  5459       proof
  5460         show "P S" <...>
  5461       qed
  5462 
  5463   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5464     The proof pattern
  5465 
  5466       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5467       also have "S = T" <...>
  5468       finally have "P T" .
  5469 
  5470     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5471     must be replaced by something like
  5472 
  5473       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5474       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5475       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5476 
  5477   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5478     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5479 
  5480       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5481 
  5482     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5483     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5484     type of the form
  5485 
  5486       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5487 
  5488     rather than
  5489 
  5490       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5491 
  5492 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5493 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5494 
  5495 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5496 
  5497 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5498 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5500 
  5501 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5502 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5503 
  5504 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5505 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5506 
  5507 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5508 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5509 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5510 
  5511 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5512 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5513 
  5514   less_trans
  5515   less_linear
  5516   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5517   le_less_trans
  5518   less_le_trans
  5519   less_not_sym
  5520   less_asym
  5521 
  5522 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5523 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5524 and different variable names.
  5525 
  5526 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5527 
  5528 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5529 finite maps.
  5530 
  5531 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5532 
  5533 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5534 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5535 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5536 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5537 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5538 accordingly.
  5539 
  5540 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5541 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5542 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5543 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5544 
  5545 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5546 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5547 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5548 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5549 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5551 
  5552 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5553 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5554 
  5555 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5556 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5557 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5558 
  5559 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5561 
  5562 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5563 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5564 
  5565 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5566 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5567 
  5568 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5569 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5570 
  5571 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5572 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5574 
  5575 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5576 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5577 
  5578 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5579 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5580 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5581 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5582 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5583 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5584 
  5585 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5586 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5587 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5588 
  5589 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5590 
  5591 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5592 
  5593 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5594 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5595 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5596 
  5597 
  5598 *** ZF ***
  5599 
  5600 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5601 same session:
  5602 
  5603   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5604   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5605   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5606   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5607   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5608   List      -> List_ZF
  5609   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5610 
  5611 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5612 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5613 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5614 
  5615 
  5616 *** ML ***
  5617 
  5618 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5619 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5620 
  5621 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5622 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5623 
  5624 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5625 
  5626 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5627 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5628 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5629 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5630 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5631 
  5632 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5633 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5634 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5635 
  5636 
  5637 *** System ***
  5638 
  5639 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5640 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5641 
  5642 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5643 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5644 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5645 
  5646 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5647 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5648 
  5649 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5650 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5651 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5652 
  5653 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5654 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5655 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5656 
  5657 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5658 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5659 
  5660 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5661 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5662 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5663 script.
  5664 
  5665 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5666 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5667 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5668 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5669 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5670 
  5671 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5672 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5673 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5674 
  5675 
  5676 
  5677 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5678 -----------------------------------
  5679 
  5680 *** General ***
  5681 
  5682 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5683 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5684 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5685 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5686 
  5687 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5688 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5689 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5690 
  5691 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5692 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5693 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5694 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5695 
  5696 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5697 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5698 quotes.
  5699 
  5700 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5701 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5702 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5703 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5704 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5705 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5706 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5707 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5708 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5709 
  5710 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5711 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5712 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5713 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5714 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5715 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5716 
  5717 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5718 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5719 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5720 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5721 
  5722 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5723 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5724 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5725 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5726 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5727 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5728 
  5729 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5730 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5731 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5732 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5733 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5734 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5735 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5736 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5737 
  5738 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5739 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5740 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5741 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5742 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5743 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5744 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5745 
  5746 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5747 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5748 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5749 
  5750 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5751 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5752 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5753 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5754 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5755 limit is imposed.
  5756 
  5757 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5758 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5759 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5760 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5761 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5762 and scalability.
  5763 
  5764 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5765 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5766 
  5767 
  5768 *** Document preparation ***
  5769 
  5770 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5771 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5772 current context.
  5773 
  5774 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5775 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5776 
  5777 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5778 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5779 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5780 
  5781 
  5782 *** Pure ***
  5783 
  5784 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5785 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5786 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5787 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5788 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5789 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5790 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5791 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5792 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5793 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5794 
  5795 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5796 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5797 sketch:
  5798 
  5799     internal compilation:
  5800         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5801     writing SML code to a file:
  5802         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5803     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5804         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5805     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5806         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5807 
  5808     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5809         method ``eval''
  5810 
  5811 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5812 
  5813 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5814 
  5815     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5816     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5817     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5818     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5819 
  5820 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5821 
  5822     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5823       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5824 
  5825     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5826       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5827 
  5828     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5829       {(target)}+
  5830         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5831 
  5832     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5833       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5834         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5835 
  5836 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5837 
  5838 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5839 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5840 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5841 codegen".
  5842 
  5843 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5844 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5845 annotations).
  5846 
  5847 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5848 syntax.
  5849 
  5850 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5851 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5852 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5853 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5854 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5855 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5856 
  5857 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5858 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5859 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5860 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5861 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5862 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5863 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5864 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5865 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5866 equations, see section "definitions".
  5867 
  5868 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5869 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5870 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5871 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5872 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5873 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5874 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5875 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5876 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5877 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5878 
  5879 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5880 configuration options:
  5881 
  5882   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5883   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5884   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5885   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5886   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5887   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5888   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5889   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5890   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5891 
  5892 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5893 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5894 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5895 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5896 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5897 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5898 order.
  5899 
  5900 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5901 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5902 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5903 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5904 context encountered later on.
  5905 
  5906 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5907 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5908 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5909 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5910 
  5911 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5912 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5913 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5914 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5915 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5916 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5917 
  5918 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5919 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5920 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5921 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5922 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5923 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5924 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5925 more permissive.
  5926 
  5927 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5928 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5929 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5930 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5931 maintainability of proof texts.
  5932 
  5933 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5934 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5935 
  5936   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5937   then guess x and y by clarify
  5938 
  5939 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5940 proof tools being involved here.
  5941 
  5942 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5943 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5944 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5945 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5946 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5947 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5948 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5949 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5950 
  5951 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5952 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5953 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5954 
  5955   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5956   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5957   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5958   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5959 
  5960 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5961 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5962 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5963 
  5964 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5965 both named and unnamed ones.
  5966 
  5967 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5968 
  5969   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5970 
  5971 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5972 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5973 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5974 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5975 
  5976 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5977 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5978 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5979 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5980 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5981 
  5982 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5983 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5984 
  5985 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5986 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5987 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5988 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5989 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5990 originally first one.
  5991 
  5992 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5993 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5994 expected.
  5995 
  5996 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5997 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5998 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5999 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6000 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6001 
  6002   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6003     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6004     obtains x where "P x"
  6005 
  6006   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6007     assumes "A & B"
  6008     obtains A and B
  6009 
  6010   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6011     assumes "A | B"
  6012     obtains
  6013       A
  6014     | B
  6015 
  6016 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6017 explicitly:
  6018 
  6019   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6020     obtains "~ thesis"
  6021 
  6022   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6023     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6024 
  6025 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6026 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6027 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6028 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6029 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6030 case_names).
  6031 
  6032 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6033 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6034 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6035 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6036 
  6037 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6038 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6039 top-level lemma.
  6040 
  6041 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6042 introduction rule (default "that").
  6043 
  6044 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6045 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6046 to occur.
  6047 
  6048 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6049 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6050 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6051 representations independently of name spaces.
  6052 
  6053 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6054 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6055 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6056 
  6057 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6058 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6059 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6060 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6061 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6062 current context.
  6063 
  6064 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6065 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6066 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6067 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6068 
  6069   axiomatization
  6070     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6071     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6072 
  6073   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6074   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6075 
  6076   abbreviation
  6077     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6078     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6079 
  6080 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6081 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6082 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6083 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6084 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6085 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6086 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6087 
  6088 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6089 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6090 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6091 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6092 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6093 
  6094 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6095 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6096 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6097 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6098 
  6099 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6100 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6101 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6102 
  6103   definition "K x _ = x"
  6104 
  6105   inductive conj for A B
  6106   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6107 
  6108 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6109 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6110 abbreviations on output.
  6111 
  6112 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6113 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6114 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6115 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6116 
  6117 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6118 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6119 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6120 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6121 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6122 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6123 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6124 
  6125 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6126 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6127 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6128 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6129 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6130 
  6131 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6132 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6133 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6134 
  6135 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6136 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6137 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6138 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6139 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6140 
  6141   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6142     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6143 
  6144 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6145 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6146 partial_order.
  6147 
  6148 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6149 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6150 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6151 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6152 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6153 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6154 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6155 examples.
  6156 
  6157 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6158 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6159 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6160 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6161 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6162 
  6163 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6164 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6165 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6166 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6167 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6168 
  6169   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6170   (induct set: foo bar)
  6171   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6172   (induct type: foo bar)
  6173 
  6174 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6175 new format.
  6176 
  6177 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6178 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6179 
  6180 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6181 considered a legacy feature.
  6182 
  6183 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6184 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6185 
  6186 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6187 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6188 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6189 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6190   
  6191 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6192 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6193 manipulating the claset.
  6194 
  6195 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6196 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6197 least one premise.
  6198 
  6199 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6200 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6201 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6202 rule steps.
  6203 
  6204 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6205 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6206 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6207 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6208 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6209 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6210 
  6211 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6212 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6213 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6214 
  6215 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6216 the graph browser tool.
  6217 
  6218 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6219 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6220 
  6221 
  6222 *** HOL ***
  6223 
  6224 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  6225 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  6226 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  6227 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  6228 multi-threading.
  6229   
  6230 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  6231 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  6232 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  6233 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  6234 work with multi-threading.
  6235 
  6236 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  6237 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  6238 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  6239 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  6240 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  6241 
  6242 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  6243 
  6244 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  6245 equality.
  6246 
  6247 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  6248 the new 'class' package:
  6249 
  6250     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  6251     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  6252     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  6253     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  6254     op + ~> HO