NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Sep 28 16:51:58 2012 +0200 (2012-09-28)
changeset 49647 21ae8500d261
parent 49532 6f7cc8e42716
child 49699 1301ed115729
permissions -rw-r--r--
smarter handling of tracing messages;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10     . parallel terminal proofs ('by');
    11     . improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc.;
    12     . more efficient painting, improved reactivity;
    13     . more robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial
    14       comments, malformed symbols);
    15     . smarter handling of tracing messages (via tracing_limit);
    16     . more plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala;
    17     . uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows;
    18 
    19 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    20 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    21 
    22 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    23 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    24 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    25 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    26 dependencies properly.
    27 
    28 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    29 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    30 
    31 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    32 in old "ref" manual.
    33 
    34 
    35 *** Pure ***
    36 
    37 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    38 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    39 
    40 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    41 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    42 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    43 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    44 
    45 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    46 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    47 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    48 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    49 with some care where this is really required.
    50 
    51 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
    52 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
    53 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
    54 
    55   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
    56 
    57 
    58 *** HOL ***
    59 
    60 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalised properties of bounded
    61 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
    62 
    63 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
    64 to lattice type classes.
    65 
    66 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a option".
    67 
    68 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
    69 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
    70 
    71   - Renamed constants:
    72 
    73       prefix ~> prefixeq
    74       strict_prefix ~> prefix
    75 
    76     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
    77 
    78   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
    79     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
    80     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
    81     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    82 
    83   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
    84     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
    85 
    86   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
    87     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
    88     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
    89     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
    90 
    91   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
    92     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
    93 
    94       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
    95       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
    96       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
    97       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
    98       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
    99       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
   100       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
   101       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
   102       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
   103       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
   104       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
   105       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
   106       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
   107       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   108       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   109       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   110 
   111     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   114 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   115 non-free datatypes.
   116 
   117 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   118 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   119 
   120 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   121 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   122 
   123 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   124 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   125 
   126 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   127 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   128 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   129 
   130 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   131 expressions.
   132 
   133 * Quickcheck:
   134 
   135   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   136     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   137     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   138 
   139 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   140 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   141 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   142 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   143 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   144 
   145 * Sledgehammer:
   146 
   147   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   148     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   149   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   150   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   151   - Renamed options:
   152       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   153       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   154 
   155 
   156 *** Document preparation ***
   157 
   158 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   159 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   160 
   161 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   162 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   163 document/root.tex.
   164 
   165 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   166 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   167 
   168 
   169 *** ML ***
   170 
   171 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   172 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   173 necessarily printing visible text.
   174 
   175 
   176 *** System ***
   177 
   178 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   179 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   180 for home-made configurations.
   181 
   182 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   183 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   184 
   185 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   186 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   187 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   188 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   189 
   190 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   191 
   192 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   193 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   194 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   195 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   196 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   197 
   198 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   199 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   200 
   201   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   202 
   203 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   204 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   205 
   206 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   207 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   208 "isabelle usedir".
   209 
   210 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   211 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   212 version of Isabelle.
   213 
   214 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   215 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   216 configuration.
   217 
   218 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   219 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   220 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   221 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   222 bundled as Isabelle component.
   223 
   224 
   225 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   226 ------------------------------
   227 
   228 *** General ***
   229 
   230 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   231 
   232   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   233     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   234   - markup for bound variables
   235   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   236   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   237   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   238     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   239 
   240 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   241 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   242 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   243 
   244 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   245 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   246 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   247 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   248 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   249 
   250   context
   251     fixes x y z :: 'a
   252     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   253   begin
   254 
   255   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   256 
   257   end
   258 
   259   thm my_trans
   260 
   261 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   262 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   263 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   264 
   265 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   266 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   267 
   268 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   269 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   270 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   271 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   272 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   273 
   274 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   275 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   276 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   277 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   278 indices of schematic variables.
   279 
   280 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   281 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   282 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   283 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   284 etc. was exploited.
   285 
   286 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   287 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   288 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   289 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   290 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   291 of the material of that old tutorial.
   292 
   293 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   294 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   295 manual.
   296 
   297 
   298 *** Pure ***
   299 
   300 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   301 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   302 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   303 
   304 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   305 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   306 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   307 undocumented feature.)
   308 
   309 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   310 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   311 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   312 
   313   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   314 
   315   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   316     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   317 
   318 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   319 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   320 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   321 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   322 
   323 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   324 
   325     num ~> num_token
   326     xnum ~> xnum_token
   327     xstr ~> str_token
   328 
   329 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   330 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   331 position information via constraints).
   332 
   333 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   334 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   335 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   336 
   337 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   338 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   339 
   340 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   341 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   342 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   343 
   344 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   345 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   346 
   347 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   348 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   349 
   350   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   351 
   352 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   353 
   354 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   355 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   356 
   357 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   358 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   359 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   360 
   361 
   362 *** HOL ***
   363 
   364 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   365 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   366 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   367 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   368 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   369 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   370 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   371 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   372 possible.
   373 
   374 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   375 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   376 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   377 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   378 
   379 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   380 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   381 
   382 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   383 
   384 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   385 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   386 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   387 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   388 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   389 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   390 
   391   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   392     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   393 
   394   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   395     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   396     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   397 
   398   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   399     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   400 
   401   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   402     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   403     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   404 
   405   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   406     Redefine using other integer operations.
   407 
   408 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   409 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   410 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   411 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   412 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   413 
   414   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   415     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   416     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   417     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   418     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   419 
   420     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   421     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   422 
   423   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   424     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   425     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   426     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   427     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   428     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   429     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   430     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   431 
   432   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   433     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   434     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   435     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   436 
   437   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   438     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   439     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   440     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   441 
   442   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   443     from type nat to type int.
   444 
   445 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   446 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   447 
   448   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   449     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   450     type.  Example syntax:
   451 
   452     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   453       is List.insert
   454 
   455     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   456     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   457     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   458     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   459     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   460     by the package.
   461 
   462   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   463     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   464     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   465     code generation for each constant.
   466 
   467   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   468     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   469     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   470     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   471     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   472 
   473   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   474     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   475     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   476 
   477 * Quotient package:
   478 
   479   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   480     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   481 
   482   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   483     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   484 
   485   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   486     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   487     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   488 
   489   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   490     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   491 
   492 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   493 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   494 
   495 * Quickcheck:
   496 
   497   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   498     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   499     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   500     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   501     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   502 
   503     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   504     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   505     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   506 
   507     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   508     continues searching for genuine ones.
   509 
   510     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   511     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   512     show genuine counterexamples.
   513 
   514   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   515     value generators for a given type and operations.
   516 
   517     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   518     constructors of that type.
   519 
   520   - Support for multisets.
   521 
   522   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   523 
   524   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   525     conjectures in a locale context.
   526 
   527 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   528 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   529 
   530 * Sledgehammer:
   531   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   532     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   533   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   534   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   535     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   536   - Sped up the minimizer.
   537   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   538   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   539   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   540 
   541 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   542 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   543 
   544 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   545 
   546 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   547 
   548 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   549 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   550 
   551   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   552 
   553 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   554 a list and a nat.
   555 
   556 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   557 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   558 
   559 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   560 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   561 default.
   562 
   563 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   564 
   565   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   566 
   567 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   568 
   569 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   570 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   571 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   572 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   573 one_case.
   574 
   575 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   576 the result of the fact expression.
   577 
   578 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   579 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   580 of some relation theorems:
   581 
   582   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   583   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   584   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   585   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   586   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   587   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   588 
   589 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   590 
   591 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   592 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   593 
   594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   595 
   596 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   597 to match the constant's name:
   598 
   599   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   600   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   601   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   602   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   603   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   604   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   605   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   606   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   607   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   608   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   609   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   610   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   611   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   612   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   613   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   614   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   615   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   616   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   617   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   618   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   619   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   620   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   621   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   622   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   623 
   624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   625 
   626 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   627 and corresponding theorem names:
   628 
   629   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   630 
   631   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   632 
   633   - Renamed theorems:
   634 
   635     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   636     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   637     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   638     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   639     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   640     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   641     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   642     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   643     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   644     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   645     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   646     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   647     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   648     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   649     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   650     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   651     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   652     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   653     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   654     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   655     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   656     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   657     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   658 
   659     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   660 
   661     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   662 
   663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   664 
   665 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   666 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   667 
   668   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   669   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   670   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   671   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   672   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   673   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   674   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   675   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   676   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   677   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   678   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   679   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   680   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   681   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   682   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   683   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   684   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   685   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   686   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   687   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   688   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   689 
   690 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   691 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   692 
   693 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   694 
   695 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   696 
   697   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   698   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   699   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   700   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   701   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   702   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   703   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   704   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   705   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   706   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   707   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   708   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   709   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   710   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   711   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   712   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   713   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   714   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   715 
   716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   717 
   718 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   719 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   720 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   721 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   722 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   723 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   724 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   725 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   726 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   727 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   728 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   729 
   730 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   731 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   732 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   733 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   734 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   735 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   736 
   737 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   738 through option types.
   739 
   740 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   741 relations.
   742 
   743 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   744 
   745 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   746 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   747 
   748   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   749   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   750   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   751   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   752   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   753   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   754   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   755   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   756   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   757   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   758   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   759   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   760   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   761   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   762   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   763   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   764   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   765   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   766   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   767   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   768   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   769   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   770   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   771   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   772   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   773   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   774   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   775   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   776   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   777   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   778   zless_le ~> less_le
   779   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   780   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   781   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   782 
   783 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   784 
   785   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   786 
   787 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   788 
   789 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   790 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   791 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   792 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   794 
   795 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   796 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   797 
   798 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   799 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   800 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   801 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   802 follows:
   803 
   804   Operations:
   805   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   806   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   807   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   808   del -> rbt_del
   809   delete -> rbt_delete
   810   ins -> rbt_ins
   811   insert -> rbt_insert
   812   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   813   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   814   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   815   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   816   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   817   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   818   tree_less -> rbt_less
   819   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   820   union -> rbt_union
   821   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   822   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   823 
   824   Lemmas:
   825   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   826   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   827   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   828   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   829   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   830   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   831   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   832   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   833   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   834   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   835   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   836   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   837   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   838   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   839   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   840   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   841   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   842   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   843   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   844   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   845   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   846   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   847   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   848   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   849   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   850   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   851   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   852   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   853   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   854   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   855   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   856   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   857   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   858   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   859   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   860   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   861   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   862   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   863   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   864   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   865   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   866   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   867   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   868   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   869   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   870   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   871   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   872   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   873   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   874   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   875   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   876   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   877   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   878   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   879   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   880   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   881   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   882   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   883   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   884   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   885   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   886   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   887   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   888   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   889   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   890   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   891   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   892   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   893   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   894   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   895   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   896   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   897   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   898   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   899   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   900   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   901   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   902   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   903   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   904   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   905   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   906   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   907   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   908 
   909 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   910 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   911 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   912 
   913   Changed Operations:
   914   float_abs -> abs
   915   float_nprt -> nprt
   916   float_pprt -> pprt
   917   pow2 -> use powr
   918   round_down -> float_round_down
   919   round_up -> float_round_up
   920   scale -> exponent
   921 
   922   Removed Operations:
   923   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   924 
   925   Renamed Lemmas:
   926   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   927   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   928   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   929   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   930   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   931   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   932   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   933   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   934   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   935   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   936   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   937   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   938   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   939   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   940   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   941   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   942   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   943   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   944   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   945   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   946   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   947   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   948   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   949   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   950   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   951   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   952   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   953   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   954   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   955   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   956   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   957   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   958   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   959   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   960   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   961   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   962 
   963   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   964   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   965   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   966   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   967   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   968   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   969   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   970   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   971   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   972   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   973 
   974 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   975 association lists with distinct keys.
   976 
   977 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   978 annotated commands.
   979 
   980 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   981 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   982 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   983 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   984 
   985 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   986 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   987 instead.
   988 
   989   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   990   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   991   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   992   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   993   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   994   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   995   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   996   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   997   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   998   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   999   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1000   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1001   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1002   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1003   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1004   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1005   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1006   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1007   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1008   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1009   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1010   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1011   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1012   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1013   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1014   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1015   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1016   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1017   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1018   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1019   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1020   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1021   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1022   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1023   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1024   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1025   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1026   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1027   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1028   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1029   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1030 
  1031 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1032 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1033 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1034 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1035 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1036 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1037 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1038 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1039 
  1040 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1041 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1042 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1043 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1044 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1045 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1046 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1047 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1048 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1049 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1050 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1051 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1052 
  1053   Renamed constants:
  1054   measure -> emeasure
  1055   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1056   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1057   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1058   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1059 
  1060   Removed locales:
  1061   completeable_measure_space
  1062   finite_measure_space
  1063   finite_prob_space
  1064   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1065   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1066   finite_sigma_algebra
  1067   measure_space
  1068   pair_finite_prob_space
  1069   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1070   pair_finite_space
  1071   pair_sigma_algebra
  1072   product_sigma_algebra
  1073 
  1074   Removed constants:
  1075   conditional_space
  1076   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1077   image_space
  1078   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1079   pair_measure_generator
  1080   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1081   subvimage
  1082 
  1083   Replacement theorems:
  1084   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1085   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1086   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1087   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1088   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1089   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1090   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1091   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1092   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1093   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1094   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1095   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1096   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1097   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1098   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1099   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1100   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1101   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1102   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1103   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1104   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1105   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1106   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1107   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1108   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1109   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1110   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1111   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1112   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1113   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1114   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1115   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1116   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1117   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1118   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1119   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1120   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1121   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1122   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1123   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1124   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1125   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1126   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1127   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1128   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1129   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1130   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1131   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1132   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1133   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1134   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1135   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1136   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1137   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1138   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1139   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1140   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1141   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1142   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1143   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1144   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1145   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1146   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1147   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1148   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1149   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1150   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1151   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1152   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1153   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1154   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1155   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1156   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1157   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1158   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1159   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1160   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1161   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1162   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1163   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1164   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1165   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1166   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1167   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1168   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1169   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1170   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1171   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1172   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1173   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1174   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1175   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1176   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1177   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1178   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1179   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1180   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1181   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1182   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1183   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1184   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1185   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1186   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1187   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1188   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1189   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1190   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1191   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1192   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1193   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1194   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1195   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1196   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1197   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1198   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1199   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1200   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1201   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1202   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1203   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1204   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1205   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1206   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1207   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1208   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1209   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1210   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1211   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1212 
  1213 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1214 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1215 
  1216 
  1217 *** FOL ***
  1218 
  1219 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1220 
  1221 
  1222 *** ZF ***
  1223 
  1224 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1225 analysis.
  1226 
  1227 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1228 
  1229 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1230 
  1231 
  1232 *** ML ***
  1233 
  1234 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1235 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1236 
  1237 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1238 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1239 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1240 
  1241 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1242 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1243 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1244 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1245 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1246 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1247 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1248 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1249 
  1250 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1251 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1252 
  1253 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1254 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1255 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1256 
  1257 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1258 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1259 
  1260 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1261 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1262 context as well.
  1263 
  1264 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1265 
  1266   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1267   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1268   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1269   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1270   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1271   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1272   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1273   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1274   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1275   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1276   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1277   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1278 
  1279 
  1280 *** System ***
  1281 
  1282 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1283 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1284 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1285 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1286 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1287 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1288 the generic user home was intended.
  1289 
  1290 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1291 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1292 
  1293 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1294 (not just JRE).
  1295 
  1296 
  1297 
  1298 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1299 ------------------------------------
  1300 
  1301 *** General ***
  1302 
  1303 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1304 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1305 
  1306   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1307     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1308     files for checking).
  1309 
  1310   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1311     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1312     positions.
  1313 
  1314   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1315     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1316     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1317 
  1318   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1319     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1320     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1321 
  1322   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1323     cores.
  1324 
  1325   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1326     versions (garbage collection).
  1327 
  1328 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1329 including some remaining limitations.
  1330 
  1331 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1332 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1333 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1334 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1335 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1336 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1337 
  1338 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1339 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1340 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1341 
  1342 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1343 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1344 usedir option -Q.
  1345 
  1346 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1347 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1348 
  1349   long_names   ~> names_long
  1350   short_names  ~> names_short
  1351   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1352 
  1353 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1354 
  1355   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1356 
  1357 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1358 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1359 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1360 
  1361 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1362 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1363 
  1364 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1365   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1366   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1367   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1368     "Classical Reasoner".
  1369 
  1370 
  1371 *** HOL ***
  1372 
  1373 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1374 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1375 
  1376 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1377 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1378 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1379 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1380 class complete_linorder.
  1381 
  1382 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1383 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1384 
  1385 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1386 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1387 
  1388   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1389   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1390   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1391   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1392   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1393   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1394   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1395   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1396   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1397   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1398   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1399 
  1400 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1401 
  1402   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1403   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1404   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1405   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1406   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1407   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1408   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1409   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1410   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1411   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1412   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1413   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1414   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1415   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1416   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1417   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1418 
  1419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1420 
  1421 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1423 
  1424 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1425 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1426 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1427 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1428 
  1429 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1430 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1431 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1433 
  1434 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1435 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1436 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1437 
  1438 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1439 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1440 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1441 
  1442 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1443 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1444 
  1445 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1446 
  1447     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1448     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1449 
  1450 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1451 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1452 
  1453 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1454 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1455 
  1456 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1457 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1458 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1459 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1460 
  1461   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1462   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1463   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1464   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1465   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1466   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1467   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1468 
  1469 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1470 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1471 
  1472   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1473   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1474   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1475   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1476   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1477   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1478   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1479   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1480   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1481   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1482   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1483   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1484   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1485   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1486   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1487   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1488   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1489   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1490   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1491   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1492   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1493   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1494   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1495   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1496   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1497   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1498   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1499   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1500   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1501   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1502   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1503   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1504   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1505   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1506   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1507   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1508   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1509   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1510   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1511   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1512   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1513   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1514   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1515   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1516   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1517   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1518   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1519   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1520   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1521   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1522   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1523   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1524   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1525   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1526   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1527   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1528   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1529   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1530   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1531   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1532   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1533   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1534   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1535   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1536   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1537   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1538   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1539   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1540   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1541   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1542   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1543   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1544   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1545   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1546   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1547   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1548   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1549   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1550   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1551   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1552   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1553   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1554 
  1555 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1556 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1557 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1558 
  1559 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1560 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1561 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1562 
  1563 * Code generation:
  1564 
  1565   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1566     characters in the target language.
  1567 
  1568   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1569     instead.
  1570 
  1571   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1572 
  1573   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1574     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1575 
  1576       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1577 
  1578 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1581 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1582 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1583 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1584 syntax.
  1585 
  1586 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1587 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1588 
  1589 * Nitpick:
  1590   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1591   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1592   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1593     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1594 
  1595 * Sledgehammer:
  1596   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1597   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1598     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1599   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1600     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1601   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1602     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1603   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1604     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1605   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1606     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608 * Metis:
  1609   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1610   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1611     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1612 
  1613 * Command 'try':
  1614   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1615     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1616   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1617     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1618 
  1619 * Quickcheck:
  1620   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1621     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1622   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1623     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1624   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1625     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1626     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1627     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1628   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1629     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1630 
  1631 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1632 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1633 
  1634 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1635 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1636 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1637 
  1638 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1639 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1641 
  1642 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1643 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1644 
  1645 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1646 arithmetic.
  1647 
  1648 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1649 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1650 and lattice type classes.
  1651 
  1652 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1653 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1654 
  1655 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1656 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1657 
  1658 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1659 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1660 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1661 
  1662   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1663   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1664   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1665   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1666 
  1667 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1668 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1669 constants:
  1670 
  1671   type inat   ~> type enat
  1672   Fin         ~> enat
  1673   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1674   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1675   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1676 
  1677 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1678 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1679 
  1680 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1681 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1682 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1683 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1684 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1685 
  1686 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1687 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1688 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1689 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1690 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1691 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1692 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1693 
  1694   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1695   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1696   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1697   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1698 
  1699 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1700 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1701 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1702 
  1703   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1704   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1705   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1706   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1707   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1708   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1709   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1710   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1711   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1712   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1713   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1714   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1715   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1716   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1717   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1718   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1719   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1720   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1721   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1722   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1723   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1724   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1725   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1726   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1727   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1728   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1729   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1730   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1731   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1732   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1733   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1734   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1735   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1736   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1737   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1738   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1739   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1740   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1741   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1742   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1743   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1744   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1745   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1746   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1747   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1748   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1749   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1750   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1751   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1752   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1753   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1754 
  1755 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1756   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1757   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1758   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1759   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1760     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1761 
  1762 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1763 
  1764   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1765   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1766   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1767   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1768   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1769   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1770   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1771   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1772   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1773   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1774   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1775   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1776   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1777   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1778   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1779   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1780   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1781   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1782   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1783   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1784   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1785   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1786   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1787   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1788   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1789 
  1790 
  1791 *** Document preparation ***
  1792 
  1793 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1794 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1795 same.
  1796 
  1797 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1798 result.
  1799 
  1800 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1801 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1802 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1803 
  1804 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1805 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1806 
  1807 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1808 like this:
  1809 
  1810   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1811   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1812 
  1813 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1814 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1815 layouts.
  1816 
  1817 
  1818 *** ML ***
  1819 
  1820 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1821 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1822 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1823 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1824 under external program control.
  1825 
  1826 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1827 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1828 
  1829 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1830 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1831 (better known as Proof General).
  1832 
  1833 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1834 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1835 
  1836 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1837 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1838 
  1839 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1840 (including quotes etc.).
  1841 
  1842 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1843 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1844 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1845 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1846 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1847 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1848 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1849 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1850 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1851 
  1852 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1853 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1854 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1855 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1856 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1857 
  1858 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1859 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1860 
  1861 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1862 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1863 
  1864 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1865 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1866 
  1867 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1868 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1869 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1870 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1871 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1872 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1873 proper Proof.context.
  1874 
  1875 
  1876 *** System ***
  1877 
  1878 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1879 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1880 
  1881 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1882 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1883 
  1884 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1885 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1886 
  1887   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1888   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1889   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1890   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1891   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1892 
  1893 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1894 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1895 
  1896 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1897 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1898 example:
  1899 
  1900   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1901 
  1902 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1903 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1904 
  1905 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1906 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1907 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1908 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1909 
  1910 
  1911 
  1912 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1913 ----------------------------------
  1914 
  1915 *** General ***
  1916 
  1917 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1918 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1919 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1920 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1921 like this:
  1922 
  1923   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1924 
  1925 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1926 
  1927 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1928 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1929 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1930 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1931 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1932 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1933 
  1934 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1935 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1936 the following package declarations:
  1937 
  1938   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1939   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1940 
  1941 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1942 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1943 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1944 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1945 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1946 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1947 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1948 
  1949 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1950 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1951 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1952 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1953 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1954 
  1955 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1956 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1957 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1958 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1959 
  1960 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1961 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1962 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1963 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1964 
  1965   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1966 
  1967   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1968   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1969   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1970   show_types                    show_types
  1971   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1972   show_consts                   show_consts
  1973   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1974 
  1975   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1976   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1977   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1978 
  1979   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1980   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1981 
  1982   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1983 
  1984   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1985   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1986   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1987   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1988   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1989 
  1990 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1991 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1992 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1993 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1994 
  1995 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1996 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1997 
  1998   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1999   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2000 
  2001 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2002 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2003 float_token.
  2004 
  2005 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2006 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2007 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2008 
  2009 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2010 DejaVu Sans.
  2011 
  2012 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2013 
  2014 
  2015 *** Pure ***
  2016 
  2017 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2018 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2019 time.
  2020 
  2021 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2022 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2023 
  2024 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2025 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2026 
  2027 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2028 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2029 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2030 command already provided this functionality.
  2031 
  2032 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2033 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2034 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2035 without interpretations.
  2036 
  2037 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2038 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2039 
  2040 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2041 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2042 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2043 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2044 
  2045 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2046 'definition' instead.
  2047 
  2048 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2049 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2050 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2051 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2052 
  2053 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2054 constructors.
  2055 
  2056 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2057 the local file system.
  2058 
  2059 
  2060 *** HOL ***
  2061 
  2062 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2063 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2064 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2065 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2066 
  2067   declare [[coercion f]]
  2068 
  2069 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2070 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2071 
  2072   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2073 
  2074 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2075 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2076 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2077 other theories like this:
  2078 
  2079   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2080 
  2081 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2082 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2083 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2084 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2085 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2086 for examples.
  2087 
  2088 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2089 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2090 
  2091 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2092 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2093 
  2094 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2095 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2096 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2097 
  2098 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2099 functorial structure of types.
  2100 
  2101 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2102 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2103 
  2104 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2105 languages.
  2106 
  2107 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2108 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2110 
  2111 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2112 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2113 
  2114 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2115 combinators any longer.
  2116 
  2117 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2118 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2119 
  2120 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2121 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2122 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2123 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2124 
  2125   record 'a foo = ...
  2126   ...
  2127   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2128 
  2129 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2130 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2131 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2132 
  2133 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2134 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2135 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2136 
  2137 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2138 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2139 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2140 
  2141 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2142 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2143 
  2144 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2145 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2146 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2147 independently.
  2148 
  2149 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2150 counter example search.
  2151 
  2152 * Sledgehammer:
  2153   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2154     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2155     sledgehammer").
  2156   - Renamed commands:
  2157     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2158     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2159     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2160     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2161   - Renamed options:
  2162     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2163     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2164     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2165     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2166     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2167 
  2168 * Nitpick:
  2169   - Renamed options:
  2170     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2171     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2172     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2173   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2174   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2175   - Added "whack" option.
  2176   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2177   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2178   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2179   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2180     higher cardinalities.
  2181   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2182 
  2183 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2184 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2185 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2186 
  2187     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2188 
  2189 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2190 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2191 
  2192 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2193 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2194 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2195 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2196 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2197 "smt_solver".
  2198 
  2199 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2200 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2201 
  2202 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2203 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2204 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2205 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2206 
  2207 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2208   - Renamed:
  2209     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2210     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2211     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2212   - Added:
  2213     smt_verbose
  2214     smt_random_seed
  2215     smt_datatypes
  2216     smt_infer_triggers
  2217     smt_monomorph_limit
  2218     cvc3_options
  2219     remote_cvc3_options
  2220     remote_z3_options
  2221     yices_options
  2222 
  2223 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2224 header.
  2225 
  2226 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2227 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2228 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2229 
  2230   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2231 
  2232 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2233 
  2234 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2235 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2236 
  2237 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2238 
  2239 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2240 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2241 
  2242 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2243 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2244 
  2245 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2246 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2247 
  2248 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2249 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2250 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2251 
  2252 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2253 
  2254 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2256 
  2257 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2258 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2259 
  2260 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2261 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2262 for congruent(2)).
  2263 
  2264 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2265 
  2266   types
  2267     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2268     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2269 
  2270   constants
  2271     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2272     True ~> HOL.True
  2273     False ~> HOL.False
  2274     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2275     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2276     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2277     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2278     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2279     The ~> HOL.The
  2280     All ~> HOL.All
  2281     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2282     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2283     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2284     If ~> HOL.If
  2285     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2286     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2287     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2288     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2289     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2290     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2291     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2292     op : ~> Set.member
  2293     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2294 
  2295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2296 
  2297 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2298 
  2299     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2300     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2301     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2302     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2303     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2304     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2305     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2306     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2307 
  2308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2309 
  2310 * More stylized fact names:
  2311 
  2312   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2313   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2314   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2315   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2316 
  2317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2318 
  2319 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2320 
  2321   constants
  2322     null ~> List.null
  2323 
  2324   facts
  2325     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2326     null_empty ~> null_def
  2327 
  2328 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2329 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2330 generation.
  2331 
  2332 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2333 Haskell code.
  2334 
  2335 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2336 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2337 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2338 
  2339 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2340 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2341 
  2342 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2343 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2344 
  2345 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2346 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2347 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2348 
  2349 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2350 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2351 
  2352 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2354 
  2355 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2356 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2357 referred to by its qualified name.
  2358 
  2359   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2360   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2361   product ~>  Enum.product
  2362 
  2363 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2364 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2368 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2369 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2371 
  2372 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2373 sort_key.
  2374 
  2375 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2376 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2377 
  2378 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2379 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2380 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2381 
  2382   types
  2383     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2384               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2385               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2386         (depends on your needs)
  2387 
  2388   constants
  2389      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2390      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2391      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2392 
  2393 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2394 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2395 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2396 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2397 
  2398 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2399 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2400 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2401 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2402 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2403 
  2404 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2406 
  2407 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2408 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2409 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2410 
  2411 
  2412 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2413 
  2414 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2415 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2416 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2417 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2418 compatibility.
  2419 
  2420 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2421 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2422 
  2423 
  2424 *** HOLCF ***
  2425 
  2426 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2427 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2428 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2429 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2430 
  2431 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2432 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2433 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2434 
  2435   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2436   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2437   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2438 
  2439 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2440 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2441 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2442 
  2443 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2444 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2445 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2446 domain definition now works:
  2447 
  2448   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2449 
  2450 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2451 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2452 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2453 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2454 
  2455   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2456     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2457 
  2458   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2459 
  2460 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2461 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2462 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2463 
  2464 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2465 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2466 
  2467 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2468 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2469 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2470 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2471 
  2472 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2473 
  2474 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2475 
  2476 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2477 
  2478 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2480 
  2481 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2482 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2483 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2484 
  2485 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2486 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2487 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2488 
  2489 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2490 still supported as an input translation.
  2491 
  2492 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2493 
  2494   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2495   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2496   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2497   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2498   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2499   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2500   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2501 
  2502 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2503 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2504 
  2505   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2506   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2507   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2508   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2509   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2510   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2511 
  2512 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2513 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2514 
  2515 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2516 
  2517   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2518   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2519   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2520   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2521 
  2522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2523 
  2524 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2525 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2526 
  2527 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2528 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2529 
  2530   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2531   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2532   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2533   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2534   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2535   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2536   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2537   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2538   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2539   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2540   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2541   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2542   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2543   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2544   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2545   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2546   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2547   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2548   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2549   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2550 
  2551 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2552 
  2553   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2554   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2555   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2556   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2557   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2558   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2559   box_less             ~> box_below
  2560   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2561   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2562   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2563   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2564   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2565   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2566   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2567   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2568   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2569   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2570   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2571   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2572   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2573   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2574   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2575   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2576   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2577   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2578   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2579   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2580   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2581   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2582   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2583   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2584   up_less              ~> up_below
  2585   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2586   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2587   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2588   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2589   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2590   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2591   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2592   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2593   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2594   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2595   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2596   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2597   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2598 
  2599 
  2600 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2601 
  2602 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2603 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2604 
  2605 
  2606 *** ML ***
  2607 
  2608 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2609 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2610 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2611 
  2612 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2613 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2614 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2615 
  2616 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2617 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2618 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2619 
  2620 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2621 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2622 
  2623 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2624 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2625 
  2626 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2627 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2628 
  2629 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2630 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2631 
  2632 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2633 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2634 almost all situations.
  2635 
  2636 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2637 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2638 Isabelle/ML.
  2639 
  2640 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2641 meaning.
  2642 
  2643 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2644 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2645 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2646 
  2647 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2648 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2649 
  2650 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2651 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2652 
  2653 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2654 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2655 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2656 
  2657 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2658 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2659 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2660 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2661 configuration options.
  2662 
  2663 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2664 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2665 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2666 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2667 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2668 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2669 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2670 
  2671 
  2672 
  2673 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2674 ---------------------------------
  2675 
  2676 *** General ***
  2677 
  2678 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2679 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2680 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2681 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2682 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2683 their full internal name.
  2684 
  2685 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2686 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2687 Some hints on upgrading:
  2688 
  2689   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2690     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2691     which are independent of this issue.
  2692 
  2693   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2694     provides the following special forms:
  2695 
  2696       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2697       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2698       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2699 
  2700     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2701     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2702     extra variables".
  2703 
  2704     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2705     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2706     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2707     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2708     "logic".
  2709 
  2710   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2711     antiquotations:
  2712 
  2713       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2714       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2715       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2716       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2717 
  2718   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2719     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2720     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2721     antiquotations.
  2722 
  2723 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2724 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2725 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2726 diagnose syntax problems.
  2727 
  2728 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2729 
  2730 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2731 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2732 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2733 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2734 
  2735 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2736 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2737 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2738 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2739 
  2740 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2741 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2742 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2743 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2744 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2745 
  2746 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2747 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2748 
  2749 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2750 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2751 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2752 
  2753   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2754 
  2755 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2756 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2757 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2758 
  2759 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2760 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2762 
  2763 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2764 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2765 
  2766 
  2767 *** Pure ***
  2768 
  2769 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2770 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2771 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2772 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2773 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2774 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2775 inspect proof terms.
  2776 
  2777 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2778 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2779 are added internally.  For example:
  2780 
  2781   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2782 
  2783 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2784 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2785 
  2786 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2787 
  2788 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2789 'class' instead.
  2790 
  2791 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2792 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2794 
  2795 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2796 invariants.
  2797 
  2798 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2799 user space functionality any longer.
  2800 
  2801 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2802 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804 
  2805 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2806 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2807 
  2808 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2809 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2810 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2811 
  2812 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2813 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2814 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2815 
  2816 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2817 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2818 
  2819 
  2820 *** HOL ***
  2821 
  2822 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2823 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2824 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2825 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2826 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2827 
  2828 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2829 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2830 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2831 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2832 
  2833   fun
  2834     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2835   where
  2836     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2837 
  2838   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2839     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2840 
  2841   quotient_definition
  2842     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2843 
  2844 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2845 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2846 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2847 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2848 
  2849 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2850 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2851 
  2852 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2853 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2854 
  2855 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2857 
  2858 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2859 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2860 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2861 
  2862 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2863 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2864 
  2865 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2866 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2867 
  2868 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2870 
  2871 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2872 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2873 
  2874 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2875 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2876 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2877 
  2878   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2879   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2880   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2881   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2882   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2883   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2884   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2885   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2886   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2887   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2888   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2889   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2890   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2891   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2892   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2893   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2894   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2895   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2896   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2897   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2898   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2899   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2900   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2901   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2902   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2903   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2904   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2905   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2906   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2907   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2908 
  2909 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2910 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2911 
  2912 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2913 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2914 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2915 
  2916 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2917 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2918 
  2919 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2920 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2921 
  2922 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2923 
  2924 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2925 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2926 
  2927 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2928 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2929 
  2930 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2931 
  2932 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2933 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2934 
  2935 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2936 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2937 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2938 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2939 
  2940 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2941   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2942   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2943   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2945 
  2946 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2947 lattices):
  2948 
  2949     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2950     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2951 
  2952     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2953 
  2954     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2955     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2956     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2957     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2958     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2959     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2960     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2961     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2962     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2963     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2964     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2965     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2966     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2967 
  2968     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2969     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2970     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2971     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2972     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2973     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2974     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2975     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2976     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2977     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2978     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2979     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2980     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2981     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2982     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2983     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2984     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2985     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2986 
  2987   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2988   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2989 
  2990     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2991     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2992     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2993     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2994     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2995 
  2996 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2997 
  2998 * Refined field classes:
  2999   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3000     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3001     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3002   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3004 
  3005 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3006   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3007   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3008   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3009     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3010   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3011     equal_neg_zero.
  3012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3013 
  3014 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3015 sets to lattices:
  3016 
  3017   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3018   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3019   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3020   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3021   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3022   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3023   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3024   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3025   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3026   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3027 
  3028 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3029 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3030 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3031 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3032 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3033 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3034 
  3035 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3036 multiset order:
  3037 
  3038   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3039     <= and <;
  3040   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3041     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3042     multiset_order;
  3043   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3044     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3045     generation;
  3046   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3047     if needed.
  3048 
  3049 Renamed:
  3050 
  3051   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3052   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3053   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3054 
  3055 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3056 
  3057 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3058 
  3059 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3060 
  3061 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3062 
  3063 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3064 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3065 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3066 
  3067   Constants:
  3068   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3069   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3070   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3071   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3072   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3073   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3074   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3075   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3076   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3077   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3078   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3079   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3080   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3081 
  3082   Lemmas:
  3083   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3084   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3085   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3086   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3087   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3088   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3089   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3090   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3091   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3092   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3093   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3094   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3095   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3096 
  3097 * Sledgehammer:
  3098   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3099     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3100     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3101     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3102     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3103     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3104     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3105   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3106   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3107     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3108   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3109     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3110     is still experimental.)
  3111   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3112     full-typed mode.
  3113   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3114 
  3115 * Nitpick:
  3116   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3117   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3118   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3119     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3120   - Added support for quotient types.
  3121   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3122     constructs.
  3123   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3124     "termination" proofs).
  3125   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3126   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3127   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3128   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3129     record getters.
  3130   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3131   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3132   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3133   - Added "atoms" option.
  3134   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3135     problems.
  3136   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3137     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3138     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3139   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3140     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3141   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3142 
  3143 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3144   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3145   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3146   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3147   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3148   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3149   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3150   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3151   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3152   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3153 
  3154 
  3155 *** HOLCF ***
  3156 
  3157 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3158 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3159 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160 
  3161 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3162 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3163 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3164 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3167 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3168 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3169 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3170 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3173 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3174 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3175 
  3176 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3177 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3178 
  3179   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3180   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3181 
  3182 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3183 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3184 
  3185   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3186   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3187   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3188   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3189   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3190 
  3191 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3192 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3193 
  3194   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3195   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3196   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3197 
  3198 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3199 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3201 
  3202 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3203 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3204 
  3205 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3206 
  3207 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3208 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3209 
  3210 
  3211 *** ML ***
  3212 
  3213 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3214 
  3215     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3216     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3217 
  3218     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3219     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3220     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3221     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3222 
  3223     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3224     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3225     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3226 
  3227 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3228 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3229 
  3230 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3231 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3232 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3233 
  3234 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3235 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3236 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3237 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3238 
  3239 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3240 the context or even global references.
  3241 
  3242 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3243 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3244 
  3245 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3246 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3247 
  3248   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3249   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3250   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3251   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3252   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3253   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3254   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3255   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3256   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3257   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3258 
  3259 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3260 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3261 
  3262 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3263 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3264 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3265 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3266 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3267 
  3268 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3269 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3270 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3271 Theory_Data version.
  3272 
  3273 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3274 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3275 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3276 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3277 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3278 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3279 explicitly in rare situations.
  3280 
  3281 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3282 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3286 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3289 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3290 quite rare).
  3291 
  3292 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3293 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3294 
  3295 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3296 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3297 terms.
  3298 
  3299 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3300 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3301 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3302 
  3303 
  3304 *** System ***
  3305 
  3306 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3307 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3308 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3309 
  3310 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3311 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3312 respectively.
  3313 
  3314 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3315 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3316 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3317 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3318 
  3319   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3320 
  3321 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3322 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3323 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3324 component.
  3325 
  3326 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3327 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3328 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3329 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3330 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3331 the user for manual installation.
  3332 
  3333 
  3334 
  3335 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3336 -------------------------------------
  3337 
  3338 *** General ***
  3339 
  3340 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3341 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3342 
  3343 
  3344 *** Pure ***
  3345 
  3346 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3347 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3348 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3349 
  3350 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3351 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3352 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3353 
  3354 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3355 interpretation.
  3356 
  3357 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3358 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3359 
  3360 
  3361 *** Document preparation ***
  3362 
  3363 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3364 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3365 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3366 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3367 
  3368 
  3369 *** HOL ***
  3370 
  3371 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3372 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3373 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3374 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3375 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3376 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3377 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3378 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3379 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3380 
  3381 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3382 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3383 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3384 
  3385 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3386 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3387 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3388 
  3389 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3390 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3391 
  3392 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3393 
  3394 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3395 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3396 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3397 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3398 
  3399 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3400 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3401 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3402 "mirabelle" utility.
  3403 
  3404 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3405 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3406 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3407 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3408 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3409 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3410 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3411 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3412 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3413 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3414 
  3415 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3416 procedure only.
  3417 
  3418 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3419 
  3420 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3421 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3422 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3423 that fail later.
  3424 
  3425 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3426 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3427 
  3428 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3429 the same method as the approximation method.
  3430 
  3431 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3432 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3433 series expansion.
  3434 
  3435 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3436 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3437 
  3438 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3439 reals.
  3440 
  3441 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3442 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3443 
  3444 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3445 fixpoint theorem.
  3446 
  3447 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3448   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3449     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3450   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3451     accordingly
  3452   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3453     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3454   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3455     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3456 
  3457 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3458 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3459 lattice.
  3460 
  3461 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3462 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3463 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3464 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3465 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3466 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3467 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3468 
  3469 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3470   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3471     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3472   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3473     le_inf_iff
  3474   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3475     sup_aci)
  3476   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3477   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3478   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3479     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3480     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3481     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3482     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3483     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3484     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3485     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3486     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3487     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3488     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3489   - authentic syntax for
  3490     Set.Pow
  3491     Set.image
  3492   - mere abbreviations:
  3493     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3494     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3495     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3496     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3497     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3498     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3499     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3500     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3501   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3502 
  3503 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3504 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3505 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3506 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3507 
  3508 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3509 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3510 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511 
  3512 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3513 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3514 
  3515 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3516 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3517 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3518 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3521 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3522 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3523 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3524 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3525 
  3526 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3527 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3529 
  3530 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3531 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3532 
  3533 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3534 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3535 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3536 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3537 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3538 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3539 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3541 
  3542 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3543     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3544     code_post       replaces    code post
  3545     etc.
  3546   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3547 
  3548 * Renamed methods:
  3549     sizechange -> size_change
  3550     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3551   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3552 
  3553 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3554 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3555 
  3556 * Renamed theorems:
  3557     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3558     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3559     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3560     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3561     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3562   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3563 
  3564 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3566 
  3567 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3569 
  3570 
  3571 *** HOLCF ***
  3572 
  3573 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3574 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3575 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3576 
  3577 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3578 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3579 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3580 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3581 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3582 
  3583 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3584 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3585 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3586 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3587 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3588 
  3589 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3590 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3591 constructor are pre-configured.
  3592 
  3593 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3594 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3595 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3596 
  3597 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3598 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3599 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3600 as well.)
  3601 
  3602 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3603 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3604 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3605 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3606 examples.
  3607 
  3608 
  3609 *** ML ***
  3610 
  3611 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3612 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3613 
  3614 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3615 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3616 position, logical grouping etc.
  3617 
  3618 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3619 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3620 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3621 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3622 
  3623 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3624 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3625 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3626 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3627 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3628 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3629 
  3630 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3631 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3632 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3633 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3634 experiments with references.
  3635 
  3636 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3637 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3638 
  3639 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3640 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3641 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3642 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3643 
  3644 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3645 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3646 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3647 
  3648 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3649 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3650 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3651 
  3652 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3653 
  3654 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3655 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3656 
  3657 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3658 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3659 
  3660 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3661 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3662 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3663 
  3664 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3665 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3666 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3667 
  3668 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3669 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3670 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3671 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3672 
  3673 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3674 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3675 instead of global theory.
  3676 
  3677 
  3678 *** System ***
  3679 
  3680 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3681 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3682 usedir option -q.
  3683 
  3684 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3685 also the system manual.
  3686 
  3687 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3688 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3689 
  3690 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3691 this is always enabled.
  3692 
  3693 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3694 
  3695 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3696 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3697 currently supported on Linux only.
  3698 
  3699 
  3700 
  3701 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3702 --------------------------------
  3703 
  3704 *** General ***
  3705 
  3706 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3707 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3708 
  3709   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3710     "isatool."
  3711 
  3712   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3713     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3714 
  3715   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3716     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3717 
  3718 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3719 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3720 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3721 
  3722 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3723 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3724 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3725 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3726 via "isabelle emacs".
  3727 
  3728 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3729 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3730 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3731 
  3732 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3733 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3734 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3735 
  3736 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3737 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3738 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3739 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3740 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3741 
  3742 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3743 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3744 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3745 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3746 
  3747 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3748 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3749 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3750 
  3751 
  3752 *** Pure ***
  3753 
  3754 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3755 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3756 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3757 
  3758 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3759 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3760 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3761 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3762 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3763 
  3764 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3765 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3766 useful in locale declarations.
  3767 
  3768 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3769 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3770 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3771 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3772 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3773 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3774 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3775 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3776 no longer generated.
  3777 
  3778 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3779 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3780 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3781 
  3782 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3783 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3784 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3785 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3786 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3787 
  3788 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3789 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3790 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3791 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3792 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3793 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3794 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3795 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3796 
  3797 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3798 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3799 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3800 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3801 
  3802 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3803 
  3804 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3805 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3806 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3807 
  3808 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3809 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3810 
  3811 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3812 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3813 in HOL, write
  3814 
  3815     class foo = ...
  3816 
  3817 instead of
  3818 
  3819     class foo = type + ...
  3820 
  3821 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3822 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3823 
  3824 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3825 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3826 
  3827 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3828 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3829 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3830 
  3831 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3832 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3833 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3834 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3835 directly in regular applications.
  3836 
  3837 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3838 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3839 
  3840 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3841 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3842 
  3843 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3844 theory context.
  3845 
  3846 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3847 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3848 
  3849 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3850 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3851 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3852 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3853 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3854 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3855 
  3856   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3857 
  3858 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3859 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3860 normalization.
  3861 
  3862 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3863 addressing etc.
  3864 
  3865 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3866 
  3867   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3868   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3869 
  3870 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3871 
  3872   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3873      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3874      parts of the code generator framework).
  3875 
  3876   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3877      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3878      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3879 
  3880 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3881 
  3882 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3883 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3884 
  3885 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3886 patterns, e.g.
  3887 
  3888     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3889 
  3890 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3891 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3892 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3893 hyphen:
  3894 
  3895     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3896 
  3897 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3898 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3899 
  3900 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3901 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3902 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3903 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3904 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3905 higher-order unification.
  3906 
  3907 
  3908 *** Document preparation ***
  3909 
  3910 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3911 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3912 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3913 
  3914 
  3915 *** HOL ***
  3916 
  3917 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3918 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3919 
  3920 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3921 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3922 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3923 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3924 Main, as before.
  3925 
  3926 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3927 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3928 
  3929 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3930 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3931 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3932 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3933 
  3934 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3935 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3936 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3937 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3938 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3939 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3940 
  3941 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3942 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3943 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3944 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3945 
  3946 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3947 menu.
  3948 
  3949 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3950 (contains the empty clause).
  3951 
  3952 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3953 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3954 
  3955 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3956 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3957 
  3958 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3959 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3960 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3961 
  3962 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3963 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3964 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3965 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3966 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3967 
  3968 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3969 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3970 
  3971 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3972 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3973 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3974 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3975 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3976 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3977 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3978 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3979 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3980 
  3981 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3982 
  3983 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3984 
  3985 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3986 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3987 
  3988 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3989 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3990 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3991 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3992 
  3993 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3994 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3995 
  3996     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3997     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3998     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3999     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4000     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4001     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4002     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4003     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4004 
  4005 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4006 theory Set.
  4007 
  4008 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4009 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4010 
  4011 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4012 
  4013 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4014 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4015 
  4016 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4017 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4018 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4019 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4020 allowed. For examples see
  4021 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4022 
  4023 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4024 
  4025 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4027 
  4028 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4029 structure:
  4030 
  4031     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4032     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4033     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4034     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4035     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4036     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4037     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4038     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4039     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4040     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4041     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4042     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4043     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4044     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4045     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4046     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4047     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4048     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4049     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4050     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4051     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4052     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4053     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4054     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4055     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4056     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4057     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4058     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4059     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4060     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4061     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4062     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4063     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4064 
  4065     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4066     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4067     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4068     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4069     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4070     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4071     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4072     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4073     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4074     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4075 
  4076     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4077     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4078     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4079     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4080     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4081     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4082 
  4083 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4084 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4085 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4086 
  4087 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4088 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4089 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4090 
  4091 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4092 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4093 
  4094 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4095 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4096 
  4097 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4098 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4099 proofs, e.g.
  4100 
  4101   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4102 
  4103 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4104 
  4105 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4106 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4107 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4108 
  4109 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4110 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4112 
  4113 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4114 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4115 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4117 
  4118 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4119 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4120 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4121 preorder_class.*.
  4122 
  4123 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4124 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4125 
  4126 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4127 
  4128   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4129 
  4130 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4131 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4132 fold_image.
  4133 
  4134 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4135 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4136 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4137 the former will disappear at some point.
  4138 
  4139 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4140 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4141 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4142 
  4143 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4144 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4145 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4146 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4147 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4148 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4149 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4150 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4151 
  4152 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4153 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4154 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4155 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4156 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4157 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4158 
  4159     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4160     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4161     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4162     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4163     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4164     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4165     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4166 
  4167 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4168 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4169 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4170 
  4171 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4172 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4173 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4174 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4175 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4176 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4177 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4178 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4179 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4180 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4181 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4182 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4183 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4184 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4185 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4186 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4187 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4188 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4189 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4190 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4191 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4192 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4193 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4194 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4195 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4196 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4197 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4198 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4199 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4200 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4201 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4202 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4203 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4204 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4205 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4206 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4207 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4208 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4209 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4210 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4211 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4212 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4213 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4214 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4215 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4216 
  4217 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4218 
  4219 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4220 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4221 
  4222 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4223 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4224 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4225 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4226 
  4227 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4228 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4229 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4230 theory RealVector.
  4231 
  4232 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4233 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4234 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4235 and inner products are included.
  4236 
  4237 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4238 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4239 supported.
  4240 
  4241 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4242 first diagonalization argument.
  4243 
  4244 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4245 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4246 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4247 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4248 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4249 
  4250     hide (open) const gcd
  4251     abbreviation gcd where
  4252       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4253     notation (output)
  4254       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4255 
  4256 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4257 
  4258 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4259 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4260 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4261 
  4262 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4263 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4264 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4265 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4266 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4267 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4268 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4269 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4270 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4271 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4272 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4273 cases.
  4274 
  4275 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4276 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4277 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4278 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4279 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4280 
  4281     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4282     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4283     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4284     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4285     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4286 
  4287 
  4288 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4289 
  4290 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4291 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4292 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4293 
  4294 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4295 
  4296 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4297 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4298 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4299 
  4300 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4301 
  4302 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4303 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4304 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4305 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4306 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4307 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4308 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4309 
  4310 
  4311 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4312 
  4313 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4314 
  4315 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4316 theory targets.
  4317 
  4318 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4319 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4320 'inductive' etc.
  4321 
  4322 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4323 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4324 
  4325 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4326 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4327 
  4328 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4329 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4330 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4331 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4332 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4333 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4334 the algorithm W:
  4335 
  4336  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4337  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4338          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4339 
  4340 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4341 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4342 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4343 
  4344 
  4345 *** HOLCF ***
  4346 
  4347 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4348 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4349 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4350 
  4351 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4352 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4353 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4354 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4355 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4356 
  4357 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4358 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4359 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4360 
  4361 
  4362 *** ZF ***
  4363 
  4364 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4365 
  4366 
  4367 *** ML ***
  4368 
  4369 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4370 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4371 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4372 5.2.1!
  4373 
  4374 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4375 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4376 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4377 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4378 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4379 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4380 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4381 
  4382 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4383 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4384 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4385 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4386 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4387 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4388 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4389 
  4390 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4391 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4392 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4393 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4394 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4395 
  4396 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4397 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4398 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4399 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4400 Method.add_method.
  4401 
  4402 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4403 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4404 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4405 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4406 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4407 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4408 
  4409 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4410 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4411 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4412 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4413 examples.
  4414 
  4415 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4416 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4417 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4418 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4419 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4420 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4421 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4422 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4423 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4424 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4425 
  4426 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4427 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4428 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4429 
  4430 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4431 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4432 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4433 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4434 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4435 resort for legacy applications.
  4436 
  4437 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4438 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4439 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4440 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4441 explicit runtime argument.
  4442 
  4443 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4444 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4445 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4446 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4447 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4448 
  4449 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4450 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4451 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4452 theory state.
  4453 
  4454 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4455 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4456 
  4457   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4458   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4459   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4460   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4461   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4462   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4463   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4464   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4465   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4466   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4467 
  4468 
  4469 *** System ***
  4470 
  4471 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4472 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4473 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4474 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4475 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4476 
  4477 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4478 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4479 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4480 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4481 
  4482 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4483 
  4484 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4485 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4486 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4487 prover operations.
  4488 
  4489 
  4490 
  4491 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4492 -------------------------------
  4493 
  4494 *** General ***
  4495 
  4496 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4497 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4498 
  4499 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4500 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4501 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4502 provides a proper context already.
  4503 
  4504 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4505 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4506 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4507 
  4508 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4509 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4510 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4511 swap theory imports.
  4512 
  4513 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4514 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4515 
  4516 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4517 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4518 white space without escapes.
  4519 
  4520 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4521 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4522 "foo_bar".
  4523 
  4524 
  4525 *** Pure ***
  4526 
  4527 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4528 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4529 
  4530 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4531 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4532 
  4533 (1) unused_thms
  4534      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4535 
  4536 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4537      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4538      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4539 
  4540 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4541      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4542      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4543      their ancestors.
  4544 
  4545 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4546 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4547 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4548 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4549 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4550 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4551 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4552 
  4553 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4554 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4555 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4556 
  4557 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4558 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4559 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4560 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4561 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4562 
  4563 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4564 
  4565 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4566 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4567 update of theories within ML code.
  4568 
  4569 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4570 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4571 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4572 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4573 
  4574 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4575 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4576 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4578 
  4579 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4580 
  4581 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4582 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4583 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4584 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4585 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4586 
  4587 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4588 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4589 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4590 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4591 situations.
  4592 
  4593 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4594 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4595 proof text.
  4596 
  4597 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4598 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4599 
  4600 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4601 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4602 predicates.
  4603 
  4604 
  4605 *** Document preparation ***
  4606 
  4607 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4608 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4609 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4610 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4611 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4612 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4613 
  4614 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4615 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4616 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4617 
  4618 
  4619 *** HOL ***
  4620 
  4621 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4622 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4623 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4624 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4625 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4626 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4627 
  4628 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4629 with multithreading.
  4630 
  4631 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4632 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4633 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4634 
  4635 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4636 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4637 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4638 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4639 
  4640 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4641 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4642 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4643 and makes them available separately.  See
  4644 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4645 
  4646 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4647 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4648 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4649 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4650 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4651 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4652 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4653 the declared rules.
  4654 
  4655 This setup also deals with rules like
  4656 
  4657   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4658 
  4659 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4660 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4661 
  4662 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4663 
  4664   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4665 
  4666   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4667     definitions on => and bool.
  4668 
  4669   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4670     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4671     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4672 
  4673       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4674       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4675       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4676       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4677       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4678       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4679       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4680       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4681 
  4682   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4683     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4684     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4685 
  4686   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4687     The proof pattern
  4688 
  4689       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4690       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4691 
  4692     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4693     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4694 
  4695       have "EX S. P S"
  4696       proof
  4697         show "P S" <...>
  4698       qed
  4699 
  4700   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4701     The proof pattern
  4702 
  4703       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4704       also have "S = T" <...>
  4705       finally have "P T" .
  4706 
  4707     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4708     must be replaced by something like
  4709 
  4710       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4711       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4712       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4713 
  4714   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4715     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4716 
  4717       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4718 
  4719     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4720     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4721     type of the form
  4722 
  4723       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4724 
  4725     rather than
  4726 
  4727       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4728 
  4729 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4730 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4731 
  4732 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4733 
  4734 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4735 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4736 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4737 
  4738 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4739 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4740 
  4741 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4742 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4743 
  4744 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4745 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4746 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4747 
  4748 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4749 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4750 
  4751   less_trans
  4752   less_linear
  4753   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4754   le_less_trans
  4755   less_le_trans
  4756   less_not_sym
  4757   less_asym
  4758 
  4759 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4760 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4761 and different variable names.
  4762 
  4763 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4764 
  4765 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4766 finite maps.
  4767 
  4768 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4769 
  4770 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4771 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4772 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4773 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4774 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4775 accordingly.
  4776 
  4777 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4778 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4779 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4780 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4781 
  4782 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4783 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4784 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4785 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4786 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4788 
  4789 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4790 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4791 
  4792 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4793 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4794 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4795 
  4796 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4797 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4798 
  4799 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4800 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4801 
  4802 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4803 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4804 
  4805 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4806 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4807 
  4808 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4809 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4810 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4811 
  4812 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4813 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4814 
  4815 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4816 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4817 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4818 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4819 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4820 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4821 
  4822 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4823 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4824 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4825 
  4826 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4827 
  4828 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4829 
  4830 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4831 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4832 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4833 
  4834 
  4835 *** ZF ***
  4836 
  4837 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4838 same session:
  4839 
  4840   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4841   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4842   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4843   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4844   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4845   List      -> List_ZF
  4846   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4847 
  4848 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4849 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4850 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4851 
  4852 
  4853 *** ML ***
  4854 
  4855 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4856 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4857 
  4858 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4859 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4860 
  4861 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4862 
  4863 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4864 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4865 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4866 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4867 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4868 
  4869 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4870 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4871 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4872 
  4873 
  4874 *** System ***
  4875 
  4876 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4877 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4878 
  4879 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4880 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4881 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4882 
  4883 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4884 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4885 
  4886 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4887 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4888 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4889 
  4890 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4891 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4892 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4893 
  4894 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4895 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4896 
  4897 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4898 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4899 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4900 script.
  4901 
  4902 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4903 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4904 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4905 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4906 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4907 
  4908 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4909 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4910 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4911 
  4912 
  4913 
  4914 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4915 -----------------------------------
  4916 
  4917 *** General ***
  4918 
  4919 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4920 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4921 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4922 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4923 
  4924 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4925 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4926 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4927 
  4928 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4929 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4930 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4931 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4932 
  4933 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4934 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4935 quotes.
  4936 
  4937 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4938 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4939 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4940 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4941 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4942 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4943 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4944 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4945 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4946 
  4947 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4948 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4949 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4950 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4951 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4952 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4953 
  4954 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4955 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4956 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4957 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4958 
  4959 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4960 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4961 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4962 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4963 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4964 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4965 
  4966 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4967 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4968 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4969 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4970 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4971 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4972 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4973 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4974 
  4975 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4976 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4977 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4978 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4979 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4980 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4981 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4982 
  4983 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4984 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4985 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4986 
  4987 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4988 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4989 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4990 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4991 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4992 limit is imposed.
  4993 
  4994 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4995 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4996 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4997 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4998 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4999 and scalability.
  5000 
  5001 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5002 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5003 
  5004 
  5005 *** Document preparation ***
  5006 
  5007 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5008 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5009 current context.
  5010 
  5011 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5012 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5013 
  5014 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5015 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5016 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5017 
  5018 
  5019 *** Pure ***
  5020 
  5021 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5022 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5023 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5024 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5025 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5026 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5027 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5028 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5029 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5030 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5031 
  5032 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5033 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5034 sketch:
  5035 
  5036     internal compilation:
  5037         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5038     writing SML code to a file:
  5039         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5040     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5041         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5042     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5043         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5044 
  5045     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5046         method ``eval''
  5047 
  5048 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5049 
  5050 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5051 
  5052     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5053     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5054     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5055     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5056 
  5057 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5058 
  5059     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5060       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5061 
  5062     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5063       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5064 
  5065     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5066       {(target)}+
  5067         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5068 
  5069     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5070       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5071         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5072 
  5073 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5074 
  5075 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5076 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5077 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5078 codegen".
  5079 
  5080 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5081 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5082 annotations).
  5083 
  5084 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5085 syntax.
  5086 
  5087 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5088 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5089 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5090 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5091 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5092 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5093 
  5094 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5095 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5096 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5097 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5098 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5099 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5100 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5101 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5102 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5103 equations, see section "definitions".
  5104 
  5105 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5106 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5107 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5108 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5109 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5110 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5111 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5112 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5113 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5114 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5115 
  5116 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5117 configuration options:
  5118 
  5119   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5120   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5121   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5122   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5123   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5124   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5125   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5126   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5127   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5128 
  5129 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5130 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5131 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5132 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5133 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5134 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5135 order.
  5136 
  5137 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5138 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5139 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5140 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5141 context encountered later on.
  5142 
  5143 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5144 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5145 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5146 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5147 
  5148 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5149 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5150 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5151 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5152 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5153 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5154 
  5155 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5156 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5157 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5158 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5159 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5160 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5161 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5162 more permissive.
  5163 
  5164 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5165 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5166 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5167 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5168 maintainability of proof texts.
  5169 
  5170 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5171 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5172 
  5173   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5174   then guess x and y by clarify
  5175 
  5176 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5177 proof tools being involved here.
  5178 
  5179 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5180 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5181 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5182 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5183 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5184 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5185 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5186 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5187 
  5188 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5189 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5190 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5191 
  5192   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5193   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5194   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5195   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5196 
  5197 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5198 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5199 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5200 
  5201 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5202 both named and unnamed ones.
  5203 
  5204 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5205 
  5206   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5207 
  5208 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5209 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5210 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5211 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5212 
  5213 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5214 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5215 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5216 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5217 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5218 
  5219 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5220 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5221 
  5222 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5223 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5224 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5225 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5226 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5227 originally first one.
  5228 
  5229 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5230 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5231 expected.
  5232 
  5233 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5234 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5235 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5236 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5237 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5238 
  5239   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5240     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5241     obtains x where "P x"
  5242 
  5243   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5244     assumes "A & B"
  5245     obtains A and B
  5246 
  5247   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5248     assumes "A | B"
  5249     obtains
  5250       A
  5251     | B
  5252 
  5253 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5254 explicitly:
  5255 
  5256   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5257     obtains "~ thesis"
  5258 
  5259   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5260     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5261 
  5262 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5263 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5264 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5265 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5266 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5267 case_names).
  5268 
  5269 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5270 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5271 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5272 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5273 
  5274 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5275 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5276 top-level lemma.
  5277 
  5278 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5279 introduction rule (default "that").
  5280 
  5281 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5282 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5283 to occur.
  5284 
  5285 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5286 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5287 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5288 representations independently of name spaces.
  5289 
  5290 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5291 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5292 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5293 
  5294 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5295 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5296 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5297 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5298 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5299 current context.
  5300 
  5301 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5302 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5303 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5304 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5305 
  5306   axiomatization
  5307     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5308     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5309 
  5310   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5311   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5312 
  5313   abbreviation
  5314     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5315     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5316 
  5317 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5318 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5319 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5320 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5321 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5322 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5323 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5324 
  5325 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5326 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5327 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5328 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5329 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5330 
  5331 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5332 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5333 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5334 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5335 
  5336 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5337 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5338 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5339 
  5340   definition "K x _ = x"
  5341 
  5342   inductive conj for A B
  5343   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5344 
  5345 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5346 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5347 abbreviations on output.
  5348 
  5349 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5350 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5351 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5352 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5353 
  5354 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5355 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5356 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5357 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5358 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5359 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5360 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5361 
  5362 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5363 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5364 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5365 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5366 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5367 
  5368 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5369 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5370 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5371 
  5372 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5373 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5374 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5375 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5376 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5377 
  5378   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5379     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5380 
  5381 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5382 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5383 partial_order.
  5384 
  5385 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5386 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5387 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5388 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5389 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5390 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5391 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5392 examples.
  5393 
  5394 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5395 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5396 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5397 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5398 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5399 
  5400 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5401 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5402 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5403 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5404 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5405 
  5406   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5407   (induct set: foo bar)
  5408   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5409   (induct type: foo bar)
  5410 
  5411 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5412 new format.
  5413 
  5414 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5415 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5416 
  5417 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5418 considered a legacy feature.
  5419 
  5420 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5421 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5422 
  5423 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5424 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5425 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5426 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5427 
  5428 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5429 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5430 manipulating the claset.
  5431 
  5432 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5433 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5434 least one premise.
  5435 
  5436 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5437 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5438 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5439 rule steps.
  5440 
  5441 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5442 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5443 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5444 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5445 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5446 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5447 
  5448 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5449 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5450 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5451 
  5452 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5453 the graph browser tool.
  5454 
  5455 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5456 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5457 
  5458 
  5459 *** HOL ***
  5460 
  5461 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5462 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5463 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5464 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5465 multi-threading.
  5466 
  5467 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5468 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5469 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5470 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5471 work with multi-threading.
  5472 
  5473 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5474 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5475 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5476 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5477 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5478 
  5479 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5480 
  5481 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5482 equality.
  5483 
  5484 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5485 the new 'class' package:
  5486 
  5487     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5488     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5489     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5490     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5491     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5492     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5493     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5494     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5495     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5496     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5497     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5498     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5499     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5500     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5501     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5502     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5503     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5504     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5505     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5506     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5507 
  5508 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5509 
  5510 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5511 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5512 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5513 names.
  5514 
  5515 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5516 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5517 
  5518 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5519 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5520 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5521 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5522 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5523 
  5524 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5525 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5526 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5527 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5528 
  5529 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5530 
  5531 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5532 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5533 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5534 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5536 
  5537 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5538 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5539 
  5540 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5541 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5542 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5543 
  5544 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5545 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5546 
  5547 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5548 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5549 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5550 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5551 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5552 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5553 in the current context.
  5554 
  5555 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5556 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5558 
  5559 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5560 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5561 
  5562 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5563 
  5564     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5565     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5566 
  5567     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5568       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5569     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5570     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5571 
  5572     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5573     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5574 
  5575   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5576 
  5577     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5578     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5579     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5580     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5581     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5582     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5583     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5584     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5585     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5586     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5587     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5588     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5589     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5590     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5591     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5592     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5593     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5594     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5595     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5596     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5597     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5598     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5599     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5600     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5601     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5602     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5603     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5604     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5605     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5606     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5607     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5608     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5609     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5610     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5611     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5612 
  5613     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5614     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5615     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5616     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5617     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5618     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5619     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5620     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5621     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5622     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5623     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5624     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5625     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5626     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5627     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5628     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5629     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5630 
  5631     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5632     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5633     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5634     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5635     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5636     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5637     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5638     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5639     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5640     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5641     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5642     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5643     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5644     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5645     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5646     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5647     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5648     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5649     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5650     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5651     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5652     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5653     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5654     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5655     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5656     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5657     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5658     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5659 
  5660     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5661     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5662     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5663     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5664     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5665     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5666 
  5667     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5668     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5669     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5670     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5671 
  5672     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5673     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5674 
  5675     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5676     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5677 
  5678 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5679 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5680 
  5681 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5682 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5683 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5684 "*.size".
  5685 
  5686 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5688 
  5689 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5690 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5691 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5692 
  5693 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5694 
  5695 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5696 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5697 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5698 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5699 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5700 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5701 numerals on all operations.
  5702 
  5703 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5704 
  5705 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5706 
  5707 * Code generator library theories:
  5708   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5709     languages.
  5710   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5711     languages.
  5712   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5713     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5714   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5715   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5716     denominator).
  5717   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5718     representable by rational numbers.
  5719   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5720     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5721     includes Code_Integer.
  5722   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5723     target-language built-in integers.
  5724   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5725     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5726 
  5727 * New package for inductive predicates
  5728 
  5729   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5730 
  5731     inductive
  5732       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5733       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5734     where
  5735       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5736     | ...
  5737 
  5738   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5739 
  5740     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5741 
  5742     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5743     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5744 
  5745     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5746     intros
  5747       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5748       ...
  5749 
  5750   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5751   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5752 
  5753     inductive_set
  5754       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5755       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5756     where
  5757       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5758     | ...
  5759 
  5760   or
  5761 
  5762     inductive_set
  5763       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5764       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5765       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5766     where
  5767       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5768     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5769     | ...
  5770 
  5771   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5772 
  5773   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5774   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5775 
  5776   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5777 
  5778   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5779     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5780     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5781     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5782     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5783 
  5784   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5785     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5786     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5787     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5788     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5789     statements of the form
  5790 
  5791       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5792 
  5793     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5794     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5795 
  5796       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5797 
  5798   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5799 
  5800       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5801         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5802         ==> ... ==> P
  5803 
  5804     for predicates and
  5805 
  5806       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5807         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5808         ==> ... ==> P
  5809 
  5810     for sets rather than
  5811 
  5812       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5813         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5814         ==> ... ==> P
  5815 
  5816     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5817     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5818     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5819 
  5820   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5821     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5822     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5823 
  5824 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5825 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5826 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5827 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5828 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5829 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5830 
  5831 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5832 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5833 
  5834 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5835 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5836 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5837 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5838 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5839 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5840 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5841 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5842 variable.
  5843 
  5844 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5845 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5846 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5847 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5848   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5849   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5850 
  5851 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5852 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5853 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5854 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5855 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5856 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5857 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5858 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5859 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5860 
  5861 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5862 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5863 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5864 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5865 rat, etc.
  5866 
  5867 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5868 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5869 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5870 
  5871 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5872 
  5873 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5874 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5875 
  5876 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5877 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5878 
  5879 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5880 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5881 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5882 
  5883 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5884 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5886 
  5887 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5888 
  5889 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5890 
  5891 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5892 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5893 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5894 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5895 
  5896 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5897 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5898 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5899 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5900 
  5901 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5902 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5903 algebraic operations.
  5904 
  5905 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5907 
  5908 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5909 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5910 
  5911 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5912 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5913 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5914 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5915 adapted.
  5916 
  5917 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5918 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5919 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5920 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5921 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5922 
  5923 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5924 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5925 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5926 
  5927 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5928 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5929 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5930 
  5931 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5932 
  5933 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5934 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5935 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5936   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5937       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5938   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5939   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5940   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5941 
  5942 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5943 
  5944 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5945 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5946 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5947 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5948 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5949 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5950 
  5951 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5952 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5953 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5954 
  5955 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5956 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5957 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5959 
  5960 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5961 
  5962 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5963 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5964 
  5965 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5966 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5967 
  5968 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5969 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5970 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5971 
  5972 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5973 True/False.
  5974 
  5975 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5976 
  5977 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5978 
  5979 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5980 ``rule'' method.
  5981 
  5982 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5983 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5984 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5985 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5986 
  5987 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5988 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5989 
  5990 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5991 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5992 
  5993 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5994 Library.
  5995 
  5996 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5997 
  5998 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5999 as greatest fixed-point.
  6000 
  6001 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6002 association lists.
  6003 
  6004 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6005 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6006 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6007 
  6008 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6009 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6010 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6011 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6012 behavior.
  6013 
  6014 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6015 
  6016 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6017 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6018 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6019 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6020 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6021 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6022 
  6023 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6024 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6025 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6026 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6027 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6028 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6029 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6030 
  6031 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6032 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6033 
  6034 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6035 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6036 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6037 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6038 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6039 
  6040 
  6041 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6042 
  6043 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6044 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6045 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6046 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6048 
  6049 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6050 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6051 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6052 
  6053 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6054 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6055 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6056 
  6057 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6058 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6059 
  6060 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6061 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6062 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6064 
  6065   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6066   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6067   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6068   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6069   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6070   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6071   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6072   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6073   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6074   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6075   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6076   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6077   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6078   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6079   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6080 
  6081 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6082 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6083 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6084 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6085 
  6086   approx        <-- capprox
  6087   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6088   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6089   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6090   monad         <-- cmonad
  6091   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6092   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6093   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6094   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6095 
  6096 
  6097 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6098 
  6099 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6100 
  6101 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6103 
  6104 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6105 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6106 
  6107 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6108 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6109 of algebraic structures.
  6110 
  6111 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6112 
  6113 
  6114 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6115 
  6116 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6117 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6118 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6119 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6120 
  6121 
  6122 *** ML ***
  6123 
  6124 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6125 (even on SML/NJ).
  6126 
  6127 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6128 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6129 compile-time.  For example:
  6130 
  6131 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6132 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6133 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6134 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6135 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6136 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6137 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6138 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6139 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6140 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6141 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6142 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6143 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6144 ML {* @{context} *}
  6145 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6146 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6147 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6148 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6149 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6150 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6151 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6152 
  6153 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6154 
  6155 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6156 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6157 
  6158 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6159 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6160 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6161 
  6162 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6163 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6164 
  6165 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6166 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6167 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6168 
  6169 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6170 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6171 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6172 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6173 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6174 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6175 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6176 declarations and definitions.
  6177 
  6178 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6179 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6180 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6181 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6182 
  6183 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6184 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6185 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6186 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6187 
  6188 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6189 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6190 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6191 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6192 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6193 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6194 
  6195 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6196 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6197 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6198 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6199 attributes, methods, etc.
  6200 
  6201 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6202 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6203 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6204 fold_map combinators.
  6205 
  6206 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6207 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6208 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6209 derivation.
  6210 
  6211 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6212 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6213 achieve the old behaviour.
  6214 
  6215 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6216 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6217 statements.
  6218 
  6219 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6220 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6221 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6222 
  6223 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6224 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6225 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6226 
  6227   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6228   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6229   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6230 
  6231 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6232 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6233 
  6234 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6235 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6236 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6237 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6238 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6239 
  6240 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for