NEWS
author blanchet
Fri Apr 26 12:09:51 2013 +0200 (2013-04-26)
changeset 51790 22517d04d20b
parent 51775 408d937c9486
child 52052 892061142ba6
permissions -rw-r--r--
more intuitive syntax for equality-style discriminators of nullary constructors
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
    10 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
    11 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation, with its
    12 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs, has been discontinued.
    13 The default chapter is "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for HTML
    14 presentation of theories.
    15 
    16 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    17 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    18 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    19 
    20 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    21 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 
    24 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    25 
    26 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    27 timing information.
    28 
    29 * Option to skip over proofs, using implicit 'sorry' internally.
    30 
    31 
    32 *** Pure ***
    33 
    34 * Target-sensitive commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale'.
    35 Particulary, 'interpretation' now allows for non-persistent
    36 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks.
    37 See "isar-ref" manual for details.
    38 
    39 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
    40 
    41 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
    42 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
    43 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
    44 
    45 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
    46 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    47 
    48 
    49 *** HOL ***
    50 
    51 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check
    52   phase rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators
    53   is separated from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
    54   "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
    55 
    56   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
    57 
    58 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
    59 
    60 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
    61   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
    62     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
    63     This is now identity on infinite sets.
    64   - Locales (Ā»mini packagesĀ«) for fundamental definitions with
    65     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
    66   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
    67     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
    68     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
    69     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
    70     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
    71     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
    72     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
    73     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly. 
    74   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
    75     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
    76   - Fact renames:
    77       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
    78       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
    79 
    80 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    81 
    82 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
    83 
    84 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.
    85 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    86 
    87 * Discontinued obsolete src/HOL/IsaMakefile (considered legacy since
    88 Isabelle2013).  Use "isabelle build" to operate on Isabelle sessions.
    89 
    90 * Numeric types mapped by default to target language numerals:
    91 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces
    92 former code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
    93 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
    94 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in ML).
    95 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    96 
    97 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
    98 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
    99 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on
   100 code generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   101 
   102 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a complete
   103   lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and bottom elements.
   104   Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and extended reals.
   105   Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation of
   106   conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   107   conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from Inf_...
   108   to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice lemmas.
   109 
   110   Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of conditionally-complete
   111   lattices and inner dense linorders which have more than one element.
   112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   113 
   114 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without top
   115   and bottom elements.
   116 
   117 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   118 
   119 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   120   HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   121 
   122  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and linear_continuum_topology.
   123    Allows to generalize theorems about limits and order.
   124    Instances are reals and extended reals.
   125 
   126  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   127    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.
   128    "isCont" is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   129 
   130    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an arbitrary
   131    filter.
   132 
   133  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma
   134    to prove compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   135    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a continuous
   136    function is continuous, when the function is continuous on a compact set.
   137 
   138  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   139    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   140    linear_continuum_topology).
   141 
   142  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   143    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and on
   144    all sequences converging to x.
   145 
   146  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved theorems
   147    from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the definition of DERIV on
   148    FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV which are restricted to sets,
   149    i.e. to represent derivatives from left or right.
   150 
   151  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   152 
   153      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   154 
   155  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   156    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   157 
   158  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros, continuous_intros,
   159    continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems in tendsto_intros (or
   160    FDERIV_intros) are also available as tendsto_eq_intros (or
   161    FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side is replaced by a congruence
   162    rule. This allows to apply them as intro rules and then proving
   163    equivalence by the simplifier.
   164 
   165  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   166 
   167    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   168 
   169    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   170      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   171 
   172    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   173 
   174    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces, Real_Vector_Spaces, and
   175      Limits
   176 
   177    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   178 
   179    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   180 
   181  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   182 
   183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   186 
   187     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   188     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   189 
   190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   191 
   192 * Sledgehammer:
   193 
   194   - Renamed option:
   195       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   196 
   197 
   198 *** HOL-Algebra ***
   199 
   200 * Discontinued theories src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and .../poly.
   201 Existing theories should be based on src/HOL/Library/Polynomial
   202 instead.  The latter provides integration with HOL's type classes for
   203 rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   204 
   205 
   206 *** ML ***
   207 
   208 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   209 
   210     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   211     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   212 
   213 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   214 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   215 
   216 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   217 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   218 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   219 clasets separately from the context.
   220 
   221 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   222 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   223 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   224 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   225 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   226 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   227 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   228 
   229 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   230 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   231 
   232 
   233 *** System ***
   234 
   235 * Discontinued "isabelle usedir" option -P (remote path) and -r (reset
   236 session path).  Note that usedir is legacy and superseded by "isabelle
   237 build" since Isabelle2013.
   238 
   239 
   240 
   241 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   242 -----------------------------------
   243 
   244 *** General ***
   245 
   246 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   247 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   248 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   249 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   250 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   251 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   252 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   253 
   254 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   255 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   256 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   257 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   258 
   259 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   260 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   261 
   262 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   263 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   264 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   265 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   266 dependencies properly.
   267 
   268 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   269 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   270 
   271 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   272 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   273 
   274 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   275 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   276 and "class ... context ...".
   277 
   278 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   279 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   280 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   281 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   282 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   283 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   284 
   285 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   286 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   287 
   288 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   289 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   290 
   291 
   292 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   293 
   294 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   295 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   296 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   297 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   298 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   299 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   300 
   301 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   302 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   303 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   304 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   305 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   306 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   307 
   308 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   309 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   310 browser on demand.
   311 
   312 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   313 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   314 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   315 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   316 
   317 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   318 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   319 
   320 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   321 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   322 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   323 potentially infinite message streams.
   324 
   325 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   326 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   327 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   328 schemes.
   329 
   330 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   331 symbols.
   332 
   333 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   334 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   335 
   336 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   337 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   338 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   339 
   340 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   341 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   342 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   343 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   344 
   345 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   346 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   347 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   348 
   349 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   350 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   351 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   352 Isabelle distribution.
   353 
   354 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   355 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   356 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   357 
   358 
   359 *** Pure ***
   360 
   361 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   362 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   363 
   364 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   365 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   366 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   367 
   368 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   369 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   370 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   371 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   372 with some care where this is really required.
   373 
   374 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   375 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   376 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   377 
   378   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   379 
   380 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   381 a Hasse diagram.
   382 
   383 
   384 *** HOL ***
   385 
   386 * Sledgehammer:
   387 
   388   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   389     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   390   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   391   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   392   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   393   - Renamed options:
   394       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   395       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   396       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   397       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   398 
   399 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   400 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   401 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   402 
   403 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   404 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   405 
   406 * Lifting:
   407   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   408   - quot_del attribute
   409   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   410 
   411 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   412 expressions.
   413 
   414 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   415 pointfree expressions.
   416 
   417 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   418 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   419 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   420 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   421 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   422 
   423 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   424 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   425 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   426 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   427 accordingly.
   428 
   429 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   430 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   431 
   432 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   433 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   434 
   435 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   436 
   437 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   438 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   439 
   440 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   441 
   442 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   443 
   444   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   445   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   446 
   447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   448 
   449 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   450 
   451   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   452   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   453 
   454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   455 
   456 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   457 
   458   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   459     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   460     output f x converges to G.
   461 
   462   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   463     infinity (at_bot).
   464 
   465   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   466     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   467 
   468   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   469     at_top".
   470 
   471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   472 
   473 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   474 lattice type classes.
   475 
   476 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   477 
   478     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   479     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   480 
   481 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   482 
   483 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   484 changes as follows.
   485 
   486   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   487 
   488       prefix ~> prefixeq
   489       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   490 
   491   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   492     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   493     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   494     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   495 
   496   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   497     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   498     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   499 
   500   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   501     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   502     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   503     Library/Prefix_Order.
   504 
   505   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   506     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   507 
   508       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   509       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   510       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   511       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   512       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   513       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   514       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   515       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   516       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   517       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   518       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   519       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   520       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   521       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   522       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   523       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   524 
   525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   526 
   527 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   528 
   529 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   530 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   531 
   532 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   533 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   534 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   535 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   536 
   537   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   538   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   539   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   540   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   541   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   542   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   543   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   544   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   545   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   546   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   547 
   548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   549 
   550 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   551 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   552 Data").
   553 
   554 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   555 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   556 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   557 code.
   558 
   559 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   560 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   561 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   563 
   564 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   565 
   566 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   567 
   568 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   569 
   570   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   571   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   572 
   573 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   574 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   575 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   576 
   577   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   578 
   579     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   580     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   581     cart_base i  removed
   582     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   583 
   584   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   585 
   586   Renamed lemmas:
   587 
   588     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   589     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   590     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   591     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   592     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   593     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   594     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   595     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   596     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   597     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   598 
   599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   600 
   601 * HOL/Probability:
   602 
   603   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   604 
   605   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   606     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   607     (borel_measurable_induct).
   608 
   609   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   610     projective family).
   611 
   612 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   613 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   614 
   615 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   616 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   617 datatypes.
   618 
   619 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   620 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   621 
   622 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   623 trees for the code generator.
   624 
   625 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   626 Lifting/Transfer.
   627 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   628 
   629 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631 
   632 
   633 *** Document preparation ***
   634 
   635 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   636 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   637 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   638 
   639 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   640 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   641 
   642 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   643 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   644 document/root.tex.
   645 
   646 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   647 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   648 
   649 
   650 *** ML ***
   651 
   652 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   653 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   654 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   655 
   656 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   657 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   658 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   659 
   660 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   661 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   662 necessarily printing visible text.
   663 
   664 
   665 *** System ***
   666 
   667 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   668 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   669 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   670 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   671 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   672 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   673 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   674 
   675 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   676 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   677 
   678   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   679 
   680 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   681 
   682 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   683 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   684 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   685 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   686 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   687 
   688 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   689 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   690 
   691 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   692 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   693 
   694 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   696 
   697 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   698 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   699 version of Isabelle.
   700 
   701 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   702 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   703 
   704 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   705 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   706 for home-made settings.
   707 
   708 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   709 
   710 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   711 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   712 configuration.
   713 
   714 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   715 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   716 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   717 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   718 bundled as Isabelle component.
   719 
   720 
   721 
   722 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   723 ------------------------------
   724 
   725 *** General ***
   726 
   727 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   728 
   729   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   730     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   731   - markup for bound variables
   732   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   733   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   734   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   735     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   736 
   737 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   738 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   739 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   740 
   741 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   742 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   743 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   744 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   745 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   746 
   747   context
   748     fixes x y z :: 'a
   749     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   750   begin
   751 
   752   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   753 
   754   end
   755 
   756   thm my_trans
   757 
   758 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   759 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   760 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   761 
   762 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   763 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   764 
   765 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   766 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   767 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   768 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   769 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   770 
   771 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   772 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   773 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   774 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   775 indices of schematic variables.
   776 
   777 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   778 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   779 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   780 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   781 etc. was exploited.
   782 
   783 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   784 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   785 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   786 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   787 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   788 of the material of that old tutorial.
   789 
   790 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   791 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   792 manual.
   793 
   794 
   795 *** Pure ***
   796 
   797 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   798 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   799 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   800 
   801 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   802 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   803 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   804 undocumented feature.)
   805 
   806 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   807 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   808 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   809 
   810   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   811 
   812   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   813     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   814 
   815 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   816 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   817 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   818 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   819 
   820 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   821 
   822     num ~> num_token
   823     xnum ~> xnum_token
   824     xstr ~> str_token
   825 
   826 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   827 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   828 position information via constraints).
   829 
   830 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   831 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   832 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   833 
   834 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   835 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   836 
   837 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   838 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   839 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   840 
   841 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   842 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   843 
   844 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   845 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   846 
   847   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   848 
   849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   850 
   851 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   852 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   853 
   854 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   855 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   856 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   857 
   858 
   859 *** HOL ***
   860 
   861 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   862 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   863 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   864 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   865 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   866 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   867 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   868 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   869 possible.
   870 
   871 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   872 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   873 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   874 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   875 
   876 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   877 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   878 
   879 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   880 
   881 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   882 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   883 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   884 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   885 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   886 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   887 
   888   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   889     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   890 
   891   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   892     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   893     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   894 
   895   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   896     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   897 
   898   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   899     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   900     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   901 
   902   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   903     Redefine using other integer operations.
   904 
   905 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   906 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   907 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   908 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   909 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   910 
   911   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   912     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   913     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   914     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   915     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   916 
   917     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   918     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   919 
   920   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   921     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   922     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   923     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   924     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   925     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   926     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   927     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   928 
   929   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   930     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   931     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   932     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   933 
   934   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   935     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   936     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   937     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   938 
   939   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   940     from type nat to type int.
   941 
   942 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   943 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   944 
   945   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   946     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   947     type.  Example syntax:
   948 
   949     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   950       is List.insert
   951 
   952     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   953     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   954     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   955     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   956     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   957     by the package.
   958 
   959   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   960     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   961     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   962     code generation for each constant.
   963 
   964   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   965     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   966     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   967     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   968     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   969 
   970   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   971     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   972     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   973 
   974 * Quotient package:
   975 
   976   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   977     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   978 
   979   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   980     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   981 
   982   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   983     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   984     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   985 
   986   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   987     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   988 
   989 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   990 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   991 
   992 * Quickcheck:
   993 
   994   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   995     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   996     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   997     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   998     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   999 
  1000     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1001     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1002     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1003 
  1004     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1005     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1006 
  1007     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1008     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1009     show genuine counterexamples.
  1010 
  1011   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1012     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1013 
  1014     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1015     constructors of that type.
  1016 
  1017   - Support for multisets.
  1018 
  1019   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1020 
  1021   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1022     conjectures in a locale context.
  1023 
  1024 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1025 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1026 
  1027 * Sledgehammer:
  1028   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1029     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1030   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1031   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1032     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1033   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1034   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1035   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1036   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1037 
  1038 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1039 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1040 
  1041 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1042 
  1043 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1044 
  1045 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1046 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1047 
  1048   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1049 
  1050 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1051 a list and a nat.
  1052 
  1053 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1054 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1055 
  1056 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1057 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1058 default.
  1059 
  1060 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1061 
  1062   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1063 
  1064 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1065 
  1066 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1067 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1068 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1069 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1070 one_case.
  1071 
  1072 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1073 the result of the fact expression.
  1074 
  1075 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1076 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1077 of some relation theorems:
  1078 
  1079   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1080   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1081   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1082   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1083   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1084   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1085 
  1086 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1087 
  1088 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1089 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1090 
  1091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1092 
  1093 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1094 to match the constant's name:
  1095 
  1096   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1097   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1098   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1099   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1100   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1101   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1102   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1103   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1104   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1105   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1106   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1107   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1108   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1109   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1110   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1111   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1112   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1113   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1114   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1115   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1116   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1117   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1118   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1119   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1120 
  1121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1122 
  1123 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1124 and corresponding theorem names:
  1125 
  1126   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1127 
  1128   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1129 
  1130   - Renamed theorems:
  1131 
  1132     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1133     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1134     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1135     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1136     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1137     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1138     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1139     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1140     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1141     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1142     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1143     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1144     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1145     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1146     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1147     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1148     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1149     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1150     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1151     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1152     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1153     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1154     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1155 
  1156     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1157 
  1158     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1159 
  1160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1161 
  1162 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1163 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1164 
  1165   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1166   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1167   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1168   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1169   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1170   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1171   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1172   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1173   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1174   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1175   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1176   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1177   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1178   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1179   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1180   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1181   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1182   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1183   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1184   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1185   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1186 
  1187 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1188 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1189 
  1190 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1191 
  1192 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1193 
  1194   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1195   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1196   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1197   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1198   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1199   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1200   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1201   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1202   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1203   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1204   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1205   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1206   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1207   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1208   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1209   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1210   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1211   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1212 
  1213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1214 
  1215 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1216 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1217 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1218 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1219 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1220 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1221 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1222 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1223 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1224 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1225 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1226 
  1227 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1228 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1229 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1230 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1231 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1232 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1233 
  1234 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1235 through option types.
  1236 
  1237 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1238 relations.
  1239 
  1240 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1241 
  1242 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1243 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1244 
  1245   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1246   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1247   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1248   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1249   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1250   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1251   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1252   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1253   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1254   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1255   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1256   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1257   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1258   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1259   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1260   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1261   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1262   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1263   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1264   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1265   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1266   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1267   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1268   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1269   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1270   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1271   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1272   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1273   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1274   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1275   zless_le ~> less_le
  1276   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1277   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1278   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1279 
  1280 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1281 
  1282   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1283 
  1284 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1285 
  1286 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1287 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1288 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1289 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1291 
  1292 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1293 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1294 
  1295 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1296 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1297 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1298 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1299 follows:
  1300 
  1301   Operations:
  1302   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1303   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1304   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1305   del -> rbt_del
  1306   delete -> rbt_delete
  1307   ins -> rbt_ins
  1308   insert -> rbt_insert
  1309   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1310   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1311   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1312   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1313   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1314   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1315   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1316   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1317   union -> rbt_union
  1318   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1319   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1320 
  1321   Lemmas:
  1322   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1323   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1324   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1325   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1326   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1327   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1328   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1329   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1330   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1331   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1332   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1333   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1334   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1335   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1336   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1337   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1338   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1339   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1340   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1341   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1342   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1343   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1344   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1345   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1346   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1347   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1348   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1349   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1350   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1351   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1352   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1353   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1354   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1355   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1356   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1357   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1358   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1359   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1360   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1361   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1362   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1363   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1364   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1365   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1366   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1367   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1368   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1369   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1370   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1371   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1372   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1373   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1374   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1375   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1376   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1377   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1378   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1379   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1380   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1381   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1382   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1383   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1384   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1385   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1386   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1387   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1388   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1389   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1390   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1391   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1392   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1393   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1394   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1395   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1396   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1397   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1398   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1399   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1400   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1401   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1402   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1403   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1404   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1405 
  1406 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1407 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1408 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1409 
  1410   Changed Operations:
  1411   float_abs -> abs
  1412   float_nprt -> nprt
  1413   float_pprt -> pprt
  1414   pow2 -> use powr
  1415   round_down -> float_round_down
  1416   round_up -> float_round_up
  1417   scale -> exponent
  1418 
  1419   Removed Operations:
  1420   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1421 
  1422   Renamed Lemmas:
  1423   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1424   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1425   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1426   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1427   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1428   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1429   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1430   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1431   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1432   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1433   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1434   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1435   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1436   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1437   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1438   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1439   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1440   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1441   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1442   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1443   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1444   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1445   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1446   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1447   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1448   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1449   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1450   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1451   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1452   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1453   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1454   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1455   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1456   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1457   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1458   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1459 
  1460   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1461   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1462   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1463   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1464   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1465   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1466   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1467   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1468   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1469   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1470 
  1471 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1472 association lists with distinct keys.
  1473 
  1474 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1475 annotated commands.
  1476 
  1477 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1478 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1479 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1480 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1481 
  1482 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1483 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1484 instead.
  1485 
  1486   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1487   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1488   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1489   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1490   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1491   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1492   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1493   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1494   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1495   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1496   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1497   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1498   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1499   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1500   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1501   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1502   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1503   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1504   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1505   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1506   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1507   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1508   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1509   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1510   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1511   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1512   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1513   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1514   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1515   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1516   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1517   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1518   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1519   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1520   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1521   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1522   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1523   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1524   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1525   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1526   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1527 
  1528 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1529 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1530 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1531 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1532 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1533 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1534 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1535 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1536 
  1537 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1538 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1539 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1540 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1541 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1542 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1543 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1544 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1545 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1546 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1547 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1548 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1549 
  1550   Renamed constants:
  1551   measure -> emeasure
  1552   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1553   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1554   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1555   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1556 
  1557   Removed locales:
  1558   completeable_measure_space
  1559   finite_measure_space
  1560   finite_prob_space
  1561   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1562   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1563   finite_sigma_algebra
  1564   measure_space
  1565   pair_finite_prob_space
  1566   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1567   pair_finite_space
  1568   pair_sigma_algebra
  1569   product_sigma_algebra
  1570 
  1571   Removed constants:
  1572   conditional_space
  1573   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1574   image_space
  1575   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1576   pair_measure_generator
  1577   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1578   subvimage
  1579 
  1580   Replacement theorems:
  1581   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1582   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1583   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1584   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1585   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1586   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1587   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1588   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1589   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1590   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1591   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1592   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1593   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1594   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1595   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1596   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1597   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1598   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1599   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1600   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1601   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1602   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1603   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1604   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1605   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1606   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1607   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1608   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1609   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1610   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1611   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1612   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1613   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1614   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1615   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1616   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1617   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1618   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1619   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1620   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1621   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1622   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1623   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1624   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1625   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1626   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1627   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1628   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1629   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1630   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1631   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1632   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1633   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1634   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1635   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1636   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1637   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1638   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1639   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1640   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1641   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1642   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1643   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1644   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1645   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1646   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1647   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1648   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1649   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1650   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1651   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1652   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1653   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1654   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1655   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1656   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1657   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1658   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1659   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1660   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1661   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1662   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1663   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1664   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1665   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1666   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1667   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1668   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1669   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1670   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1671   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1672   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1673   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1674   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1675   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1676   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1677   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1678   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1679   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1680   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1681   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1682   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1683   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1684   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1685   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1686   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1687   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1688   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1689   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1690   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1691   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1692   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1693   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1694   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1695   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1696   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1697   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1698   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1699   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1700   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1701   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1702   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1703   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1704   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1705   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1706   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1707   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1708   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1709 
  1710 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1711 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1712 
  1713 
  1714 *** FOL ***
  1715 
  1716 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1717 
  1718 
  1719 *** ZF ***
  1720 
  1721 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1722 analysis.
  1723 
  1724 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1725 
  1726 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1727 
  1728 
  1729 *** ML ***
  1730 
  1731 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1732 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1733 
  1734 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1735 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1736 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1737 
  1738 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1739 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1740 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1741 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1742 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1743 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1744 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1745 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1746 
  1747 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1748 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1749 
  1750 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1751 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1752 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1753 
  1754 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1755 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1756 
  1757 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1758 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1759 context as well.
  1760 
  1761 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1762 
  1763   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1764   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1765   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1766   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1767   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1768   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1769   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1770   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1771   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1772   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1773   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1774   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1775 
  1776 
  1777 *** System ***
  1778 
  1779 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1780 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1781 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1782 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1783 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1784 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1785 the generic user home was intended.
  1786 
  1787 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1788 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1789 
  1790 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1791 (not just JRE).
  1792 
  1793 
  1794 
  1795 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1796 ------------------------------------
  1797 
  1798 *** General ***
  1799 
  1800 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1801 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1802 
  1803   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1804     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1805     files for checking).
  1806 
  1807   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1808     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1809     positions.
  1810 
  1811   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1812     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1813     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1814 
  1815   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1816     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1817     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1818 
  1819   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1820     cores.
  1821 
  1822   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1823     versions (garbage collection).
  1824 
  1825 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1826 including some remaining limitations.
  1827 
  1828 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1829 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1830 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1831 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1832 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1834 
  1835 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1836 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1837 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1838 
  1839 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1840 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1841 usedir option -Q.
  1842 
  1843 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1844 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1845 
  1846   long_names   ~> names_long
  1847   short_names  ~> names_short
  1848   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1849 
  1850 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1851 
  1852   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1853 
  1854 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1855 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1856 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1857 
  1858 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1859 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1860 
  1861 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1862   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1863   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1864   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1865     "Classical Reasoner".
  1866 
  1867 
  1868 *** HOL ***
  1869 
  1870 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1871 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1872 
  1873 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1874 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1875 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1876 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1877 class complete_linorder.
  1878 
  1879 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1880 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1881 
  1882 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1883 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1884 
  1885   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1886   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1887   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1888   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1889   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1890   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1891   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1892   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1893   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1894   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1895   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1896 
  1897 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1898 
  1899   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1900   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1901   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1902   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1903   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1904   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1905   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1906   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1907   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1908   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1909   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1910   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1911   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1912   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1913   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1914   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1915 
  1916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1917 
  1918 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1919 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1920 
  1921 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1922 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1923 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1924 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1925 
  1926 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1927 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1928 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1930 
  1931 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1932 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1933 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1934 
  1935 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1936 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1937 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1938 
  1939 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1940 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1941 
  1942 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1943 
  1944     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1945     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1946 
  1947 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1948 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1949 
  1950 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1951 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1952 
  1953 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1954 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1955 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1956 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1957 
  1958   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1959   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1960   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1961   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1962   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1963   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1964   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1965 
  1966 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1967 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1968 
  1969   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1970   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1971   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1972   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1973   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1974   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1975   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1976   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1977   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1978   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1979   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1980   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1981   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1982   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1983   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1984   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1985   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1986   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1987   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1988   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1989   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1990   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1991   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1992   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1993   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1994   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1995   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1996   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1997   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1998   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1999   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2000   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2001   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2002   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2003   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2004   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2005   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2006   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2007   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2008   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2009   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2010   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2011   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2012   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2013   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2014   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2015   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2016   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2017   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2018   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2019   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2020   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2021   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2022   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2023   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2024   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2025   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2026   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2027   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2028   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2029   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2030   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2031   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2032   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2033   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2034   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2035   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2036   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2037   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2038   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2039   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2040   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2041   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2042   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2043   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2044   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2045   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2046   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2047   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2048   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2049   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2050   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2051 
  2052 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2053 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2054 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2055 
  2056 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2057 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2058 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2059 
  2060 * Code generation:
  2061 
  2062   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2063     characters in the target language.
  2064 
  2065   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2066     instead.
  2067 
  2068   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2069 
  2070   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2071     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2072 
  2073       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2074 
  2075 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2076 
  2077 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2078 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2079 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2080 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2081 syntax.
  2082 
  2083 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2084 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2085 
  2086 * Nitpick:
  2087   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2088   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2089   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2090     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2091 
  2092 * Sledgehammer:
  2093   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2094   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2095     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2096   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2097     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2098   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2099     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2100   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2101     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2102   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2103     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2104 
  2105 * Metis:
  2106   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2107   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2108     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2109 
  2110 * Command 'try':
  2111   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2112     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2113   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2114     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2115 
  2116 * Quickcheck:
  2117   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2118     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2119   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2120     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2121   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2122     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2123     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2124     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2125   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2126     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2127 
  2128 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2129 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2130 
  2131 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2132 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2133 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2134 
  2135 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2136 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2138 
  2139 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2140 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2141 
  2142 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2143 arithmetic.
  2144 
  2145 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2146 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2147 and lattice type classes.
  2148 
  2149 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2150 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2151 
  2152 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2153 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2154 
  2155 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2156 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2157 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2158 
  2159   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2160   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2161   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2162   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2163 
  2164 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2165 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2166 constants:
  2167 
  2168   type inat   ~> type enat
  2169   Fin         ~> enat
  2170   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2171   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2172   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2173 
  2174 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2175 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2176 
  2177 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2178 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2179 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2180 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2181 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2182 
  2183 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2184 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2185 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2186 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2187 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2188 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2189 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2190 
  2191   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2192   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2193   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2194   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2195 
  2196 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2197 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2198 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2199 
  2200   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2201   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2202   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2203   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2204   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2205   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2206   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2207   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2208   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2209   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2210   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2211   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2212   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2213   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2214   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2215   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2216   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2217   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2218   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2219   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2220   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2221   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2222   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2223   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2224   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2225   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2226   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2227   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2228   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2229   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2230   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2231   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2232   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2233   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2234   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2235   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2236   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2237   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2238   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2239   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2240   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2241   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2242   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2243   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2244   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2245   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2246   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2247   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2248   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2249   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2250   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2251 
  2252 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2253   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2254   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2255   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2256   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2257     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2258 
  2259 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2260 
  2261   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2262   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2263   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2264   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2265   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2266   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2267   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2268   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2269   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2270   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2271   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2272   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2273   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2274   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2275   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2276   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2277   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2278   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2279   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2280   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2281   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2282   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2283   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2284   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2285   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2286 
  2287 
  2288 *** Document preparation ***
  2289 
  2290 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2291 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2292 same.
  2293 
  2294 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2295 result.
  2296 
  2297 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2298 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2299 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2300 
  2301 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2302 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2303 
  2304 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2305 like this:
  2306 
  2307   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2308   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2309 
  2310 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2311 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2312 layouts.
  2313 
  2314 
  2315 *** ML ***
  2316 
  2317 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2318 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2319 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2320 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2321 under external program control.
  2322 
  2323 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2324 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2325 
  2326 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2327 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2328 (better known as Proof General).
  2329 
  2330 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2331 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2332 
  2333 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2334 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2335 
  2336 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2337 (including quotes etc.).
  2338 
  2339 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2340 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2341 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2342 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2343 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2344 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2345 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2346 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2347 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2348 
  2349 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2350 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2351 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2352 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2353 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2354 
  2355 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2356 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2357 
  2358 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2359 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2360 
  2361 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2362 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2363 
  2364 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2365 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2366 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2367 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2368 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2369 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2370 proper Proof.context.
  2371 
  2372 
  2373 *** System ***
  2374 
  2375 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2376 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2377 
  2378 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2379 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2380 
  2381 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2382 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2383 
  2384   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2385   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2386   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2387   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2388   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2389 
  2390 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2391 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2392 
  2393 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2394 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2395 example:
  2396 
  2397   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2398 
  2399 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2400 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2401 
  2402 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2403 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2404 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2405 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2406 
  2407 
  2408 
  2409 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2410 ----------------------------------
  2411 
  2412 *** General ***
  2413 
  2414 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2415 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2416 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2417 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2418 like this:
  2419 
  2420   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2421 
  2422 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2423 
  2424 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2425 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2426 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2427 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2428 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2429 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2430 
  2431 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2432 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2433 the following package declarations:
  2434 
  2435   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2436   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2437 
  2438 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2439 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2440 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2441 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2442 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2443 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2444 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2445 
  2446 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2447 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2448 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2449 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2450 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2451 
  2452 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2453 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2454 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2455 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2456 
  2457 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2458 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2459 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2460 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2461 
  2462   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2463 
  2464   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2465   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2466   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2467   show_types                    show_types
  2468   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2469   show_consts                   show_consts
  2470   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2471 
  2472   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2473   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2474   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2475 
  2476   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2477   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2478 
  2479   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2480 
  2481   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2482   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2483   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2484   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2485   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2486 
  2487 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2488 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2489 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2490 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2491 
  2492 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2494 
  2495   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2496   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2497 
  2498 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2499 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2500 float_token.
  2501 
  2502 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2503 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2505 
  2506 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2507 DejaVu Sans.
  2508 
  2509 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2510 
  2511 
  2512 *** Pure ***
  2513 
  2514 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2515 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2516 time.
  2517 
  2518 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2519 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2520 
  2521 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2522 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2523 
  2524 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2525 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2526 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2527 command already provided this functionality.
  2528 
  2529 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2530 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2531 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2532 without interpretations.
  2533 
  2534 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2535 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2536 
  2537 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2538 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2539 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2540 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2541 
  2542 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2543 'definition' instead.
  2544 
  2545 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2546 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2547 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2548 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2549 
  2550 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2551 constructors.
  2552 
  2553 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2554 the local file system.
  2555 
  2556 
  2557 *** HOL ***
  2558 
  2559 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2560 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2561 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2562 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2563 
  2564   declare [[coercion f]]
  2565 
  2566 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2567 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2568 
  2569   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2570 
  2571 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2572 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2573 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2574 other theories like this:
  2575 
  2576   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2577 
  2578 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2579 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2580 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2581 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2582 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2583 for examples.
  2584 
  2585 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2586 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2587 
  2588 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2589 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2590 
  2591 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2592 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2593 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2594 
  2595 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2596 functorial structure of types.
  2597 
  2598 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2599 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2600 
  2601 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2602 languages.
  2603 
  2604 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2605 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2607 
  2608 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2609 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2610 
  2611 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2612 combinators any longer.
  2613 
  2614 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2615 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2616 
  2617 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2618 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2619 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2620 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2621 
  2622   record 'a foo = ...
  2623   ...
  2624   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2625 
  2626 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2627 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2628 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2629 
  2630 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2631 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2632 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2633 
  2634 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2635 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2636 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2637 
  2638 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2639 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2640 
  2641 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2642 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2643 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2644 independently.
  2645 
  2646 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2647 counter example search.
  2648 
  2649 * Sledgehammer:
  2650   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2651     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2652     sledgehammer").
  2653   - Renamed commands:
  2654     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2655     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2656     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2657     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658   - Renamed options:
  2659     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2660     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2661     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2662     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2663     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2664 
  2665 * Nitpick:
  2666   - Renamed options:
  2667     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2668     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2669     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2670   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2671   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2672   - Added "whack" option.
  2673   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2674   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2675   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2676   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2677     higher cardinalities.
  2678   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2679 
  2680 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2681 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2682 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2683 
  2684     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2685 
  2686 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2687 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2688 
  2689 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2690 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2691 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2692 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2693 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2694 "smt_solver".
  2695 
  2696 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2697 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2698 
  2699 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2700 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2701 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2702 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703 
  2704 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2705   - Renamed:
  2706     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2707     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2708     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2709   - Added:
  2710     smt_verbose
  2711     smt_random_seed
  2712     smt_datatypes
  2713     smt_infer_triggers
  2714     smt_monomorph_limit
  2715     cvc3_options
  2716     remote_cvc3_options
  2717     remote_z3_options
  2718     yices_options
  2719 
  2720 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2721 header.
  2722 
  2723 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2724 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2725 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2726 
  2727   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2728 
  2729 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2730 
  2731 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2732 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2733 
  2734 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735 
  2736 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2737 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2738 
  2739 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2740 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2741 
  2742 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2743 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2746 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2747 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2748 
  2749 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2753 
  2754 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2755 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2756 
  2757 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2758 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2759 for congruent(2)).
  2760 
  2761 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2762 
  2763   types
  2764     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2765     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2766 
  2767   constants
  2768     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2769     True ~> HOL.True
  2770     False ~> HOL.False
  2771     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2772     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2773     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2774     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2775     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2776     The ~> HOL.The
  2777     All ~> HOL.All
  2778     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2779     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2780     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2781     If ~> HOL.If
  2782     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2783     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2784     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2785     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2786     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2787     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2788     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2789     op : ~> Set.member
  2790     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2791 
  2792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2793 
  2794 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2795 
  2796     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2797     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2798     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2799     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2800     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2801     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2802     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2803     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2804 
  2805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2806 
  2807 * More stylized fact names:
  2808 
  2809   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2810   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2811   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2812   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2813 
  2814 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2815 
  2816 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2817 
  2818   constants
  2819     null ~> List.null
  2820 
  2821   facts
  2822     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2823     null_empty ~> null_def
  2824 
  2825 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2826 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2827 generation.
  2828 
  2829 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2830 Haskell code.
  2831 
  2832 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2833 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2834 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2835 
  2836 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2837 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2838 
  2839 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2840 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2841 
  2842 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2843 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2844 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2845 
  2846 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2847 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2848 
  2849 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2851 
  2852 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2853 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2854 referred to by its qualified name.
  2855 
  2856   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2857   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2858   product ~>  Enum.product
  2859 
  2860 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2861 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2862 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2863 
  2864 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2865 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2866 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2868 
  2869 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2870 sort_key.
  2871 
  2872 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2874 
  2875 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2876 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2877 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2878 
  2879   types
  2880     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2881               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2882               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2883         (depends on your needs)
  2884 
  2885   constants
  2886      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2887      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2888      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2889 
  2890 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2891 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2892 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2893 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2894 
  2895 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2896 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2897 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2898 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2899 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2900 
  2901 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2903 
  2904 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2905 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2906 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2907 
  2908 
  2909 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2910 
  2911 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2912 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2913 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2914 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2915 compatibility.
  2916 
  2917 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2918 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2919 
  2920 
  2921 *** HOLCF ***
  2922 
  2923 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2924 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2925 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2927 
  2928 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2929 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2930 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2931 
  2932   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2933   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2934   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2935 
  2936 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2937 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2938 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2939 
  2940 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2941 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2942 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2943 domain definition now works:
  2944 
  2945   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2946 
  2947 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2948 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2949 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2950 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2951 
  2952   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2953     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2954 
  2955   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2956 
  2957 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2958 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2959 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2960 
  2961 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2962 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2963 
  2964 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2965 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2966 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2967 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2968 
  2969 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2970 
  2971 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2972 
  2973 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2974 
  2975 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2976 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2977 
  2978 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2979 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2980 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2981 
  2982 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2983 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2984 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2985 
  2986 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2987 still supported as an input translation.
  2988 
  2989 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2990 
  2991   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2992   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2993   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2994   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2995   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2996   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2997   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2998 
  2999 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3000 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001 
  3002   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3003   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3004   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3005   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3006   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3007   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3008 
  3009 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3010 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3011 
  3012 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3013 
  3014   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3015   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3016   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3017   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3018 
  3019 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3020 
  3021 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3022 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023 
  3024 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3025 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3026 
  3027   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3028   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3029   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3030   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3031   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3032   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3033   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3034   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3035   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3036   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3037   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3038   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3039   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3040   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3041   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3042   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3043   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3044   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3045   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3046   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3047 
  3048 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3049 
  3050   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3051   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3052   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3053   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3054   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3055   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3056   box_less             ~> box_below
  3057   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3058   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3059   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3060   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3061   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3062   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3063   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3064   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3065   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3066   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3067   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3068   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3069   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3070   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3071   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3072   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3073   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3074   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3075   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3076   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3077   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3078   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3079   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3080   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3081   up_less              ~> up_below
  3082   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3083   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3084   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3085   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3086   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3087   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3088   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3089   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3090   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3091   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3092   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3093   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3094   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3095 
  3096 
  3097 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3098 
  3099 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3100 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 
  3103 *** ML ***
  3104 
  3105 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3106 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3107 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3108 
  3109 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3110 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3111 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3112 
  3113 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3114 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3115 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3116 
  3117 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3118 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3119 
  3120 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3121 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3122 
  3123 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3124 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3125 
  3126 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3127 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3128 
  3129 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3130 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3131 almost all situations.
  3132 
  3133 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3134 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3135 Isabelle/ML.
  3136 
  3137 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3138 meaning.
  3139 
  3140 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3141 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3142 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3143 
  3144 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3145 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3146 
  3147 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3148 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3149 
  3150 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3151 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3152 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3153 
  3154 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3155 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3156 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3157 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3158 configuration options.
  3159 
  3160 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3161 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3162 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3163 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3164 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3165 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3166 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3167 
  3168 
  3169 
  3170 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3171 ---------------------------------
  3172 
  3173 *** General ***
  3174 
  3175 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3176 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3177 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3178 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3179 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3180 their full internal name.
  3181 
  3182 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3183 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3184 Some hints on upgrading:
  3185 
  3186   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3187     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3188     which are independent of this issue.
  3189 
  3190   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3191     provides the following special forms:
  3192 
  3193       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3194       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3195       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3196 
  3197     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3198     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3199     extra variables".
  3200 
  3201     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3202     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3203     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3204     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3205     "logic".
  3206 
  3207   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3208     antiquotations:
  3209 
  3210       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3211       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3212       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3213       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3214 
  3215   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3216     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3217     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3218     antiquotations.
  3219 
  3220 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3221 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3222 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3223 diagnose syntax problems.
  3224 
  3225 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3226 
  3227 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3228 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3229 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3230 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3231 
  3232 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3233 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3234 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3235 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3236 
  3237 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3238 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3239 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3240 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3241 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3242 
  3243 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3244 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3245 
  3246 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3247 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3248 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3249 
  3250   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3251 
  3252 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3253 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3254 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3255 
  3256 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3257 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3259 
  3260 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3261 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3262 
  3263 
  3264 *** Pure ***
  3265 
  3266 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3267 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3268 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3269 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3270 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3271 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3272 inspect proof terms.
  3273 
  3274 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3275 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3276 are added internally.  For example:
  3277 
  3278   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3279 
  3280 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3281 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3282 
  3283 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3286 'class' instead.
  3287 
  3288 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3289 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3291 
  3292 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3293 invariants.
  3294 
  3295 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3296 user space functionality any longer.
  3297 
  3298 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3299 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3301 
  3302 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3303 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3304 
  3305 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3306 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3307 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3308 
  3309 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3310 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3311 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3312 
  3313 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3314 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315 
  3316 
  3317 *** HOL ***
  3318 
  3319 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3320 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3321 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3322 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3323 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3324 
  3325 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3326 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3327 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3328 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3329 
  3330   fun
  3331     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3332   where
  3333     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3334 
  3335   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3336     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3337 
  3338   quotient_definition
  3339     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3340 
  3341 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3342 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3343 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3344 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3345 
  3346 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3347 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3348 
  3349 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3350 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3351 
  3352 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3354 
  3355 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3356 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3357 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3358 
  3359 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3360 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3361 
  3362 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3364 
  3365 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3366 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3367 
  3368 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3369 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3372 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3373 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3374 
  3375   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3376   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3377   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3378   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3379   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3380   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3381   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3382   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3383   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3384   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3385   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3386   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3387   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3388   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3389   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3390   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3391   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3392   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3393   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3394   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3395   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3396   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3397   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3398   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3399   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3400   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3401   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3402   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3403   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3404   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3405 
  3406 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3407 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3408 
  3409 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3410 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3411 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3412 
  3413 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3414 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3415 
  3416 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3417 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3418 
  3419 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3420 
  3421 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3422 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3423 
  3424 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3425 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3426 
  3427 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3428 
  3429 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3430 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3431 
  3432 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3433 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3434 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3435 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3436 
  3437 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3438   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3439   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3440   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3441 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3442 
  3443 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3444 lattices):
  3445 
  3446     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3447     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3448 
  3449     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3450 
  3451     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3452     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3453     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3454     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3455     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3456     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3457     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3458     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3459     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3460     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3461     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3462     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3463     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3464 
  3465     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3466     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3467     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3468     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3469     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3470     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3471     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3472     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3473     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3474     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3475     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3476     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3477     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3478     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3479     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3480     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3481     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3482     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3483 
  3484   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3485   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3486 
  3487     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3488     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3489     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3490     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3491     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3492 
  3493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3494 
  3495 * Refined field classes:
  3496   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3497     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3498     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3499   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3501 
  3502 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3503   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3504   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3505   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3506     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3507   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3508     equal_neg_zero.
  3509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510 
  3511 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3512 sets to lattices:
  3513 
  3514   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3515   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3516   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3517   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3518   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3519   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3520   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3521   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3522   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3523   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3524 
  3525 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3526 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3527 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3528 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3529 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3530 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3531 
  3532 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3533 multiset order:
  3534 
  3535   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3536     <= and <;
  3537   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3538     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3539     multiset_order;
  3540   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3541     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3542     generation;
  3543   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3544     if needed.
  3545 
  3546 Renamed:
  3547 
  3548   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3549   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3550   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3551 
  3552 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3553 
  3554 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3555 
  3556 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3557 
  3558 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3559 
  3560 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3561 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3562 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3563 
  3564   Constants:
  3565   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3566   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3567   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3568   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3569   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3570   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3571   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3572   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3573   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3574   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3575   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3576   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3577   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3578 
  3579   Lemmas:
  3580   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3581   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3582   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3583   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3584   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3585   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3586   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3587   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3588   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3589   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3590   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3591   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3592   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3593 
  3594 * Sledgehammer:
  3595   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3596     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3597     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3598     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3599     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3600     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3601     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3602   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3603   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3604     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3605   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3606     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3607     is still experimental.)
  3608   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3609     full-typed mode.
  3610   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3611 
  3612 * Nitpick:
  3613   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3614   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3615   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3616     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3617   - Added support for quotient types.
  3618   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3619     constructs.
  3620   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3621     "termination" proofs).
  3622   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3623   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3624   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3625   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3626     record getters.
  3627   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3628   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3629   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3630   - Added "atoms" option.
  3631   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3632     problems.
  3633   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3634     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3635     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3636   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3637     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3639 
  3640 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3641   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3642   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3643   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3644   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3645   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3646   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3647   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3648   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3649   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3650 
  3651 
  3652 *** HOLCF ***
  3653 
  3654 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3655 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3656 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3657 
  3658 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3659 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3660 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3661 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3664 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3665 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3666 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3667 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3668 
  3669 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3670 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3671 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3672 
  3673 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3674 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3675 
  3676   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3677   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3678 
  3679 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3680 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3681 
  3682   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3683   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3684   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3685   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3686   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3687 
  3688 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3689 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3690 
  3691   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3692   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3693   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3694 
  3695 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3696 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3697 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3700 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3701 
  3702 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3703 
  3704 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3705 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3706 
  3707 
  3708 *** ML ***
  3709 
  3710 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3711 
  3712     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3713     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3714 
  3715     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3716     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3717     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3718     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3719 
  3720     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3721     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3722     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3723 
  3724 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3725 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3726 
  3727 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3728 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3729 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3730 
  3731 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3732 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3733 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3734 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3735 
  3736 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3737 the context or even global references.
  3738 
  3739 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3740 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3741 
  3742 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3743 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3744 
  3745   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3746   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3747   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3748   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3749   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3750   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3751   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3752   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3753   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3754   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3755 
  3756 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3757 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3758 
  3759 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3760 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3761 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3762 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3763 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3764 
  3765 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3766 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3767 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3768 Theory_Data version.
  3769 
  3770 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3771 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3772 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3773 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3774 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3775 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3776 explicitly in rare situations.
  3777 
  3778 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3779 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3780 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3781 
  3782 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3783 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3784 
  3785 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3786 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3787 quite rare).
  3788 
  3789 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3790 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3791 
  3792 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3793 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3794 terms.
  3795 
  3796 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3797 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3798 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3799 
  3800 
  3801 *** System ***
  3802 
  3803 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3804 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3805 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3806 
  3807 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3808 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3809 respectively.
  3810 
  3811 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3812 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3813 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3814 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3815 
  3816   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3817 
  3818 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3819 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3820 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3821 component.
  3822 
  3823 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3824 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3825 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3826 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3827 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3828 the user for manual installation.
  3829 
  3830 
  3831 
  3832 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3833 -------------------------------------
  3834 
  3835 *** General ***
  3836 
  3837 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3838 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3839 
  3840 
  3841 *** Pure ***
  3842 
  3843 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3844 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3845 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3846 
  3847 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3848 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3849 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3850 
  3851 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3852 interpretation.
  3853 
  3854 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3855 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3856 
  3857 
  3858 *** Document preparation ***
  3859 
  3860 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3861 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3862 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3863 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3864 
  3865 
  3866 *** HOL ***
  3867 
  3868 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3869 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3870 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3871 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3872 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3873 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3874 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3875 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3876 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3877 
  3878 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3879 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3880 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3881 
  3882 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3883 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3884 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3885 
  3886 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3887 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3888 
  3889 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3890 
  3891 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3892 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3893 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3894 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3895 
  3896 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3897 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3898 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3899 "mirabelle" utility.
  3900 
  3901 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3902 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3903 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3904 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3905 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3906 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3907 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3908 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3909 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3910 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3911 
  3912 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3913 procedure only.
  3914 
  3915 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3916 
  3917 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3918 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3919 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3920 that fail later.
  3921 
  3922 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3923 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3924 
  3925 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3926 the same method as the approximation method.
  3927 
  3928 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3929 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3930 series expansion.
  3931 
  3932 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3933 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3934 
  3935 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3936 reals.
  3937 
  3938 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3939 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3940 
  3941 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3942 fixpoint theorem.
  3943 
  3944 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3945   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3946     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3947   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3948     accordingly
  3949   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3950     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3951   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3952     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3953 
  3954 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3955 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3956 lattice.
  3957 
  3958 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3959 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3960 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3961 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3962 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3963 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3964 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3965 
  3966 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3967   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3968     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3969   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3970     le_inf_iff
  3971   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3972     sup_aci)
  3973   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3974   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3975   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3976     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3977     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3978     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3979     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3980     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3981     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3982     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3983     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3984     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3985     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3986   - authentic syntax for
  3987     Set.Pow
  3988     Set.image
  3989   - mere abbreviations:
  3990     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3991     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3992     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3993     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3994     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3995     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3996     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3997     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3998   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3999 
  4000 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4001 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4002 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4003 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4004 
  4005 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4006 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4007 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4008 
  4009 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4010 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4011 
  4012 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4013 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4014 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4015 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4016 
  4017 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4018 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4019 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4020 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4021 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4022 
  4023 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4024 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4026 
  4027 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4028 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4031 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4032 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4033 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4034 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4035 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4036 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4040     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4041     code_post       replaces    code post
  4042     etc.
  4043   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4044 
  4045 * Renamed methods:
  4046     sizechange -> size_change
  4047     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4048   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4049 
  4050 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4051 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4052 
  4053 * Renamed theorems:
  4054     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4055     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4056     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4057     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4058     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4059   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4060 
  4061 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4062 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4063 
  4064 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4065 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4066 
  4067 
  4068 *** HOLCF ***
  4069 
  4070 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4071 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4072 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4073 
  4074 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4075 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4076 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4077 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4078 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4079 
  4080 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4081 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4082 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4083 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4084 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4085 
  4086 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4087 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4088 constructor are pre-configured.
  4089 
  4090 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4091 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4092 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4093 
  4094 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4095 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4096 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4097 as well.)
  4098 
  4099 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4100 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4101 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4102 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4103 examples.
  4104 
  4105 
  4106 *** ML ***
  4107 
  4108 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4109 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4110 
  4111 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4112 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4113 position, logical grouping etc.
  4114 
  4115 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4116 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4117 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4118 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4119 
  4120 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4121 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4122 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4123 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4124 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4125 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4126 
  4127 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4128 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4129 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4130 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4131 experiments with references.
  4132 
  4133 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4134 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4135 
  4136 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4137 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4138 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4139 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4140 
  4141 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4142 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4143 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4144 
  4145 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4146 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4147 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4148 
  4149 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4150 
  4151 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4153 
  4154 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4155 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4156 
  4157 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4158 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4159 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4160 
  4161 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4162 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4163 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4164 
  4165 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4166 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4167 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4169 
  4170 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4171 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4172 instead of global theory.
  4173 
  4174 
  4175 *** System ***
  4176 
  4177 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4178 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4179 usedir option -q.
  4180 
  4181 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4182 also the system manual.
  4183 
  4184 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4185 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4186 
  4187 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4188 this is always enabled.
  4189 
  4190 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4191 
  4192 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4193 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4194 currently supported on Linux only.
  4195 
  4196 
  4197 
  4198 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4199 --------------------------------
  4200 
  4201 *** General ***
  4202 
  4203 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4204 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4205 
  4206   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4207     "isatool."
  4208 
  4209   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4210     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4211 
  4212   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4213     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4214 
  4215 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4216 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4217 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4218 
  4219 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4220 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4221 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4222 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4223 via "isabelle emacs".
  4224 
  4225 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4226 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4227 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4228 
  4229 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4230 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4231 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4232 
  4233 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4234 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4235 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4236 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4237 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4238 
  4239 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4240 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4241 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4242 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4243 
  4244 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4245 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4246 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4247 
  4248 
  4249 *** Pure ***
  4250 
  4251 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4252 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4253 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4254 
  4255 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4256 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4257 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4258 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4259 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4260 
  4261 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4262 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4263 useful in locale declarations.
  4264 
  4265 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4266 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4267 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4268 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4269 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4270 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4271 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4272 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4273 no longer generated.
  4274 
  4275 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4276 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4277 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4278 
  4279 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4280 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4281 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4282 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4283 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4284 
  4285 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4286 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4287 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4288 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4289 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4290 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4291 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4292 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4293 
  4294 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4295 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4296 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4297 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4298 
  4299 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4300 
  4301 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4302 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4303 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4304 
  4305 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4306 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4307 
  4308 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4309 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4310 in HOL, write
  4311 
  4312     class foo = ...
  4313 
  4314 instead of
  4315 
  4316     class foo = type + ...
  4317 
  4318 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4319 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4320 
  4321 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4322 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4323 
  4324 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4325 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4326 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4327 
  4328 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4329 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4330 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4331 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4332 directly in regular applications.
  4333 
  4334 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4335 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4336 
  4337 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4338 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4339 
  4340 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4341 theory context.
  4342 
  4343 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4344 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4345 
  4346 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4347 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4348 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4349 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4350 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4351 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4352 
  4353   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4354 
  4355 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4356 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4357 normalization.
  4358 
  4359 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4360 addressing etc.
  4361 
  4362 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4363 
  4364   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4365   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4366 
  4367 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4368 
  4369   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4370      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4371      parts of the code generator framework).
  4372 
  4373   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4374      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4375      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4376 
  4377 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4378 
  4379 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4380 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4381 
  4382 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4383 patterns, e.g.
  4384 
  4385     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4386 
  4387 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4388 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4389 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4390 hyphen:
  4391 
  4392     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4393 
  4394 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4395 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4396 
  4397 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4398 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4399 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4400 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4401 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4402 higher-order unification.
  4403 
  4404 
  4405 *** Document preparation ***
  4406 
  4407 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4408 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4409 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4410 
  4411 
  4412 *** HOL ***
  4413 
  4414 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4415 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4416 
  4417 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4418 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4419 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4420 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4421 Main, as before.
  4422 
  4423 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4424 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4425 
  4426 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4427 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4428 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4429 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4430 
  4431 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4432 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4433 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4434 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4435 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4436 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4437 
  4438 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4439 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4440 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4441 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4442 
  4443 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4444 menu.
  4445 
  4446 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4447 (contains the empty clause).
  4448 
  4449 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4450 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4451 
  4452 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4453 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4454 
  4455 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4456 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4457 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4458 
  4459 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4460 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4461 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4462 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4463 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4464 
  4465 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4466 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4467 
  4468 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4469 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4470 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4471 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4472 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4473 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4474 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4475 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4476 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4477 
  4478 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4479 
  4480 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4481 
  4482 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4483 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4484 
  4485 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4486 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4487 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4488 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4489 
  4490 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4491 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4492 
  4493     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4494     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4495     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4496     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4497     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4498     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4499     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4500     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4501 
  4502 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4503 theory Set.
  4504 
  4505 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4506 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4507 
  4508 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4509 
  4510 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4511 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4512 
  4513 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4514 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4515 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4516 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4517 allowed. For examples see
  4518 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4519 
  4520 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4521 
  4522 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4523 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4524 
  4525 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4526 structure:
  4527 
  4528     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4529     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4530     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4531     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4532     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4533     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4534     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4535     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4536     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4537     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4538     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4539     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4540     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4541     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4542     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4543     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4544     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4545     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4546     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4547     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4548     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4549     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4550     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4551     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4552     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4553     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4554     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4555     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4556     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4557     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4558     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4559     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4560     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4561 
  4562     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4563     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4564     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4565     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4566     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4567     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4568     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4569     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4570     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4571     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4572 
  4573     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4574     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4575     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4576     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4577     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4578     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4579 
  4580 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4581 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4582 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4583 
  4584 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4585 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4586 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4587 
  4588 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4589 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4590 
  4591 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4592 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4593 
  4594 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4595 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4596 proofs, e.g.
  4597 
  4598   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4599 
  4600 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4601 
  4602 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4603 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4604 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4605 
  4606 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4607 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4608 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4609 
  4610 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4611 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4612 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4614 
  4615 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4616 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4617 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4618 preorder_class.*.
  4619 
  4620 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4621 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4622 
  4623 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4624 
  4625   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4626 
  4627 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4628 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4629 fold_image.
  4630 
  4631 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4632 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4633 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4634 the former will disappear at some point.
  4635 
  4636 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4637 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4638 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4639 
  4640 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4641 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4642 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4643 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4644 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4645 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4646 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4647 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4648 
  4649 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4650 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4651 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4652 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4653 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4654 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4655 
  4656     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4657     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4658     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4659     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4660     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4661     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4662     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4663 
  4664 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4665 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4666 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4667 
  4668 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4669 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4670 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4671 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4672 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4673 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4674 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4675 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4676 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4677 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4678 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4679 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4680 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4681 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4682 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4683 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4684 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4685 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4686 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4687 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4688 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4689 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4690 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4691 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4692 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4693 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4694 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4695 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4696 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4697 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4698 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4699 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4700 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4701 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4702 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4703 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4704 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4705 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4706 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4707 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4708 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4709 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4710 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4711 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4712 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4713 
  4714 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4715 
  4716 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4717 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4718 
  4719 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4720 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4721 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4722 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4723 
  4724 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4725 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4726 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4727 theory RealVector.
  4728 
  4729 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4730 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4731 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4732 and inner products are included.
  4733 
  4734 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4735 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4736 supported.
  4737 
  4738 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4739 first diagonalization argument.
  4740 
  4741 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4742 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4743 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4744 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4745 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4746 
  4747     hide (open) const gcd
  4748     abbreviation gcd where
  4749       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4750     notation (output)
  4751       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4752 
  4753 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4754 
  4755 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4756 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4757 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4758 
  4759 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4760 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4761 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4762 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4763 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4764 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4765 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4766 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4767 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4768 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4769 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4770 cases.
  4771 
  4772 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4773 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4774 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4775 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4776 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4777 
  4778     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4779     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4780     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4781     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4782     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4783 
  4784 
  4785 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4786 
  4787 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4788 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4789 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4790 
  4791 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4792 
  4793 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4794 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4795 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4796 
  4797 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4798 
  4799 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4800 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4801 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4802 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4803 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4804 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4805 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4806 
  4807 
  4808 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4809 
  4810 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4811 
  4812 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4813 theory targets.
  4814 
  4815 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4816 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4817 'inductive' etc.
  4818 
  4819 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4820 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4821 
  4822 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4823 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4824 
  4825 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4826 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4827 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4828 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4829 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4830 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4831 the algorithm W:
  4832 
  4833  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4834  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4835          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4836 
  4837 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4838 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4839 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4840 
  4841 
  4842 *** HOLCF ***
  4843 
  4844 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4845 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4846 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4847 
  4848 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4849 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4850 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4851 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4852 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4853 
  4854 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4855 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4856 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4857 
  4858 
  4859 *** ZF ***
  4860 
  4861 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4862 
  4863 
  4864 *** ML ***
  4865 
  4866 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4867 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4868 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4869 5.2.1!
  4870 
  4871 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4872 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4873 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4874 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4875 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4876 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4877 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4878 
  4879 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4880 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4881 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4882 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4883 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4884 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4885 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4886 
  4887 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4888 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4889 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4890 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4891 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4892 
  4893 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4894 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4895 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4896 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4897 Method.add_method.
  4898 
  4899 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4900 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4901 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4902 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4903 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4904 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4905 
  4906 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4907 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4908 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4909 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4910 examples.
  4911 
  4912 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4913 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4914 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4915 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4916 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4917 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4918 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4919 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4920 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4921 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4922 
  4923 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4924 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4925 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4926 
  4927 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4928 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4929 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4930 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4931 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4932 resort for legacy applications.
  4933 
  4934 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4935 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4936 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4937 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4938 explicit runtime argument.
  4939 
  4940 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4941 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4942 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4943 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4944 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4945 
  4946 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4947 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4948 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4949 theory state.
  4950 
  4951 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4952 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4953 
  4954   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4955   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4956   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4957   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4958   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4959   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4960   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4961   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4962   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4963   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4964 
  4965 
  4966 *** System ***
  4967 
  4968 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4969 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4970 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4971 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4972 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4973 
  4974 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4975 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4976 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4977 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4978 
  4979 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4980 
  4981 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4982 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4983 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4984 prover operations.
  4985 
  4986 
  4987 
  4988 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4989 -------------------------------
  4990 
  4991 *** General ***
  4992 
  4993 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4994 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4995 
  4996 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4997 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4998 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4999 provides a proper context already.
  5000 
  5001 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5002 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5003 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5004 
  5005 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5006 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5007 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5008 swap theory imports.
  5009 
  5010 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5011 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5012 
  5013 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5014 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5015 white space without escapes.
  5016 
  5017 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5018 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5019 "foo_bar".
  5020 
  5021 
  5022 *** Pure ***
  5023 
  5024 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5025 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5026 
  5027 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5028 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5029 
  5030 (1) unused_thms
  5031      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5032 
  5033 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5034      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5035      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5036 
  5037 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5038      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5039      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5040      their ancestors.
  5041 
  5042 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5043 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5044 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5045 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5046 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5047 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5048 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5049 
  5050 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5051 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5052 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5053 
  5054 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5055 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5056 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5057 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5058 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5059 
  5060 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5061 
  5062 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5063 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5064 update of theories within ML code.
  5065 
  5066 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5067 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5068 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5069 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5070 
  5071 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5072 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5073 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5075 
  5076 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5077 
  5078 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5079 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5080 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5081 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5082 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5083 
  5084 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5085 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5086 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5087 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5088 situations.
  5089 
  5090 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5091 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5092 proof text.
  5093 
  5094 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5095 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5096 
  5097 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5098 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5099 predicates.
  5100 
  5101 
  5102 *** Document preparation ***
  5103 
  5104 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5105 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5106 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5107 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5108 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5109 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5110 
  5111 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5112 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5113 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5114 
  5115 
  5116 *** HOL ***
  5117 
  5118 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5119 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5120 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5121 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5122 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5123 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5124 
  5125 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5126 with multithreading.
  5127 
  5128 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5129 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5130 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5131 
  5132 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5133 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5134 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5135 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5136 
  5137 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5138 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5139 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5140 and makes them available separately.  See
  5141 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5142 
  5143 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5144 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5145 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5146 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5147 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5148 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5149 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5150 the declared rules.
  5151 
  5152 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5153 
  5154   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5155 
  5156 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5157 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5158 
  5159 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5160 
  5161   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5162 
  5163   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5164     definitions on => and bool.
  5165 
  5166   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5167     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5168     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5169 
  5170       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5171       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5172       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5173       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5174       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5175       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5176       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5177       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5178 
  5179   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5180     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5181     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5182 
  5183   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5184     The proof pattern
  5185 
  5186       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5187       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5188 
  5189     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5190     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5191 
  5192       have "EX S. P S"
  5193       proof
  5194         show "P S" <...>
  5195       qed
  5196 
  5197   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5198     The proof pattern
  5199 
  5200       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5201       also have "S = T" <...>
  5202       finally have "P T" .
  5203 
  5204     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5205     must be replaced by something like
  5206 
  5207       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5208       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5209       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5210 
  5211   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5212     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5213 
  5214       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5215 
  5216     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5217     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5218     type of the form
  5219 
  5220       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5221 
  5222     rather than
  5223 
  5224       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5225 
  5226 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5227 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5228 
  5229 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5230 
  5231 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5232 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5234 
  5235 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5236 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5237 
  5238 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5239 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5240 
  5241 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5242 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5243 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5244 
  5245 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5246 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5247 
  5248   less_trans
  5249   less_linear
  5250   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5251   le_less_trans
  5252   less_le_trans
  5253   less_not_sym
  5254   less_asym
  5255 
  5256 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5257 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5258 and different variable names.
  5259 
  5260 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5261 
  5262 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5263 finite maps.
  5264 
  5265 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5266 
  5267 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5268 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5269 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5270 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5271 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5272 accordingly.
  5273 
  5274 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5275 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5276 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5277 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5278 
  5279 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5280 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5281 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5282 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5283 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5285 
  5286 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5287 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5288 
  5289 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5290 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5291 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5292 
  5293 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5295 
  5296 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5297 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5298 
  5299 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5300 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5301 
  5302 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5303 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5304 
  5305 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5306 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5308 
  5309 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5310 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5311 
  5312 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5313 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5314 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5315 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5316 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5317 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5318 
  5319 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5320 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5321 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5322 
  5323 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5324 
  5325 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5326 
  5327 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5328 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5329 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5330 
  5331 
  5332 *** ZF ***
  5333 
  5334 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5335 same session:
  5336 
  5337   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5338   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5339   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5340   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5341   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5342   List      -> List_ZF
  5343   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5344 
  5345 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5346 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5347 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5348 
  5349 
  5350 *** ML ***
  5351 
  5352 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5353 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5354 
  5355 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5356 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5357 
  5358 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5359 
  5360 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5361 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5362 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5363 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5364 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5365 
  5366 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5367 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5368 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5369 
  5370 
  5371 *** System ***
  5372 
  5373 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5374 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5375 
  5376 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5377 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5378 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5379 
  5380 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5381 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5382 
  5383 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5384 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5385 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5386 
  5387 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5388 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5389 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5390 
  5391 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5392 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5393 
  5394 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5395 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5396 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5397 script.
  5398 
  5399 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5400 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5401 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5402 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5403 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5404 
  5405 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5406 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5407 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5408 
  5409 
  5410 
  5411 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5412 -----------------------------------
  5413 
  5414 *** General ***
  5415 
  5416 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5417 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5418 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5419 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5420 
  5421 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5422 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5423 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5424 
  5425 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5426 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5427 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5428 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5429 
  5430 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5431 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5432 quotes.
  5433 
  5434 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5435 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5436 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5437 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5438 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5439 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5440 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5441 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5442 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5443 
  5444 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5445 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5446 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5447 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5448 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5449 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5450 
  5451 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5452 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5453 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5454 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5455 
  5456 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5457 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5458 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5459 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5460 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5461 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5462 
  5463 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5464 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5465 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5466 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5467 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5468 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5469 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5470 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5471 
  5472 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5473 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5474 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5475 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5476 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5477 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5478 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5479 
  5480 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5481 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5482 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5483 
  5484 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5485 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5486 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5487 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5488 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5489 limit is imposed.
  5490 
  5491 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5492 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5493 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5494 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5495 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5496 and scalability.
  5497 
  5498 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5499 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5500 
  5501 
  5502 *** Document preparation ***
  5503 
  5504 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5505 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5506 current context.
  5507 
  5508 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5509 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5510 
  5511 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5512 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5513 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5514 
  5515 
  5516 *** Pure ***
  5517 
  5518 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5519 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5520 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5521 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5522 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5523 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5524 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5525 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5526 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5527 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5528 
  5529 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5530 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5531 sketch:
  5532 
  5533     internal compilation:
  5534         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5535     writing SML code to a file:
  5536         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5537     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5538         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5539     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5540         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5541 
  5542     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5543         method ``eval''
  5544 
  5545 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5546 
  5547 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5548 
  5549     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5550     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5551     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5552     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5553 
  5554 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5555 
  5556     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5557       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5558 
  5559     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5560       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5561 
  5562     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5563       {(target)}+
  5564         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5565 
  5566     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5567       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5568         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5569 
  5570 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5571 
  5572 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5573 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5574 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5575 codegen".
  5576 
  5577 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5578 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5579 annotations).
  5580 
  5581 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5582 syntax.
  5583 
  5584 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5585 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5586 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5587 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5588 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5589 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5590 
  5591 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5592 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5593 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5594 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5595 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5596 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5597 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5598 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5599 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5600 equations, see section "definitions".
  5601 
  5602 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5603 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5604 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5605 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5606 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5607 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5608 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5609 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5610 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5611 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5612 
  5613 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5614 configuration options:
  5615 
  5616   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5617   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5618   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5619   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5620   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5621   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5622   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5623   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5624   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5625 
  5626 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5627 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5628 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5629 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5630 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5631 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5632 order.
  5633 
  5634 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5635 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5636 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5637 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5638 context encountered later on.
  5639 
  5640 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5641 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5642 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5643 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5644 
  5645 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5646 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5647 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5648 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5649 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5650 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5651 
  5652 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5653 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5654 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5655 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5656 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5657 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5658 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5659 more permissive.
  5660 
  5661 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5662 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5663 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5664 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5665 maintainability of proof texts.
  5666 
  5667 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5668 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5669 
  5670   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5671   then guess x and y by clarify
  5672 
  5673 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5674 proof tools being involved here.
  5675 
  5676 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5677 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5678 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5679 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5680 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5681 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5682 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5683 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5684 
  5685 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5686 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5687 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5688 
  5689   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5690   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5691   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5692   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5693 
  5694 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5695 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5696 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5697 
  5698 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5699 both named and unnamed ones.
  5700 
  5701 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5702 
  5703   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5704 
  5705 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5706 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5707 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5708 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5709 
  5710 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5711 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5712 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5713 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5714 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5715 
  5716 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5717 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5718 
  5719 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5720 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5721 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5722 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5723 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5724 originally first one.
  5725 
  5726 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5727 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5728 expected.
  5729 
  5730 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5731 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5732 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5733 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5734 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5735 
  5736   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5737     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5738     obtains x where "P x"
  5739 
  5740   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5741     assumes "A & B"
  5742     obtains A and B
  5743 
  5744   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5745     assumes "A | B"
  5746     obtains
  5747       A
  5748     | B
  5749 
  5750 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5751 explicitly:
  5752 
  5753   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5754     obtains "~ thesis"
  5755 
  5756   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5757     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5758 
  5759 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5760 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5761 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5762 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5763 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5764 case_names).
  5765 
  5766 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5767 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5768 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5769 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5770 
  5771 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5772 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5773 top-level lemma.
  5774 
  5775 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5776 introduction rule (default "that").
  5777 
  5778 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5779 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5780 to occur.
  5781 
  5782 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5783 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5784 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5785 representations independently of name spaces.
  5786 
  5787 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5788 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5789 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5790 
  5791 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5792 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5793 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5794 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5795 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5796 current context.
  5797 
  5798 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5799 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5800 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5801 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5802 
  5803   axiomatization
  5804     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5805     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5806 
  5807   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5808   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5809 
  5810   abbreviation
  5811     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5812     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5813 
  5814 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5815 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5816 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5817 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5818 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5819 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5820 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5821 
  5822 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5823 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5824 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5825 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5826 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5827 
  5828 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5829 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5830 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5831 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5832 
  5833 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5834 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5835 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5836 
  5837   definition "K x _ = x"
  5838 
  5839   inductive conj for A B
  5840   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5841 
  5842 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5843 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5844 abbreviations on output.
  5845 
  5846 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5847 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5848 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5849 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5850 
  5851 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5852 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5853 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5854 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5855 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5856 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5857 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5858 
  5859 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5860 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5861 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5862 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5863 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5864 
  5865 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5866 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5867 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5868 
  5869 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5870 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5871 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5872 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5873 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5874 
  5875   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5876     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5877 
  5878 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5879 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5880 partial_order.
  5881 
  5882 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5883 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5884 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5885 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5886 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5887 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5888 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5889 examples.
  5890 
  5891 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5892 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5893 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5894 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5895 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5896 
  5897 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5898 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5899 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5900 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5901 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5902 
  5903   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5904   (induct set: foo bar)
  5905   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5906   (induct type: foo bar)
  5907 
  5908 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5909 new format.
  5910 
  5911 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5912 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5913 
  5914 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5915 considered a legacy feature.
  5916 
  5917 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5918 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5919 
  5920 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5921 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5922 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5923 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5924   
  5925 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5926 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5927 manipulating the claset.
  5928 
  5929 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5930 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5931 least one premise.
  5932 
  5933 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5934 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5935 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5936 rule steps.
  5937 
  5938 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5939 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5940 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5941 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5942 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5943 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5944 
  5945 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5946 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5947 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5948 
  5949 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5950 the graph browser tool.
  5951 
  5952 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5953 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5954 
  5955 
  5956 *** HOL ***
  5957 
  5958 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5959 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5960 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5961 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5962 multi-threading.
  5963   
  5964 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5965 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5966 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5967 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5968 work with multi-threading.
  5969 
  5970 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5971 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5972 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5973 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5974 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5975 
  5976 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5977 
  5978 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5979 equality.
  5980 
  5981 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5982 the new 'class' package:
  5983 
  5984     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5985     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5986     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5987     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5988     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5989     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5990     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5991     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5992     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5993     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5994     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5995     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5996     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5997     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5998     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5999     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  6000     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  6001     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  6002     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  6003     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  6004 
  6005 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  6006 
  6007 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  6008 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  6009 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  6010 names.
  6011 
  6012 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  6013 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  6014 
  6015 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  6016 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  6017 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  6018 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  6019 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  6020 
  6021 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  6022 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  6023 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  6024 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  6025 
  6026 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  6027 
  6028 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  6029 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  6030 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  6031 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  6032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6033 
  6034 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  6035 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6036 
  6037 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  6038 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  6039 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6040 
  6041 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  6042 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  6043 
  6044 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  6045 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  6046 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  6047 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  6048 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  6049 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  6050 in the current context.
  6051 
  6052 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  6053 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  6054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6055 
  6056 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  6057 with new class dense_linear_order.
  6058 
  6059 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  6060 
  6061     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  6062     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  6063 
  6064     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  6065       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  6066     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  6067     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  6068 
  6069     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  6070     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  6071 
  6072   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  6073 
  6074     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  6075     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  6076     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  6077     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  6078     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  6079     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  6080     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  6081     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  6082     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  6083     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  6084     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  6085     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  6086     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  6087     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  6088     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  6089     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  6090     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  6091     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  6092     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  6093     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  6094     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  6095     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  6096     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  6097     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  6098     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  6099     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  6100     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  6101     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  6102     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  6103     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  6104     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  6105     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  6106     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  6107     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  6108     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  6109 
  6110     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  6111     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  6112     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  6113     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  6114     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  6115     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  6116     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  6117     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  6118     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  6119     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  6120     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  6121     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  6122     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  6123     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  6124     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  6125     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  6126     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  6127 
  6128     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  6129     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  6130     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  6131     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  6132     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  6133     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  6134     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  6135     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  6136     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  6137     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  6138     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  6139     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  6140     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  6141     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  6142     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  6143     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  6144     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  6145     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  6146     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  6147     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  6148     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  6149     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  6150     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  6151     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  6152     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  6153     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  6154     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  6155     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  6156 
  6157     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  6158     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  6159     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  6160     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  6161     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  6162     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  6163 
  6164     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  6165     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  6166     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  6167     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  6168 
  6169     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  6170     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  6171 
  6172     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  6173     join_max                ~> sup_max
  6174 
  6175 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  6176 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  6177 
  6178 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  6179 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  6180 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  6181 "*.size".
  6182 
  6183 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  6184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6185 
  6186 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  6187 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  6188 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6189 
  6190 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6191 
  6192 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  6193 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  6194 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  6195 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  6196 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  6197 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  6198 numerals on all operations.
  6199 
  6200 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  6201 
  6202 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  6203 
  6204 * Code generator library theories:
  6205   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  6206     languages.
  6207   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  6208     languages.
  6209   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  6210     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  6211   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  6212   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  6213     denominator).
  6214   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  6215     representable by rational numbers.
  6216   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  6217     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  6218     includes Code_Integer.
  6219   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  6220     target-language built-in integers.
  6221   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  6222     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  6223 
  6224 * New package for inductive predicates
  6225 
  6226   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  6227 
  6228     inductive
  6229       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6230       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6231     where
  6232       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6233     | ...
  6234 
  6235   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  6236 
  6237     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6238 
  6239     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6240     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6241 
  6242     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  6243     intros
  6244       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6245       ...
  6246 
  6247   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  6248   sets to be defined with the new package via
  6249 
  6250     inductive_set
  6251       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6252       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m