NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri May 10 10:41:38 2019 +0200 (4 months ago)
changeset 70260 22cfcfcadd8b
parent 70258 b4534d72dd22
child 70265 a8238fd25541
child 70281 110df6f91376
permissions -rw-r--r--
more documentation;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2019 (June 2019)
     8 -------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * The font collection "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from
    13 the existing "DejaVu" fonts, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    14 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    15 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    16 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    17 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    18 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    19 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    20 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    21 
    22 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    23 
    24 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    25 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    26 
    27 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    28 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    29 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )". Minor
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    34 
    35 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    36 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60). The command-line tool "isabelle update -u
    37 mixfix_cartouches" allows to update existing theory sources
    38 automatically.
    39 
    40 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    41 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Commands 'generate_file', 'export_generated_files', and
    45 'compile_generated_files' support a stateless (PIDE-conformant) model
    46 for generated sources and compiled binaries of other languages. The
    47 compilation process is managed in Isabelle/ML, and results exported to
    48 the session database for further use (e.g. with "isabelle export" or
    49 "isabelle build -e").
    50 
    51 
    52 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    53 
    54 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    55 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    56 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    57 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    58 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", it now
    59 defaults to 1, but 0 works as well.
    60 
    61 * The jEdit File Browser is more prominent in the default GUI layout of
    62 Isabelle/jEdit: various virtual file-systems provide access to Isabelle
    63 resources, notably via "favorites:" (or "Edit Favorites").
    64 
    65 * Further markup and rendering for "plain text" (e.g. informal prose)
    66 and "raw text" (e.g. verbatim sources). This improves the visual
    67 appearance of formal comments inside the term language, or in general
    68 for repeated alternation of formal and informal text.
    69 
    70 * Action "isabelle-export-browser" points the File Browser to the theory
    71 exports of the current buffer, based on the "isabelle-export:" virtual
    72 file-system. The directory view needs to be reloaded manually to follow
    73 ongoing document processing.
    74 
    75 * Action "isabelle-session-browser" points the File Browser to session
    76 information, based on the "isabelle-session:" virtual file-system. Its
    77 entries are structured according to chapter / session names, the open
    78 operation is redirected to the session ROOT file.
    79 
    80 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    81 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    82 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    83 Isabelle component).
    84 
    85 * System option "jedit_text_overview" allows to disable the text
    86 overview column.
    87 
    88 * Command-line options "-s" and "-u" of "isabelle jedit" override the
    89 default for system option "system_heaps" that determines the heap
    90 storage directory for "isabelle build". Option "-n" is now clearly
    91 separated from option "-s".
    92 
    93 * The Isabelle/jEdit desktop application uses the same options as
    94 "isabelle jedit" for its internal "isabelle build" process: the implicit
    95 option "-o system_heaps" (or "-s") has been discontinued. This reduces
    96 the potential for surprise wrt. command-line tools.
    97 
    98 * The official download of the Isabelle/jEdit application already
    99 contains heap images for Isabelle/HOL within its main directory: thus
   100 the first encounter becomes faster and more robust (e.g. when run from a
   101 read-only directory).
   102 
   103 * Isabelle DejaVu fonts are available with hinting by default, which is
   104 relevant for low-resolution displays. This may be disabled via system
   105 option "isabelle_fonts_hinted = false" in
   106 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/preferences -- it occasionally yields better
   107 results.
   108 
   109 * OpenJDK 11 has quite different font rendering, with better glyph
   110 shapes and improved sub-pixel anti-aliasing. In some situations results
   111 might be *worse* than Oracle Java 8, though -- a proper HiDPI / UHD
   112 display is recommended.
   113 
   114 * OpenJDK 11 supports GTK version 2.2 and 3 (according to system
   115 property jdk.gtk.version). The factory default is version 3, but
   116 ISABELLE_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS includes "-Djdk.gtk.version=2.2" to make
   117 this more conservative (as in Java 8). Depending on the GTK theme
   118 configuration, "-Djdk.gtk.version=3" might work better or worse.
   119 
   120 
   121 *** Document preparation ***
   122 
   123 * Document markers are formal comments of the form \<^marker>\<open>marker_body\<close> that
   124 are stripped from document output: the effect is to modify the semantic
   125 presentation context or to emit markup to the PIDE document. Some
   126 predefined markers are taken from the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative,
   127 e.g. \<^marker>\<open>contributor arg\<close> or \<^marker>\<open>license arg\<close> and produce PIDE markup that
   128 can retrieved from the document database.
   129 
   130 * Old-style command tags %name are re-interpreted as markers with
   131 proof-scope \<^marker>\<open>tag (proof) name\<close> and produce LaTeX environments as
   132 before. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: multiple markers are composed in
   133 canonical order, resulting in a reversed list of tags in the
   134 presentation context.
   135 
   136 * Marker \<^marker>\<open>tag name\<close> does not apply to the proof of a top-level goal
   137 statement by default (e.g. 'theorem', 'lemma'). This is a subtle change
   138 of semantics wrt. old-style %name.
   139 
   140 * In Isabelle/jEdit, the string "\tag" may be completed to a "\<^marker>\<open>tag \<close>"
   141 template.
   142 
   143 * Document antiquotation option "cartouche" indicates if the output
   144 should be delimited as cartouche; this takes precedence over the
   145 analogous option "quotes".
   146 
   147 * Many document antiquotations are internally categorized as "embedded"
   148 and expect one cartouche argument, which is typically used with the
   149 \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> notation (e.g. \<^term>\<open>\<lambda>x y. x\<close>). The cartouche
   150 delimiters are stripped in output of the source (antiquotation option
   151 "source"), but it is possible to enforce delimiters via option
   152 "source_cartouche", e.g. @{term [source_cartouche] \<open>\<lambda>x y. x\<close>}.
   153 
   154 
   155 *** Isar ***
   156 
   157 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
   158 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
   159 
   160 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
   161 precedence over goal/proof. This is particularly relevant for the
   162 headless PIDE session and server.
   163 
   164 * Command keywords of kind thy_decl / thy_goal may be more specifically
   165 fit into the traditional document model of "definition-statement-proof"
   166 via thy_defn / thy_stmt / thy_goal_defn / thy_goal_stmt.
   167 
   168 
   169 *** HOL ***
   170 
   171 * Command 'export_code' produces output as logical files within the
   172 theory context, as well as formal session exports that can be
   173 materialized via command-line tools "isabelle export" or "isabelle build
   174 -e" (with 'export_files' in the session ROOT). Isabelle/jEdit also
   175 provides a virtual file-system "isabelle-export:" that can be explored
   176 in the regular file-browser. A 'file_prefix' argument allows to specify
   177 an explicit name prefix for the target file (SML, OCaml, Scala) or
   178 directory (Haskell); the default is "export" with a consecutive number
   179 within each theory.
   180 
   181 * Command 'export_code': the 'file' argument is now legacy and will be
   182 removed soon: writing to the physical file-system is not well-defined in
   183 a reactive/parallel application like Isabelle. The empty 'file' argument
   184 has been discontinued already: it is superseded by the file-browser in
   185 Isabelle/jEdit on "isabelle-export:". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186 
   187 * Command 'code_reflect' no longer supports the 'file' argument: it has
   188 been superseded by 'file_prefix' for stateless file management as in
   189 'export_code'. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   190 
   191 * Code generation for OCaml: proper strings are used for literals.
   192 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * Code generation for OCaml: Zarith supersedes Nums as library for
   195 proper integer arithmetic. The library is located via standard
   196 invocations of "ocamlfind" (via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND settings variable).
   197 The environment provided by "isabelle ocaml_setup" already contains this
   198 tool and the required packages. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199 
   200 * Code generation for Haskell: code includes for Haskell must contain
   201 proper module frame, nothing is added magically any longer.
   202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   203 
   204 * Code generation: slightly more conventional syntax for 'code_stmts'
   205 antiquotation. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
   208 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
   209 
   210 * The functions \<Union>, \<Inter>, \<Squnion>, \<Sqinter> (not the corresponding binding operators)
   211 now have the same precedence as any other prefix function symbol. Minor
   212 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
   215 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
   216 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
   217 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
   218 retained as migration auxiliary. Abbreviations MINIMUM and MAXIMUM
   219 are gone INCOMPATIBILITY.
   220 
   221 * The simplifier uses image_cong_simp as a congruence rule. The historic
   222 and not really well-formed congruence rules INF_cong*, SUP_cong*, are
   223 not used by default any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY; consider using declare
   224 image_cong_simp [cong del] in extreme situations.
   225 
   226 * INF_image and SUP_image are no default simp rules any longer.
   227 INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer image_comp as simp rule if needed.
   228 
   229 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
   230 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
   231 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   232 
   233 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint
   234 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute have been renamed to
   237 sum_mset.swap and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
   238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * ML structure Inductive: slightly more conventional naming schema.
   241 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * ML: Various _global variants of specification tools have been removed.
   244 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer combinators
   245 Named_Target.theory_map[_result] to lift specifications to the global
   246 theory level.
   247 
   248 * Theory HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: 'case_of_simps' now supports
   249 overlapping and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested
   250 patterns. It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which
   251 assumes sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   252 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 * Theory HOL-Library.Multiset: the <Union># operator now has the same
   256 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
   257 
   258 * Theory HOL-Library.Cardinal_Notations has been discontinued in favor
   259 of the bundle cardinal_syntax (available in theory Main). Minor
   260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * Session HOL-Library and HOL-Number_Theory: Exponentiation by squaring,
   263 used for computing powers in class "monoid_mult" and modular
   264 exponentiation.
   265 
   266 * Session HOL-Computational_Algebra: Formal Laurent series and overhaul
   267 of Formal power series.
   268 
   269 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: More material on residue rings in
   270 Carmichael's function, primitive roots, more properties for "ord".
   271 
   272 * Session HOL-Analysis: Better organization and much more material
   273 at the level of abstract topological spaces.
   274 
   275 * Session HOL-Algebra: Free abelian groups, etc., ported from HOL Light;
   276  algebraic closure of a field by de Vilhena and Baillon.
   277 
   278 * Session HOL-Homology has been added. It is a port of HOL Light's
   279 homology library, with new proofs of "invariance of domain" and related
   280 results.
   281 
   282 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   283 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   284 retrieved via "isabelle build -e HOL-SPARK-Examples" on the
   285 command-line.
   286 
   287 * Sledgehammer:
   288   - The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote provers, has been
   289     updated.
   290   - The machine-learning-based filter MaSh has been optimized to take
   291     less time (in most cases).
   292 
   293 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
   294 
   295 * Session HOL-Word:
   296   * New theory More_Word as comprehensive entrance point.
   297   * Merged type class bitss into type class bits.
   298   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   299 
   300 
   301 *** ML ***
   302 
   303 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   304 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   305 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   306 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   307 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   308 
   309   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   310   module Isabelle.Pure where
   311     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   312     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   313     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   314     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   315   \<close>
   316 
   317 See also commands 'export_generated_files' and 'compile_generated_files'
   318 to use the results.
   319 
   320 * ML evaluation (notably via command 'ML' or 'ML_file') is subject to
   321 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   322 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML.
   323 
   324 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   325 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   326 
   327 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   328 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   329 useful.
   330 
   331 * Local_Theory.reset is no longer available in user space. Regular
   332 definitional packages should use balanced blocks of
   333 Local_Theory.open_target versus Local_Theory.close_target instead, or
   334 the Local_Theory.subtarget(_result) combinator. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   335 
   336 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   337 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   338 
   339 
   340 *** System ***
   341 
   342 * Update to OpenJDK 11: the current long-term support version of Java.
   343 
   344 * Update to Poly/ML 5.8 allows to use the native x86_64 platform without
   345 the full overhead of 64-bit values everywhere. This special x86_64_32
   346 mode provides up to 16GB ML heap, while program code and stacks are
   347 allocated elsewhere. Thus approx. 5 times more memory is available for
   348 applications compared to old x86 mode (which is no longer used by
   349 Isabelle). The switch to the x86_64 CPU architecture also avoids
   350 compatibility problems with Linux and macOS, where 32-bit applications
   351 are gradually phased out.
   352 
   353 * System option "checkpoint" has been discontinued: obsolete thanks to
   354 improved memory management in Poly/ML.
   355 
   356 * System option "system_heaps" determines where to store the session
   357 image of "isabelle build" (and other tools using that internally).
   358 Former option "-s" is superseded by option "-o system_heaps".
   359 INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line syntax.
   360 
   361 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   362 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   363 Isabelle/PIDE.
   364 
   365 * The command-line tool "isabelle build -e" retrieves theory exports
   366 from the session build database, using 'export_files' in session ROOT
   367 entries.
   368 
   369 * The command-line tool "isabelle update" uses Isabelle/PIDE in
   370 batch-mode to update theory sources based on semantic markup produced in
   371 Isabelle/ML. Actual updates depend on system options that may be enabled
   372 via "-u OPT" (for "update_OPT"), see also $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/options
   373 section "Theory update". Theory sessions are specified as in "isabelle
   374 dump".
   375 
   376 * The command-line tool "isabelle update -u control_cartouches" changes
   377 antiquotations into control-symbol format (where possible): @{NAME}
   378 becomes \<^NAME> and @{NAME ARG} becomes \<^NAME>\<open>ARG\<close>.
   379 
   380 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   381 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   382 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   383 component).
   384 
   385 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   386 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   387 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   388 
   389 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   390 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   391 is no longer required.
   392 
   393 * OCaml tools and libraries are now accesed via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND,
   394 which needs to point to a suitable version of "ocamlfind" (e.g. via
   395 OPAM, see below). INCOMPATIBILITY: settings variables ISABELLE_OCAML and
   396 ISABELLE_OCAMLC are no longer supported.
   397 
   398 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   399 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   400 
   401   isabelle ghc_setup
   402   isabelle ghc_stack
   403 
   404   isabelle ocaml_setup
   405   isabelle ocaml_opam
   406 
   407 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   408 (and corresponding directory contents):
   409 
   410   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   411   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   412   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   413 
   414   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   415   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   416 
   417 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   418 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   419 
   420   ISABELLE_GHC
   421 
   422   ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND
   423 
   424 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   425 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   426 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT, or by resetting these variables in
   427 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings.
   428 
   429 
   430 
   431 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   432 ---------------------------------
   433 
   434 *** General ***
   435 
   436 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   437 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   438 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   439 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   440 
   441 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   442 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   443 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   444 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   445 
   446 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   447 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   448 
   449 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   450 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   451 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   452 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   453 avoid this.
   454 
   455 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   456 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   457 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   458 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   459 
   460 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   461 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   462 instead.
   463 
   464 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   465 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   466 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   467 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   468 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   469 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   470 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   471 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   472 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   473 syntax), use option "-m".
   474 
   475 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   477 
   478 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   479 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   480 without specific Prover IDE management.
   481 
   482 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   483 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   484 context.
   485 
   486 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   487 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   488 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   489 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   490 
   491   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   492 
   493 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   494 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   495 
   496 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   497 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   498 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   499 output.
   500 
   501 
   502 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   503 
   504 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   505 for session management:
   506 
   507   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   508     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   509 
   510   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   511     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   512 
   513   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   514     and -S
   515 
   516   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   517     theories
   518 
   519   Examples:
   520     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   521     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   522     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   523     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   524     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   525 
   526 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   527 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   528 
   529 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   530 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   531 
   532 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   533 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   534 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   535 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   536 arguments into this format.
   537 
   538 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   539 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   540 
   541 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   542 functions (e.g. State output).
   543 
   544 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   545 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   546 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   547 
   548 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   549 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   550 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   551 
   552 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   553 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   554 
   555 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   556 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   557 Isabelle".
   558 
   559 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   560 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   561 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   562 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   563 Unicode content when saving the file.
   564 
   565 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   566 
   567 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   568 
   569 
   570 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   571 
   572 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   573 Isabelle/jEdit.
   574 
   575 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   576 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   577 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   578 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   579 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   580 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   581 
   582 
   583 *** Document preparation ***
   584 
   585 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   586 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   587 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   588 are supported:
   589 
   590   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   591   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   592   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   593 
   594 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   595 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   596 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   597 
   598 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   599 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   600 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   601 
   602 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   603 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   604 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   605 
   606 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   607 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   608 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   609 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   610 
   611 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   612 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   613 
   614 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   615 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   616 normally need to import.
   617 
   618 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   619 session name verbatim.
   620 
   621 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   622 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   623 
   624 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   625 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   626 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   627 
   628 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   629 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   630 anymore.
   631 
   632 
   633 *** Isar ***
   634 
   635 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   636 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   637 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   638 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   639 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   640 
   641 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   642 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   643 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   644 
   645 
   646 *** Pure ***
   647 
   648 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   649 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   650 
   651 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   652 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   653 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   654 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   655 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   656 
   657 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   658 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   659 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   660 duplicate constant declarations.
   661 
   662 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   663 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   664 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   665 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   666 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   667 
   668 
   669 *** HOL ***
   670 
   671 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   672 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   673 
   674 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   675 
   676   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   677 
   678   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   679     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   680     constraints instead.
   681 
   682   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   683 
   684   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   685     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   686     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   687     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   688 
   689   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   690     standard target languages.
   691 
   692   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   693     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   694     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   695     HOL string values and vice versa.
   696 
   697   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   698     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   699 
   700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   701 
   702 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   703 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   704 
   705 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   706 
   707 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   708 former axioms:
   709 
   710   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   711 
   712 are replaced by:
   713 
   714   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   715 
   716 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   717 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   718 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   719 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   720 
   721 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   722 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   723 
   724 * Clarifed theorem names:
   725 
   726   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   727   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   728 
   729 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   730 
   731 * SMT module:
   732 
   733   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   734     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   735 
   736   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   737     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   738     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   739 
   740 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   741 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   742 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   743 
   744 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   746 
   747 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   748 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   749 
   750 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   751 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   753 
   754 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   755 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   756 Renamed:
   757 
   758   span_inc ~> span_superset
   759   span_superset ~> span_base
   760   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   761 
   762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   763 
   764 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   765 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   766 
   767 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   768 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   769 
   770 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   771 
   772   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   773     input syntax
   774 
   775   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   776 
   777 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   778 
   779 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   780 
   781 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   782 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   783 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   784 
   785 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   786   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   787   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   788   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   789 
   790 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   791 
   792 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   793 
   794   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   795   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   796   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   797   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   798   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   799 
   800 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   801 
   802 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   803 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   804 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   805 broken proofs.
   806 
   807 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   808 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   809 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   810 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   811 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   812 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   813 
   814 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   815 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   816 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   817 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   818 examples.
   819 
   820 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   821 
   822 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   823 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   824 
   825 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   826 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   827 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   829 
   830 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   831 infix/prefix notation.
   832 
   833 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   834 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   836 
   837 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   838 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   840 
   841 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   842 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   843 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   844 
   845 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   846 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   847 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   848 
   849 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   850 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   851 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   852 
   853 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   854 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   855 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   856 
   857 
   858 *** ML ***
   859 
   860 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   861 are stored persistently in the session build database.
   862 
   863 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   864 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   865 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   866 "isabelle process".
   867 
   868 
   869 *** System ***
   870 
   871 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   872 longer supported.
   873 
   874 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   875 support has been discontinued.
   876 
   877 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   878 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   879 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   880 
   881 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   882 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   883 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   884 quotes):
   885 
   886   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   887   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   888 
   889   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   890   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   891 
   892   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   893   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   894 
   895 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   896   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   897   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   898   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   899 
   900 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   901 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   902 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   903 only.
   904 
   905 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   906 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   907 up-to-date status of a session.
   908 
   909 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   910 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   911 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   912 directory.
   913 
   914 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   915 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   916 
   917 * The command-line tool "export" and 'export_files' in session ROOT
   918 entries retrieve theory exports from the session build database.
   919 
   920 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   921 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   922 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   923 See also the "system" manual.
   924 
   925 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   926 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   927 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   928 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   929 been discontinued.
   930 
   931 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   932 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   933 
   934 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   935 repository for the generated session files.
   936 
   937 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   938 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   939 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   940 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   941 ISABELLE_HOME).
   942 
   943 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   944 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   945 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   946 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   947 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   948 
   949 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   950 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   951 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   952 
   953 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   954 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   955 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   956 32/64 bit.
   957 
   958 
   959 
   960 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   961 ----------------------------------
   962 
   963 *** General ***
   964 
   965 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   966 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   967 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   968 
   969 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   970 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   971 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   972 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   973 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   974 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   975 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   976 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   977 
   978 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   979 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   980 just the theory base name as before).
   981 
   982 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   983 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   984 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   985 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   986 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   987 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   988 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   989 
   990 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   991 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   992 leads to the follow renamings:
   993 
   994   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   995   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   996   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   997   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
   998   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
   999 
  1000 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1001 
  1002 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
  1003 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
  1004 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
  1005 
  1006 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
  1007 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
  1008 
  1009 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
  1010 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
  1011 antiquotations:
  1012 
  1013   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
  1014     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
  1015   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
  1016     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
  1017   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
  1018 
  1019 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
  1020 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
  1021 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
  1022 tutorial on code generation.
  1023 
  1024 
  1025 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1026 
  1027 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
  1028 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
  1029 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
  1030 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
  1031 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
  1032 
  1033 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
  1034 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
  1035 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
  1036 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
  1037 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
  1038 effectively always enabled.
  1039 
  1040 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
  1041 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
  1042 buffers.
  1043 
  1044 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
  1045 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
  1046 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
  1047 represented by a different border color.
  1048 
  1049 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
  1050 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
  1051 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
  1052 
  1053 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
  1054 document in the default web browser.
  1055 
  1056 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
  1057 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
  1058 used for formal checking.
  1059 
  1060 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
  1061 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
  1062 enabled at all times.
  1063 
  1064 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
  1065 
  1066 
  1067 *** Pure ***
  1068 
  1069 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
  1070 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
  1071 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
  1072 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1073 
  1074 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
  1075   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
  1076     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
  1077   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
  1078     malformed.
  1079   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
  1080     malformed.
  1081 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1082 
  1083 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
  1084 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
  1085 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1086 
  1087 
  1088 *** HOL ***
  1089 
  1090 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
  1091 
  1092 * SMT module:
  1093   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
  1094     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
  1095     disabled by default.
  1096   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
  1097   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
  1098 
  1099 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
  1100 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
  1101 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
  1102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1103 
  1104 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
  1105 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
  1106 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
  1107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1108 
  1109 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
  1110 of "Complex_Main").
  1111 
  1112 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
  1113 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
  1116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1117 
  1118 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
  1119 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1120 
  1121 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
  1122 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1123 
  1124 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
  1125 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
  1126 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
  1127 
  1128 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
  1129 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1130 
  1131 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
  1132 
  1133 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
  1134 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1135 
  1136 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
  1137 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
  1138 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
  1139 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1140 
  1141 * Generalized some facts:
  1142     measure_induct_rule
  1143     measure_induct
  1144     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
  1145     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
  1146     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
  1147     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
  1148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1149 
  1150 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
  1151 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
  1152 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
  1153 euclidean size.
  1154 
  1155 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
  1156   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
  1157   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
  1158     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
  1159     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
  1160   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
  1161     available as "bezout_coefficients".
  1162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1163 
  1164 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
  1165 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
  1166 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
  1167 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1168 
  1169 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
  1170   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
  1171   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
  1172 
  1173 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
  1174 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1175 
  1176 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
  1177 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
  1178 
  1179 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
  1180 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
  1181 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1182 
  1183 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
  1184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1185 
  1186 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
  1187 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
  1188 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
  1189 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
  1190 
  1191 syntax (ASCII)
  1192   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
  1193   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
  1194   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
  1195 
  1196 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
  1197 multisets have been renamed:
  1198 
  1199   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
  1200   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
  1201 
  1202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1203 
  1204 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
  1205 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
  1206 
  1207 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
  1208 
  1209 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
  1210 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
  1211 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
  1212 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1213 
  1214 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1215 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1216 
  1217 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1218 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1219 
  1220 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1221 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1222 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1223 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1225 
  1226 
  1227 *** System ***
  1228 
  1229 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1230 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1231 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1232 
  1233 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1234 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1235 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1236 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1237 
  1238 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1239 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1240 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1241 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1242 
  1243 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1244 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1245 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1246 unchanged.
  1247 
  1248 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1249 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1250 
  1251 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1252 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1253 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1254 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1255 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1256 
  1257 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1258 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1259 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1260 
  1261 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1262 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1263 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1264 
  1265 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1266 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1267 
  1268   isabelle imports -I -a
  1269   isabelle imports -U -a
  1270   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1271   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1272 
  1273 
  1274 
  1275 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1276 -------------------------------------
  1277 
  1278 *** General ***
  1279 
  1280 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1281   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1282     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1283   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1284     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1285     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1286     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1287     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1288 
  1289 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1290 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1291 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1292 
  1293 bundle foo
  1294 begin
  1295   declare a [simp]
  1296   declare b [intro]
  1297 end
  1298 
  1299 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1300 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1301 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1302 
  1303 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1304 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1305 discontinued.
  1306 
  1307 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1308 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1309 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1310 
  1311 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1312 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1313 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1314 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1315 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1316 
  1317 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1318 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1319 
  1320 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1321 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1322 
  1323 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1324 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1325 examples.
  1326 
  1327 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1328 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1329 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1330 
  1331 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1332 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1333 
  1334 
  1335 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1336 
  1337 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1338 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1339 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1340 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1341 
  1342 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1343 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1344 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1345 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1346 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1347 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1348 
  1349 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1350 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1351 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1352 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1353 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1354 
  1355 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1356 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1357 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1358 
  1359 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1360 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1361 
  1362 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1363 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1364 
  1365 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1366 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1367 
  1368 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1369 
  1370 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1371 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1372 systematic renaming.
  1373 
  1374 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1375 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1376 theorem statement.
  1377 
  1378 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1379 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1380 
  1381 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1382 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1383 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1384 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1385 
  1386 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1387 following independent stages:
  1388 
  1389   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1390   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1391   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1392   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1393 
  1394 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1395 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1396 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1397 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1398 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1399 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1400 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1401 
  1402 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1403 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1404 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1405 
  1406 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1407 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1408 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1409 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1410 
  1411 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1412 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1413 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1414 
  1415 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1416 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1417 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1418 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1419 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1420 old keymaps.
  1421 
  1422 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1423 and diverse:
  1424 
  1425   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1426   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1427   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1428 
  1429 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1430 have to be changed.
  1431 
  1432 
  1433 *** Document preparation ***
  1434 
  1435 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1436 
  1437 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1438 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1439 
  1440 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1441 this allows special forms of document output.
  1442 
  1443 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1444 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1445 derivatives.
  1446 
  1447 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1448 
  1449 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1450 Isabelle2015).
  1451 
  1452 
  1453 *** Isar ***
  1454 
  1455 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1456 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1457 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1458 
  1459 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1460 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1461 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1462 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1463 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1464 
  1465 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1466 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1467 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1468 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1469 
  1470 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1471 context.
  1472 
  1473 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1474 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1475 
  1476 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1477 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1478 
  1479 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1480 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1481 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1482 
  1483 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1484 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1486 
  1487 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1488 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1489 definitions.
  1490 
  1491 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1492 expression, e.g.
  1493 
  1494   (use facts in simp)
  1495   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1496 
  1497 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1498 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1499 
  1500 
  1501 *** Pure ***
  1502 
  1503 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1504 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1505 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1506 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1507 
  1508 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1509 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1510 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1511 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1512 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1513 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1514 
  1515 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1516 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1517 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1518 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1519 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1520 types where this is really intended.
  1521 
  1522 
  1523 *** HOL ***
  1524 
  1525 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1526 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1527 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1528 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1529 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1530 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1531 
  1532 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1533 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1534 
  1535 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1536 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1537 
  1538 * Sledgehammer:
  1539   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1540   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1541 
  1542 * (Co)datatype package:
  1543   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1544     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1545     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1546     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1547   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1548     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1549   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1550     to the map function.
  1551   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1552   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1553        terms of map and set
  1554        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1555   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1556        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1557     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1558   - Renamed lemmas:
  1559       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1560       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1561     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1562   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1563   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1564     equivalent) form.
  1565     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1566 
  1567 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1568 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1569 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1570 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1571 
  1572 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1573 
  1574   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1575   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1576 
  1577 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1578 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1579 eliminated altogether.
  1580 
  1581 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1582 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1583 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1584 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1585 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1586 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1587 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1588 
  1589 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1591 
  1592 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1593 
  1594     setsum ~> sum
  1595     setprod ~> prod
  1596     listsum ~> sum_list
  1597     listprod ~> prod_list
  1598 
  1599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1600 
  1601 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1602     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1603     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1604     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1605     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1606     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1607     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1608     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1609     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1610     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1611     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1612     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1613     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1614     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1615     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1616     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1617     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1618     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1619     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1620     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1621     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1622     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1623     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1624     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1625     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1626     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1627     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1628     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1629     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1630     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1632 
  1633 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1634 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1635 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1636 
  1637 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1638 
  1639 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1640 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1641 
  1642   - Logical representation:
  1643     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1644     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1645       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1646     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1647       are non-canonical.
  1648   - Printing and parsing:
  1649     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1650       (as before).
  1651     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1652     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1653       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1654       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1655     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1656       printed as their logical representation.
  1657   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1658     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1659   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1660 
  1661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1662 
  1663 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1664 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1665 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1666 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1667 
  1668 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1669 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1670 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1671 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1672 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1673 
  1674 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1675 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1676 
  1677 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1678 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1679 
  1680 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1681 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1682 interface for the generated code.
  1683 
  1684 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1685 spelt out explicitly.
  1686 
  1687 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1688 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1689 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1690 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1691 
  1692 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1693 products.
  1694 
  1695 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1696 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1697 
  1698 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1699 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1700 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1701 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1702 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1703 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1704 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1706 
  1707 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1708 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1709 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1710 
  1711 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1713 
  1714   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1715   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1716   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1717 
  1718 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1719   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1720     le_add_same_cancel1
  1721     le_add_same_cancel2
  1722     less_add_same_cancel1
  1723     less_add_same_cancel2
  1724     add_le_same_cancel1
  1725     add_le_same_cancel2
  1726     add_less_same_cancel1
  1727     add_less_same_cancel2
  1728 
  1729 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1730   superseeded by a more general version:
  1731     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1732     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1733     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1734     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1735     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1736     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1737     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1738     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1739 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1740 
  1741 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1742 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1743 
  1744 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1745 
  1746 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1747 
  1748   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1749   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1750 
  1751 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1752 
  1753 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1755 
  1756 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1757 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1758 A)".
  1759 
  1760 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1761 
  1762 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1763 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1764 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1765 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1766 
  1767 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1768 dioid.
  1769 
  1770 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1771 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1772 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1773 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1774 
  1775 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1776 of a more general type also:
  1777   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1778   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1779   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1780   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1781   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1782   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1783   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1784   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1785   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1786   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1787   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1788   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1789   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1790   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1791   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1792   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1793   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1794   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1795   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1796   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1797   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1798   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1799   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1800   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1801   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1802   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1803   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1804   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1805   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1806   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1807   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1808   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1809   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1810   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1811   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1812   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1813   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1814   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1815   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1816   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1817   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1818   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1819   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1820   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1821   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1822   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1823   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1824   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1825   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1826   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1827   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1828   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1829   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1830   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1831   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1832   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1833   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1834   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1835   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1836   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1837   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1838   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1839   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1840   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1841   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1842   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1843   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1844   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1845   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1846   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1847   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1848   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1849   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1850   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1851   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1852   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1853   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1854   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1855   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1856   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1857   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1858   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1859   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1860   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1861   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1862   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1863   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1864   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1866 
  1867 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1868 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1869 
  1870 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1871 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1872 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1873 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1874 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1875 
  1876 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1877 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1878 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1879 once.
  1880 
  1881 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1882 set_mset rather than count.
  1883 
  1884   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1885     by default.
  1886 
  1887   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1888     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1889 
  1890   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1891     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1892 
  1893   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1894     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1895 
  1896 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1897 
  1898 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1899 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1900 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1901 underscores.
  1902 
  1903 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1904 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1905 relation.
  1906 
  1907 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1908 everywhere fix bijections.
  1909 
  1910 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1911 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1912 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1913 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1914 
  1915 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1916 
  1917 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1918 
  1919 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1920 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1921 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1922 
  1923 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1924 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1925 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1926 
  1927 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1928 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1929 
  1930 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1931 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1932 domain.
  1933 
  1934 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1935 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1936 
  1937   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1938   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1939 
  1940 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1941 Probability Mass Functions.
  1942 
  1943 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1944 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1945 folding over a list in random order.
  1946 
  1947 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1948 subprobability distributions.
  1949 
  1950 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1951 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1952 
  1953     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1954     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1955     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1956     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1957     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1958     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1959     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1960     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1961     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1962     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1963     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1964     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1965     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1966     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1967     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1968     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1969     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1970     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1971     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1972     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1973     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1974     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1975 
  1976 Some functions have been renamed:
  1977     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1978 
  1979 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1980     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1981     #\<subset># ~> <
  1982     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1983     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1984 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1985 
  1986 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1987 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1988 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1989 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1990 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1991 
  1992 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1993 been renamed:
  1994 
  1995     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  1996     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  1997     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1998     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  1999     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  2000     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  2001     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  2002     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  2003     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  2004 
  2005     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  2006     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  2007     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  2008     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  2009     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  2010     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  2011     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  2012     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  2013     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  2014     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  2015     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  2016 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2017 
  2018 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  2019 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2020 
  2021 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  2022 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  2023 
  2024     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  2025     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  2026     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  2027     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  2028     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  2029     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  2030     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  2031     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  2032     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  2033     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  2034     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  2035     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  2036     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  2037     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  2038     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  2039     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  2040     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  2041 
  2042 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  2043 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  2044 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  2045 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  2046 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  2047 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2048 
  2049 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  2050 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  2051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2052 
  2053 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  2054 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  2055 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2056 
  2057 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  2058 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  2059 removed or changed:
  2060 
  2061   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  2062   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  2063   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  2064   union_single_eq_diff
  2065   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  2066   diff_single_eq_union
  2067 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2068 
  2069 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  2070 to use add_mset instead of single:
  2071 
  2072   mset_add
  2073   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  2074   diff_single_eq_union
  2075   union_single_eq_diff
  2076   union_single_eq_member
  2077   add_eq_conv_diff
  2078   insert_noteq_member
  2079   add_eq_conv_ex
  2080   multi_member_split
  2081   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  2082   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  2083   mset_subset_insertD
  2084   insert_subset_eq_iff
  2085   insert_union_subset_iff
  2086   multi_psub_of_add_self
  2087   inter_add_left1
  2088   inter_add_left2
  2089   inter_add_right1
  2090   inter_add_right2
  2091   sup_union_left1
  2092   sup_union_left2
  2093   sup_union_right1
  2094   sup_union_right2
  2095   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  2096   multi_nonempty_split
  2097   mset_insort
  2098   mset_update
  2099   mult1I
  2100   less_add
  2101   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  2102   rel_mset_Zero
  2103   msed_map_invL
  2104   msed_map_invR
  2105   msed_rel_invL
  2106   msed_rel_invR
  2107   le_multiset_right_total
  2108   multiset_induct
  2109   multiset_induct2_size
  2110   multiset_induct2
  2111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2112 
  2113 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  2114 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  2115 element:
  2116 
  2117   image_mset
  2118   mset
  2119   replicate_mset
  2120   mult1
  2121   pred_mset
  2122   rel_mset'
  2123   mset_insort
  2124 
  2125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2126 
  2127 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  2128 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  2129 
  2130   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  2131   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  2132   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  2133   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  2134   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  2135   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2136   count_single [simp] ~> []
  2137   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2138   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  2139   size_single [simp] ~> []
  2140   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2141   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2142   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2143   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2144   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  2145   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  2146   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  2147   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  2148   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  2149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2150 
  2151 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  2152 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  2153 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  2154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2155 
  2156 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  2157 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  2158 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2159 
  2160 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  2161 multisets:
  2162 
  2163   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  2164   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  2165 
  2166 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  2167 and union of multisets have been changed:
  2168 
  2169   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  2170   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  2171 
  2172 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2173 
  2174 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  2175 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  2176 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2177 
  2178 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  2179 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  2180 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  2181 
  2182 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  2183 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  2184 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  2185 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  2186 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  2187 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2188 
  2189 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  2190 the following renaming
  2191 
  2192   prefixeq -> prefix
  2193   prefix -> strict_prefix
  2194   suffixeq -> suffix
  2195   suffix -> strict_suffix
  2196 
  2197 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  2198 
  2199 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  2200 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  2201 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  2202 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  2203 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  2204 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2205 
  2206 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  2207 theories.
  2208 
  2209 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  2210 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  2211 
  2212 
  2213 *** ML ***
  2214 
  2215 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2216 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2217 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2218 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2220 
  2221 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2222 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2223 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2224 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2225 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2226 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2227 superseded by General.Div.
  2228 
  2229 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2230 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2231 
  2232 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2233 with approximative output quality.
  2234 
  2235 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2236 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2237 
  2238 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2239 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2240 requiring separate files.
  2241 
  2242 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2243 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2244 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2245 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2246 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2247 
  2248 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2249 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2250 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2251 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2252 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2253 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2254 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2255 
  2256 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2257 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2259 
  2260 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2261 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2262 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2263 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2264 
  2265 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2266 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2267 
  2268 
  2269 *** System ***
  2270 
  2271 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2272 
  2273 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2274 much less disk space.
  2275 
  2276 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2277 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2278 particular:
  2279 
  2280   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2281     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2282   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2283   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2284 
  2285 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2286 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2287 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2288 
  2289 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2290 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2291 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2292 return code 1.
  2293 
  2294 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2295 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2296 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2297 
  2298 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2299 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2300 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2301 
  2302 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2303 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2304 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2305 by default).
  2306 
  2307 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2308 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2309 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2310 resulting log files.
  2311 
  2312 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2313 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2314 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2315 implicit default via option -p.
  2316 
  2317 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2318 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2319 
  2320 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2321 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2322 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2323 
  2324 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2325 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2326 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2327 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2328 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2329 
  2330 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2331 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2332 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2333 
  2334 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2335 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2336 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2337 
  2338 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2339 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2340 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2341 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2342 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2343 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2344 been discontinued.
  2345 
  2346 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2347 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2348 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2349 
  2350 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2351 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2352 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2353 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2354 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2355 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2356 
  2357 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2358 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2359 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2360 connection).
  2361 
  2362 
  2363 
  2364 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2365 -----------------------------------
  2366 
  2367 *** General ***
  2368 
  2369 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2370 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2371 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2372 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2373 examples that do require HOL.
  2374 
  2375 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2376 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2377 
  2378 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2379 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2380 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2381 has been removed (see below).
  2382 
  2383 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2384 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2385 
  2386 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2387 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2388 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2389 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2390 
  2391 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2392 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2393 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2394 meaning.
  2395 
  2396 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2397 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2398 to update old sources.
  2399 
  2400 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2401 
  2402   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2403   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2404   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2405   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2406 
  2407 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2408 accordingly.
  2409 
  2410 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2411 'theorem'.
  2412 
  2413 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2414 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2415 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2416 
  2417 
  2418 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2419 
  2420 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2421 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2422 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2423 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2424 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2425 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2426 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2427 any effect on the running ML program.
  2428 
  2429 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2430 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2431 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2432 update.
  2433 
  2434 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2435 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2436 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2437 
  2438 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2439 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2440 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2441 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2442 visibility.
  2443 
  2444 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2445 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2446 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2447 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2448 panel.
  2449 
  2450 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2451 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2452 
  2453 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2454 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2455 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2456 
  2457 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2458 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2459 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2460 
  2461 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2462 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2463 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2464 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2465 
  2466 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2467 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2468 the editor.
  2469 
  2470 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2471 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2472 
  2473 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2474 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2475 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2476 instead.
  2477 
  2478 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2479 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2480 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2481 
  2482 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2483 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2484 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2485 
  2486 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2487 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2488 
  2489 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2490 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2491 
  2492 
  2493 *** Document preparation ***
  2494 
  2495 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2496 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2497 
  2498 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2499 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2500 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2501 
  2502 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2503 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2504 follows:
  2505 
  2506   \<^item>  itemize
  2507   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2508   \<^descr>  description
  2509 
  2510 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2511 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2512 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2513 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2514 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2515 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2516 
  2517 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2518 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2519 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2520 
  2521 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2522 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2523 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2524 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2525 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2526 
  2527 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2528 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2529 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2530 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2531 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2532 
  2533 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2534 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2535 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2536 
  2537 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2538 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2539 
  2540 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2541 
  2542 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2543 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2544 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2545 
  2546 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2547 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2548 
  2549 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2550 entities of the Isar language.
  2551 
  2552 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2553 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2554 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2555 
  2556 
  2557 *** Isar ***
  2558 
  2559 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2560 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2561 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2562 example:
  2563 
  2564   have result: "C x y"
  2565     if "A x" and "B y"
  2566     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2567     <proof>
  2568 
  2569 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2570 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2571 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2572 
  2573   {
  2574     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2575     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2576     have "C x y" <proof>
  2577   }
  2578   note result = this
  2579 
  2580 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2581 instead of 'assume' above.
  2582 
  2583 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2584 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2585 
  2586   assume result: "C x y"
  2587     if "A x" and "B y"
  2588     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2589 
  2590 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2591 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2592 
  2593 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2594 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2595 example:
  2596 
  2597   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2598 
  2599 is equivalent to:
  2600 
  2601   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2602 
  2603 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2604 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2605 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2606 follows:
  2607 
  2608   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2609 
  2610 or:
  2611 
  2612   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2613 
  2614 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2615 
  2616   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2617 
  2618 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2619 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2620 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2621 of the local context elements yet.
  2622 
  2623 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2624 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2625 
  2626   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2627   then have something
  2628   proof cases
  2629     case a
  2630     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2631   next
  2632     case b
  2633     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2634   next
  2635     case c
  2636     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2637   qed
  2638 
  2639 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2640 
  2641   case a: (c xs)
  2642   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2643 
  2644 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2645 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2646 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2647 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2648 and always put attributes in front.
  2649 
  2650 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2651 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2652 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2653 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2654 
  2655 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2656 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2657 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2658 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2659 
  2660   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2661     supply [simp] = a
  2662   proof
  2663     show A by simp
  2664   next
  2665     show A by simp
  2666   qed
  2667 
  2668 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2669 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2670 
  2671 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2672 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2673 
  2674 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2675 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2676 
  2677 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2678 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2679 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2680 manual.
  2681 
  2682 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2683 ('apply' scripts).
  2684 
  2685 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2686 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2687 example:
  2688 
  2689 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2690   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2691 proof goal_cases
  2692   case (1 x)
  2693   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2694 next
  2695   case (2 y z)
  2696   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2697 qed
  2698 
  2699 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2700   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2701 proof goal_cases
  2702   case prems: 1
  2703   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2704 next
  2705   case prems: 2
  2706   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2707 qed
  2708 
  2709 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2710 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2711 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2712 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2713 
  2714 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2715 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2716 
  2717 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2718 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2719 
  2720 
  2721 *** Pure ***
  2722 
  2723 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2724 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2725 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2726 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2727 
  2728 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2729 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2730 
  2731 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2732 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2733 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2734 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2735 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2736 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2737 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2738 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2739 
  2740   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2741   begin
  2742     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2743   end
  2744 
  2745   locale morphism =
  2746     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2747     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2748   begin
  2749     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2750   end
  2751 
  2752 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2753 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2754 
  2755 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2756 'defines'.
  2757 
  2758 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2759 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2760 
  2761 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2762 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2763 
  2764 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2765 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2766 
  2767 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2768 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2769 exploited.
  2770 
  2771 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2772 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2773 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2774 
  2775 
  2776 *** HOL ***
  2777 
  2778 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2779 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2780 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2781 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2782 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2783 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2784 
  2785 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2786 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2787 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2788 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2789 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2790 
  2791 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2792 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2793 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2794 simplify porting old theories:
  2795 
  2796   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2797 
  2798   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2799 
  2800   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2801   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2802 
  2803   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2804 
  2805   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2806   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2807 
  2808   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2809 
  2810   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2811     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2812 
  2813   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2814   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2815   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2816 
  2817   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2818   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2819   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2820 
  2821 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2822 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2823 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2824 
  2825 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2826 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2827 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2828 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2829 
  2830 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2831 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2832 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2833 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2834 
  2835 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2836 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2837 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2838 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2839 
  2840 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2841 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2842 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2843 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2844 
  2845 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2846 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2847 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2848 
  2849 Consolidated facts:
  2850   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2851   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2852   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2853   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2854   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2855   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2856   split_split ~> prod.split
  2857   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2858   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2859   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2860   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2861   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2862   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2863   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2864   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2865   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2866   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2867   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2868   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2869   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2870   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2871   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2872   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2873   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2874   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2875   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2876   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2877   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2878   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2879   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2880   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2881   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2882   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2883   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2884   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2885 
  2886 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2887   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2888   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2889   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2890   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2891 
  2892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2893 
  2894 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2895 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2896 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2897 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2898 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2899 
  2900 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2901   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2902   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2903   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2904   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2905   real_of_one of_int_1
  2906   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2907   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2908   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2909   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2910   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2911   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2912   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2913   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2914   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2915   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2916   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2917   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2918   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2919   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2920   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2921   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2922   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2923 
  2924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2925 
  2926 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2927 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2928 
  2929 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2930 
  2931 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2932 
  2933 * Sledgehammer:
  2934   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2935   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2936     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2937   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2938   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2939   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2940     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2941   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2942 
  2943 * Nitpick:
  2944   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2945   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2946   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2947   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2948   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2949 
  2950 * (Co)datatype package:
  2951   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2952     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2953   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2954   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2955     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2956   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2957     being defined.
  2958   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2959 
  2960 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2961 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2962 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2963 
  2964 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2965 
  2966 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2967 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2968 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2969 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2970 
  2971 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2973 
  2974 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2975 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2976 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2977 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2978 
  2979 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2980 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2981 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2982 
  2983 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2984 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2985 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2986 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2987 
  2988 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2989 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2990 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2991 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2992 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2993 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2994 during instantiation.
  2995 
  2996 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  2997 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  2998 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2999 
  3000 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  3001 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  3002 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  3003 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  3004 
  3005   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  3006   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  3007 
  3008 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3009 
  3010 * Library/Multiset:
  3011   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  3012       < ~> <#
  3013       > ~> >#
  3014       <= ~> <=#
  3015       >= ~> >=#
  3016       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  3017       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  3018     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3019   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  3020       \<subset>#
  3021       \<subseteq>#
  3022       \<supset>#
  3023       \<supseteq>#
  3024   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  3025     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  3026     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  3027     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  3028     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  3029     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  3030     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3031   - Renamed conversions:
  3032       multiset_of ~> mset
  3033       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  3034       set_of ~> set_mset
  3035     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3036   - Renamed lemmas:
  3037       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  3038       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  3039       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  3040     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3041   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  3042     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  3043     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  3044     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3045 
  3046 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  3047 
  3048 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  3049 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  3050 chain-complete partial orders.
  3051 
  3052 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  3053 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  3054 
  3055 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  3056 periodic functions.
  3057 
  3058 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  3059 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  3060 GCD.
  3061 
  3062 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  3063 
  3064 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  3065 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3066 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  3067 
  3068 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  3069 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  3070 
  3071 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  3072 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  3073 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  3074 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  3075 
  3076 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  3077 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  3078 
  3079 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  3080 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  3081 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  3082 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  3083 properties.
  3084 
  3085 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  3086 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  3087 
  3088 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  3089 structures.
  3090 
  3091 
  3092 *** ML ***
  3093 
  3094 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  3095 system are available:
  3096 
  3097   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  3098   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  3099   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  3100 
  3101 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  3102 
  3103 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  3104 Isar proof method.
  3105 
  3106 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  3107 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  3108 breaks.
  3109 
  3110 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  3111 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  3112 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3113 
  3114 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  3115 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  3116 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  3117 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  3118 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3119 
  3120 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  3121 
  3122   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  3123   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  3124 
  3125   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  3126   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  3127 
  3128 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  3129 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  3130 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  3131 
  3132 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  3133 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  3134 instead (with proper context).
  3135 
  3136 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  3137 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  3138 
  3139 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  3140 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  3141 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  3142 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  3143 the proof context discipline.
  3144 
  3145 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  3146 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  3147 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  3148 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  3149 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3150 
  3151 
  3152 *** System ***
  3153 
  3154 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  3155 
  3156 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  3157 conflations:
  3158 
  3159     hence  ~>  then have
  3160     thus   ~>  then show
  3161 
  3162 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  3163 maintainability of proofs.
  3164 
  3165 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  3166 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  3167 performance.
  3168 
  3169 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  3170 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  3171 
  3172     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  3173 
  3174 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  3175 space.
  3176 
  3177 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  3178 platforms as follows.
  3179 
  3180   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  3181     associated with the main app bundle
  3182 
  3183   - isabelle jedit: settings
  3184     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  3185     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3186 
  3187   - isabelle build: settings
  3188     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3189 
  3190 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  3191 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  3192 
  3193 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  3194 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  3195 required after change.
  3196 
  3197 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  3198 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  3199 
  3200 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  3201 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  3202 
  3203 
  3204 
  3205 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  3206 ------------------------------
  3207 
  3208 *** General ***
  3209 
  3210 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  3211 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  3212 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3213 
  3214   context
  3215   begin
  3216 
  3217   private definition ...
  3218   private lemma ...
  3219 
  3220   qualified definition ...
  3221   qualified lemma ...
  3222 
  3223   lemma ...
  3224   theorem ...
  3225 
  3226   end
  3227 
  3228 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3229 naming policy.
  3230 
  3231 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3232 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3233 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3234 
  3235 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3236 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3237 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3238 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3239 
  3240 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3241 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3242 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244 
  3245 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3246 theory context.
  3247 
  3248 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3249 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3250 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3251 
  3252 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3253 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3254 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3255 sources.
  3256 
  3257 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3258 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3259 
  3260 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3261 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3262 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3263 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3264 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3265 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3266 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3267 
  3268 
  3269 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3270 
  3271 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3272 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3273 
  3274 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3275 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3276 in the buffer.
  3277 
  3278 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3279 marker, SideKick parser.
  3280 
  3281 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3282 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3283 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3284 
  3285 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3286 Options / Text Area).
  3287 
  3288 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3289 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3290 
  3291 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3292 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3293 
  3294 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3295 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3296 
  3297 
  3298 *** Document preparation ***
  3299 
  3300 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3301 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3302 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3303 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3304 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3305 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3306 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3307 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3308 
  3309 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3310 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3311 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3312 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3313 
  3314 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3315 style.
  3316 
  3317 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3318 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3319 
  3320 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3321 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3322 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3323 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3324 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3325 
  3326 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3327 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3328 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3329 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3330 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3331 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3332 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3333 
  3334 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3335 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3336 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3338 
  3339 
  3340 *** Pure ***
  3341 
  3342 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3343 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3344 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3345 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3346 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3347 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3348 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3349 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3350 
  3351 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3352 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3353 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3354 
  3355 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3356 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3357 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3358 different index.
  3359 
  3360 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3361 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3362 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3363 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3364 
  3365 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3366 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3367 token category instead.
  3368 
  3369 
  3370 *** HOL ***
  3371 
  3372 * New (co)datatype package:
  3373   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3374     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3375     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3376     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3377     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378   - Renamed theorems:
  3379       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3380       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3381       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3382       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3383       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3384       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3385       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3386       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3387       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3388       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3389       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3390       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3391       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3392     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3393   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3394     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3395     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3397     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3398     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3399   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3400     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3401     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3402     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3403     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3404     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3405     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3406   - Renamed theories:
  3407       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3408       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3409       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3410       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3411       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3412       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3413     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3414   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3415     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3416     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3417     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3418     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3419     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3420     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3421     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3422     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3423   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3424     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3425     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3426     rules.
  3427 
  3428 * Old datatype package:
  3429   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3430     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3431     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3432     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3433     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434   - Renamed theorems:
  3435       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3436     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437   - Renamed theory:
  3438       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3439     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440 
  3441 * Nitpick:
  3442   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3443     operations.
  3444 
  3445 * Sledgehammer:
  3446   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3447     default.
  3448   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3449     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3450   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3451     Removed sub-command:
  3452       min
  3453   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3454     dramatically improved.
  3455   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3456 
  3457 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3458   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3459     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3460     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3461     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3462     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3463     point to it.
  3464     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3465   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3466     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3467   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3468     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3469   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3470     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3471 
  3472 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3473 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3474 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3475 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3476 
  3477 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3478 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3479 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3480 
  3481 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3482 
  3483 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3484 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3485 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3486 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3487 
  3488 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3489 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3490 
  3491 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3493 
  3494 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3495 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3496 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3497 
  3498 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3499 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3500 
  3501 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3502 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3503 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3504 
  3505 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3506 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3507 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3508 needed.
  3509 
  3510 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3511 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3512 
  3513 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3514 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3515 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3516 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3517 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3518 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3519 
  3520 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3521 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3522 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3523 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3524 
  3525 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3526 type class hierarchy:
  3527   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3528   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3529   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3530   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3531 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3532 
  3533 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3534   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3535   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3536 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3537 
  3538 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3539 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3540 
  3541 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3542   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3543   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3544   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3545 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3546 
  3547 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3548 and part of theory Main.
  3549   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3554 
  3555 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3556 Fact rename:
  3557     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3559 
  3560 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3561 
  3562 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3563 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3564 
  3565 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3566 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3567 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3568 
  3569 * Library/Multiset:
  3570   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3571   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3572     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3573   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3574       <# ~> #<#
  3575       <=# ~> #<=#
  3576       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3577       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3578     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3579   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3580       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3581       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3582     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3583   - Renamed
  3584       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3585       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3586       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3587     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3588   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3589   - Added attributes:
  3590       image_mset.id [simp]
  3591       image_mset_id [simp]
  3592       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3593       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3594       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3595       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3596       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3597       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3598     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3599 
  3600 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3601 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3602 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3603 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3604 
  3605 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3606 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3607 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3608 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3609 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3610 examples.
  3611 
  3612 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3613   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3614   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3615   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3616     projection
  3617 
  3618 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3619 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3620 
  3621 
  3622 *** ML ***
  3623 
  3624 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3625 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3626 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3627 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3628 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3629 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3630 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3631 
  3632 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3633 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3634 
  3635 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3636 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3637 
  3638 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3639 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3640 
  3641 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3642 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3643 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3644 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3645 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3646 nested.
  3647 
  3648 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3649 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3650 
  3651 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3652 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3653 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3655 
  3656 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3657 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3658 Thm.term_of etc.
  3659 
  3660 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3661 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3662 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3663 
  3664 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3665 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3666 
  3667 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3668 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3669 
  3670 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3671 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3672 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3673 
  3674 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3675 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3676 
  3677 
  3678 *** System ***
  3679 
  3680 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3681 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3682 
  3683 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3684 
  3685 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3686 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3687 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3688 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3689 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3690 
  3691 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3692 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3693 
  3694 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3695 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3696 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3697 
  3698 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3699 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3700 
  3701 
  3702 
  3703 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3704 ---------------------------------
  3705 
  3706 *** General ***
  3707 
  3708 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3709 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3710 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3711 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3712 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3713 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3714 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3715 some examples.
  3716 
  3717 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3718 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3719 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3720 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3721 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3722 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3723 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3724 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3725 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3726 
  3727 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3728 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3729 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3730 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3731 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3732 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3733 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3734 proof tools.
  3735 
  3736 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3737 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3738 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3739 
  3740 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3741 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3742 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3743 
  3744 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3745 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3746 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3747 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3748 
  3749 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3750 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3751 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3753 
  3754 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3755 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3756 
  3757 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3758 not check existence within the file-system.
  3759 
  3760 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3761 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3762 
  3763 
  3764 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3765 
  3766 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3767 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3768 buffer.
  3769 
  3770 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3771 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3772 
  3773 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3774 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3775 
  3776 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3777 auxiliary ML files.
  3778 
  3779 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3780 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3781 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3782 
  3783 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3784 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3785 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3786 
  3787 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3788 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3789 
  3790 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3791 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3792 caret".
  3793 
  3794 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3795 completion popup and context-menu.
  3796 
  3797 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3798 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3799 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3800 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3801 
  3802 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3803 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3804 
  3805 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3806 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3807 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3808 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3809 
  3810 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3811 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3812 
  3813 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3814 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3815 
  3816 * Improved monitor panel.
  3817 
  3818 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3819 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3820 
  3821 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3822 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3823 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3824 
  3825 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3826 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3827 within the context.
  3828 
  3829 
  3830 *** Pure ***
  3831 
  3832 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3833 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3834 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3835 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3836 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3837 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3838 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3839 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3840 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3841 
  3842 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3843 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3844 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3845 renaming needs to be applied:
  3846 
  3847   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3848   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3849   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3850   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3851   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3852 
  3853 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3854 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3855 old constants:
  3856 
  3857 setup {*
  3858   fn thy => thy
  3859     |> Sign.root_path
  3860     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3861     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3862     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3863     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3864 *}
  3865 
  3866 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3867 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3868 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3869 
  3870 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3871 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3872 instantiated theorem.
  3873 
  3874 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3875 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3876 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3877 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3878 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3879 
  3880   attribute_setup standard =
  3881     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3882 
  3883 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3884 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3885 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3886 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3887 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3888 
  3889 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3890 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3891 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3892 
  3893 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3894 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3895 
  3896 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3897 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3898 
  3899 
  3900 *** HOL ***
  3901 
  3902 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3903 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3907 
  3908 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3909 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3910 
  3911 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3912 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3913 
  3914 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3916 
  3917 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3918 with the given constants.
  3919 
  3920 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3921 operations on records.
  3922 
  3923 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3924 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3925 
  3926 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3927 
  3928 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3929 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3930 
  3931 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3932 
  3933 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3934 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3935 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3936 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3937 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3938 
  3939 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3940 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3941 
  3942 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3943   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3944   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3945   part of theory "Main".
  3946 
  3947   Theory renamings:
  3948     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3949     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3950     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3951     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3952     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3953     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3954     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3955     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3956     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3957     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3958     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3959     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3960     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3961     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3962     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3963     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3964     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3965     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3966     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3967     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3968     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3969     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3970 
  3971   New theories:
  3972     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3973     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3974     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3975     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3976     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3977 
  3978   Discontinued theories:
  3979     BNF/BNF.thy
  3980     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3981 
  3982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983 
  3984 * New (co)datatype package:
  3985   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3986   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3987     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3988   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3989     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3990   - Renamed commands:
  3991       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3992       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3993       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3994     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3995   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  3996     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  3997     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3998   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  3999     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  4000     using "prim(co)rec".
  4001     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4002   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  4003     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  4004     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4005   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  4006     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  4007     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  4008     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4009 
  4010 * Old datatype package:
  4011   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  4012     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  4013     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4014   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  4015     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  4016     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4017 
  4018 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  4019   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  4020   BNF-based datatype package.
  4021 
  4022   Renamed constants:
  4023     Option.set ~> set_option
  4024     Option.map ~> map_option
  4025     option_rel ~> rel_option
  4026 
  4027   Renamed theorems:
  4028     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  4029     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  4030     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  4031     option.recs ~> option.rec
  4032     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  4033     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  4034     map.simps ~> list.map
  4035     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  4036     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  4037     the.simps ~> option.sel
  4038 
  4039 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4040 
  4041 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  4042     sum_map ~> map_sum
  4043     map_pair ~> map_prod
  4044     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  4045     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  4046     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  4047     set_rel ~> rel_set
  4048     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  4049     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  4050     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  4051     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  4052 
  4053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4054 
  4055 * Lifting and Transfer:
  4056   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  4057   - stronger reflexivity prover
  4058   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  4059   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  4060     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  4061     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  4062       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  4063       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  4064       automatically
  4065     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  4066     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  4067       automatically for datatypes
  4068   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  4069     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  4070       more
  4071       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4072     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  4073       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  4074       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4075     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  4076       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  4077       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4078   - registration of code equations is more robust
  4079     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4080   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  4081     form
  4082     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4083   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  4084     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4085   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  4086     Code_Numeral.natural
  4087     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4088   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  4089     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4090 
  4091 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  4092 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  4093 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  4094 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  4095 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  4096 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  4097 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4098 
  4099 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  4100 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  4101 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  4102 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  4103 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  4104 
  4105 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  4106 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  4107 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  4108 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  4109 
  4110 * Sledgehammer:
  4111   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  4112   - MaSh overhaul:
  4113     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  4114       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  4115     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  4116       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  4117       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  4118       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  4119   - New option:
  4120       smt_proofs
  4121   - Renamed options:
  4122       isar_compress ~> compress
  4123       isar_try0 ~> try0
  4124 
  4125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4126 
  4127 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  4128 
  4129 * Nitpick:
  4130   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  4131     take infinite values.
  4132   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  4133     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  4134   - Removed "std" option.
  4135   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  4136     "hide_types".
  4137 
  4138 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  4139 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4140 
  4141 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  4142 
  4143 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  4144   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  4145   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  4146     SUP instead uniformly.
  4147   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  4148     or SUP and Sup.
  4149   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  4150   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  4151   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  4152     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  4153     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  4154 
  4155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4156 
  4157 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  4158 
  4159 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  4160 
  4161   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4162   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4163   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4164   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4165 
  4166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4167 
  4168 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  4169 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  4170 
  4171 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  4172 
  4173     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  4174     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  4175     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  4176     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  4177     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  4178     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  4179     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  4180     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  4181     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  4182     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  4183     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  4184     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  4185     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  4186     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  4187     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4188     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4189     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  4190     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  4191     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  4192     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  4193     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  4194     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  4195     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  4196     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  4197     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  4198     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  4199     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  4200     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  4201     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  4202     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  4203     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  4204     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  4205     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  4206     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  4207     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  4208     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  4209     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  4210     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  4211     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  4212     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4213     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4214     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4215     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4216     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4217     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4218     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4219     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4220     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4221     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4222     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4223     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4224     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4225     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4226     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4227     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4228     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4229     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4230     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4231     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4232 
  4233   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4234   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4235   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4236     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4237 
  4238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4239 
  4240 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4241 
  4242   Fact consolidations:
  4243     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4244     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4245     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4246     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4247     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4248     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4249     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4250     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4251     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4252     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4253     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4254     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4255     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4256     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4257     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4258     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4259     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4260     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4261     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4262     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4263     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4264     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4265     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4266     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4267     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4268     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4269     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4270     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4271     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4272     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4273     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4274     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4275     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4276     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4277     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4278     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4279     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4280     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4281     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4282     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4283 
  4284 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4285 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4286 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4287 
  4288 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4289 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4290 
  4291 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4292 
  4293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4294 
  4295 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4296 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4297 
  4298 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4299 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4300 
  4301 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4302     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4303 
  4304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4305 
  4306 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4307   consolidation:
  4308     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4309     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4310 
  4311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4312 
  4313 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4314   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4315   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4316   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4317     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4318   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4319     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4320   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4321 
  4322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4323 
  4324 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4325 
  4326     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4327     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4328     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4329     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4330     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4331     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4332     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4333     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4334     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4335     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4336     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4337     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4338     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4339 
  4340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4341 
  4342 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4343 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4344 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4345 
  4346 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4347     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4348     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4349     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4350     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4351 
  4352 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4353 
  4354 * Fact name consolidation:
  4355     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4356     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4357     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4358     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4359     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4360 
  4361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4362 
  4363 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4364 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4365 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4366 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4367 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4368 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4369 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4371 
  4372 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4373 
  4374 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4375 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4376 
  4377 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4378 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4379 
  4380 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4381 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4382 or the brute way with
  4383 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4384 
  4385 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4386 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4387 stating boundedness of sets.
  4388 
  4389 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4390 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4391 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4392 
  4393 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4394   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4395   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4396   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4397   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4398   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4399   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4400   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4401   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4402   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4403   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4404   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4405 
  4406   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4407 
  4408   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4409 
  4410     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4411     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4412     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4413     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4414     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4415 
  4416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4417 
  4418 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4419   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4420 
  4421   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4422 
  4423   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4424 
  4425   - removed constant isDiff
  4426 
  4427   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4428     input syntax.
  4429 
  4430   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4431 
  4432   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4433 
  4434   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4435 
  4436   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4437 
  4438   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4439     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4440     has_vector_derivative.
  4441 
  4442   - Other renamings:
  4443     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4444     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4445     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4446     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4447     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4448     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4449     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4450 
  4451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4452 
  4453 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4454 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4455 in continuous_intros.
  4456 
  4457 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4458 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4459 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4460 
  4461 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4462 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4463 especially removes
  4464 
  4465     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4466 
  4467 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4468     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4469 
  4470 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4471 
  4472   Renamings:
  4473     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4474     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4475     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4476     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4477     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4478     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4479     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4480     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4481     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4482     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4483     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4484     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4485 
  4486     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4487     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4488     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4489 
  4490   Removed theorems:
  4491     complex_zero_def
  4492     complex_add_def
  4493     complex_minus_def
  4494     complex_diff_def
  4495     complex_one_def
  4496     complex_mult_def
  4497     complex_inverse_def
  4498     complex_scaleR_def
  4499 
  4500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4501 
  4502 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4503 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4504 
  4505 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4506 
  4507 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4508 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4509 
  4510 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4511 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4512 
  4513 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4514 
  4515 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4517 
  4518 * HOL-Word:
  4519   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4520     of "word_arith_wis".
  4521   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4522     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4523     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4524 
  4525 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4526   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4527   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4528   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4529     (except the AFP)
  4530 
  4531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4532 
  4533 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4534   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4535   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4536     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4537   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4538     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4539     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4540     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4541     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4542     intervals.
  4543   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4544     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4545     - renamed theorems:
  4546         interval ~> box
  4547         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4548         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4549         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4550         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4551         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4552         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4553         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4554         open_interval ~> open_box
  4555         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4556         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4557         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4558         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4559         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4560         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4561         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4562         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4563         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4564         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4565         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4566         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4567         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4568         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4569         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4570         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4571         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4572         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4573         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4574         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4575         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4576         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4577         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4578         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4579 
  4580     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4581         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4582         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4583         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4584         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4585         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4586         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4587         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4588         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4589         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4590         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4591         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4592         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4593         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4594         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4595         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4596         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4597         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4598 
  4599   - renamed theorems:
  4600     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4601     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4602     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4603 
  4604 * HOL-Probability:
  4605   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4606 
  4607     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4608       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4609 
  4610     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4611 
  4612   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4613     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4614 
  4615     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4616     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4617     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4618     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4619     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4620     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4621     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4622     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4623     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4624     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4625     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4626     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4627     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4628     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4629     integral_indicator          ~>
  4630          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4631     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4632     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4633     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4634 
  4635     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4636          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4637 
  4638     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4639          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4640 
  4641     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4642          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4643 
  4644     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4645          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4646          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4647 
  4648     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4649          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4650 
  4651     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4652          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4653 
  4654     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4655          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4656          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4657 
  4658     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4659          nn_integral_real_affine
  4660 
  4661     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4662          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4663 
  4664     The following theorems where removed:
  4665 
  4666     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4667     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4668     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4669     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4670     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4671     integral_cmul_indicator
  4672     integral_real
  4673 
  4674   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4675     distributed random variables.
  4676 
  4677 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4678 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4679 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4680 
  4681 
  4682 *** Scala ***
  4683 
  4684 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4685 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4686 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4687 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4688 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4689 
  4690 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4691 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4692 
  4693 
  4694 *** ML ***
  4695 
  4696 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4697 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4698 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4699 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4700 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4701 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4702 
  4703 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4704 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4705 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4706 actually belongs to it).
  4707 
  4708 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4709 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4710 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4711 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4712 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4713 of schematic variables.
  4714 
  4715 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4716 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4717 
  4718 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4719 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4720 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4721 
  4722 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4724 
  4725 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4726 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4727 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4728 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4729 
  4730 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4731 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4732 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4733 formal context.
  4734 
  4735 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4736 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4737 
  4738 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4739 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4740 
  4741 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4742 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4743 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4744 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4745 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4746 
  4747 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4748 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4749 purposes.
  4750 
  4751 
  4752 *** System ***
  4753 
  4754 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4755 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4756 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4757 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4758 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4759 
  4760 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4761 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4762 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4763 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4764 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4765 settings variable.
  4766 
  4767 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4768 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4769 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4770 
  4771 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4772 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4773 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4774 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4775 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4776 
  4777 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4778 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4779 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4780 
  4781 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4782 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4783 
  4784 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4785 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4786 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4787 
  4788 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4789 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4790 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4791 processing is started.
  4792 
  4793 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4794 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4795 
  4796 
  4797 
  4798 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4799 -------------------------------------
  4800 
  4801 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4802 
  4803 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4804 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4805 
  4806 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4807 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4808 
  4809 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4810 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4811 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4812 
  4813 
  4814 *** System ***
  4815 
  4816 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4817 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4818 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4819 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4820 
  4821 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4822 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4823 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4824 
  4825 
  4826 
  4827 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4828 -------------------------------------
  4829 
  4830 *** General ***
  4831 
  4832 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4833 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4834 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4835 
  4836 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4837 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4838 
  4839 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4840 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4841 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4842 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4843 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4844 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4845 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4846 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4847 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4848 syntax.
  4849 
  4850 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4851 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4852 
  4853 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4854 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4855 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4856 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4857 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4858 
  4859 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4860 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4861 
  4862 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4863 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4864 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4865 
  4866 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4867 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4868 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4869 
  4870 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4871 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4872 
  4873 
  4874 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4875 
  4876 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4877 Documentation panel.
  4878 
  4879 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4880 documentation.
  4881 
  4882 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4883 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4884 
  4885 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4886 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4887 normal editing and checking process.
  4888 
  4889 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4890 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4891 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4892 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4893 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4894 
  4895 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4896 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4897 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4898 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4899 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4900 
  4901 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4902 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4903 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4904 
  4905 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4906 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4907 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4908 to resolve conflict.
  4909 
  4910 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4911 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4912 
  4913 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4914 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4915 such command executions while editing.
  4916 
  4917 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4918 document content.
  4919 
  4920 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4921 toplevel theorem statements.
  4922 
  4923 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4924 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4925 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4926 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4927 
  4928 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4929 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4930 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4931 
  4932 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4933 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4934 
  4935 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4936 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4937 
  4938 
  4939 *** Pure ***
  4940 
  4941 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4942 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4943 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4944 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4945 details.
  4946 
  4947 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4948 
  4949 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4950 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4951 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4952 
  4953 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4955 
  4956 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4957 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4958 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4959 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4960 
  4961 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4962 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4963 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4964 
  4965 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4966 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4967 
  4968 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4969 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4970 situations.
  4971 
  4972 
  4973 *** HOL ***
  4974 
  4975 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4976 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4977 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4978 
  4979 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4980 
  4981 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4982 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4983 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4984 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4985 
  4986   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4987 
  4988 * Code generator:
  4989   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4990     'code_instance'.
  4991   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4992     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4993 
  4994 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4995 examples.
  4996 
  4997 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  4998 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  4999 to distinguish both when desired.
  5000 
  5001 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  5002 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  5003 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  5004 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5005 
  5006 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  5007 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  5008 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  5009 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  5010 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  5011 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5012 
  5013 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  5014 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  5015 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5016 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  5017 
  5018 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  5019 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  5020 
  5021 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  5022 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  5023 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  5024 
  5025 * Lifting:
  5026   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  5027     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  5028       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  5029       transfer rules
  5030     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  5031       correspondence relation can be generated
  5032     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  5033       parametricity
  5034     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  5035   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  5036   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  5037     copies
  5038   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  5039     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  5040     anonymous context)
  5041   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  5042     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5043   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  5044     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  5045   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  5046     INCOMPATIBILITY
  5047 
  5048 * Transfer:
  5049   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  5050     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  5051   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  5052   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  5053     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  5054   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  5055 
  5056 * Reification and reflection:
  5057   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  5058     "Reification".
  5059   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  5060   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  5061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5062 
  5063 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  5064   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  5065     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5066     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  5067   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  5068     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  5069   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  5070     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  5071     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  5072     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  5073     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  5074     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  5075     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  5076     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  5077   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  5078     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  5079   - Fact renames:
  5080       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  5081       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  5082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5083 
  5084 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  5085 
  5086 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  5087 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  5088 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  5089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5090 
  5091 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  5092 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  5093 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  5094 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  5095 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  5096 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  5097 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  5098 lemmas.
  5099 
  5100 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  5101 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  5102 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5103 
  5104 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  5105 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5106 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  5107 
  5108 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  5109 top and bottom elements.
  5110 
  5111 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  5112 
  5113 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  5114 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  5115 
  5116  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  5117    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  5118    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  5119 
  5120  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  5121    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  5122    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  5123 
  5124    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  5125    arbitrary filter.
  5126 
  5127  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  5128    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  5129    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  5130    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  5131    on a compact set.
  5132 
  5133  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  5134    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  5135    linear_continuum_topology).
  5136 
  5137  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  5138    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  5139    on all sequences converging to x.
  5140 
  5141  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  5142    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  5143    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  5144    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  5145    left or right.
  5146 
  5147  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  5148 
  5149      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  5150 
  5151  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  5152    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  5153 
  5154  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  5155    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  5156    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  5157    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  5158    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  5159    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  5160 
  5161  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  5162 
  5163    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  5164 
  5165    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  5166      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  5167 
  5168    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  5169 
  5170    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  5171      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  5172 
  5173    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  5174 
  5175    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  5176 
  5177  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  5178 
  5179 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5180 
  5181 * Nitpick:
  5182   - Added option "spy".
  5183   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  5184 
  5185 * Sledgehammer:
  5186   - Renamed option:
  5187       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  5188     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5189   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  5190   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  5191   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  5192 
  5193 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  5194 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  5195 
  5196 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  5197   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  5198   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  5199     generated code.
  5200   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  5201   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  5202   - Fact renames:
  5203     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  5204     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  5205     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  5206 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5207 
  5208 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  5209 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  5210 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  5211 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  5212 
  5213 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5214 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5215 
  5216 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5217 
  5218 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5219 
  5220     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5221     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5222 
  5223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5224 
  5225 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5226 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5227 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5228 
  5229 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5230 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5231 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5232 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5233 
  5234 * HOL-BNF:
  5235   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5236     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5237     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5238     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5239   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5240     coinduct).
  5241   - Renamed keywords:
  5242     data ~> datatype_new
  5243     codata ~> codatatype
  5244     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5245   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5246     discs ~> disc
  5247     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5248     map_id' ~> map_id
  5249     sels ~> sel
  5250     set_map' ~> set_map
  5251     sets ~> set
  5252 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5253 
  5254 
  5255 *** ML ***
  5256 
  5257 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5258 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5259 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5260 Examples.thy in particular.
  5261 
  5262 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5263 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5264 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5265 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5266 
  5267 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5268 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5269 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5270 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5271 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5272 
  5273 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5274 
  5275     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5276     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5277 
  5278 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5279 
  5280 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5281 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5282 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5283 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5284 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5285 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5286 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5287 
  5288 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5289 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5290 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5291 clasets separately from the context.
  5292 
  5293 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5294 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5295 
  5296 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5297 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5298 
  5299 
  5300 *** System ***
  5301 
  5302 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5303 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5304 
  5305 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5306 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5307 
  5308 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5309 settings variable.
  5310 
  5311 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5312 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5313 always pdf.
  5314 
  5315 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5316 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5317 
  5318 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5319 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5320 
  5321 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5322 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5323 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5324 
  5325 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5326 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5327 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5328 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5329 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5330 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5331 
  5332 
  5333 
  5334 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5335 -----------------------------------
  5336 
  5337 *** General ***
  5338 
  5339 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5340 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5341 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5342 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5343 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5344 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5345 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5346 
  5347 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5348 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5349 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5350 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5351 
  5352 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5353 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5354 
  5355 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5356 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5357 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5358 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5359 dependencies properly.
  5360 
  5361 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5362 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5363 
  5364 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5365 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5366 
  5367 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5368 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5369 and "class ... context ...".
  5370 
  5371 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5372 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5373 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5374 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5375 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5376 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5377 
  5378 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5379 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5380 
  5381 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5382 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5383 
  5384 
  5385 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5386 
  5387 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5388 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5389 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5390 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5391 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5392 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5393 
  5394 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5395 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5396 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5397 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5398 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5399 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5400 
  5401 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5402 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5403 browser on demand.
  5404 
  5405 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5406 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5407 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5408 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5409 
  5410 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5411 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5412 
  5413 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5414 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5415 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5416 potentially infinite message streams.
  5417 
  5418 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5419 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5420 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5421 schemes.
  5422 
  5423 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5424 symbols.
  5425 
  5426 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5427 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5428 
  5429 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5430 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5431 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5432 
  5433 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5434 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5435 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5436 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5437 
  5438 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5439 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5440 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5441 
  5442 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5443 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5444 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5445 Isabelle distribution.
  5446 
  5447 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5448 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5449 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5450 
  5451 
  5452 *** Pure ***
  5453 
  5454 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5455 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5456 
  5457 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5458 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5459 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5460 
  5461 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5462 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5463 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5464 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5465 with some care where this is really required.
  5466 
  5467 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5468 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5469 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5470 
  5471   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5472 
  5473 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5474 a Hasse diagram.
  5475 
  5476 
  5477 *** HOL ***
  5478 
  5479 * Sledgehammer:
  5480 
  5481   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5482     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5483   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5484   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5485   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5486   - Renamed options:
  5487       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5488       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5489       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5490       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5491 
  5492 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5493 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5494 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5495 
  5496 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5498 
  5499 * Lifting:
  5500   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5501   - quot_del attribute
  5502   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5503 
  5504 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5505 expressions.
  5506 
  5507 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5508 pointfree expressions.
  5509 
  5510 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5511 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5512 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5513 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5515 
  5516 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5517 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5518 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5519 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5520 accordingly.
  5521 
  5522 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5523 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5524 
  5525 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5526 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5527 
  5528 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5529 
  5530 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5531 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5532 
  5533 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5534 
  5535 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5536 
  5537   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5538   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5539 
  5540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5541 
  5542 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5543 
  5544   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5545   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5546 
  5547 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5548 
  5549 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5550 
  5551   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5552     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5553     output f x converges to G.
  5554 
  5555   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5556     infinity (at_bot).
  5557 
  5558   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5559     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5560 
  5561   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5562     at_top".
  5563 
  5564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5565 
  5566 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5567 lattice type classes.
  5568 
  5569 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5570 
  5571     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5572     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5573 
  5574 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5575 
  5576 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5577 changes as follows.
  5578 
  5579   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5580 
  5581       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5582       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5583 
  5584   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5585     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5586     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5587     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5588 
  5589   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5590     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5591     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5592 
  5593   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5594     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5595     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5596     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5597 
  5598   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5599     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5600 
  5601       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5602       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5603       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5604       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5605       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5606       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5607       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5608       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5609       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5610       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5611       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5612       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5613       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5614       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5615       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5616       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5617 
  5618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5619 
  5620 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5621 
  5622 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5623 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5624 
  5625 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5626 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5627 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5628 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5629 
  5630   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5631   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5632   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5633   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5634   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5635   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5636   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5637   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5638   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5639   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5640 
  5641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5642 
  5643 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5644 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5645 Data").
  5646 
  5647 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5648 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5649 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5650 code.
  5651 
  5652 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5653 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5654 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5655 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5656 
  5657 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5658 
  5659 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5660 
  5661 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5662 
  5663   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5664   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5665 
  5666 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5667 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5668 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5669 
  5670   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5671 
  5672     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5673     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5674     cart_base i  removed
  5675     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5676 
  5677   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5678 
  5679   Renamed lemmas:
  5680 
  5681     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5682     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5683     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5684     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5685     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5686     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5687     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5688     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5689     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5690     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5691 
  5692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5693 
  5694 * HOL/Probability:
  5695 
  5696   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5697 
  5698   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5699     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5700     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5701 
  5702   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5703     projective family).
  5704 
  5705 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5706 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5707 
  5708 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5709 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5710 datatypes.
  5711 
  5712 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5713 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5714 
  5715 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5716 trees for the code generator.
  5717 
  5718 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5719 Lifting/Transfer.
  5720 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5721 
  5722 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5724 
  5725 
  5726 *** Document preparation ***
  5727 
  5728 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5729 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5730 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5731 
  5732 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5733 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5734 
  5735 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5736 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5737 document/root.tex.
  5738 
  5739 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5740 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5741 
  5742 
  5743 *** ML ***
  5744 
  5745 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5746 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5747 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5748 
  5749 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5750 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5751 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5752 
  5753 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5754 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5755 necessarily printing visible text.
  5756 
  5757 
  5758 *** System ***
  5759 
  5760 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5761 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5762 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5763 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5764 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5765 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5766 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5767 
  5768 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5769 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5770 
  5771   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5772 
  5773 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5774 
  5775 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5776 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5777 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5778 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5779 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5780 
  5781 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5782 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5783 
  5784 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5785 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5786 
  5787 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5789 
  5790 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5791 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5792 version of Isabelle.
  5793 
  5794 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5795 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5796 
  5797 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5798 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5799 for home-made settings.
  5800 
  5801 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5802 
  5803 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5804 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5805 configuration.
  5806 
  5807 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5808 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5809 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5810 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5811 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5812 
  5813 
  5814 
  5815 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5816 ------------------------------
  5817 
  5818 *** General ***
  5819 
  5820 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5821 
  5822   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5823     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5824   - markup for bound variables
  5825   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5826   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5827   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5828     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5829 
  5830 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5831 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5832 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5833 
  5834 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5835 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5836 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5837 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5838 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5839 
  5840   context
  5841     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5842     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5843   begin
  5844 
  5845   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5846 
  5847   end
  5848 
  5849   thm my_trans
  5850 
  5851 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5852 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5853 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5854 
  5855 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5856 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5857 
  5858 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5859 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5860 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5861 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5862 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5863 
  5864 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5865 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5866 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5867 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5868 indices of schematic variables.
  5869 
  5870 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5871 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5872 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5873 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5874 etc. was exploited.
  5875 
  5876 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5877 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5878 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5879 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5880 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5881 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5882 
  5883 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5884 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5885 manual.
  5886 
  5887 
  5888 *** Pure ***
  5889 
  5890 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5891 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5892 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5893 
  5894 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5895 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5896 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5897 undocumented feature.)
  5898 
  5899 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5900 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5901 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5902 
  5903   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5904 
  5905   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5906     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5907 
  5908 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5909 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5910 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5911 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5912 
  5913 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5914 
  5915     num ~> num_token
  5916     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5917     xstr ~> str_token
  5918 
  5919 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5920 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5921 position information via constraints).
  5922 
  5923 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5924 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5925 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5926 
  5927 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5928 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5929 
  5930 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5931 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5932 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5933 
  5934 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5935 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5936 
  5937 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5938 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5939 
  5940   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5941 
  5942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5943 
  5944 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5945 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5946 
  5947 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5948 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5949 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5950 
  5951 
  5952 *** HOL ***
  5953 
  5954 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5955 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5956 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5957 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5958 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5959 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5960 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5961 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5962 possible.
  5963 
  5964 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5965 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5966 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5967 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5968 
  5969 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5970 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5971 
  5972 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5973 
  5974 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5975 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5976 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5977 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5978 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5979 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5980 
  5981   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5982     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5983 
  5984   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5985     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5986     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5987 
  5988   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5989     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5990 
  5991   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5992     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5993     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5994 
  5995   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  5996     Redefine using other integer operations.
  5997 
  5998 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  5999 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  6000 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  6001 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  6002 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  6003 
  6004   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  6005     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  6006     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  6007     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  6008     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  6009 
  6010     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  6011     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  6012 
  6013   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  6014     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  6015     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  6016     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  6017     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  6018     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  6019     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  6020     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  6021 
  6022   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  6023     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  6024     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  6025     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  6026 
  6027   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  6028     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  6029     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  6030     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  6031 
  6032   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  6033     from type nat to type int.
  6034 
  6035 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  6036 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  6037 
  6038   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  6039     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  6040     type.  Example syntax:
  6041 
  6042     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  6043       is List.insert
  6044 
  6045     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  6046     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  6047     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  6048     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  6049     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  6050     by the package.
  6051 
  6052   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  6053     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  6054     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  6055     code generation for each constant.
  6056 
  6057   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  6058     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  6059     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  6060     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  6061     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  6062 
  6063   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  6064     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  6065     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  6066 
  6067 * Quotient package:
  6068 
  6069   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  6070     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  6071 
  6072   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  6073     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  6074 
  6075   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  6076     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  6077     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6078 
  6079   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  6080     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6081 
  6082 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  6083 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  6084 
  6085 * Quickcheck:
  6086 
  6087   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  6088     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  6089     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  6090     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  6091     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  6092 
  6093     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  6094     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  6095     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  6096 
  6097     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  6098     continues searching for genuine ones.
  6099 
  6100     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  6101     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  6102     show genuine counterexamples.
  6103 
  6104   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  6105     value generators for a given type and operations.
  6106 
  6107     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  6108     constructors of that type.
  6109 
  6110   - Support for multisets.
  6111 
  6112   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  6113 
  6114   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  6115     conjectures in a locale context.
  6116 
  6117 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  6118 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  6119 
  6120 * Sledgehammer:
  6121   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  6122     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  6123   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  6124   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  6125     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  6126   - Sped up the minimizer.
  6127   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  6128   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  6129   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  6130 
  6131 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  6132 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  6133 
  6134 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  6135 
  6136 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6137 
  6138 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  6139 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  6140 
  6141   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  6142 
  6143 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  6144 a list and a nat.
  6145 
  6146 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  6147 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  6148 
  6149 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  6150 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  6151 default.
  6152 
  6153 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  6154 
  6155   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  6156 
  6157 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  6158 
  6159 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  6160 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  6161 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  6162 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  6163 one_case.
  6164 
  6165 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  6166 the result of the fact expression.
  6167 
  6168 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  6169 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  6170 of some relation theorems:
  6171 
  6172   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  6173   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6174   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  6175   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  6176   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  6177   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  6178 
  6179 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  6180 
  6181 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  6182 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  6183 
  6184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6185 
  6186 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  6187 to match the constant's name:
  6188 
  6189   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  6190   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  6191   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  6192   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  6193   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  6194   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  6195   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  6196   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  6197   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  6198   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  6199   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  6200   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  6201   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  6202   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  6203   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  6204   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  6205   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  6206   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  6207   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  6208   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  6209   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  6210   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6211   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6212   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6213 
  6214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6215 
  6216 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6217 and corresponding theorem names:
  6218 
  6219   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6220 
  6221   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6222 
  6223   - Renamed theorems:
  6224 
  6225     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6226     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6227     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6228     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6229     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6230     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6231     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6232     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6233     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6234     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6235     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6236     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6237     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6238     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6239     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6240     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6241     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6242     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  6243     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  6244     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  6245     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  6246     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  6247     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  6248 
  6249     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  6250 
  6251     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  6252 
  6253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6254 
  6255 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  6256 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6257 
  6258   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  6259   zdiv_self ~> div_self