author paulson <>
Mon May 23 15:33:24 2016 +0100 (2016-05-23)
changeset 63114 27afe7af7379
parent 61879 e4f9d8f094fe
permissions -rw-r--r--
Lots of new material for multivariate analysis
     1 (*  Title:      HOL/Hahn_Banach/Zorn_Lemma.thy
     2     Author:     Gertrud Bauer, TU Munich
     3 *)
     5 section \<open>Zorn's Lemma\<close>
     7 theory Zorn_Lemma
     8 imports Main
     9 begin
    11 text \<open>
    12   Zorn's Lemmas states: if every linear ordered subset of an ordered set \<open>S\<close>
    13   has an upper bound in \<open>S\<close>, then there exists a maximal element in \<open>S\<close>. In
    14   our application, \<open>S\<close> is a set of sets ordered by set inclusion. Since the
    15   union of a chain of sets is an upper bound for all elements of the chain,
    16   the conditions of Zorn's lemma can be modified: if \<open>S\<close> is non-empty, it
    17   suffices to show that for every non-empty chain \<open>c\<close> in \<open>S\<close> the union of \<open>c\<close>
    18   also lies in \<open>S\<close>.
    19 \<close>
    21 theorem Zorn's_Lemma:
    22   assumes r: "\<And>c. c \<in> chains S \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>x. x \<in> c \<Longrightarrow> \<Union>c \<in> S"
    23     and aS: "a \<in> S"
    24   shows "\<exists>y \<in> S. \<forall>z \<in> S. y \<subseteq> z \<longrightarrow> z = y"
    25 proof (rule Zorn_Lemma2)
    26   show "\<forall>c \<in> chains S. \<exists>y \<in> S. \<forall>z \<in> c. z \<subseteq> y"
    27   proof
    28     fix c assume "c \<in> chains S"
    29     show "\<exists>y \<in> S. \<forall>z \<in> c. z \<subseteq> y"
    30     proof cases
    31       txt \<open>If \<open>c\<close> is an empty chain, then every element in \<open>S\<close> is an upper
    32         bound of \<open>c\<close>.\<close>
    34       assume "c = {}"
    35       with aS show ?thesis by fast
    37       txt \<open>If \<open>c\<close> is non-empty, then \<open>\<Union>c\<close> is an upper bound of \<open>c\<close>, lying in
    38         \<open>S\<close>.\<close>
    39     next
    40       assume "c \<noteq> {}"
    41       show ?thesis
    42       proof
    43         show "\<forall>z \<in> c. z \<subseteq> \<Union>c" by fast
    44         show "\<Union>c \<in> S"
    45         proof (rule r)
    46           from \<open>c \<noteq> {}\<close> show "\<exists>x. x \<in> c" by fast
    47           show "c \<in> chains S" by fact
    48         qed
    49       qed
    50     qed
    51   qed
    52 qed
    54 end